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Sample records for regularly spaced stimulation

  1. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Regular Decompositions for H(div) Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Tzanio; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2012-01-01

    We study regular decompositions for H(div) spaces. In particular, we show that such regular decompositions are closely related to a previously studied “inf-sup” condition for parameter-dependent Stokes problems, for which we provide an alternative, more direct, proof.

  3. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms. PMID:26277005

  4. Metric and geometric quasiconformality in Ahlfors regular Loewner spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Jeremy T.

    Recent developments in geometry have highlighted the need for abstract formulations of the classical theory of quasiconformal mappings. We modify Pansu's generalized modulus to study quasiconformal geometry in spaces with metric and measure-theoretic properties sufficiently similar to Euclidean space. Our basic objects of study are locally compact metric spaces equipped with a Borel measure which is Ahlfors-David regular of dimension Q>1 , and satisfies the Loewner condition of Heinonen-Koskela. For homeomorphisms between open sets in two such spaces, we prove the equivalence of three conditions: a version of metric quasiconformality, local quasisymmetry and geometric quasiconformality. We derive from these results several corollaries. First, we show that the Loewner condition is a quasisymmetric invariant in locally compact Ahlfors regular spaces. Next, we show that a proper Q -regular Loewner space, Q>1 , is not quasiconformally equivalent to any subdomain. (In the Euclidean case, this result is due to Loewner.) Finally, we characterize products of snowflake curves up to quasisymmetric/bi-Lipschitz equivalence: two such products are bi-Lipschitz equivalent if and only if they are isometric and are quasisymmetrically equivalent if and only if they are conformally equivalent.

  5. Kilohertz Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation Is Ineffective at Regularizing the Firing of Model Thalamic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Couto, João; Grill, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, including tremor, dystonia, and Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Symptom suppression by DBS typically requires stimulation frequencies ≥100 Hz, but when the frequency is increased above ~2 kHz, the effectiveness in tremor suppression declines (Benabid et al., 1991). We sought to test the hypothesis that the decline in efficacy at high frequencies is associated with desynchronization of the activity generated within a population of stimulated neurons. Regularization of neuronal firing is strongly correlated with tremor suppression by DBS, and desynchronization would disrupt the regularization of neuronal activity. We implemented computational models of CNS axons with either deterministic or stochastic membrane dynamics, and quantified the response of populations of model nerve fibers to extracellular stimulation at different frequencies and amplitudes. As stimulation frequency was increased from 2 to 80 Hz the regularity of neuronal firing increased (as assessed with direct estimates of entropy), in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of increasing stimulation frequency (Kuncel et al., 2006). Further, at frequencies between 80 and 500 Hz, increasing the stimulation amplitude (i.e., the proportion of neurons activated by the stimulus) increased the regularity of neuronal activity across the population, in accord with the clinical effects on tremor of stimulation amplitude (Kuncel et al., 2007). However, at stimulation frequencies above 1 kHz the regularity of neuronal firing declined due to irregular patterns of action potential generation and conduction block. The reductions in neuronal regularity that occurred at high frequencies paralleled the previously reported decline in tremor reduction and may be responsible for the loss of efficacy of DBS at very high frequencies. This analysis provides further support for the hypothesis that

  6. Regularity and predictability of human mobility in personal space.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel; Cross, Robin M; Hayes, Tamara; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental laws governing human mobility have many important applications such as forecasting and controlling epidemics or optimizing transportation systems. These mobility patterns, studied in the context of out of home activity during travel or social interactions with observations recorded from cell phone use or diffusion of money, suggest that in extra-personal space humans follow a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity - most often in the form of time-independent universal scaling laws. Here we show that mobility patterns of older individuals in their home also show a high degree of predictability and regularity, although in a different way than has been reported for out-of-home mobility. Studying a data set of almost 15 million observations from 19 adults spanning up to 5 years of unobtrusive longitudinal home activity monitoring, we find that in-home mobility is not well represented by a universal scaling law, but that significant structure (predictability and regularity) is uncovered when explicitly accounting for contextual data in a model of in-home mobility. These results suggest that human mobility in personal space is highly stereotyped, and that monitoring discontinuities in routine room-level mobility patterns may provide an opportunity to predict individual human health and functional status or detect adverse events and trends. PMID:24587302

  7. 3D Building Adjustment Using Planar Half-Space Regularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.

    2014-08-01

    The automatic reconstruction of 3D building models with complex roof shapes is still an active area of research. In this paper we present a novel approach for local and global regularization rules that integrate building knowledge to improve both the shape of the reconstructed building models and their accuracy. These rules are defined for the planar half-space representation of our models and emphasize the presence of symmetries, co-planarity, parallelism, and orthogonality. By not adjusting building features separately (e.g. ridges, eaves, etc.) we are able to handle more than one feature at a time without considering dependencies between different features. Additionally, we present a new method for reconstructing buildings with concave outlines using half-spaces that avoids the need to partition the models into smaller convex parts. We present both extensions in the context of a fully automatic feature-driven 3D building reconstruction approach where the whole process is suited for processing large urban areas with complex building roofs.

  8. Mathematical strategies for filtering complex systems: Regularly spaced sparse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    Real time filtering of noisy turbulent signals through sparse observations on a regularly spaced mesh is a notoriously difficult and important prototype filtering problem. Simpler off-line test criteria are proposed here as guidelines for filter performance for these stiff multi-scale filtering problems in the context of linear stochastic partial differential equations with turbulent solutions. Filtering turbulent solutions of the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation through sparse observations is developed as a stringent test bed for filter performance with sparse regular observations. The standard ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) has poor skill on the test bed and even suffers from filter divergence, surprisingly, at observable times with resonant mean forcing and a decaying energy spectrum in the partially observed signal. Systematic alternative filtering strategies are developed here including the Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (FDKF) and various reduced filters called Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (SDAF), Variance Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (VSDAF), and Reduced Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (RFDKF) which operate only on the primary Fourier modes associated with the sparse observation mesh while nevertheless, incorporating into the approximate filter various features of the interaction with the remaining modes. It is shown below that these much cheaper alternative filters have significant skill on the test bed of turbulent solutions which exceeds ETKF and in various regimes often exceeds FDKF, provided that the approximate filters are guided by the off-line test criteria. The skill of the various approximate filters depends on the energy spectrum of the turbulent signal and the observation time relative to the decorrelation time of the turbulence at a given spatial scale in a precise fashion elucidated here.

  9. Effective regularity in modulation on gastric motility induced by different acupoint stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Qing; Zhu, Bing; Rong, Pei-Jing; Ben, Hui; Li, Yan-Hua

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether manual acupuncture at representative acupoints in different parts of the body can modulate responses of gastric motility in rats and regular effects in different acupoint stimulation. METHODS: The gastric motor activity of rats was recorded by the intrapyloric balloon. The changes of gastric motility induced by the stimulation were compared with the background activity in intragastric pressure and/or waves of gastric contraction recorded before any stimulation. Morphological study was also conducted by observing the Evans dye extravasation in the skin after mustard oil injection into the intragastric mucous membrane to certify cutaneous innervations of blue dots related to gastric segmental innervations. RESULTS: In all six rats that received mustard oil injections into intragastric mucosa, small blue dots appeared in the skin over the whole abdomen, but mainly in peri-midline upper- and middle- abdomen and middle-back, a few in thigh and groin. It may speculate that cutaneous innervations of blue dots have the same distribution as gastric segmental innervations. Acu-stimulation in acupoints of head-neck, four limbs, upper chest-dorsum and lower-dorsum induced markedly augmentation of gastric motility (acupoints on head-neck such as St-2: n = 16, 105.19 ± 1.36 vs 112.25 ± 2.02 and St-3: n = 14, 101.5 ± 1.75 vs 109.36 ± 1.8; acupoints on limbs such as Sp-6: n = 19, 100.74 ± 1.54 vs 110.26 ± 3.88; St-32: n = 17, 103.59 ± 1.64 vs 108.24 ± 2.41; St-36: n = 16, 104.81 ± 1.72 vs 110.81 ± 2.74 and Li-11: n = 17, 106.47 ± 2.61 vs 114.77 ± 3.77, P < 0.05-0.001). Vigorous inhibitory regulations of gastric motility induced by acu-stimulation applied in acupoints on whole abdomen and middle-dorsum were significantly different as compared with the controls before acu-stimulation (abdomen acupoints such as Cv-12: n = 11, 109.36 ± 2.09 vs 101 ± 2.21; Cv-6: n = 18, 104.39 ± 1.42 vs 91.83 ± 3.22 and St-21: n = 12, 107 ± 2.97 vs 98.58

  10. New properties of BK-spaces defined by using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Sinan; Bektaş, ćiǧdem A.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we studied the new properties of BK-spaces which were defined using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers in [1]. We computed alpha-, beta-, gamma- duals of these spaces and obtained Schauder basis. We also derived some topological properties of these spaces.

  11. Visualization of Sound Waves Using Regularly Spaced Soap Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, F.; Hutzler, S.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel demonstration experiment for the visualization and measurement of standing sound waves in a tube. The tube is filled with equally spaced soap films whose thickness varies in response to the amplitude of the sound wave. The thickness variations are made visible based on optical interference. The distance between two antinodes is…

  12. 14 CFR 1259.201 - Types of Space Grant program and project awards-regular and special.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... awards-regular and special. 1259.201 Section 1259.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Awards § 1259.201 Types of Space Grant program and project awards—regular and special. (a) A regular... cost if funded by another Federal entity. (b) A special Space Grant program or project award may...

  13. Nuclear norm-regularized k-space-based parallel imaging reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2014-04-01

    Parallel imaging reconstruction suffers from serious noise amplification at high accelerations that can be alleviated with regularization by imposing some prior information or constraints on image. Nevertheless, point-wise interpolation of missing k-space data restricts the use of prior information in k-space-based parallel imaging reconstructions like generalized auto-calibrating partial acquisitions (GRAPPA). In this study, a regularized k-space based parallel imaging reconstruction is presented. We first formulate the reconstruction of missing data within a patch as a linear inverse problem. Instead of exploiting prior information on image or its transform domain, the proposed method exploits the rank deficiency of structured matrix consisting of vectorized patches form entire k-space, which leads to a nuclear norm-regularized problem solved by the numeric algorithms iteratively. Brain imaging studies are performed, demonstrating that the proposed method is capable of mitigating noise at high accelerations in GRAPPA reconstruction.

  14. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  15. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  16. k-Regular maps into Euclidean spaces and the Borsuk-Boltyanskii problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyi, S A

    2002-02-28

    The Borsuk-Boltyanskii problem is solved for odd k, that is, the minimum dimension of a Euclidean space is determined into which any n-dimensional polyhedron (compactum) can be k-regularly embedded. A new lower bound is obtained for even k.

  17. Hanke-Raus heuristic rule for variational regularization in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qinian

    2016-08-01

    We generalize the heuristic parameter choice rule of Hanke-Raus for quadratic regularization to general variational regularization for solving linear as well as nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems in Banach spaces. Under source conditions formulated as variational inequalities, we obtain a posteriori error estimates in term of the Bregman distance. By imposing certain conditions on the random noise, we establish four convergence results; one relies on the source conditions and the other three do not depend on any source conditions. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance.

  18. Dimensional regularization of the path integral in curved space on an infinite time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2000-09-01

    We use dimensional regularization to evaluate quantum mechanical path integrals in arbitrary curved spaces on an infinite time interval. We perform 3-loop calculations in Riemann normal coordinates, and 2-loop calculations in general coordinates. It is shown that one only needs a covariant two-loop counterterm (VDR=ℏ2/8R) to obtain the same results as obtained earlier in other regularization schemes. It is also shown that the mass term needed in order to avoid infrared divergences explicitly breaks general covariance in the final result.

  19. Radio stimulation and diagnostics of space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Min-Chang

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the small-scale topside ionospheric plasma structures first observed at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts with the 440 MHz incoherent scatter radar. These small-scale obliquely propagating plasma modes occurring in the vicinity of the midlatitude ionospheric trough, have large radar cross-sections and narrow spectral widths. They have, until recently, been dismissed solely as hard target contamination of the incoherent scatter radar. The geophysical conditions associated with the ionospheric trough, such as the field-aligned current activity and steep plasma density gradients, suggest that these recently discovered small-scale topside ionospheric plasmas may also appear in the auroral and polar ionosphere. In fact, this speculation has been corroborated by the preliminary experiments and data analyses at Tromso, Norway and Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. The primary research results are highlighted. Described in Section 3 are the experiments conducted at Arecibo, Puerto Rico in the past summer for simulating the geophysical conditions of generating these topside ionospheric plasma structures. Recommendation for the future research is finally given. Attached as the appendix of this report are several chapters which present the detailed results of research in the concerned topside ionospheric clutter. Highlights of the research results include: (1) causes of the enhanced radar backscatter (ERB) phenomenon; (2) occurrence of the ERB phenomenon; (3) altitudes of the ERB phenomenon; (4) strength of the ERB returns; (5) range of altitudes of the ERB returns; (6) occurrence frequency of the ERB phenomenon; (7) Doppler effect of the ERB phenomenon; (8) persistency of the ERB; and (9) distinction between ERB phenomenon and space object signatures.

  20. Zeta-function regularization approach to finite temperature effects in Kaluza-Klein space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Bytsenko, A.A. ); Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S. )

    1992-09-21

    In the framework of heat-kernel approach to zeta-function regularization, in this paper the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for scalar and spinor fields on Kaluza-Klein space-time of the form M[sup p] [times] M[sub c][sup n], where M[sup p] is p-dimensional Minkowski space-time is evaluated. In particular, when the compact manifold is M[sub c][sup n] = H[sup n]/[Gamma], the Selberg tracer formula associated with discrete torsion-free group [Gamma] of the n-dimensional Lobachevsky space H[sup n] is used. An explicit representation for the thermodynamic potential valid for arbitrary temperature is found. As a result a complete high temperature expansion is presented and the roles of zero modes and topological contributions is discussed.

  1. Integration of Building Knowledge Into Binary Space Partitioning for the Reconstruction of Regularized Building Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, A.; Jung, J.; Sohn, G.; Kada, M.; Ehlers, M.

    2015-09-01

    Recent approaches for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne point cloud data integrate prior knowledge of roof shapes with the intention to improve the regularization of the resulting models without lessening the flexibility to generate all real-world occurring roof shapes. In this paper, we present a method to integrate building knowledge into the data-driven approach that uses binary space partitioning (BSP) for modeling the 3D building geometry. A retrospective regularization of polygons that emerge from the BSP tree is not without difficulty because it has to deal with the 2D BSP subdivision itself and the plane definitions of the resulting partition regions to ensure topological correctness. This is aggravated by the use of hyperplanes during the binary subdivision that often splits planar roof regions into several parts that are stored in different subtrees of the BSP tree. We therefore introduce the use of hyperpolylines in the generation of the BSP tree to avoid unnecessary spatial subdivisions, so that the spatial integrity of planar roof regions is better maintained. The hyperpolylines are shown to result from basic building roof knowledge that is extracted based on roof topology graphs. An adjustment of the underlying point segments ensures that the positions of the extracted hyperpolylines result in regularized 2D partitions as well as topologically correct 3D building models. The validity and limitations of the approach are demonstrated on real-world examples.

  2. Effects of regular use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on tissue health.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Kath M; Triolo, Ronald J

    2003-01-01

    Changes in tissue health were monitored in a group of spinal cord injury (SCI) individuals with the use of an implanted neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) system to provide standing and to facilitate standing transfers. Tissue health was evaluated through monitoring tissue oxygen levels in the ischial region along with measuring interface pressures at the seating support interface. Baseline assessments were done at study enrollment and repeated on completion of a conditioning exercise program. Serial assessments of tissue health were performed on eight NMES implant recipients. Unloaded tissue oxygen levels in the ischial region tended to increase after following the NMES exercise program for 8 weeks. Concurrently, pressure distributions at the seating support interface tended to change such that although the total pressure acting at the interface did not change, ischial region pressures showed a significant decrease. These changes indicate that chronic use of NMES has a quantifiable benefit on tissue health. PMID:15077659

  3. A convergence rates result for an iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton-Halley method in Banach space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbacher, B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of second order information on the forward operator often comes at a very moderate additional computational price in the context of parameter identification problems for differential equation models. On the other hand the use of general (non-Hilbert) Banach spaces has recently found much interest due to its usefulness in many applications. This motivates us to extend the second order method from Kaltenbacher (2014 Numer. Math. at press), (see also Hettlich and Rundell 2000 SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 587620) to a Banach space setting and analyze its convergence. We here show rates results for a particular source condition and different exponents in the formulation of Tikhonov regularization in each step. This includes a complementary result on the (first order) iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method in case of a one-homogeneous data misfit term, which corresponds to exact penalization. The results clearly show the possible advantages of using second order information, which get most pronounced in this exact penalization case. Numerical simulations for an inverse source problem for a nonlinear elliptic PDE illustrate the theoretical findings.

  4. Formation of regularly spaced networks as a general feature of actin bundle condensation by entropic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Strehle, Dan; Schnauß, Jörg; Käs, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Biopolymer networks contribute mechanical integrity as well as functional organization to living cells. One of their major constituents, the protein actin, is present in a large variety of different network architectures, ranging from extensive networks to densely packed bundles. The shape of the network is directly linked to its mechanical properties and essential physiological functions. However, a profound understanding of architecture-determining mechanisms and their physical constraints remains elusive. We use experimental bottom-up systems to study the formation of confined actin networks by entropic forces. Experiments based on molecular crowding as well as counterion condensation reveal a generic tendency of homogeneous filament solutions to aggregate into regular actin bundle networks connected by aster-like centers. The network architecture is found to critically rely on network formation history. Starting from identical biochemical compositions, we observe drastic changes in network architecture as a consequence of initially biased filament orientation or mixing-induced perturbations. Our experiments suggest that the tendency to form regularly spaced bundle networks is a rather general feature of isotropic, homogeneous filament solutions subject to uniform attractive interactions. Due to the fundamental nature of the considered interactions, we expect that the investigated type of network formation further implies severe physical constraints for cytoskeleton self-organization on the more complex level of living cells.

  5. Learning an L1-regularized Gaussian Bayesian network in the equivalence class space.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, Diego; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2010-10-01

    Learning the structure of a graphical model from data is a common task in a wide range of practical applications. In this paper, we focus on Gaussian Bayesian networks, i.e., on continuous data and directed acyclic graphs with a joint probability density of all variables given by a Gaussian. We propose to work in an equivalence class search space, specifically using the k-greedy equivalence search algorithm. This, combined with regularization techniques to guide the structure search, can learn sparse networks close to the one that generated the data. We provide results on some synthetic networks and on modeling the gene network of the two biological pathways regulating the biosynthesis of isoprenoids for the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. PMID:20083459

  6. A pseudo-differential calculus on non-standard symplectic space; Spectral and regularity results in modulation spaces

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno Costa; de Gosson, Maurice; Luef, Franz; Prata, João Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The usual Weyl calculus is intimately associated with the choice of the standard symplectic structure on Rn⊕Rn. In this paper we will show that the replacement of this structure by an arbitrary symplectic structure leads to a pseudo-differential calculus of operators acting on functions or distributions defined, not on Rn but rather on Rn⊕Rn. These operators are intertwined with the standard Weyl pseudo-differential operators using an infinite family of partial isometries of L2(Rn)→L2(R2n) indexed by S(Rn). This allows us to obtain spectral and regularity results for our operators using Shubinʼs symbol classes and Feichtingerʼs modulation spaces. PMID:22158824

  7. Regular structures of the lunar Orientale Basin: ring spacing and beads-like collars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA's GRAIL mission produced unprecedented detailed gravity maps of the lunar subsurface as its measurements (from very low orbits - 55 -23 kilometers) included some depths of the satellite (down to the core?). However, one might say that these maps have repeated in some aspects the principal gravity pattern acquired earlier by Clementine [1] and Kaguya missions (Fig. 3), which shows the surface densely "peppered" by evensized "craters" about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them are of an impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by the two elliptical orbit of the body (Fig. 2). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a complex nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin. Ring structures can be produced by an interference of standing inertiagravity waves of four directions (ortho- and diagonal) warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit (Fig. 2) [2]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1-3). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the main ring populations the side populations [3]. Recent MOONKAM lunar images (GRAIL mission) at the first time show so clearly intersecting planetary scale lineations (imprint of standing waves) producing chains and grids of ring features (Fig. 5-6; a theoretical model-Fig. 2). This wave woven pattern with spacing and beads has to be compared with a real gravity pattern of Fig. 1. Multi-ring spacing with the factor of √ 2 and collars

  8. Plasma instabilities stimulated by HF transmitters in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse incoherent signal returns are often observed on Alouette and ISIS topside ionograms in addition to coherent echoes of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves. These diffuse signals, which at times can be the dominant features on topside ionograms, have been attributed to sounder-induced temperature anisotropies which drive the Harris instability. Previous theoretical investigations were based on the electrostatic approximation to the dispersion equation. The present paper will present calculations indicating that when the electromagnetic terms are retained in the dispersion equation and when the sounder-stimulated perpendicular electron temperature approaches 1 keV, then the whistler mode can have a temporal growth rate larger than the electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic wave mode central to the diffuse resonance problem. Present sounders lack the power and antenna lengths to generate whistler mode waves in this manner. In addition, such waves would have large group velocities and would quickly leave the vicinity of the sounder. Experiments to investigate the wave growth, propagation, and damping of such stimulated waves are planned for the 1990s using a highly flexible sounder on the Space Shuttle and a receiver on a subsatellite.

  9. Stimulated coherent emission from short electron bunches in free space

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, G.R.M.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Ginzburg, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    In previous papers stimulated coherent emission of short electron bunches (superradiance-SR) was considered in the frame of 1-D models. In the present work we study superradiance of an electron bunch which has a finite transverse size in the frame of a 2-D model. This model include effects of optical guiding as well as transverse electromagnetic energy escaping and diffraction. Using a nonstationary parabolic equation we described SR of a sheet shaped electron bunch in free space. It is shown that the radiation is composed of a sequence of e.m. pulses which are diffracted after escaping from the channel formed by the electron beam. This process is accompanied by a progressive increase of the electron efficiency. This enhancement is caused by the phenomenon of permanent self supporting resonance due to the variation of the radiation angle and frequency.

  10. Inference of gene regulatory networks incorporating multi-source biological knowledge via a state space model with L1 regularization.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is a major challenge in the field of systems biology. Currently, there are two main approaches in GRN analysis using time-course observation data, namely an ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based approach and a statistical model-based approach. The ODE-based approach can generate complex dynamics of GRNs according to biologically validated nonlinear models. However, it cannot be applied to ten or more genes to simultaneously estimate system dynamics and regulatory relationships due to the computational difficulties. The statistical model-based approach uses highly abstract models to simply describe biological systems and to infer relationships among several hundreds of genes from the data. However, the high abstraction generates false regulations that are not permitted biologically. Thus, when dealing with several tens of genes of which the relationships are partially known, a method that can infer regulatory relationships based on a model with low abstraction and that can emulate the dynamics of ODE-based models while incorporating prior knowledge is urgently required. To accomplish this, we propose a method for inference of GRNs using a state space representation of a vector auto-regressive (VAR) model with L1 regularization. This method can estimate the dynamic behavior of genes based on linear time-series modeling constructed from an ODE-based model and can infer the regulatory structure among several tens of genes maximizing prediction ability for the observational data. Furthermore, the method is capable of incorporating various types of existing biological knowledge, e.g., drug kinetics and literature-recorded pathways. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a comparison of simulation studies with several previous methods. For an application example, we evaluated mRNA expression profiles over time upon corticosteroid stimulation in rats, thus incorporating corticosteroid

  11. Two-dimensional encoder with picometre resolution using lattice spacing on regular crystalline surface as standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aketagawa, Masato; Honda, Hiroshi; Ishige, Masashi; Patamaporn, Chaikool

    2007-02-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) encoder with picometre resolution using multi-tunnelling-probes scanning tunnelling microscope (MTP-STM) as detector units and a regular crystalline lattice as a reference is proposed. In experiments to demonstrate the method, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal is utilized as the reference. The MTP-STM heads, which are set upon a sample stage, observe multi-points which satisfy some relationship on the HOPG crystalline surface on the sample stage, and the relative 2D displacement between the MTP-STM heads and the sample stage can be determined from the multi-current signals of the multi-points. Two unit lattice vectors on the HOPG crystalline surface with length and intersection angle of 0.246 nm and 60°, respectively, are utilized as 2D displacement references. 2D displacement of the sample stage on which the HOPG crystal is placed can be calculated using the linear sum of the two unit lattice vectors, derived from a linear operation of the multi-current signals. Displacement interpolation less than the lattice spacing of the HOPG crystal can also be performed. To determine the linear sum of the two unit vectors as the 2D displacement, the multi-points to be observed with the MTP-STM must be properly positioned according to the 2D atomic structure of the HOPG crystal. In the experiments, the proposed method is compared with a capacitance sensor whose resolution is improved to approximately 0.1 nm by limiting the sensor's bandwidth to 300 Hz. In order to obtain suitable multi-current signals of the properly positioned multi-points in semi-real-time, lateral dither modulations are applied to the STM probes. The results show that the proposed method has the capability to measure 2D lateral displacements with a resolution on the order of 10 pm with a maximum measurement speed of 100 nm s-1 or more.

  12. Studying regularities of functioning of passive droplet-sheet collectors in radiator systems under open space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. A.; Popushina, E. S.; Samsonov, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    A constituent part of frameless devices for rejecting low-potential heat in cycles of new-generation space power plants is a collector of dispersed droplet sheet. Regularities of functioning of passive collectors characterized by the absence of moving parts are studied. Theoretical fundamentals and methods for mathematical and program implementation are developed for the problems of studying motion of films of liquid ultrahigh-vacuum working fluids in space over planar surfaces under conditions of localized mass injection. The physical regularities are revealed that characterize the flow evolution, the outer surface shape of the film, the dependence of its thickness on the initial velocity of motion, coolant temperature, and geometry of the collecting device. The relationships for shape and size of the droplet collector surface are found and parameters of the supporting film of the coolant are defined, whose application may ensure an overlap of collector throat by the film and the achievement of minimum permissible pressure of the recirculating coolant.

  13. The geometric β-function in curved space-time under operator regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, Susama

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, I compare the generators of the renormalization group flow, or the geometric β-functions, for dimensional regularization and operator regularization. I then extend the analysis to show that the geometric β-function for a scalar field theory on a closed compact Riemannian manifold is defined on the entire manifold. I then extend the analysis to find the generator of the renormalization group flow to conformally coupled scalar-field theories on the same manifolds. The geometric β-function in this case is not defined.

  14. Unexpected Series of Regular Frequency Spacing of δ Scuti Stars in the Non-asymptotic Regime. I. The Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparó, M.; Benkő, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    A sequence search method was developed to search the regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars through visual inspection and an algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 δ Scuti stars (from one to eight sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequences (echelle ridges) were found in the 5–21 d‑1 region where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5 and 0.59 d‑1) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d‑1). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT (Fourier transform of the frequencies), and the statistics of the shifts are also compared. In many stars more than one almost equally valid spacing appeared. The model frequencies of FG Vir and their rotationally split components were used to formulate the possible explanation that one spacing is the large separation while the other is the sum of the large separation and the rotational frequency. In CoRoT 102675756, the two spacings (2.249 and 1.977 d‑1) are in better agreement with the sum of a possible 1.710 d‑1 large separation and two or one times, respectively, the value of the rotational frequency.

  15. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime - I. The methodology

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a sequence search method was developed to search the regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars through visual inspection and an algorithmic search. We searched for sequences of quasi-equally spaced frequencies, containing at least four members per sequence, in 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. We found an unexpectedly large number of independent series of regular frequency spacing in 77 δ Scuti stars (from one to eight sequences) in the non-asymptotic regime. We introduce the sequence search method presenting the sequences and echelle diagram of CoRoT 102675756 and the structure of the algorithmic search. Four sequencesmore » (echelle ridges) were found in the 5–21 d–1 region where the pairs of the sequences are shifted (between 0.5 and 0.59 d–1) by twice the value of the estimated rotational splitting frequency (0.269 d–1). The general conclusions for the whole sample are also presented in this paper. The statistics of the spacings derived by the sequence search method, by FT (Fourier transform of the frequencies), and the statistics of the shifts are also compared. In many stars more than one almost equally valid spacing appeared. The model frequencies of FG Vir and their rotationally split components were used to formulate the possible explanation that one spacing is the large separation while the other is the sum of the large separation and the rotational frequency. In CoRoT 102675756, the two spacings (2.249 and 1.977 d–1) are in better agreement with the sum of a possible 1.710 d–1 large separation and two or one times, respectively, the value of the rotational frequency.« less

  16. The IVP for the Benjamin-Ono-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in low regularity Sobolev spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Alysson; Pastor, Ademir

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the initial-value problem associated with the Benjamin-Ono-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. Such equation appears as a two-dimensional generalization of the Benjamin-Ono equation when transverse effects are included via weak dispersion of Zakharov-Kuznetsov type. We prove that the initial-value problem is locally well-posed in the usual L2 (R2)-based Sobolev spaces Hs (R2), s > 11 / 8, and in some weighted Sobolev spaces. To obtain our results, most of the arguments are accomplished taking into account the ones for the Benjamin-Ono equation.

  17. On the space and time evolution of regular or irregular human heart or brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncay, Ç.

    2009-01-01

    A coupled map is suggested to investigate various spatial or temporal designs in biology: several cells (or tissues) in an organ are considered as connected to each other in terms of some molecular diffusions or electrical potential differences and so on. The biological systems (groups of cells) start from various initial conditions for spatial designs (or initial signals for temporal designs) and they evolve in time in terms of the mentioned interactions (connections) besides some individual feedings. The basic aim of the present contribution is to mimic various empirical data for the heart (in normal, quasi-stable, unstable and post operative physiological conditions) or brain (regular or irregular; for epilepsy) signals. The mentioned empirical data are borrowed from various works in the literature which are cited. The suggested model (to be used besides or instead of the artificial network models) involves simple mathematics and the related software is easy. The results may be considered as in good agreement with the mentioned real signals.

  18. Statistical bias and variance for the regularized inverse problem: Application to space-based atmospheric CO2 retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressie, N.; Wang, R.; Smyth, M.; Miller, C. E.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere is typically achieved through measurements that are high-resolution radiance spectra. In this article, our goal is to characterize the first-moment and second-moment properties of the errors obtained when solving the regularized inverse problem associated with space-based atmospheric CO2 retrievals, specifically for the dry air mole fraction of CO2 in a column of the atmosphere. The problem of estimating (or retrieving) state variables is usually ill posed, leading to a solution based on regularization that is often called Optimal Estimation (OE). The difference between the estimated state and the true state is defined to be the retrieval error; error analysis for OE uses a linear approximation to the forward model, resulting in a calculation where the first moment of the retrieval error (the bias) is identically zero. This is inherently unrealistic and not seen in real or simulated retrievals. Nonzero bias is expected since the forward model of radiative transfer is strongly nonlinear in the atmospheric state. In this article, we extend and improve OE's error analysis based on a first-order, multivariate Taylor series expansion, by inducing the second-order terms in the expansion. Specifically, we approximate the bias through the second derivative of the forward model, which results in a formula involving the Hessian array. We propose a stable estimate of it, from which we obtain a second-order expression for the bias and the mean square prediction error of the retrieval.

  19. Regularity properties and pathologies of position-space renormalization-group transformations: Scope and limitations of Gibbsian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Fernández, Roberto; Sokal, Alan D.

    1993-09-01

    We reconsider the conceptual foundations of the renormalization-group (RG) formalism, and prove some rigorous theorems on the regularity properties and possible pathologies of the RG map. Our main results apply to local (in position space) RG maps acting on systems of bounded spins (compact single-spin space). Regarding regularity, we show that the RG map, defined on a suitable space of interactions (=formal Hamiltonians), is always single-valued and Lipschitz continuous on its domain of definition. This rules out a recently proposed scenario for the RG description of first-order phase transitions. On the pathological side, we make rigorous some arguments of Griffiths, Pearce, and Israel, and prove in several cases that the renormalized measure is not a Gibbs measure for any reasonable interaction. This means that the RG map is ill-defined, and that the conventional RG description of first-order phase transitions is not universally valid. For decimation or Kadanoff transformations applied to the Ising model in dimension d⩾3, these pathologies occur in a full neighborhood { β> β 0, ¦h¦< ɛ( β)} of the low-temperature part of the first-order phase-transition surface. For block-averaging transformations applied to the Ising model in dimension d⩾2, the pathologies occur at low temperatures for arbitrary magnetic field strength. Pathologies may also occur in the critical region for Ising models in dimension d⩾4. We discuss the heuristic and numerical evidence on RG pathologies in the light of our rigorous theorems. In addition, we discuss critically the concept of Gibbs measure, which is at the heart of present-day classical statistical mechanics. We provide a careful, and, we hope, pedagogical, overview of the theory of Gibbsian measures as well as (the less familiar) non-Gibbsian measures, emphasizing the distinction between these two objects and the possible occurrence of the latter in different physical situations. We give a rather complete catalogue of

  20. Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Plannel, H.; Kovalev, E.E.

    1986-06-01

    The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean life span was reported in Artemias developed from Artemia cysts hit by the cosmic heavy ions. On Earth, Artemia cysts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 200 and 400 Gy of gamma (gamma) rays. A stimulating effect on developmental capacity was observed for 10 Gy; the mean life span was significantly increased for this dose. These results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations performed on Earth and in space.

  1. Unexpected series of regular frequency spacing of δ Scuti stars in the non-asymptotic regime. II. Sample-Echelle diagrams and rotation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Paparo, M.; Benko, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-06-17

    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars by visual inspection (VI) and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the VI. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering, and the spacings derived by two methods (i.e., three approaches: VI, SSA, and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets, and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 δ Scuti stars. Furthermore, using several possible assumptions for the origin of the spacings, we derived the large separation (more » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}\

  2. Unexpected Series of Regular Frequency Spacing of δ Scuti Stars in the Non-asymptotic Regime. II. Sample–Echelle Diagrams and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparó, M.; Benkő, J. M.; Hareter, M.; Guzik, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    A sequence search method was developed for searching for regular frequency spacing in δ Scuti stars by visual inspection (VI) and algorithmic search. The sample contains 90 δ Scuti stars observed by CoRoT. An example is given to represent the VI. The algorithm (SSA) is described in detail. The data treatment of the CoRoT light curves, the criteria for frequency filtering, and the spacings derived by two methods (i.e., three approaches: VI, SSA, and FT) are given for each target. Echelle diagrams are presented for 77 targets for which at least one sequence of regular spacing was identified. Comparing the spacing and the shifts between pairs of echelle ridges revealed that at least one pair of echelle ridges is shifted to midway between the spacing for 22 stars. The estimated rotational frequencies compared to the shifts revealed rotationally split doublets, triplets, and multiplets not only for single frequencies, but for the complete echelle ridges in 31 δ Scuti stars. Using several possible assumptions for the origin of the spacings, we derived the large separation ({{Δ }}ν ) that are distributed along the mean density versus large separations relation derived from stellar models.

  3. Recent advances in stimulated radiation studies during radiowave heating the near earth space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, high-frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980s. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE which exists in a frequency band of ±100 kHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Recent upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities in Alaska and Norway have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  4. Manifold-Splitting Regularization, Self-Linking Twisting, Writhing Numbers of Space-Time Ribbons and POLYAKOV’S Proof of Fermi-Bose Transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    We present an alternative formulation of Polyakov’s regularization of Gauss’ integral formula for a single closed Feynman path. A key element in his proof of the D=3 fermi-bose transmutations induced by topological gauge fields, this regularization is linked here with the existence and properties of a nontrivial topological invariant for a closed space ribbon. This self-linking coefficient, an integer, is the sum of two differential characteristics of the ribbon, its twisting and writhing numbers. These invariants form the basis for a physical interpretation of our regularization. Their connection to Polyakov’s spinorization is discussed. We further generalize our construction to the self-linking, twisting and writhing of higher dimensional d=n (odd) submanifolds in D=(2n+1) space-time. Our comprehensive analysis intends to supplement Polyakov’s work as it identifies a natural path to its higher dimensional mathematical and physical generalizations. Combining the theorems of White on self-linking of manifolds and of Adams on nontrivial Hopf fibre bundles and the four composition-division algebras, we argue that besides Polyakov’s case where (d, D)=(1, 3) tied to complex numbers, the potentially interesting extensions are two chiral models with (d, D)=(3, 7) and (7, 15) uniquely linked to quaternions and octonions. In Memoriam Richard P. Feynman

  5. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  6. Third Spaces and Video-Stimulated Recall: An Exploration of Teachers' Cultural Role in an Indigenous Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Blair

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of video-stimulated recall as a reflective approach for supporting the development of third spaces in action research. The concept of third spaces is used as a conceptual descriptor of the specific intercultural context and relations between the researcher and participants present within the project. The paper…

  7. One-carrier thermally stimulated currents and space-charge-limited currents in naphthalene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, M.; Mergulhão, S.

    1980-03-01

    Electron trapping in naphthalene is studied by analysis of the space-charge-limited and thermally stimulated currents as a function of applied voltage and temperature. The two methods are used on naphthalene single crystals, with continuous electron injection from a silver contact. The use of the two techniques allows a quantitative determination of the characteristics of deep and shallow traps. Three monomolecular current peaks were observed. Activation energies of 0.5, 0.79, and 1.1 eV, and cross sections of 8.8 × 10-20, 6.9 × 10-16, and 1.0 × 10-18 cm2, were calculated for the corresponding discrete trapping levels of the charge carriers. The behavior observed for space-charge-limited current was a current-voltage characteristic of a single set of traps, with an activation energy of 0.71 eV, and a cross section of 7.1 × 10-16 cm2. The results showed that the use of only space-charge-limited current is not good enough for a characterization of the traps of the material.

  8. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    PubMed

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information. PMID:24440394

  9. Perceptual Spaces Induced by Cochlear Implant All-Polar Stimulation Mode.

    PubMed

    Marozeau, Jeremy; McKay, Colette M

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that a main limitation of the cochlear implant is the spread of current induced by each electrode, which activates an inappropriately large range of sensory neurons. To reduce this spread, an alternative stimulation mode, the all-polar mode, was tested with five participants. It was designed to activate all the electrodes simultaneously with appropriate current levels and polarities to recruit narrower regions of auditory nerves at specific intracochlear electrode positions (denoted all-polar electrodes). In this study, the all-polar mode was compared with the current commercial stimulation mode: the monopolar mode. The participants were asked to judge the sound dissimilarity between pairs of two-electrode pulse-train stimuli that differed in the electrode positions and were presented in either monopolar or all-polar mode with pulses on the two electrodes presented either sequentially or simultaneously. The dissimilarity ratings were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling technique and three-dimensional stimulus perceptual spaces were produced. For all the conditions (mode and simultaneity), the first perceptual dimension was highly correlated with the position of the most apical activated electrode of the electrical stimulation and the second dimension with the position of the most basal electrode. In both sequential and simultaneous conditions, the monopolar and all-polar stimuli were significantly separated by a third dimension, which may indicate that all-polar stimuli have a perceptual quality that differs from monopolar stimuli. Overall, the results suggest that both modes might successfully represent spectral information in a sound processing strategy. PMID:27604784

  10. Regular and sporadic demonstration of space weather effects on Earth's upper atmosphere according to dragging of low satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkin, Nikolay; Ryabov, Mikhail; Komendant, Volodymyr

    Dynamics drag of low orbital artificial satellites as development indicators of a influence of space weather on the upper atmosphere of the Earth is considered. The investigated period which actuates: phases of decrease and a long minimum of the 23rd cycle of solar activity (2005-2008yy), increase phase and a maximum of the 24th cycle of activity (2009-2013yy). In dynamics of drags of all investigated artificial satellites effects as results of x-ray and ultra-violet radiation of high-power solar flares, fluxes of electrons and protons, coronal mass ejection (СМЕ) are distinctly shown. Influences of magnetic storms with the sudden and gradual beginning on dynamics of satellite's drag are investigated. The particular interest represents studying of the periods of common effects of radiation and magnetic storms influence. In the absence of extreme developments of space weather in character of artificial satellites drags various periodic wave processes are shown. Among them there are long-term variations of a geomagnetic field, the gravitational and thermal tidal phenomena in the upper atmosphere etc. The results of identification of the impact of these wave processes on the nature of the artificial satellites drag will be presented.

  11. Krein regularization of QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghan, B.; Takook, M. V.; Zarei, A.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the electron self-energy, photon self-energy and vertex functions are explicitly calculated in Krein space quantization including quantum metric fluctuation. The results are automatically regularized or finite. The magnetic anomaly and Lamb shift are also calculated in the one loop approximation in this method. Finally, the obtained results are compared to conventional QED results.

  12. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  13. Resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to 12C ion beams, stimulation of high-energy charged particles in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Junxiong; Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin

    To monitor the response of live microbes in space radiation environment with high-energy charged particles, we carry out ground stimulation radiation experiments. Spores of Bacillus (CGMCC 1.1849) species are one of the model systems used for astro- and radiobiological studies. (12) C ion beams served as stimulated space radiation from 5gry, 10gry, 20gry, 40gry, to 80gry at a rate of 15gry/min Death rates are measured and mutant strains are isolated. Five representative strains are analyzed for their corresponding gene sequences, protein sequences and gene expression index of DNA repair system gene recA and recO. The statistic results showed the strains resistance to (12) C ion beams radiation is partially due to the increase of gene expression index of recA and recO. In conclusion, our research provide a surrogate system to monitor the live microbial response in resistant to space radiation environment.

  14. Signal space separation algorithm and its application on suppressing artifacts caused by vagus nerve stimulation for magnetoencephalography recordings.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Cui, Li; Gaa, Kathleen; Feffer, Lori; Taulu, Samu; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong

    2009-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been successfully applied to presurgical epilepsy foci localization and brain functional mapping. Because the neuronal magnetic signals from the brain are extremely weak, MEG measurement requires both low environment noise and the subject/patient being free of artifact-generating metal objects. This strict requirement makes it hard for patients with vagus nerve stimulator, or other similar medical devices, to benefit from the presurgical MEG examinations. Therefore, an approach that can effectively reduce the environmental noise and faithfully recover the brain signals is highly desirable. We applied spatiotemporal signal space separation method, an advanced signal processing approach that can recover bio-magnetic signal from inside the MEG sensor helmet and suppress external disturbance from outside the helmet in empirical MEG measurements, on MEG recordings from normal control subjects and patients who has vagus nerve stimulator. The original MEG recordings were heavily contaminated, and the data could not be assessed. After applying temporal signal space separation, the strong external artifacts from outside the brain were successfully removed, and the neuronal signal from the human brain was faithfully recovered. Both of the goodness-of-fit and 95% confident limit volume confirmed the significant improvement after temporal signal space separation. Hence, temporal signal space separation makes presurgical MEG examinations possible for patients with implanted vagus nerve stimulator or similar medical devices. PMID:19952563

  15. Application of a Rat Hindlimb Model: A Prediction of Force Spaces Reachable Through Stimulation of Nerve Fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Will L.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury. PMID:21244999

  16. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  17. Studies of plant gene expression and function stimulated by space microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Li, Huasheng; Zhao, Hui

    2016-07-01

    One of the important questions in space biology is how plants respond to an outer space environment i.e., how genetic expression is altered in space microgravity. In this study, the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was analyzed as part of the Germany SIMBOX (Science in Microgravity Box) spaceflight experiment on Shenzhou 8. A gene chip was used to screen gene expression differences in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings between microgravity and 1g centrifugal force in space. Microarray analysis revealed that 368 genes were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that these genes were involved in the plant's response to stress, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, transcription, protein phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, transport and cell wall metabolism processes. Real time PCR was used to analyzed the miRNA expression including Arabidopsis miR160,miR161, miR394, miR402, miR403, and miR408. MiR408 was significantly upregulated. An overexpression vector of Arabidopsis miR408 was constructed and transferred to Arabidopsis plant. The roots of plants over expressing miR408 exhibited a slower reorientation upon gravistimulation in comparison with those of wild-type. This result indicated that miR408 could play a role in root gravitropic response.

  18. A Case of Useful Short-Spaced Bipolar Pacing of a Left Ventricular Lead to Avoid Phrenic Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kabutoya, Tomoyuki; Imai, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Komori, Takahiro; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation. Coronary sinus (CS) venography showed only one adequate anterior branch for a left ventricular lead. We were able to introduce a quadripolar left ventricular lead (Medtronic 4398-88 cm) to the distal portion of the anterior branch. Although phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) occurred due to distal bipolar pacing (distal 1-mid 2, with 21-mm distance) and proximal pacing (mid 3-proximal 4, distance 21mm), short-spaced bipolar pacing (mid 2-3, distance 1.3 mm) did not induce PNS until 9V pacing. Shared bipolar pacing from each left ventricular electrode (distal 1 to proximal 4) as cathode and a right ventricular (RV) coil as anode resulted in PNS by 3.0V at 0.4 ms. Although quadripolar pacing could avoid PNS by switching the pacing site (ie, from distal bipolar to proximal bipolar), it might not avoid PNS in cases where the phrenic nerve and CS branch are parallel and in close proximity. We found that even though the phrenic nerve and CS branch were parallel and close, short-spaced bipolar pacing could avoid PNS. In conclusion, short-spaced bipolar pacing selected by quadripolar pacing might be beneficial to avoid PNS when the implantable branch is limited. PMID:26742701

  19. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  20. VLF wave stimulation by pulsed electron beams injected from the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Banks, P. M.; Frazer-Smith, A. C.; Neubert, T.; Bush, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    Among the investigations conducted on the Space Shuttle flight STS-3 of March 1982 was an experiment in which a 1-keV, 100-mA electron gun was pulsed at 3.25 and 4.87 kHz. The resultant waves were measured with a broadband plasma wave receiver. At the time of flight the experimental setup was unique in that the electron beam was square wave modulated and that the Shuttle offered relatively long times for in situ measurements of the ionospheric plasma response to the VLF pulsing sequences. In addition to electromagnetic response at the pulsing frequencies the wave exhibited various spectral harmonics as well as the unexpected occurrence of 'satellite lines' around those harmonics. Both phenomena occurred with a variety of different characteristics for different pulsing sequences.

  1. Simulated Space Radiation: Murine Skeletal Responses During Recovery and with Mechanical Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Zaragoza, Josergio; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Truong, Tiffany; Tahimic, Candice; Alwood, Joshua S.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Simulated space radiation at doses similar to those of solar particle events or a round-trip sojourn to Mars (1-2Gy) may cause skeletal tissue degradation and deplete stem/progenitor cell pools throughout the body. We hypothesized that simulated space radiation (SSR) causes late, time-dependent deficits in bone structure and bone cell function reflected by changes in gene expression in response to anabolic stimuli. We used a unique sequential dual ion exposure (proton and iron) for SSR to investigate time-dependence of responses in gene expression, cell function, and microarchitecture with respect to radiation and an anabolic stimulus of axial loading (AL). Male 16-wk C57BL6/J mice (n=120 total) were exposed to 0Gy (Sham, n=10), 56Fe (2Gy, positive control dose, n=10), or sequential ions for SSR (1Gy 1H/56Fe/1H, n=10) by total body irradiation (IR), and the tissues were harvested 2 or 6 mo. later. Further, to assess the response to anabolic stimuli, we subjected additional Sham-AL (n=15) and SSR-AL (n=15) groups to rest-inserted tibial axial loading (AL) starting at 1 and 5 months post-IR (-9N, 60 cycles/day, 3 days/wk, 4 wks). Exposure to 56Fe caused a significant reduction in cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) compared to Sham (-34%) and SSR (-20%) in the proximal tibia metaphysis at 2-months post-IR; however BV/TV for SSR group was not different than Sham. Both 56Fe and SSR caused significant reduction in trabecular number (Tb.N) compared to Sham (-33% and -16%, respectively). Further, Tb.N for 56Fe (2Gy) was significantly lower than SSR (-21%). Ex vivo culture of marrow cells to assess growth and differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells 6 months post-IR showed that both 56Fe and SSR exposures significantly impaired colony formation compared to Sham (-66% and -54%, respectively), as well as nodule mineralization (-90% and -51%, respectively). Two-way analysis of variance showed that both mechanical loading and radiation reduced BV/TV, mechanical loading

  2. Subthalamic Stimulation Reduces Vowel Space at the Initiation of Sustained Production: Implications for Articulatory Motor Control in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, John J.; Alken, Amy G.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but complaints of speech difficulties after surgery have been difficult to quantify. Speech measures do not convincingly account for such reports. Objective: This study examined STN stimulation effects on vowel production, in order to probe whether DBS affects articulatory posturing. The objective was to compare positioning during the initiation phase with the steady prolongation phase by measuring vowel spaces for three “corner” vowels at these two time frames. Methods: Vowel space was measured over the initial 0.25 sec of sustained productions of high front (/i/), high back (/u/) and low vowels (/a/), and again during a 2 sec segment at the midpoint. Eight right-handed male subjects with bilateral STN stimulation and seven age-matched male controls were studied based on their participation in a larger study that included functional imaging. Mean values: age = 57±4.6 yrs; PD duration = 12.3±2.7 yrs; duration of DBS = 25.6±21.2 mos, and UPDRS III speech score = 1.6±0.7. STN subjects were studied off medication at their therapeutic DBS settings and again with their stimulators off, counter-balanced order. Results: Vowel space was larger in the initiation phase compared to the midpoint for both the control and the STN subjects off stimulation. With stimulation on, however, the initial vowel space was significantly reduced to the area measured at the mid-point. For the three vowels, the acoustics were differentially affected, in accordance with expected effects of front versus back position in the vocal tract. Conclusions: STN stimulation appears to constrain initial articulatory gestures for vowel production, raising the possibility that articulatory positions normally used in speech are similarly constrained. PMID:27003219

  3. The Volume of the Regular Octahedron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are given for computing the area of a regular octahedron. It is suggested that students first construct an octahedron as this will aid in space visualization. Six further extensions are left for the reader to try. (LS)

  4. Experiment aboard Russian satellite "Foton M2" in 2005: new approaches for study on stimulating effect of space flight on cell proliferation and regeneration in Urodela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Almeida, E.; Domaratskaya, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Aleinikova, K.; Mitashov, V.

    A study on space flight effect upon processes of regeneration is due to the necessity to know their characteristics in animals and human exposed to space and earth conditions shortly after flight Several experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosatellites showed that the rate of organ and tissue regeneration in space was greater than that on the ground Space flight effect stimulating regeneration was enduring and apparent not only just after flight but long time later as well This observation found support in studies simulated physiological weightlessness by means of fast-rotating clinostat It was shown also that the higher rate of regeneration was associated with enhanced cell proliferation For instance we found that the number of cells in S-phase in regenerating tissues was significantly greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls However it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro- g per se or by conditions of hyper- g during launching and re-adaptation on the earth Molecular mechanisms underlying the change also remained obscure These issues were addressed by the joint Russian-USA experiment Regeneration performed on Foton-M2 in 2005 In 16- day flight we used two well-known models of regeneration lens regeneration after lensectomy and tail regeneration after amputation in adult newts Pleurodeles walt Urodela In order to evaluate cell proliferative activity in time limits of microgravity influence the original method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU

  5. The effective intensity of Coriolis, cross-coupling stimulation is gravitoinertial force dependent - Implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the severity of the Coriolis-induced motion sickness was investigated in ten individuals subjected to high and low G-force phases of parabolic flight maneuvers using constant level Coriolis, cross-coupled angular acceleration stimulation. Using seven levels of severity in the diagnosis of motion sickness, it was found that the subjects were less susceptible at 0 G than at +2 Gz, and that the perceived intensity and provocativeness of Coriolis stimulation decreased in 0 G and increased in +2 Gz relative to the +1 Gz baseline values. The changes in the apparent intensity of Coriolis stimulation occur virtually immediately when the background gravitatioinertial force level is varied. These findings explain why the Skylab astronauts were refractory to motion sickness during Coriolis stimulation in-flight.

  6. Regular FPGA based on regular fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Chen; Jianwen, Zhu; Minxuan, Zhang

    2011-08-01

    In the sub-wavelength regime, design for manufacturability (DFM) becomes increasingly important for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, an automated tile generation flow targeting micro-regular fabric is reported. Using a publicly accessible, well-documented academic FPGA as a case study, we found that compared to the tile generators previously reported, our generated micro-regular tile incurs less than 10% area overhead, which could be potentially recovered by process window optimization, thanks to its superior printability. In addition, we demonstrate that on 45 nm technology, the generated FPGA tile reduces lithography induced process variation by 33%, and reduce probability of failure by 21.2%. If a further overhead of 10% area can be recovered by enhanced resolution, we can achieve the variation reduction of 93.8% and reduce the probability of failure by 16.2%.

  7. Learning about Time within the Spinal Cord II: Evidence that Temporal Regularity Is Encoded by a Spinal Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuan H.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Grau, James W.

    2016-01-01

    How a stimulus impacts spinal cord function depends upon temporal relations. When intermittent noxious stimulation (shock) is applied and the interval between shock pulses is varied (unpredictable), it induces a lasting alteration that inhibits adaptive learning. If the same stimulus is applied in a temporally regular (predictable) manner, the capacity to learn is preserved and a protective/restorative effect is engaged that counters the adverse effect of variable stimulation. Sensitivity to temporal relations implies a capacity to encode time. This study explores how spinal neurons discriminate variable and fixed spaced stimulation. Communication with the brain was blocked by means of a spinal transection and adaptive capacity was tested using an instrumental learning task. In this task, subjects must learn to maintain a hind limb in a flexed position to minimize shock exposure. To evaluate the possibility that a distinct class of afferent fibers provide a sensory cue for regularity, we manipulated the temporal relation between shocks given to two dermatomes (leg and tail). Evidence for timing emerged when the stimuli were applied in a coherent manner across dermatomes, implying that a central (spinal) process detects regularity. Next, we show that fixed spaced stimulation has a restorative effect when half the physical stimuli are randomly omitted, as long as the stimuli remain in phase, suggesting that stimulus regularity is encoded by an internal oscillator Research suggests that the oscillator that drives the tempo of stepping depends upon neurons within the rostral lumbar (L1-L2) region. Disrupting communication with the L1-L2 tissue by means of a L3 transection eliminated the restorative effect of fixed spaced stimulation. Implications of the results for step training and rehabilitation after injury are discussed. PMID:26903830

  8. Regular gravitational lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragon, Norbert

    1992-02-01

    The Einstein action with vanishing cosmological constant is for appropriate field content the unique local action which is regular at the fixed point of affine coordinate transformations. Imposing this regularity requirement one excludes also Wess-Zumino counterterms which trade gravitational anomalies for Lorentz anomalies. One has to expect dilatational and SL (D) anomalies. If these anomalies are absent and if the regularity of the quantum vertex functional can be controlled then Einstein gravity is renormalizable. On leave of absence from Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hannover, W-3000 Hannover 1, FRG.

  9. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  10. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  11. Scaling behavior of regularized bosonic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We implement a proper-time UV regularization of the Nambu-Goto string, introducing an independent metric tensor and the corresponding Lagrange multiplier, and treating them in the mean-field approximation justified for long strings and/or when the dimension of space-time is large. We compute the regularized determinant of the 2D Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining in this way the effective action, whose minimization determines the energy of the string ground state in the mean-field approximation. We discuss the existence of two scaling limits when the cutoff is taken to infinity. One scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by the hypercubic regularization of the Nambu-Goto string as well as by the use of the dynamical triangulation regularization of the Polyakov string. The other scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by canonical quantization of the Nambu-Goto string.

  12. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 3: Case study, knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A case study of knowledge contributions from the crew life support aspect of the manned space program is reported. The new information needed to be learned, the solutions developed, and the relation of new knowledge gained to earthly problems were investigated. Illustrations are given in the following categories: supplying atmosphere for spacecraft; providing carbon dioxide removal and recycling; providing contaminant control and removal; maintaining the body's thermal balance; protecting against the space hazards of decompression, radiation, and meteorites; minimizing fire and blast hazards; providing adequate light and conditions for adequate visual performance; providing mobility and work physiology; and providing adequate habitability.

  13. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  14. Regularization methods for Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Nico; Lee, Dean; Liu, Weitao; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory for the two-body system for several lattice spacings at lowest order in the pionless as well as in the pionful theory. We discuss issues of regularizations and predictions for the effective range expansion. In the pionless case, a simple Gaussian smearing allows to demonstrate lattice spacing independence over a wide range of lattice spacings. We show that regularization methods known from the continuum formulation are necessary as well as feasible for the pionful approach.

  15. Pairing effect and misleading regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sayed, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the nearest neighbor spacing distribution of energy levels of even-even nuclei classified according to their reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B (E2) ↑ using the available experimental data. We compare between Brody, and Abul-Magd distributions that extract the degree of chaoticity within nuclear dynamics. The results show that Abul-Magd parameter f can represents the chaotic behavior in more acceptable way than Brody, especially if a statistically significant study is desired. A smooth transition from chaos to order is observed as B (E2) ↑ increases. An apparent regularity was located at the second interval, namely: at 0.05 ≤ B (E2) < 0.1 in e2b2 units, and at 10 ≤ B (E2) < 15 in Weisskopf unit. Finally, the chaotic behavior parameterized in terms of B (E2) ↑ does not depend on the unit used.

  16. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Denig, W. F.; Anderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon.

  17. Regularized CT reconstruction on unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Lu, Yao; Ma, Xiangyuan; Xu, Yuesheng

    2016-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ill-posed problem. Reconstruction on unstructured grid reduces the computational cost and alleviates the ill-posedness by decreasing the dimension of the solution space. However, there was no systematic study on edge-preserving regularization methods for CT reconstruction on unstructured grid. In this work, we propose a novel regularization method for CT reconstruction on unstructured grid, such as triangular or tetrahedral meshes generated from the initial images reconstructed via analysis reconstruction method (e.g., filtered back-projection). The proposed regularization method is modeled as a three-term optimization problem, containing a weighted least square fidelity term motivated by the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). The related cost function contains two non-differentiable terms, which bring difficulty to the development of the fast solver. A fixed-point proximity algorithm with SART is developed for solving the related optimization problem, and accelerating the convergence. Finally, we compare the regularized CT reconstruction method to SART with different regularization methods. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the proposed regularization method on unstructured grid is effective to suppress noise and preserve edge features.

  18. Spinal cord stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses ... stretched into the space on top of your spinal cord. These wires will be connected to a small ...

  19. Space distribution of EEG responses to hanoi-moving visual and auditory stimulation with Fourier Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Wang, Yi; Bin, Guangyu; Huang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Gang; Lv, Yanwei; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The relationship between EEG source signals and action-related visual and auditory stimulation is still not well-understood. The objective of this study was to identify EEG source signals and their associated action-related visual and auditory responses, especially independent components of EEG. Methods: A hand-moving-Hanoi video paradigm was used to study neural correlates of the action-related visual and auditory information processing determined by mu rhythm (8–12 Hz) in 16 healthy young subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to identify separate EEG sources, and further computed in the frequency domain by applying-Fourier transform ICA (F-ICA). Results: F-ICA found more sensory stimuli-related independent components located within the sensorimotor region than ICA did. The total number of independent components of interest from F-ICA was 768, twice that of 384 from traditional time-domain ICA (p < 0.05). In the sensory-motor region C3 or C4, the total source signals intensity distribution values from all 14 subjects was 23.00 (Mean 1.64 ± 1.17) from F-ICA; which was more than the 10.5 (Mean 0.75 ± 0.62) from traditional time-domain ICA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the intensity distribution of source signals in the C3 or C4 region was statistically significant between the ICA and F-ICA groups (strong 50 vs. 92%; weak 50 vs. 8% retrospectively; p < 0.05). In the Pz region, the total source signal intensity distribution from F-ICA was 12.50 (Mean 0.89 ± 0.53); although exceeding that of traditional time-domain ICA 8.20 (Mean 0.59 ± 0.48), the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that mu rhythm was sensitive to detection of the cognitive expression, which could be reflected by the function in the parietal lobe sensory-motor region. The results of this study could potentially be applied into early diagnosis for those with visual and hearing

  20. Gauge approach to gravitation and regular Big Bang theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkevich, A. V.

    2006-03-01

    Field theoretical scheme of regular Big Bang in 4-dimensional physical space-time, built in the framework of gauge approach to gravitation, is discussed. Regular bouncing character of homogeneous isotropic cosmological models is ensured by gravitational repulsion effect at extreme conditions without quantum gravitational corrections. The most general properties of regular inflationary cosmological models are examined. Developing theory is valid, if energy density of gravitating matter is positive and energy dominance condition is fulfilled.

  1. Higher-Order Global Regularity of an Inviscid Voigt-Regularization of the Three-Dimensional Inviscid Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.

    2014-03-01

    We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter , to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.

  2. Higher-Order Global Regularity of an Inviscid Voigt-Regularization of the Three-Dimensional Inviscid Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.

    2013-05-01

    We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space {{R}^3} and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter {α → 0}, to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.

  3. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  4. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Commercial opportunities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbers, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of government and industry in the commercialization of space are examined and an approach for stimulating the interests of potential users is described. Several illustrative examples of potential commercial developments are presented. The role of manned space systems in space commercialization is discussed as well as some of the issues and opportunities that are likely to be encountered in the commercial exploitation of the unique characteristics of space. Results suggest that interest in space facilities can be found among a number of commercially oriented users. In order to develop and maintain the involvement of these potential users, however, space demonstrations are required, and commercial growth or evolution depends on the results of the initial in situ experience. Manned facilities are required for the conceptual research and development phases and for maintenance and servicing operations during production or operational missions. Space facilities must be easily accessible by dependable and regularly scheduled means.

  5. Fast Image Reconstruction with L2-Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Fan, Audrey P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We introduce L2-regularized reconstruction algorithms with closed-form solutions that achieve dramatic computational speed-up relative to state of the art L1- and L2-based iterative algorithms while maintaining similar image quality for various applications in MRI reconstruction. Materials and Methods We compare fast L2-based methods to state of the art algorithms employing iterative L1- and L2-regularization in numerical phantom and in vivo data in three applications; 1) Fast Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSD), 2) Lipid artifact suppression in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI), and 3) Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI). In all cases, proposed L2-based methods are compared with the state of the art algorithms, and two to three orders of magnitude speed up is demonstrated with similar reconstruction quality. Results The closed-form solution developed for regularized QSM allows processing of a 3D volume under 5 seconds, the proposed lipid suppression algorithm takes under 1 second to reconstruct single-slice MRSI data, while the PCA based DSI algorithm estimates diffusion propagators from undersampled q-space for a single slice under 30 seconds, all running in Matlab using a standard workstation. Conclusion For the applications considered herein, closed-form L2-regularization can be a faster alternative to its iterative counterpart or L1-based iterative algorithms, without compromising image quality. PMID:24395184

  6. Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…

  7. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm Credit Administration in...

  8. Regularly timed events amid chaos.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Jonathan N; Cooper, Roy M; Corron, Ned J

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events. PMID:26651759

  9. Natural selection and mechanistic regularity.

    PubMed

    DesAutels, Lane

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether natural selection operates regularly enough to qualify as a mechanism of the sort characterized by Machamer, Darden, and Craver (2000). Contrary to an influential critique by Skipper and Millstein (2005), I argue that natural selection can be seen to be regular enough to qualify as an MDC mechanism just fine-as long as we pay careful attention to some important distinctions regarding mechanistic regularity and abstraction. Specifically, I suggest that when we distinguish between process vs. product regularity, mechanism-internal vs. mechanism-external sources of irregularity, and abstract vs. concrete regularity, we can see that natural selection is only irregular in senses that are unthreatening to its status as an MDC mechanism. PMID:26921876

  10. Augmenting saturated LTP by broadly spaced episodes of theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal area CA1 of adult rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guan

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Recent interest in mechanisms underlying the advantage of spaced over massed learning has prompted investigation into the effects of distributed episodes of LTP induction. The amount of LTP induced in hippocampal area CA1 by one train (1T) of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in young Sprague-Dawley rats was further enhanced by additional bouts of 1T given at 1-h intervals. However, in young Long-Evans (LE) rats, 1T did not initially saturate LTP. Instead, a stronger LTP induction paradigm using eight trains of TBS (8T) induced saturated LTP in hippocampal slices from both young and adult LE rats as well as adult mice. The saturated LTP induced by 8T could be augmented by another episode of 8T following an interval of at least 90 min. The success rate across animals and slices in augmenting LTP by an additional episode of 8T increased significantly with longer intervals between the first and last episodes, ranging from 0% at 30- and 60-min intervals to 13–66% at 90- to 180-min intervals to 90–100% at 240-min intervals. Augmentation above initially saturated LTP was blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-APV). These findings suggest that the strength of induction and interval between episodes of TBS, as well as the strain and age of the animal, are important components in the augmentation of LTP. PMID:25057146

  11. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut’s musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system’s orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut’s musculoskeletal atrophy. Methods HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR). 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance), MRI (muscle volume), and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass). Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force) and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference). Results The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm) changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule) of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts) of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle) mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR

  12. Wavelet Regularization Per Nullspace Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charléty, J.; Nolet, G.; Sigloch, K.; Voronin, S.; Loris, I.; Simons, F. J.; Daubechies, I.; Judd, S.

    2010-12-01

    Wavelet decomposition of models in an over-parameterized Earth and L1-norm minimization in wavelet space is a promising strategy to deal with the very heterogeneous data coverage in the Earth without sacrificing detail in the solution where this is resolved (see Loris et al., abstract this session). However, L1-norm minimizations are nonlinear, and pose problems of convergence speed when applied to large data sets. In an effort to speed up computations we investigate the application of the nullspace shuttle (Deal and Nolet, GJI 1996). The nullspace shuttle is a filter that adds components from the nullspace to the minimum norm solution so as to have the model satisfy additional conditions not imposed by the data. In our case, the nullspace shuttle projects the model on a truncated basis of wavelets. The convergence of this strategy is unproven, in contrast to algorithms using Landweber iteration or one of its variants, but initial computations using a very large data base give reason for optimism. We invert 430,554 P delay times measured by cross-correlation in different frequency windows. The data are dominated by observations with US Array, leading to a major discrepancy in the resolution beneath North America and the rest of the world. This is a subset of the data set inverted by Sigloch et al (Nature Geosci, 2008), excluding only a small number of ISC delays at short distance and all amplitude data. The model is a cubed Earth model with 3,637,248 voxels spanning mantle and crust, with a resolution everywhere better than 70 km, to which 1912 event corrections are added. In each iteration we determine the optimal solution by a least squares inversion with minimal damping, after which we regularize the model in wavelet space. We then compute the residual data vector (after an intermediate scaling step), and solve for a model correction until a satisfactory chi-square fit for the truncated model is obtained. We present our final results on convergence as well as a

  13. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  14. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  15. Regular patterns stabilize auditory streams.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Denham, Susan L; Gyimesi, Kinga; Winkler, István

    2010-12-01

    The auditory system continuously parses the acoustic environment into auditory objects, usually representing separate sound sources. Sound sources typically show characteristic emission patterns. These regular temporal sound patterns are possible cues for distinguishing sound sources. The present study was designed to test whether regular patterns are used as cues for source distinction and to specify the role that detecting these regularities may play in the process of auditory stream segregation. Participants were presented with tone sequences, and they were asked to continuously indicate whether they perceived the tones in terms of a single coherent sequence of sounds (integrated) or as two concurrent sound streams (segregated). Unknown to the participant, in some stimulus conditions, regular patterns were present in one or both putative streams. In all stimulus conditions, participants' perception switched back and forth between the two sound organizations. Importantly, regular patterns occurring in either one or both streams prolonged the mean duration of two-stream percepts, whereas the duration of one-stream percepts was unaffected. These results suggest that temporal regularities are utilized in auditory scene analysis. It appears that the role of this cue lies in stabilizing streams once they have been formed on the basis of simpler acoustic cues. PMID:21218898

  16. Extended Locus of Regular Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Amon, L.; Casten, R. F.

    2007-04-23

    A new family of IBM Hamiltonians, characterized by certain parameter values, was found about 15 years ago by Alhassid and Whelan to display almost regular dynamics, and yet these solutions to the IBM do not belong to any of the known dynamical symmetry limits (vibrational, rotational and {gamma} - unstable). Rather, they comprise an 'Arc of Regularity' cutting through the interior of the symmetry triangle from U(5) to SU(3) where suddenly there is a decrease in chaoticity and a significant increase in regularity. A few years ago, the first set of nuclei lying along this arc was discovered. The purpose of the present work is to search more broadly in the nuclear chart at all nuclei from Z = 40 - 100 for other examples of such 'regular' nuclei. Using a unique signature for such nuclei involving energy differences of certain excited states, we have identified an additional set of 12 nuclei lying near or along the arc. Some of these nuclei are known to have low-lying intruder states and therefore care must be taken, however, in judging their structure. The regularity exhibited by nuclei near the arc presumably reflects the validity or partial validity of some new, as yet unknown, quantum number describing these systems and giving the regularity found for them.

  17. Exploring the spectrum of regularized bosonic string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ambjørn, J. Makeenko, Y.

    2015-03-15

    We implement a UV regularization of the bosonic string by truncating its mode expansion and keeping the regularized theory “as diffeomorphism invariant as possible.” We compute the regularized determinant of the 2d Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining the effective action in this way. The minimization of the effective action reliably determines the energy of the string ground state for a long string and/or for a large number of space-time dimensions. We discuss the possibility of a scaling limit when the cutoff is taken to infinity.

  18. Regular language constrained sequence alignment revisited.

    PubMed

    Kucherov, Gregory; Pinhas, Tamar; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2011-05-01

    Imposing constraints in the form of a finite automaton or a regular expression is an effective way to incorporate additional a priori knowledge into sequence alignment procedures. With this motivation, the Regular Expression Constrained Sequence Alignment Problem was introduced, which proposed an O(n²t⁴) time and O(n²t²) space algorithm for solving it, where n is the length of the input strings and t is the number of states in the input non-deterministic automaton. A faster O(n²t³) time algorithm for the same problem was subsequently proposed. In this article, we further speed up the algorithms for Regular Language Constrained Sequence Alignment by reducing their worst case time complexity bound to O(n²t³)/log t). This is done by establishing an optimal bound on the size of Straight-Line Programs solving the maxima computation subproblem of the basic dynamic programming algorithm. We also study another solution based on a Steiner Tree computation. While it does not improve the worst case, our simulations show that both approaches are efficient in practice, especially when the input automata are dense. PMID:21554020

  19. Regular surface layer of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, W H; Doran, J L; Page, W J

    1984-01-01

    Washing Azotobacter vinelandii UW1 with Burk buffer or heating cells at 42 degrees C exposed a regular surface layer which was effectively visualized by freeze-etch electron microscopy. This layer was composed of tetragonally arranged subunits separated by a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. Cells washed with distilled water to remove an acidic major outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of 65,000 did not possess the regular surface layer. This protein, designated the S protein, specifically reattached to the surface of distilled-water-washed cells in the presence of the divalent calcium, magnesium, strontium, or beryllium cations. All of these cations except beryllium supported reassembly of the S protein into a regular tetragonal array. Although the surface localization of the S protein has been demonstrated, radioiodination of exposed envelope proteins in whole cells did not confirm this. The labeling behavior of the S protein could be explained on the basis of varying accessibilities of different tyrosine residues to iodination. Images PMID:6735982

  20. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  1. Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.

  2. Mixing of regular and chaotic orbits in beams

    SciTech Connect

    Courtlandt L. Bohn et al.

    2002-09-04

    Phase mixing of chaotic orbits exponentially distributes the orbits through their accessible phase space. This phenomenon, commonly called ''chaotic mixing'', stands in marked contrast to phase mixing of regular orbits which proceeds as a power law in time. It is inherently irreversible; hence, its associated e-folding time scale sets a condition on any process envisioned for emittance compensation. We numerically investigate phase mixing in the presence of space charge, distinguish between the evolution of regular and chaotic orbits, and discuss how phase mixing potentially influences macroscopic properties of high-brightness beams.

  3. Regularization Analysis of SAR Superresolution

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DICKEY,FRED M.

    2002-04-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. In a previous report the application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar was investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. This work treats the problem from the standpoint of regularization. Both the operator inversion approach and the regularization approach show that the ability to superresolve SAR imagery is severely limited by system noise.

  4. Rotations of the Regular Polyhedra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, MaryClara; Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2006-01-01

    The study of the rotational symmetries of the regular polyhedra is important in the classroom for many reasons. Besides giving the students an opportunity to visualize in three dimensions, it is also an opportunity to relate two-dimensional and three-dimensional concepts. For example, rotations in R[superscript 2] require a point and an angle of…

  5. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  6. Academic Improvement through Regular Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Media reports are rife with claims that students in the United States are overtested and that they and their education are suffering as result. Here I argue the opposite--that students would benefit in numerous ways from more frequent assessment, especially of diagnostic testing. The regular assessment of students serves critical educational and…

  7. The Effect of Early Stimulation: The Problem of Focus in Developmental Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    Studies of the effect of environmental stimulation on an individual's development in either general or specific ability conclude that some specific stimulation should be introduced at an early age while a child is still malleable. An intense, persistent, and regular tutorial approach within the family encourages the development of a special talent…

  8. Sparsity regularization for parameter identification problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bangti; Maass, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The investigation of regularization schemes with sparsity promoting penalty terms has been one of the dominant topics in the field of inverse problems over the last years, and Tikhonov functionals with ℓp-penalty terms for 1 ⩽ p ⩽ 2 have been studied extensively. The first investigations focused on regularization properties of the minimizers of such functionals with linear operators and on iteration schemes for approximating the minimizers. These results were quickly transferred to nonlinear operator equations, including nonsmooth operators and more general function space settings. The latest results on regularization properties additionally assume a sparse representation of the true solution as well as generalized source conditions, which yield some surprising and optimal convergence rates. The regularization theory with ℓp sparsity constraints is relatively complete in this setting; see the first part of this review. In contrast, the development of efficient numerical schemes for approximating minimizers of Tikhonov functionals with sparsity constraints for nonlinear operators is still ongoing. The basic iterated soft shrinkage approach has been extended in several directions and semi-smooth Newton methods are becoming applicable in this field. In particular, the extension to more general non-convex, non-differentiable functionals by variational principles leads to a variety of generalized iteration schemes. We focus on such iteration schemes in the second part of this review. A major part of this survey is devoted to applying sparsity constrained regularization techniques to parameter identification problems for partial differential equations, which we regard as the prototypical setting for nonlinear inverse problems. Parameter identification problems exhibit different levels of complexity and we aim at characterizing a hierarchy of such problems. The operator defining these inverse problems is the parameter-to-state mapping. We first summarize some

  9. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  10. Operator regularization and quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Tarasov, L.; Mckeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T.

    1989-01-01

    Operator regularization has been shown to be a symmetry preserving means of computing Green functions in gauge symmetric and supersymmetric theories which avoids the explicit occurrence of divergences. In this paper we examine how this technique can be applied to computing quantities in non-renormalizable theories in general and quantum gravity in particular. Specifically, we consider various processes to one- and two-loop order in φ4N theory for N > 4 for which the theory is non-renormalizable. We then apply operator regularization to determine the one-loop graviton correction to the spinor propagator. The effective action for quantum scalars in a background gravitational field is evaluated in operator regularization using both the weak-field method and the normal coordinate expansion. This latter case yields a new derivation of the Schwinger-de Witt expansion which avoids the use of recursion relations. Finally we consider quantum gravity coupled to scalar fields in n dimensions, evaluating those parts of the effective action that (in other methods) diverge as n → 4. We recover the same divergence structure as is found using dimensional regularization if n ≠ 4, but if n = 4 at the outset no divergence arises at any stage of the calculation. The non-renormalizability of such theories manifests itself in the scale-dependence at one-loop order of terms that do not appear in the original lagrangian. In all cases our regularization procedure does not break any invariances present in the theory and avoids the occurence of explicit divergences.

  11. Temporal regularity in speech perception: Is regularity beneficial or deleterious?

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Eveline; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Speech rhythm has been proposed to be of crucial importance for correct speech perception and language learning. This study investigated the influence of speech rhythm in second language processing. German pseudo-sentences were presented to participants in two conditions: ‘naturally regular speech rhythm’ and an ‘emphasized regular rhythm'. Nine expert English speakers with 3.5±1.6 years of German training repeated each sentence after hearing it once over headphones. Responses were transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet and analyzed for the number of correct, false and missing consonants as well as for consonant additions. The over-all number of correct reproductions of consonants did not differ between the two experimental conditions. However, speech rhythmicization significantly affected the serial position curve of correctly reproduced syllables. The results of this pilot study are consistent with the view that speech rhythm is important for speech perception. PMID:22701753

  12. Distributional Stress Regularity: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2009-01-01

    The regularity of stress patterns in a language depends on "distributional stress regularity", which arises from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and "durational stress regularity", which arises from the timing of syllables. Here we focus on distributional regularity, which depends on three factors. "Lexical stress patterning"…

  13. Adaptive regularization of earthquake slip distribution inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chisheng; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Qingquan; Shan, Xinjian; Zhu, Jiasong; Guo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Regularization is a routine approach used in earthquake slip distribution inversion to avoid numerically abnormal solutions. To date, most slip inversion studies have imposed uniform regularization on all the fault patches. However, adaptive regularization, where each retrieved parameter is regularized differently, has exhibited better performances in other research fields such as image restoration. In this paper, we implement an investigation into adaptive regularization for earthquake slip distribution inversion. It is found that adaptive regularization can achieve a significantly smaller mean square error (MSE) than uniform regularization, if it is set properly. We propose an adaptive regularization method based on weighted total least squares (WTLS). This approach assumes that errors exist in both the regularization matrix and observation, and an iterative algorithm is used to solve the solution. A weight coefficient is used to balance the regularization matrix residual and the observation residual. An experiment using four slip patterns was carried out to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed regularization method can derive a smaller MSE than uniform regularization and resolution-based adaptive regularization, and the improvement in MSE is more significant for slip patterns with low-resolution slip patches. In this paper, we apply the proposed regularization method to study the slip distribution of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The retrieved slip distribution is less smooth and more detailed than the one retrieved with the uniform regularization method, and is closer to the existing slip model from joint inversion of the geodetic and seismic data.

  14. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  15. Three-dimensional SPACE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery at 3 T to improve subthalamic nucleus lead placement for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from preclinical to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Senova, Suhan; Hosomi, Koichi; Gurruchaga, Jean-Marc; Gouello, Gaëtane; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Beaugendre, Yara; Lepetit, Hélène; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Badin, Romina Aron; Dauguet, Julien; Jan, Caroline; Hantraye, Philippe; Brugières, Pierre; Palfi, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for motor symptoms in patients with pharmacoresistant Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the procedure, which requires multimodal perioperative exploration such as imaging, electrophysiology, or clinical examination during macrostimulation to secure lead positioning, remains challenging because the STN cannot be reliably visualized using the gold standard, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) at 1.5 T. Thus, there is a need to improve imaging tools to better visualize the STN, optimize DBS lead implantation, and enlarge DBS diffusion. METHODS Gradient-echo sequences such as those used in T2WI suffer from higher distortions at higher magnetic fields than spin-echo sequences. First, a spin-echo 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions) FLAIR sequence at 3 T was designed, validated histologically in 2 nonhuman primates, and applied to 10 patients with PD; their data were clinically compared in a double-blind manner with those of a control group of 10 other patients with PD in whom STN targeting was performed using T2WI. RESULTS Overlap between the nonhuman primate STNs segmented on 3D-histological and on 3D-SPACE-FLAIR volumes was high for the 3 most anterior quarters (mean [± SD] Dice scores 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.74 ± 0.06, and 0.60 ± 0.09). STN limits determined by the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence were more consistent with electrophysiological edges than those determined by T2WI (0.9 vs 1.4 mm, respectively). The imaging contrast of the STN on the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence was 4 times higher (p < 0.05). Improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score (off medication, on stimulation) 12 months after the operation was higher for patients who underwent 3D-SPACE-FLAIR-guided implantation than for those in whom T2WI was used (62.2% vs 43.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). The total electrical energy

  16. On Nonperiodic Euler Flows with Hölder Regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isett, Philip; Oh, Sung-Jin

    2016-08-01

    In (Isett, Regularity in time along the coarse scale flow for the Euler equations, 2013), the first author proposed a strengthening of Onsager's conjecture on the failure of energy conservation for incompressible Euler flows with Hölder regularity not exceeding {1/3}. This stronger form of the conjecture implies that anomalous dissipation will fail for a generic Euler flow with regularity below the Onsager critical space {L_t^∞ B_{3,∞}^{1/3}} due to low regularity of the energy profile. This paper is the first and main paper in a series of two, the results of which may be viewed as first steps towards establishing the conjectured failure of energy regularity for generic solutions with Hölder exponent less than {1/5}. The main result of the present paper shows that any given smooth Euler flow can be perturbed in {C^{1/5-ɛ}_{t,x}} on any pre-compact subset of R× R^3 to violate energy conservation. Furthermore, the perturbed solution is no smoother than {C^{1/5-ɛ}_{t,x}}. As a corollary of this theorem, we show the existence of nonzero {C^{1/5-ɛ}_{t,x}} solutions to Euler with compact space-time support, generalizing previous work of the first author (Isett, Hölder continuous Euler flows in three dimensions with compact support in time, 2012) to the nonperiodic setting.

  17. Kernelized Elastic Net Regularization: Generalization Bounds, and Sparse Recovery.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunlong; Lv, Shao-Gao; Hang, Hanyuan; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-03-01

    Kernelized elastic net regularization (KENReg) is a kernelization of the well-known elastic net regularization (Zou & Hastie, 2005 ). The kernel in KENReg is not required to be a Mercer kernel since it learns from a kernelized dictionary in the coefficient space. Feng, Yang, Zhao, Lv, and Suykens ( 2014 ) showed that KENReg has some nice properties including stability, sparseness, and generalization. In this letter, we continue our study on KENReg by conducting a refined learning theory analysis. This letter makes the following three main contributions. First, we present refined error analysis on the generalization performance of KENReg. The main difficulty of analyzing the generalization error of KENReg lies in characterizing the population version of its empirical target function. We overcome this by introducing a weighted Banach space associated with the elastic net regularization. We are then able to conduct elaborated learning theory analysis and obtain fast convergence rates under proper complexity and regularity assumptions. Second, we study the sparse recovery problem in KENReg with fixed design and show that the kernelization may improve the sparse recovery ability compared to the classical elastic net regularization. Finally, we discuss the interplay among different properties of KENReg that include sparseness, stability, and generalization. We show that the stability of KENReg leads to generalization, and its sparseness confidence can be derived from generalization. Moreover, KENReg is stable and can be simultaneously sparse, which makes it attractive theoretically and practically. PMID:26735744

  18. Infant Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on infant stimulation. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, educators and primary care personnel, academics and professionals, and for health administrators and family-planning organizations. The contents cover infant needs; infant…

  19. Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidimova, O.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface

  20. Knowledge and regularity in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Langley, Pat; Matwin, Stan

    1992-01-01

    The field of planning has focused on several methods of using domain-specific knowledge. The three most common methods, use of search control, use of macro-operators, and analogy, are part of a continuum of techniques differing in the amount of reused plan information. This paper describes TALUS, a planner that exploits this continuum, and is used for comparing the relative utility of these methods. We present results showing how search control, macro-operators, and analogy are affected by domain regularity and the amount of stored knowledge.

  1. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  2. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  3. A low-cost multichannel wireless neural stimulation system for freely roaming animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Objectives. Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural activity are the basis of many therapies and neural prostheses. Conventional stimulation systems have a number of practical limitations, especially in experiments involving freely roaming subjects. Our main objective was to develop a modular, versatile and inexpensive multichannel wireless system able to overcome some of these constraints. Approach. We have designed and implemented a new multichannel wireless neural stimulator based on commercial components. The system is small (2 cm × 4 cm × 0.5 cm) and light in weight (9 g) which allows it to be easily carried in a small backpack. To test and validate the performance and reliability of the whole system we conducted several bench tests and in vivo experiments. Main results. The performance and accuracy of the stimulator were comparable to commercial threaded systems. Stimulation sequences can be constructed on-the-fly with 251 selectable current levels (from 0 to 250 µA) with 1 µA step resolution. The pulse widths and intervals can be as long as 65 ms in 2 µs time resolution. The system covers approximately 10 m of transmission range in a regular laboratory environment and 100 m in free space (line of sight). Furthermore it provides great flexibility for experiments since it allows full control of the stimulator and the stimulation parameters in real time. When there is no stimulation, the device automatically goes into low-power sleep mode to preserve battery power. Significance. We introduce the design of a powerful multichannel wireless stimulator assembled from commercial components. Key features of the system are their reliability, robustness and small size. The system has a flexible design that can be modified straightforwardly to tailor it to any specific experimental need. Furthermore it can be effortlessly adapted for use with any kind of multielectrode arrays.

  4. Wave dynamics of regular and chaotic rays

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.W.

    1983-09-01

    In order to investigate general relationships between waves and rays in chaotic systems, I study the eigenfunctions and spectrum of a simple model, the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a stadium boundary, for which the rays are ergodic. Statistical measurements are performed so that the apparent randomness of the stadium modes can be quantitatively contrasted with the familiar regularities observed for the modes in a circular boundary (with integrable rays). The local spatial autocorrelation of the eigenfunctions is constructed in order to indirectly test theoretical predictions for the nature of the Wigner distribution corresponding to chaotic waves. A portion of the large-eigenvalue spectrum is computed and reported in an appendix; the probability distribution of successive level spacings is analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The two principal conclusions are: 1) waves associated with chaotic rays may exhibit randomly situated localized regions of high intensity; 2) the Wigner function for these waves may depart significantly from being uniformly distributed over the surface of constant frequency in the ray phase space.

  5. Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, D. A.; Bulyarskii, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Regular chemisorption of hydrogen on achiral single-walled carbon nanotubes has been investigated with the use of AM1 quantum-chemical semiempirical method. It has been found that regular hydrogen chemisorption deforms nanotubes, in some cases leading to stable prismatic modifications. The dependence of the adsorption energy on the density of hydrogen coverage has been found. A procedure for determining the adsorption energy by the spectra of thermally stimulated desorption has been proposed.

  6. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  7. Some Cosine Relations and the Regular Heptagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Heng, Phongthong

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Greek mathematicians sought to construct, by use of straight edge and compass only, all regular polygons. They had no difficulty with regular polygons having 3, 4, 5 and 6 sides, but the 7-sided heptagon eluded all their attempts. In this article, the authors discuss some cosine relations and the regular heptagon. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. Regular Pentagons and the Fibonacci Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how to draw a regular pentagon. Shows the sequence of a succession of regular pentagons formed by extending the sides. Calculates the general formula of the Lucas and Fibonacci sequences. Presents a regular icosahedron as an example of the golden ratio. (YP)

  9. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  10. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  11. 22 CFR 120.39 - Regular employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regular employee. 120.39 Section 120.39 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.39 Regular employee. (a) A regular employee means for purposes of this subchapter: (1) An...

  12. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  13. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  14. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. QED in Krein Space Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, A.; Forghan, B.; Takook, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we consider the QED in Krein space quantization. We show that the theory is automatically regularized. The three primitive divergences integrals in usual QED are considered in Krein QED. The photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex function are calculated in this formalism. We show that these quantities are finite. The infrared and ultraviolet divergencies do not appear. We discuss that Krein space quantization is similar to Pauli-Villars regularization, so we have called it the "Krein regularization".

  16. Partial Regularity for Holonomic Minimisers of Quasiconvex Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Christopher P.

    2016-05-01

    We prove partial regularity for local minimisers of certain strictly quasiconvex integral functionals, over a class of Sobolev mappings into a compact Riemannian manifold, to which such mappings are said to be holonomically constrained. Our approach uses the lifting of Sobolev mappings to the universal covering space, the connectedness of the covering space, an application of Ekeland's variational principle and a certain tangential A -harmonic approximation lemma obtained directly via a Lipschitz approximation argument. This allows regularity to be established directly on the level of the gradient. Several applications to variational problems in condensed matter physics with broken symmetries are also discussed, in particular those concerning the superfluidity of liquid helium-3 and nematic liquid crystals.

  17. Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.

    2012-09-01

    solutions (RL04) from the Center for Space Research (CSR). Post-fit residual analysis shows that the regularized solutions fit the data to within the noise level of GRACE. A time series of filtered hydrological model is used to confirm that signal attenuation for basins in the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) database over 320 km radii is less than 1 cm equivalent water height RMS, which is within the noise level of GRACE.

  18. On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.

  19. Energy Scaling Law for the Regular Cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbermann, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    We consider a thin elastic sheet in the shape of a disk whose reference metric is that of a singular cone. That is, the reference metric is flat away from the center and has a defect there. We define a geometrically fully nonlinear free elastic energy and investigate the scaling behavior of this energy as the thickness h tends to 0. We work with two simplifying assumptions: Firstly, we think of the deformed sheet as an immersed 2-dimensional Riemannian manifold in Euclidean 3-space and assume that the exponential map at the origin (the center of the sheet) supplies a coordinate chart for the whole manifold. Secondly, the energy functional penalizes the difference between the induced metric and the reference metric in L^∞ (instead of, as is usual, in L^2). Under these assumptions, we show that the elastic energy per unit thickness of the regular cone in the leading order of h is given by C^*h^2|log h|, where the value of C^* is given explicitly.

  20. Laplacian Regularized Low-Rank Representation and Its Applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Gao, Junbin; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank representation (LRR) has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its pleasing efficacy in exploring low-dimensional subspace structures embedded in data. For a given set of observed data corrupted with sparse errors, LRR aims at learning a lowest-rank representation of all data jointly. LRR has broad applications in pattern recognition, computer vision and signal processing. In the real world, data often reside on low-dimensional manifolds embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space. However, the LRR method does not take into account the non-linear geometric structures within data, thus the locality and similarity information among data may be missing in the learning process. To improve LRR in this regard, we propose a general Laplacian regularized low-rank representation framework for data representation where a hypergraph Laplacian regularizer can be readily introduced into, i.e., a Non-negative Sparse Hyper-Laplacian regularized LRR model (NSHLRR). By taking advantage of the graph regularizer, our proposed method not only can represent the global low-dimensional structures, but also capture the intrinsic non-linear geometric information in data. The extensive experimental results on image clustering, semi-supervised image classification and dimensionality reduction tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27046494

  1. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advances without approval of the NCUA Board for a period of six months after becoming a member. This subsection shall not apply to any credit union which becomes a Regular member of the Facility within six... member of the Facility at any time within six months prior to becoming a Regular member of the Facility....

  2. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  3. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  4. News Workshop: Getting the measure of space Conference: Respecting the evidence receives a great response Event: Communities meet to stimulate science in Wales Teachers: A day to polish up on A-level practicals Development: Exhilarating physics CPD day is a hit in London Lecture: The universe as a classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    Workshop: Getting the measure of space Conference: Respecting the evidence receives a great response Event: Communities meet to stimulate science in Wales Teachers: A day to polish up on A-level practicals Development: Exhilarating physics CPD day is a hit in London Lecture: The universe as a classroom

  5. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  6. Temporal Prediction in lieu of Periodic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Charles E.; Wyart, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Predicting not only what will happen, but also when it will happen is extremely helpful for optimizing perception and action. Temporal predictions driven by periodic stimulation increase perceptual sensitivity and reduce response latencies. At the neurophysiological level, a single mechanism has been proposed to mediate this twofold behavioral improvement: the rhythmic entrainment of slow cortical oscillations to the stimulation rate. However, temporal regularities can occur in aperiodic contexts, suggesting that temporal predictions per se may be dissociable from entrainment to periodic sensory streams. We investigated this possibility in two behavioral experiments, asking human participants to detect near-threshold auditory tones embedded in streams whose temporal and spectral properties were manipulated. While our findings confirm that periodic stimulation reduces response latencies, in agreement with the hypothesis of a stimulus-driven entrainment of neural excitability, they further reveal that this motor facilitation can be dissociated from the enhancement of auditory sensitivity. Perceptual sensitivity improvement is unaffected by the nature of temporal regularities (periodic vs aperiodic), but contingent on the co-occurrence of a fulfilled spectral prediction. Altogether, the dissociation between predictability and periodicity demonstrates that distinct mechanisms flexibly and synergistically operate to facilitate perception and action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal predictions are increasingly recognized as fundamental instruments for optimizing performance, enabling mammals to exploit regularities in the world. However, the notion of temporal predictions is often confounded with the idea of entrainment to periodic sensory inputs. At the behavioral level, it is also unclear whether perceptual sensitivity and reaction time improvements benefit the same way from temporal predictions and periodic stimulation. In two behavioral experiments on human

  7. Ventricular capture by anodal pacemaker stimulation.

    PubMed

    Occhetta, Eraldo; Bortnik, Miriam; Marino, Paolo

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the case of an 86-year-old male with syncopal paroxysmal 2:1 atrioventricular block and a single chamber VVI pacemaker programmed to bipolar sensing and unipolar pacing. After recurrence of syncope, a complete loss of ventricular capture with regular ventricular sensing was observed on ECG; fluoroscopic examination suggested perforation of the right ventricle by the helix of the implanted screw-in lead. Reprogramming the pacemaker to bipolar pacing/sensing resulted in regular ventricular capture and sensing, suggesting effective anodal stimulation from the ring electrode permitting complete non-invasive palliation. PMID:16636000

  8. Fine-granularity and spatially-adaptive regularization for projection-based image deblurring.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin

    2011-04-01

    This paper studies two classes of regularization strategies to achieve an improved tradeoff between image recovery and noise suppression in projection-based image deblurring. The first is based on a simple fact that r-times Landweber iteration leads to a fixed level of regularization, which allows us to achieve fine-granularity control of projection-based iterative deblurring by varying the value r. The regularization behavior is explained by using the theory of Lagrangian multiplier for variational schemes. The second class of regularization strategy is based on the observation that various regularized filters can be viewed as nonexpansive mappings in the metric space. A deeper understanding about different regularization filters can be gained by probing into their asymptotic behavior--the fixed point of nonexpansive mappings. By making an analogy to the states of matter in statistical physics, we can observe that different image structures (smooth regions, regular edges and textures) correspond to different fixed points of nonexpansive mappings when the temperature(regularization) parameter varies. Such an analogy motivates us to propose a deterministic annealing based approach toward spatial adaptation in projection-based image deblurring. Significant performance improvements over the current state-of-the-art schemes have been observed in our experiments, which substantiates the effectiveness of the proposed regularization strategies. PMID:20876018

  9. Advanced stimulation technology program helps zero in the optimum frac treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, B.

    1995-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated the Advanced Stimulation Technology (AST) program to ensure that successful stimulation technologies developed in previous GRI programs are available to the petroleum industry and are used regularly. The AST program focuses on benefits analysis, real-time fracture treatment evaluation, and understanding critical concepts in fracture stimulation.

  10. 14 CFR 121.487 - Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned. 121.487 Section 121.487 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  11. 14 CFR 121.487 - Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned. 121.487 Section 121.487 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  12. 14 CFR 121.487 - Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned. 121.487 Section 121.487 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  13. Analysis of regularizing properties of nonlinear electrodynamics in the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. I. Sokolov, V. A.

    2011-12-15

    New regularizing manifestations of the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory for a massive charged force center in the space-time are considered. The properties of isotropic geodesics in this space are analyzed. It is shown that the charge may exceed the maximum possible charge in the Reissner-Nordstroem solution; the possibility of eliminating one of the metric horizons is also noted.

  14. Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevidimova, O.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative regularities in floodplain formation Modern methods of the theory of complex systems allow to build mathematical models of complex systems where self-organizing processes are largely determined by nonlinear effects and feedback. However, there exist some factors that exert significant influence on the dynamics of geomorphosystems, but hardly can be adequately expressed in the language of mathematical models. Conceptual modeling allows us to overcome this difficulty. It is based on the methods of synergetic, which, together with the theory of dynamic systems and classical geomorphology, enable to display the dynamics of geomorphological systems. The most adequate for mathematical modeling of complex systems is the concept of model dynamics based on equilibrium. This concept is based on dynamic equilibrium, the tendency to which is observed in the evolution of all geomorphosystems. As an objective law, it is revealed in the evolution of fluvial relief in general, and in river channel processes in particular, demonstrating the ability of these systems to self-organization. Channel process is expressed in the formation of river reaches, rifts, meanders and floodplain. As floodplain is a periodically flooded surface during high waters, it naturally connects river channel with slopes, being one of boundary expressions of the water stream activity. Floodplain dynamics is inseparable from the channel dynamics. It is formed at simultaneous horizontal and vertical displacement of the river channel, that is at Y=Y(x, y), where х, y - horizontal and vertical coordinates, Y - floodplain height. When dу/dt=0 (for not lowering river channel), the river, being displaced in a horizontal plane, leaves behind a low surface, which flooding during high waters (total duration of flooding) changes from the maximum during the initial moment of time t0 to zero in the moment tn. In a similar manner changed is the total amount of accumulated material on the floodplain surface

  15. Relative optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence efficiencies of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters to heavy charged particles with energies relevant to space and radiotherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sawakuchi, G. O.; Yukihara, E. G.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Benton, E. R.; Gaza, R.; Uchihori, Y.; Yasuda, N.; Kitamura, H.

    2008-12-15

    This article presents a comprehensive characterization of the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) relative luminescence efficiencies of carbon-doped aluminum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) for heavy charged particles (HCPs) with atomic numbers ranging from 1 (proton) to 54 (xenon) and energies ranging from 7 to 1000 MeV/u, and investigates the dependence of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C response on experimental conditions. Relative luminescence efficiency values are presented for 19 primary charge/energy combinations, plus 31 additional charge/energy combinations obtained by introducing absorbers in the primary beam. Our results show that for energies of hundreds of MeV/u the data can be described by a single curve of relative luminescence efficiency versus linear energy transfer (LET). This information is needed to compensate for the reduced OSL efficiency to high-LET particles in such applications as space dosimetry. For lower energies, the relative luminescence efficiency as function of LET cannot be described by a single curve; instead, it separates into different components corresponding to different particles. We also present data on the low-LET dose response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, measured under the same experimental conditions in which the relative luminescence efficiencies to HCPs were obtained, providing information relevant to future theoretical investigations of HCP energy deposition and luminescence production in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C.

  16. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  17. Weak Gravitational Lensing from Regular Bardeen Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarnejad, Hossein; niad, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    In this article we study weak gravitational lensing of regular Bardeen black hole which has scalar charge g and mass m. We investigate the angular position and magnification of non-relativistic images in two cases depending on the presence or absence of photon sphere. Defining dimensionless charge parameter q= {g}/{2m} we seek to disappear photon sphere in the case of |q|>{24√5}/{125} for which the space time metric encounters strongly with naked singularities. We specify the basic parameters of lensing in terms of scalar charge by using the perturbative method and found that the parity of images is different in two cases: (a) The strongly naked singularities is present in the space time. (b) singularity of space time is weak or is eliminated (the black hole lens).

  18. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  19. Oseledets Regularity Functions for Anosov Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simić, Slobodan N.

    2011-07-01

    Oseledets regularity functions quantify the deviation of the growth associated with a dynamical system along its Lyapunov bundles from the corresponding uniform exponential growth. The precise degree of regularity of these functions is unknown. We show that for every invariant Lyapunov bundle of a volume preserving Anosov flow on a closed smooth Riemannian manifold, the corresponding Oseledets regularity functions are in L p ( m), for some p > 0, where m is the probability measure defined by the volume form. We prove an analogous result for essentially bounded cocycles over volume preserving Anosov flows.

  20. Continuum regularization of gauge theory with fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.S.

    1987-03-01

    The continuum regularization program is discussed in the case of d-dimensional gauge theory coupled to fermions in an arbitrary representation. Two physically equivalent formulations are given. First, a Grassmann formulation is presented, which is based on the two-noise Langevin equations of Sakita, Ishikawa and Alfaro and Gavela. Second, a non-Grassmann formulation is obtained by regularized integration of the matter fields within the regularized Grassmann system. Explicit perturbation expansions are studied in both formulations, and considerable simplification is found in the integrated non-Grassmann formalism.

  1. Regular biorthogonal pairs and pseudo-bosonic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.; Takakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to show a method of constructing a regular biorthogonal pair based on the commutation rule: ab - ba = I for a pair of operators a and b acting on a Hilbert space H with inner product (ṡ| ṡ ). Here, sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are biorthogonal if (ϕn|ψm) = δnm, n, m = 0, 1, …, and they are regular if both Dϕ ≡ Span{ϕn} and Dψ ≡ Span{ψn} are dense in H . Indeed, the assumptions to construct the regular biorthogonal pair coincide with the definition of pseudo-bosons as originally given in F. Bagarello ["Pseudobosons, Riesz bases, and coherent states," J. Math. Phys. 51, 023531 (2010)]. Furthermore, we study the connections between the pseudo-bosonic operators a, b, a†, b† and the pseudo-bosonic operators defined by a regular biorthogonal pair ({ϕn}, {ψn}) and an ONB e of H in H. Inoue ["General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical applications," e-print arXiv:math-ph/1604.01967]. The second purpose is to define and study the notion of D -pseudo-bosons in F. Bagarello ["More mathematics for pseudo-bosons," J. Math. Phys. 54, 063512 (2013)] and F. Bagarello ["From self-adjoint to non self-adjoint harmonic oscillators: Physical consequences and mathematical pitfalls," Phys. Rev. A 88, 032120 (2013)] and give a method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons on some steps. Then it is shown that for any ONB e = {en} in H and any operators T and T-1 in L † ( D ) , we may construct operators A and B satisfying D -pseudo bosons, where D is a dense subspace in a Hilbert space H and L † ( D ) the set of all linear operators T from D to D such that T * D ⊂ D , where T* is the adjoint of T. Finally, we give some physical examples of D -pseudo-bosons based on standard bosons by the method of constructing D -pseudo-bosons stated above.

  2. Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158374.html Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival Study found that ... HealthDay News) -- Sticking to a moderate or intense exercise regimen may improve a man's odds of surviving ...

  3. Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160326.html Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases? High levels of physical ... Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting lots of exercise may reduce your risk for five common diseases, ...

  4. Nonminimal black holes with regular electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the problem of identification of coupling constants, which describe interactions between photons and spacetime curvature, using exact regular solutions to the extended equations of the nonminimal Einstein-Maxwell theory. We argue the idea that three nonminimal coupling constants in this theory can be reduced to the single guiding parameter, which plays the role of nonminimal radius. We base our consideration on two examples of exact solutions obtained earlier in our works: the first of them describes a nonminimal spherically symmetric object (star or black hole) with regular radial electric field; the second example represents a nonminimal Dirac-type object (monopole or black hole) with regular metric. We demonstrate that one of the inflexion points of the regular metric function identifies a specific nonminimal radius, thus marking the domain of dominance of nonminimal interactions.

  5. Parallelization of irregularly coupled regular meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Craig; Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Reeves, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Regular meshes are frequently used for modeling physical phenomena on both serial and parallel computers. One advantage of regular meshes is that efficient discretization schemes can be implemented in a straight forward manner. However, geometrically-complex objects, such as aircraft, cannot be easily described using a single regular mesh. Multiple interacting regular meshes are frequently used to describe complex geometries. Each mesh models a subregion of the physical domain. The meshes, or subdomains, can be processed in parallel, with periodic updates carried out to move information between the coupled meshes. In many cases, there are a relatively small number (one to a few dozen) subdomains, so that each subdomain may also be partitioned among several processors. We outline a composite run-time/compile-time approach for supporting these problems efficiently on distributed-memory machines. These methods are described in the context of a multiblock fluid dynamics problem developed at LaRC.

  6. Blind Poissonian images deconvolution with framelet regularization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Houzhang; Yan, Luxin; Liu, Hai; Chang, Yi

    2013-02-15

    We propose a maximum a posteriori blind Poissonian images deconvolution approach with framelet regularization for the image and total variation (TV) regularization for the point spread function. Compared with the TV based methods, our algorithm not only suppresses noise effectively but also recovers edges and detailed information. Moreover, the split Bregman method is exploited to solve the resulting minimization problem. Comparative results on both simulated and real images are reported. PMID:23455078

  7. Myeloperoxidase Stimulates Neutrophil Degranulation.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, D V; Gorudko, I V; Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Vasilyev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase, heme enzyme of azurophilic granules in neutrophils, is released into the extracellular space in the inflammation foci. In neutrophils, it stimulates a dose-dependent release of lactoferrin (a protein of specific granules), lysozyme (a protein of specific and azurophilic granules), and elastase (a protein of azurophilic granules). 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a potent inhibitor of peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase, produced no effect on neutrophil degranulation. Using signal transduction inhibitors (genistein, methoxyverapamil, wortmannin, and NiCl2), we demonstrated that myeloperoxidase-induced degranulation of neutrophils resulted from enzyme interaction with the plasma membrane and depends on activation of tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and calcium signaling. Myeloperoxidase modified by oxidative/halogenation stress (chlorinated and monomeric forms of the enzyme) lost the potency to activate neutrophil degranulation. PMID:27597056

  8. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Breit, Gupta, and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the fifth-time of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. A successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest.

  9. On the low regularity of the Benney-Lin equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wengu; Li, Junfeng

    2008-03-01

    We consider the low regularity of the Benney-Lin equation ut+uux+uxxx+[beta](uxx+uxxxx)+[eta]uxxxxx=0. We established the global well posedness for the initial value problem of Benney-Lin equation in the Sobolev spaces for 0[greater-or-equal, slanted]s>-2, improving the well-posedness result of Biagioni and Linares [H.A. Biaginoi, F. Linares, On the Benney-Lin and Kawahara equation, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 211 (1997) 131-152]. For s<-2 we also prove some ill-posedness issues.

  10. Usual Source of Care in Preventive Service Use: A Regular Doctor versus a Regular Site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of having a regular doctor and having a regular site on five preventive services, controlling for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Data Source The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1996 conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Center for Health Statistics. Study Design Mammograms, pap smears, blood pressure checkups, cholesterol level checkups, and flu shots were examined. A modified behavioral model framework was presented, which controlled for the endogeneity of having a usual source of care. Based on this framework, a two-equation empirical model was established to predict the probabilities of having a regular doctor and having a regular site, and use of each type of preventive service. Principal Findings Having a regular doctor was found to have a greater impact than having a regular site on discretional preventive services, such as blood pressure and cholesterol level checkups. No statistically significant differences were found between the effects a having a regular doctor and having a regular site on the use of flu shots, pap smears, and mammograms. Among the five preventive services, having a usual source of care had the greatest impact on cholesterol level checkups and pap smears. Conclusions Promoting a stable physician–patient relationship can improve patients’ timely receipt of clinical prevention. For certain preventive services, having a regular doctor is more effective than having a regular site. PMID:12546284

  11. Manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization with label information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huirong; Zhang, Jiangshe; Wang, Changpeng; Liu, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a popular technique for finding parts-based, linear representations of non-negative data has been successfully applied in a wide range of applications, such as feature learning, dictionary learning, and dimensionality reduction. However, both the local manifold regularization of data and the discriminative information of the available label have not been taken into account together in NMF. We propose a new semisupervised matrix decomposition method, called manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MRNMF) with label information, which incorporates the manifold regularization and the label information into the NMF to improve the performance of NMF in clustering tasks. We encode the local geometrical structure of the data space by constructing a nearest neighbor graph and enhance the discriminative ability of different classes by effectively using the label information. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on theCOIL20, PIE, Extended Yale B, and MNIST databases demonstrate the effectiveness of MRNMF.

  12. 3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844

  13. Regularity vs genericity in the perception of collinearity.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J

    1996-01-01

    The perception of collinearity is investigated, with the focus on the minimal case of three dots. As suggested previously, from the standpoint of probabilistic inference, the observer must classify each dot triplet as having arisen either from a one-dimensional curvilinear process or from a two-dimensional patch. The normative distributions of triplets arising from these two classes are unavailable to the observer, and are in fact somewhat counterintuitive. Hence in order to classify triplets, the observer invents distributions for each of the two opposed types, 'regular' (collinear) triplets and 'generic' (ie not regular) triplets. The collinear prototype is centered at 0 degree (ie perfectly straight), whereas the generic prototype, contrary to the normative statistics, is centered at 120 degrees away from straight-apparently because this is the point most distant in triplet space from straight and thus creates the maximum possible contrast between the two prototypes. By default, these two processes are assumed to be equiprobable in the environment. An experiment designed to investigate how subjects' judgments are affected by conspicuous environmental deviations from this assumption is reported. The results suggest that observers react by elevating or depressing the expected probability of the generic prototype relative to the regular one, leaving the prototype structure otherwise intact. PMID:8804096

  14. Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] . PMID:24398621

  15. Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or

  16. Oxygen saturation resolution influences regularity measurements.

    PubMed

    Garde, Ainara; Karlen, Walter; Dehkordi, Parastoo; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of regularity in the oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) signal has been suggested for use in identifying subjects with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Previous work has shown that children with SDB have lower SpO(2) regularity than subjects without SDB (NonSDB). Regularity was measured using non-linear methods like approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SamEn) and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity. Different manufacturer's pulse oximeters provide SpO(2) at various resolutions and the effect of this resolution difference on SpO(2) regularity, has not been studied. To investigate this effect, we used the SpO(2) signal of children with and without SDB, recorded from the Phone Oximeter (0.1% resolution) and the same SpO(2) signal rounded to the nearest integer (artificial 1% resolution). To further validate the effect of rounding, we also used the SpO(2) signal (1% resolution) recorded simultaneously from polysomnography (PSG), as a control signal. We estimated SpO(2) regularity by computing the ApEn, SamEn and LZ complexity, using a 5-min sliding window and showed that different resolutions provided significantly different results. The regularity calculated using 0.1% SpO(2) resolution provided no significant differences between SDB and NonSDB. However, the artificial 1% resolution SpO(2) provided significant differences between SDB and NonSDB, showing a more random SpO(2) pattern (lower SpO(2) regularity) in SDB children, as suggested in the past. Similar results were obtained with the SpO(2) recorded from PSG (1% resolution), which further validated that this SpO(2) regularity change was due to the rounding effect. Therefore, the SpO(2) resolution has a great influence in regularity measurements like ApEn, SamEn and LZ complexity that should be considered when studying the SpO(2) pattern in children with SDB. PMID:25570437

  17. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenru; Wang, Huaxiang; Xue, Qian; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L1 norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts. PMID:27036798

  18. Assessment of regularization techniques for electrocardiographic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Milanič, Matija; Jazbinšek, Vojko; MacLeod, Robert S.; Brooks, Dana H.; Hren, Rok

    2014-01-01

    A widely used approach to solving the inverse problem in electrocardiography involves computing potentials on the epicardium from measured electrocardiograms (ECGs) on the torso surface. The main challenge of solving this electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) problem lies in its intrinsic ill-posedness. While many regularization techniques have been developed to control wild oscillations of the solution, the choice of proper regularization methods for obtaining clinically acceptable solutions is still a subject of ongoing research. However there has been little rigorous comparison across methods proposed by different groups. This study systematically compared various regularization techniques for solving the ECGI problem under a unified simulation framework, consisting of both 1) progressively more complex idealized source models (from single dipole to triplet of dipoles), and 2) an electrolytic human torso tank containing a live canine heart, with the cardiac source being modeled by potentials measured on a cylindrical cage placed around the heart. We tested 13 different regularization techniques to solve the inverse problem of recovering epicardial potentials, and found that non-quadratic methods (total variation algorithms) and first-order and second-order Tikhonov regularizations outperformed other methodologies and resulted in similar average reconstruction errors. PMID:24369741

  19. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  20. Characteristics of density currents over regular and irregular rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, K.

    2013-12-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used as a tool to understand the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of density currents. Simulations have been performed for lock-exchange flow with gate separating the dense and the lighter fluid. As the lock is released the dense fluid collapses with the lighter fluid on the top, resulting in formation of horizontally evolving density current. The talk will focus on the fundamental differences between the propagation of the density current over regular and irregular rough surfaces. The flow statistics and the flow structures are discussed. The results have revealed the spacing between the roughness elements is an important factor in classifying the density currents. The empirical relations of the front velocity and location for the dense and sparse roughness have been evaluated in terms of the roughness height, spacing between the elements and the initial amount of lock fluid. DNS results for a dense current flowing over a (a) smooth and (b) rough bottom with egg-carton roughness elements in a regular configuration. In these simulations the lock-exchange box is located in the middle of the channel and has two gates which allow two dense currents to be generated, one moving to the right and one to the left side of the channel. Note how the dense current interface presents smaller structures when over a rough bottom (right).

  1. Perturbations in a regular bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, T.J.; Geshnizjani, G.

    2006-03-15

    We consider a simple toy model of a regular bouncing universe. The bounce is caused by an extra timelike dimension, which leads to a sign flip of the {rho}{sup 2} term in the effective four dimensional Randall Sundrum-like description. We find a wide class of possible bounces: big bang avoiding ones for regular matter content, and big rip avoiding ones for phantom matter. Focusing on radiation as the matter content, we discuss the evolution of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations. We compute a spectral index of n{sub s}=-1 for scalar perturbations and a deep blue index for tensor perturbations after invoking vacuum initial conditions, ruling out such a model as a realistic one. We also find that the spectrum (evaluated at Hubble crossing) is sensitive to the bounce. We conclude that it is challenging, but not impossible, for cyclic/ekpyrotic models to succeed, if one can find a regularized version.

  2. Shadow of rotating regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-05-01

    We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.

  3. Strong regularizing effect of integrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin

    1997-11-01

    Many time evolution problems have the so-called strong regularization effect, that is, with any irregular initial data, as soon as becomes greater than 0, the solution becomes C{sup {infinity}} for both spacial and temporal variables. This paper studies 1 x 1 dimension integrable systems for such regularizing effect. In the work by Sachs, Kappler [S][K], (see also earlier works [KFJ] and [Ka]), strong regularizing effect is proved for KdV with rapidly decaying irregular initial data, using the inverse scattering method. There are two equivalent Gel`fand-Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) equations associated to an inverse scattering problem, one is normalized at x = {infinity} and another at x = {infinity}. The method of [S][K] relies on the fact that the KdV waves propagate only in one direction and therefore one of the two GLM equations remains normalized and can be differentiated infinitely many times. 15 refs.

  4. Regularized image recovery in scattering media.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y; Averbuch, Yuval

    2007-09-01

    When imaging in scattering media, visibility degrades as objects become more distant. Visibility can be significantly restored by computer vision methods that account for physical processes occurring during image formation. Nevertheless, such recovery is prone to noise amplification in pixels corresponding to distant objects, where the medium transmittance is low. We present an adaptive filtering approach that counters the above problems: while significantly improving visibility relative to raw images, it inhibits noise amplification. Essentially, the recovery formulation is regularized, where the regularization adapts to the spatially varying medium transmittance. Thus, this regularization does not blur close objects. We demonstrate the approach in atmospheric and underwater experiments, based on an automatic method for determining the medium transmittance. PMID:17627052

  5. [Why regular physical activity favors longevity].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L

    1998-06-01

    Regular physical exercise is useful at all ages. In the elderly, even a gentle exercise programme consisting of walking, bicycling, playing golf if performed constantly increases longevity by preventing the onset of the main diseases or alleviating the handicaps they may have caused. Cardiovascular diseases, which represent the main cause of death in the elderly, and osteoporosis, a disabling disease potentially capable of shortening life expectancy, benefit from physical exercise which if performed regularly well before the start of old age may help to prevent them. Over the past few years there has been growing evidence of the concrete protection offered against neoplasia and even the ageing process itself. PMID:9739351

  6. Learning with regularizers in multilayer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, David; Rattray, Magnus

    1998-02-01

    We study the effect of regularization in an on-line gradient-descent learning scenario for a general two-layer student network with an arbitrary number of hidden units. Training examples are randomly drawn input vectors labeled by a two-layer teacher network with an arbitrary number of hidden units that may be corrupted by Gaussian output noise. We examine the effect of weight decay regularization on the dynamical evolution of the order parameters and generalization error in various phases of the learning process, in both noiseless and noisy scenarios.

  7. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system. PMID:25019866

  8. Demosaicing as the problem of regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunina, Irina; Volkov, Aleksey; Gladilin, Sergey; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Demosaicing is the process of reconstruction of a full-color image from Bayer mosaic, which is used in digital cameras for image formation. This problem is usually considered as an interpolation problem. In this paper, we propose to consider the demosaicing problem as a problem of solving an underdetermined system of algebraic equations using regularization methods. We consider regularization with standard l1/2-, l1 -, l2- norms and their effect on quality image reconstruction. The experimental results showed that the proposed technique can both be used in existing methods and become the base for new ones

  9. REGULAR VERSUS DIFFUSIVE PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of photospheric flux cancellation on the Sun imply that cancellation can be a diffusive rather than regular process. A criterion is derived, which quantifies the parameter range in which diffusive photospheric cancellation should occur. Numerical estimates show that regular cancellation models should be expected to give a quantitatively accurate description of photospheric cancellation. The estimates rely on a recently suggested scaling for a turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which is consistent with the diffusivity measurements on spatial scales varying by almost two orders of magnitude. Application of the turbulent diffusivity to large-scale dispersal of the photospheric magnetic flux is discussed.

  10. Exploring Regularities for Improving FAÇADE Reconstruction from Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Gorte, B.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    (Semi)-automatic facade reconstruction from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds is often affected by both quality of point cloud itself and imperfectness of object recognition algorithms. In this paper, we employ regularities, which exist on façades, to mitigate these problems. For example, doors, windows and balconies often have orthogonal and parallel boundaries. Many windows are constructed with the same shape. They may be arranged at the same lines and distance intervals, so do different windows. By identifying regularities among objects with relatively poor quality, these can be applied to calibrate the objects and improve their quality. The paper focuses on the regularities among the windows, which is the majority of objects on the wall. Regularities are classified into three categories: within an individual window, among similar windows and among different windows. Nine cases are specified as a reference for exploration. A hierarchical clustering method is employed to identify and apply regularities in a feature space, where regularities can be identified from clusters. To find the corresponding features in the nine cases of regularities, two phases are distinguished for similar and different windows. In the first phase, ICP (iterative closest points) is used to identify groups of similar windows. The registered points and a number of transformation matrices are used to identify and apply regularities among similar windows. In the second phase, features are extracted from the boundaries of the different windows. When applying regularities by relocating windows, the connections, called chains, established among the similar windows in the first phase are preserved. To test the performance of the algorithms, two datasets from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds are used. Both show good effects on the reconstructed model, while still matching with original point cloud, preventing over or under-regularization.

  11. Stable sequential Kuhn-Tucker theorem in iterative form or a regularized Uzawa algorithm in a regular nonlinear programming problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumin, M. I.

    2015-06-01

    A parametric nonlinear programming problem in a metric space with an operator equality constraint in a Hilbert space is studied assuming that its lower semicontinuous value function at a chosen individual parameter value has certain subdifferentiability properties in the sense of nonlinear (nonsmooth) analysis. Such subdifferentiability can be understood as the existence of a proximal subgradient or a Fréchet subdifferential. In other words, an individual problem has a corresponding generalized Kuhn-Tucker vector. Under this assumption, a stable sequential Kuhn-Tucker theorem in nondifferential iterative form is proved and discussed in terms of minimizing sequences on the basis of the dual regularization method. This theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the stable construction of a minimizing approximate solution in the sense of Warga in the considered problem, whose initial data can be approximately specified. A substantial difference of the proved theorem from its classical same-named analogue is that the former takes into account the possible instability of the problem in the case of perturbed initial data and, as a consequence, allows for the inherited instability of classical optimality conditions. This theorem can be treated as a regularized generalization of the classical Uzawa algorithm to nonlinear programming problems. Finally, the theorem is applied to the "simplest" nonlinear optimal control problem, namely, to a time-optimal control problem.

  12. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  13. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  14. Optical Stimulation of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexander C.; Stoddart, Paul R.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2014-01-01

    Our capacity to interface with the nervous system remains overwhelmingly reliant on electrical stimulation devices, such as electrode arrays and cuff electrodes that can stimulate both central and peripheral nervous systems. However, electrical stimulation has to deal with multiple challenges, including selectivity, spatial resolution, mechanical stability, implant-induced injury and the subsequent inflammatory response. Optical stimulation techniques may avoid some of these challenges by providing more selective stimulation, higher spatial resolution and reduced invasiveness of the device, while also avoiding the electrical artefacts that complicate recordings of electrically stimulated neuronal activity. This review explores the current status of optical stimulation techniques, including optogenetic methods, photoactive molecule approaches and infrared neural stimulation, together with emerging techniques such as hybrid optical-electrical stimulation, nanoparticle enhanced stimulation and optoelectric methods. Infrared neural stimulation is particularly emphasised, due to the potential for direct activation of neural tissue by infrared light, as opposed to techniques that rely on the introduction of exogenous light responsive materials. However, infrared neural stimulation remains imperfectly understood, and techniques for accurately delivering light are still under development. While the various techniques reviewed here confirm the overall feasibility of optical stimulation, a number of challenges remain to be overcome before they can deliver their full potential. PMID:26322269

  15. Weakly regular T2-symmetric spacetimes. The future causal geometry of Gowdy spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Smulevici, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the future asymptotic behavior of Gowdy spacetimes on T3, when the metric satisfies weak regularity conditions, so that the metric coefficients (in suitable coordinates) are only in the Sobolev space H1 or have even weaker regularity. The authors recently introduced this class of spacetimes in the broader context of T2-symmetric spacetimes and established the existence of a global foliation by spacelike hypersurfaces when the time function is chosen to be the area of the surfaces of symmetry. In the present paper, we identify the global causal geometry of these spacetimes and, in particular, establish that weakly regular Gowdy spacetimes are future timelike geodesically complete. This result extends a theorem by Ringström for metrics with sufficiently high regularity. We emphasize that our proof of the energy decay is based on an energy functional inspired by the Gowdy-to-Ernst transformation. In order to establish the geodesic completeness property, we prove a higher regularity property concerning the metric coefficients along timelike curves and we provide a novel analysis of the geodesic equation for Gowdy spacetimes, which does not require high-order regularity estimates. Even when sufficient regularity is assumed, our proof provides an alternative and shorter proof of the energy decay and of the geodesic completeness property for Gowdy spacetimes.

  16. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  17. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  18. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  19. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  20. Commitment and Dependence Upon Regular Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    The linear relationship between intellectual commitment to running and psychobiological dependence upon running is examined. A sample of 540 regular runners (running frequency greater than three days per week for the past year for the majority) was surveyed with a questionnaire. Measures of commitment and dependence on running, as well as…

  1. RBOOST: RIEMANNIAN DISTANCE BASED REGULARIZED BOOSTING.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C

    2011-03-30

    Boosting is a versatile machine learning technique that has numerous applications including but not limited to image processing, computer vision, data mining etc. It is based on the premise that the classification performance of a set of weak learners can be boosted by some weighted combination of them. There have been a number of boosting methods proposed in the literature, such as the AdaBoost, LPBoost, SoftBoost and their variations. However, the learning update strategies used in these methods usually lead to overfitting and instabilities in the classification accuracy. Improved boosting methods via regularization can overcome such difficulties. In this paper, we propose a Riemannian distance regularized LPBoost, dubbed RBoost. RBoost uses Riemannian distance between two square-root densities (in closed form) - used to represent the distribution over the training data and the classification error respectively - to regularize the error distribution in an iterative update formula. Since this distance is in closed form, RBoost requires much less computational cost compared to other regularized Boosting algorithms. We present several experimental results depicting the performance of our algorithm in comparison to recently published methods, LP-Boost and CAVIAR, on a variety of datasets including the publicly available OASIS database, a home grown Epilepsy database and the well known UCI repository. Results depict that the RBoost algorithm performs better than the competing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency. PMID:21927643

  2. Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven

    1993-01-01

    When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…

  3. Observing Special and Regular Education Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Susan B.

    The paper describes an observation instrument originally developed as a research tool to assess both the special setting and the regular classroom. The instrument can also be used in determining appropriate placement for students with learning disabilities and for programming the transfer of skills learned in the special setting to the regular…

  4. Starting flow in regular polygonal ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The starting flows in regular polygonal ducts of S = 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 sides are determined by the method of eigenfunction superposition. The necessary S-fold symmetric eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation are found either exactly or by boundary point match. The results show the starting time is governed by the first eigenvalue.

  5. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.44 Regular visitors. An inmate desiring to have... ordinarily will be extended to friends and associates having an established relationship with the inmate... of the institution. Exceptions to the prior relationship rule may be made, particularly for...

  6. Regular Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of Mainstreaming Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringlaben, Ravic P.; Price, Jay R.

    To assess regular classroom teachers' perceptions of mainstreaming, a 22 item questionnaire was completed by 117 teachers (K through 12). Among results were that nearly half of the Ss indicated a lack of preparation for implementing mainstreaming; 47% tended to be very willing to accept aminstreamed students; 42% said mainstreaming was working…

  7. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  8. Exploring the structural regularities in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Guo, Jia-Feng

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of exploring structural regularities of networks by dividing the nodes of a network into groups such that the members of each group have similar patterns of connections to other groups. Specifically, we propose a general statistical model to describe network structure. In this model, a group is viewed as a hidden or unobserved quantity and it is learned by fitting the observed network data using the expectation-maximization algorithm. Compared with existing models, the most prominent strength of our model is the high flexibility. This strength enables it to possess the advantages of existing models and to overcome their shortcomings in a unified way. As a result, not only can broad types of structure be detected without prior knowledge of the type of intrinsic regularities existing in the target network, but also the type of identified structure can be directly learned from the network. Moreover, by differentiating outgoing edges from incoming edges, our model can detect several types of structural regularities beyond competing models. Tests on a number of real world and artificial networks demonstrate that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art model in shedding light on the structural regularities of networks, including the overlapping community structure, multipartite structure, and several other types of structure, which are beyond the capability of existing models.

  9. Dyslexia in Regular Orthographies: Manifestation and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness,…

  10. Regularities in Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the assumption that Spearman's law acts unsystematically and approximately uniformly for various subtests of cognitive ability in an IQ test battery when high- and low-ability IQ groups are selected. Data from national standardization samples for Wechsler adult and child IQ tests affirm regularities in Spearman's "Law of Diminishing…

  11. Handicapped Children in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    Reported was a project in which 60 educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 30 educationally handicapped (EH) elementary school students were placed in regular classrooms to determine whether they could be effectively educated in those settings. Effective education was defined in terms of improvement in reading, mathematics, student and teacher…

  12. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. How the ...

  13. Learning regular expressions for clinical text classification

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Natural language processing (NLP) applications typically use regular expressions that have been developed manually by human experts. Our goal is to automate both the creation and utilization of regular expressions in text classification. Methods We designed a novel regular expression discovery (RED) algorithm and implemented two text classifiers based on RED. The RED+ALIGN classifier combines RED with an alignment algorithm, and RED+SVM combines RED with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Two clinical datasets were used for testing and evaluation: the SMOKE dataset, containing 1091 text snippets describing smoking status; and the PAIN dataset, containing 702 snippets describing pain status. We performed 10-fold cross-validation to calculate accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure metrics. In the evaluation, an SVM classifier was trained as the control. Results The two RED classifiers achieved 80.9–83.0% in overall accuracy on the two datasets, which is 1.3–3% higher than SVM's accuracy (p<0.001). Similarly, small but consistent improvements have been observed in precision, recall, and F-measure when RED classifiers are compared with SVM alone. More significantly, RED+ALIGN correctly classified many instances that were misclassified by the SVM classifier (8.1–10.3% of the total instances and 43.8–53.0% of SVM's misclassifications). Conclusions Machine-generated regular expressions can be effectively used in clinical text classification. The regular expression-based classifier can be combined with other classifiers, like SVM, to improve classification performance. PMID:24578357

  14. Maximum-likelihood constrained regularized algorithms: an objective criterion for the determination of regularization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanteri, Henri; Roche, Muriel; Cuevas, Olga; Aime, Claude

    1999-12-01

    We propose regularized versions of Maximum Likelihood algorithms for Poisson process with non-negativity constraint. For such process, the best-known (non- regularized) algorithm is that of Richardson-Lucy, extensively used for astronomical applications. Regularization is necessary to prevent an amplification of the noise during the iterative reconstruction; this can be done either by limiting the iteration number or by introducing a penalty term. In this Communication, we focus our attention on the explicit regularization using Tikhonov (Identity and Laplacian operator) or entropy terms (Kullback-Leibler and Csiszar divergences). The algorithms are established from the Kuhn-Tucker first order optimality conditions for the minimization of the Lagrange function and from the method of successive substitutions. The algorithms may be written in a `product form'. Numerical illustrations are given for simulated images corrupted by photon noise. The effects of the regularization are shown in the Fourier plane. The tests we have made indicate that a noticeable improvement of the results may be obtained for some of these explicitly regularized algorithms. We also show that a comparison with a Wiener filter can give the optimal regularizing conditions (operator and strength).

  15. On the Regularity Set and Angular Integrability for the Navier-Stokes Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ancona, Piero; Lucà, Renato

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the size of the regular set for suitable weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation, in the sense of Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg (Commun Pure Appl Math 35:771-831, 1982). We consider initial data in weighted Lebesgue spaces with mixed radial-angular integrability, and we prove that the regular set increases if the data have higher angular integrability, invading the whole half space {\\{t > 0\\}} in an appropriate limit. In particular, we obtain that if the {L2} norm with weight {|x|^{-frac12}} of the data tends to 0, the regular set invades {\\{t > 0\\}}; this result improves Theorem D of Caffarelli et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 35:771-831, 1982).

  16. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  17. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  18. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  19. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  20. 42 CFR 61.3 - Purpose of regular fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose of regular fellowships. 61.3 Section 61.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.3 Purpose of regular fellowships. Regular fellowships...

  1. Neural Evidence of Statistical Learning: Efficient Detection of Visual Regularities without Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Chun, Marvin M.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    Our environment contains regularities distributed in space and time that can be detected by way of statistical learning. This unsupervised learning occurs without intent or awareness, but little is known about how it relates to other types of learning, how it affects perceptual processing, and how quickly it can occur. Here we use fMRI during…

  2. 14 CFR 121.487 - Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots not... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.487 Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned. (a) Except...

  3. 14 CFR 121.487 - Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots not... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.487 Flight time limitations: Pilots not regularly assigned. (a) Except...

  4. Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications

  5. Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a ten-fold speed up compared to the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous work. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

  6. Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong

    2015-03-01

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040

  7. Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-11-15

    We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.

  8. A regular version of Smilansky model

    SciTech Connect

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel

    2014-04-15

    We discuss a modification of Smilansky model in which a singular potential “channel” is replaced by a regular, below unbounded potential which shrinks as it becomes deeper. We demonstrate that, similarly to the original model, such a system exhibits a spectral transition with respect to the coupling constant, and determine the critical value above which a new spectral branch opens. The result is generalized to situations with multiple potential “channels.”.

  9. A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Tartakovsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

  10. Optical tomography by means of regularized MLEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majer, Charles L.; Urbanek, Tina; Peter, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    To solve the inverse problem involved in fluorescence mediated tomography a regularized maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction strategy is proposed. This technique has recently been applied to reconstruct galaxy clusters in astronomy and is adopted here. The MLEM algorithm is implemented as Richardson-Lucy (RL) scheme and includes entropic regularization and a floating default prior. Hence, the strategy is very robust against measurement noise and also avoids converging into noise patterns. Normalized Gaussian filtering with fixed standard deviation is applied for the floating default kernel. The reconstruction strategy is investigated using the XFM-2 homogeneous mouse phantom (Caliper LifeSciences Inc., Hopkinton, MA) with known optical properties. Prior to optical imaging, X-ray CT tomographic data of the phantom were acquire to provide structural context. Phantom inclusions were fit with various fluorochrome inclusions (Cy5.5) for which optical data at 60 projections over 360 degree have been acquired, respectively. Fluorochrome excitation has been accomplished by scanning laser point illumination in transmission mode (laser opposite to camera). Following data acquisition, a 3D triangulated mesh is derived from the reconstructed CT data which is then matched with the various optical projection images through 2D linear interpolation, correlation and Fourier transformation in order to assess translational and rotational deviations between the optical and CT imaging systems. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed regularized MLEM algorithm, when driven with a constant initial condition, yields reconstructed images that tend to be smoother in comparison to classical MLEM without regularization. Once the floating default prior is included this bias was significantly reduced.

  11. Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2009-01-01

    We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material. PMID:20676354

  12. Regularity theory for general stable operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros-Oton, Xavier; Serra, Joaquim

    2016-06-01

    We establish sharp regularity estimates for solutions to Lu = f in Ω ⊂Rn, L being the generator of any stable and symmetric Lévy process. Such nonlocal operators L depend on a finite measure on S n - 1, called the spectral measure. First, we study the interior regularity of solutions to Lu = f in B1. We prove that if f is Cα then u belong to C α + 2 s whenever α + 2 s is not an integer. In case f ∈L∞, we show that the solution u is C2s when s ≠ 1 / 2, and C 2 s - ɛ for all ɛ > 0 when s = 1 / 2. Then, we study the boundary regularity of solutions to Lu = f in Ω, u = 0 in Rn ∖ Ω, in C 1 , 1 domains Ω. We show that solutions u satisfy u /ds ∈C s - ɛ (Ω ‾) for all ɛ > 0, where d is the distance to ∂Ω. Finally, we show that our results are sharp by constructing two counterexamples.

  13. Weighted power counting and chiral dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2014-06-01

    We define a modified dimensional-regularization technique that overcomes several difficulties of the ordinary technique, and is specially designed to work efficiently in chiral and parity violating quantum field theories, in arbitrary dimensions greater than 2. When the dimension of spacetime is continued to complex values, spinors, vectors and tensors keep the components they have in the physical dimension; therefore, the γ matrices are the standard ones. Propagators are regularized with the help of evanescent higher-derivative kinetic terms, which are of the Majorana type in the case of chiral fermions. If the new terms are organized in a clever way, weighted power counting provides an efficient control on the renormalization of the theory, and allows us to show that the resulting chiral dimensional regularization is consistent to all orders. The new technique considerably simplifies the proofs of properties that hold to all orders, and makes them suitable to be generalized to wider classes of models. Typical examples are the renormalizability of chiral gauge theories and the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The difficulty of explicit computations, on the other hand, may increase.

  14. Automatic detection of regularly repeating vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, David

    2005-09-01

    Many animal species produce repetitive sounds at regular intervals. This regularity can be used for automatic recognition of the sounds, providing improved detection at a given signal-to-noise ratio. Here, the detection of sperm whale sounds is examined. Sperm whales produce highly repetitive ``regular clicks'' at periods of about 0.2-2 s, and faster click trains in certain behavioral contexts. The following detection procedure was tested: a spectrogram was computed; values within a certain frequency band were summed; time windowing was applied; each windowed segment was autocorrelated; and the maximum of the autocorrelation within a certain periodicity range was chosen. This procedure was tested on sets of recordings containing sperm whale sounds and interfering sounds, both low-frequency recordings from autonomous hydrophones and high-frequency ones from towed hydrophone arrays. An optimization procedure iteratively varies detection parameters (spectrogram frame length and frequency range, window length, periodicity range, etc.). Performance of various sets of parameters was measured by setting a standard level of allowable missed calls, and the resulting optimium parameters are described. Performance is also compared to that of a neural network trained using the data sets. The method is also demonstrated for sounds of blue whales, minke whales, and seismic airguns. [Funding from ONR.

  15. Regularities and symmetries in atomic structure and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The use of statistical methods for the description of complex quantum systems was primarily motivated by the failure of a line-by-line interpretation of atomic spectra. Such methods reveal regularities and trends in the distributions of levels and lines. In the past, much attention was paid to the distribution of energy levels (Wigner surmise, random-matrix model…). However, information about the distribution of the lines (energy and strength) is lacking. Thirty years ago, Learner found empirically an unexpected law: the logarithm of the number of lines whose intensities lie between 2kI0 and 2k+1I0, I0 being a reference intensity and k an integer, is a decreasing linear function of k. In the present work, the fractal nature of such an intriguing regularity is outlined and a calculation of its fractal dimension is proposed. Other peculiarities are also presented, such as the fact that the distribution of line strengths follows Benford's law of anomalous numbers, the existence of additional selection rules (PH coupling), the symmetry with respect to a quarter of the subshell in the spin-adapted space (LL coupling) and the odd-even staggering in the distribution of quantum numbers, pointed out by Bauche and Cossé.

  16. Mesoscopic Higher Regularity and Subadditivity in Elliptic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Kuusi, Tuomo; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new method for obtaining quantitative results in stochastic homogenization for linear elliptic equations in divergence form. Unlike previous works on the topic, our method does not use concentration inequalities (such as Poincaré or logarithmic Sobolev inequalities in the probability space) and relies instead on a higher (C k , k ≥ 1) regularity theory for solutions of the heterogeneous equation, which is valid on length scales larger than a certain specified mesoscopic scale. This regularity theory, which is of independent interest, allows us to, in effect, localize the dependence of the solutions on the coefficients and thereby accelerate the rate of convergence of the expected energy of the cell problem by a bootstrap argument. The fluctuations of the energy are then tightly controlled using subadditivity. The convergence of the energy gives control of the scaling of the spatial averages of gradients and fluxes (that is, it quantifies the weak convergence of these quantities), which yields, by a new "multiscale" Poincaré inequality, quantitative estimates on the sublinearity of the corrector.

  17. Temporal Prediction in lieu of Periodic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Morillon, Benjamin; Schroeder, Charles E; Wyart, Valentin; Arnal, Luc H

    2016-02-24

    Predicting not only what will happen, but also when it will happen is extremely helpful for optimizing perception and action. Temporal predictions driven by periodic stimulation increase perceptual sensitivity and reduce response latencies. At the neurophysiological level, a single mechanism has been proposed to mediate this twofold behavioral improvement: the rhythmic entrainment of slow cortical oscillations to the stimulation rate. However, temporal regularities can occur in aperiodic contexts, suggesting that temporal predictions per se may be dissociable from entrainment to periodic sensory streams. We investigated this possibility in two behavioral experiments, asking human participants to detect near-threshold auditory tones embedded in streams whose temporal and spectral properties were manipulated. While our findings confirm that periodic stimulation reduces response latencies, in agreement with the hypothesis of a stimulus-driven entrainment of neural excitability, they further reveal that this motor facilitation can be dissociated from the enhancement of auditory sensitivity. Perceptual sensitivity improvement is unaffected by the nature of temporal regularities (periodic vs aperiodic), but contingent on the co-occurrence of a fulfilled spectral prediction. Altogether, the dissociation between predictability and periodicity demonstrates that distinct mechanisms flexibly and synergistically operate to facilitate perception and action. PMID:26911682

  18. Low-cost management aspects for developing, producing and operating future space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.; Rücker, Udo

    2005-01-01

    It is believed that a potential means for further significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results also in a stimulation of launch rates of small satellites, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. Therefore, not only launching small satellites with expendable rockets on non-regular flights but also with reusable rockets on regular flights should be considered for the long term. However, developing, producing and operating reusable rockets require a fundamental change in the current "business as usual" philosophy. Under current conditions, it might not be possible to develop, to produce or to operate a reusable vehicle fleet economically. The favorite philosophy is based on "smart business" processes adapted by the authors using cost engineering techniques. In the following paper, major strategies for reducing costs are discussed, which are applied for a representative program proposal.

  19. The effect of regularization on the reconstruction of ACAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. A.; Ceeh, H.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Leitner, M.; Böni, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Fermi surface, i.e. the two-dimensional surface separating occupied and unoccupied states in k-space, is the defining property of a metal. Full information about its shape is mandatory for identifying nesting vectors or for validating band structure calculations. With the angular correlation of positron-electron annihilation radiation (ACAR) it is easy to get projections of the Fermi surface. Nevertheless it is claimed to be inexact compared to more common methods like the determination based on quantum oscillations or angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In this article we will present a method for reconstructing the Fermi surface from projections with statistically correct data treatment which is able to increase accuracy by introducing different types of regularization.

  20. Chiral Thirring–Wess model with Faddeevian regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2015-03-15

    Replacing vector type of interaction of the Thirring–Wess model by the chiral type a new model is presented which is termed here as chiral Thirring–Wess model. Ambiguity parameters of regularization are so chosen that the model falls into the Faddeevian class. The resulting Faddeevian class of model in general does not possess Lorentz invariance. However we can exploit the arbitrariness admissible in the ambiguity parameters to relate the quantum mechanically generated ambiguity parameters with the classical parameter involved in the masslike term of the gauge field which helps to maintain physical Lorentz invariance instead of the absence of manifestly Lorentz covariance of the model. The phase space structure and the theoretical spectrum of this class of model have been determined through Dirac’s method of quantization of constraint system.

  1. Transportation concepts for space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Space shuttle and heavy lift launch vehicle concepts are described with attention to transportation cost trends. Chemical (LOX/LH2), nuclear, and electric propulsion systems are considered. Suggested space shuttle projects include the support of manned geosynchronous missions and the transfer of bulk cargo and large-delicate space structures from fabrication/assembly orbits to their operational locations. It is thought that development of the space shuttle will stimulate interest in space industrialization.

  2. Changes in brain gray matter due to repetitive painful stimulation.

    PubMed

    Teutsch, S; Herken, W; Bingel, U; Schoell, E; May, A

    2008-08-15

    Using functional imaging, we recently investigated how repeated painful stimulation over several days is processed, perceived and modulated in the healthy human brain. Considering that activation-dependent brain plasticity in humans on a structural level has already been demonstrated in adults, we were interested in whether repeated painful stimulation may lead to structural changes of the brain. 14 healthy subjects were stimulated daily with a 20 min pain paradigm for 8 consecutive days, using structural MRI performed on days 1, 8, 22 and again after 1 year. Using voxel based morphometry, we are able to show that repeated painful stimulation resulted in a substantial increase of gray matter in pain transmitting areas, including mid-cingulate and somatosensory cortex. These changes are stimulation dependent, i.e. they recede after the regular nociceptive input is stopped. This data raises some interesting questions regarding structural plasticity of the brain concerning the experience of both acute and chronic pain. PMID:18582579

  3. Analysis of regularized inversion of data corrupted by white Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekkonen, Hanne; Lassas, Matti; Siltanen, Samuli

    2014-04-01

    Tikhonov regularization is studied in the case of linear pseudodifferential operator as the forward map and additive white Gaussian noise as the measurement error. The measurement model for an unknown function u(x) is \\begin{eqnarray*} m(x) = Au(x) + \\delta \\varepsilon (x), \\end{eqnarray*} where δ > 0 is the noise magnitude. If ɛ was an L2-function, Tikhonov regularization gives an estimate \\begin{eqnarray*} T_\\alpha (m) = \\mathop {{arg\\, min}}_{u\\in H^r} \\big \\lbrace \\Vert A u-m\\Vert _{L^2}^2+ \\alpha \\Vert u\\Vert _{H^r}^2 \\big \\rbrace \\end{eqnarray*} for u where α = α(δ) is the regularization parameter. Here penalization of the Sobolev norm \\Vert u\\Vert _{H^r} covers the cases of standard Tikhonov regularization (r = 0) and first derivative penalty (r = 1). Realizations of white Gaussian noise are almost never in L2, but do belong to Hs with probability one if s < 0 is small enough. A modification of Tikhonov regularization theory is presented, covering the case of white Gaussian measurement noise. Furthermore, the convergence of regularized reconstructions to the correct solution as δ → 0 is proven in appropriate function spaces using microlocal analysis. The convergence of the related finite-dimensional problems to the infinite-dimensional problem is also analysed.

  4. Stimulating Investment in Research and Development. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

    Views on ways the U.S. tax code might be used to stimulate investment in research and development were presented at this hearing. Witnesses represented industry and universities and included experts on how tax policy impacts scientific research and development. The document contains testimonies and supporting documentation from the following…

  5. Effectiveness of sensory stimulation on tactile extinction.

    PubMed

    Nico, D

    1999-07-01

    Eleven brain-damaged patients with extinction were asked to report double tactile stimuli before, during, and after optokinetic stimulation and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck region. The goal of the study was to test whether tactile extinction is sensitive to these experimental manipulations in order to better understand the nature of the disorder. Both of these sensory stimulations are known to be effective in modulating only higher-order (cognitive) disorders of spatial coding, such as visual hemineglect, deficit of position sense, hemianesthesia, etc. When applied to the side contralateral to the cerebral lesion, both optokinetic and transcutaneous electrical stimulation significantly affected patients' performances, increasing the amount of detections of contralesional double stimuli. A tendency towards worse performance was observed when sensory stimulation was applied to the ipsilesional side. The reported effectiveness in reducing tactile extinction suggests that the deficit can not be fully ascribed to a peripheral sensory disorder and that it reflects damage to a higher-order cognitive function involved in contralesional space representation or in the deployment of attention to that side of space. The nature of the close relationship between extinction and hemineglect is also discussed from the point of view of extinction as a deficit of space coding. PMID:10424416

  6. The patterning of retinal horizontal cells: normalizing the regularity index enhances the detection of genomic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Patrick W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal neurons are often arranged as non-random distributions called “mosaics,” as their somata minimize proximity to neighboring cells of the same type. The horizontal cells serve as an example of such a mosaic, but little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underlie their patterning. To identify genes involved in this process, we have used three different spatial statistics to assess the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic across a panel of genetically distinct recombinant inbred strains. To avoid the confounding effect of cell density, which varies twofold across these different strains, we computed the “real/random regularity ratio,” expressing the regularity of a mosaic relative to a randomly distributed simulation of similarly sized cells. To test whether this latter statistic better reflects the variation in biological processes that contribute to horizontal cell spacing, we subsequently compared the genomic linkage for each of these two traits, the regularity index, and the real/random regularity ratio, each computed from the distribution of nearest neighbor (NN) distances and from the Voronoi domain (VD) areas. Finally, we compared each of these analyses with another index of patterning, the packing factor. Variation in the regularity indexes, as well as their real/random regularity ratios, and the packing factor, mapped quantitative trait loci to the distal ends of Chromosomes 1 and 14. For the NN and VD analyses, we found that the degree of linkage was greater when using the real/random regularity ratio rather than the respective regularity index. Using informatic resources, we narrowed the list of prospective genes positioned at these two intervals to a small collection of six genes that warrant further investigation to determine their potential role in shaping the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic. PMID:25374512

  7. Stimulant Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Taryn M; Haning, William F

    2016-07-01

    Compared with other illicit substances, stimulants are not commonly used by adolescents; however, they represent a serious concern regarding substance use among youths. This article uses methamphetamine as a model for stimulant use in adolescents; cocaine and prescription stimulants are also mentioned. Methamphetamine use among adolescents and young adults is a serious health concern with potentially long-term physical, cognitive, and psychiatric consequences. Brain development and the effects of misusing stimulants align such that usage in adolescents can more dangerous than during adulthood. It seems helpful to keep in mind the differences between adolescents and young adults when implementing interventions. PMID:27338967

  8. The regular state in higher order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.

  9. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alejandro

    2006-02-01

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem—the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints—is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant “point-splitting” regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions—due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product—it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we

  10. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  11. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  12. Promoting regular physical activity in pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    Patients with chronic respiratory diseases are usually physically inactive, which is an important negative prognostic factor. Therefore, promoting regular physical activity is of key importance in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of life in this population. A current challenge to pulmonary rehabilitation is the need to develop strategies that induce or facilitate the enhancement of daily levels of physical activity. Because exercise training alone, despite improving exercise capacity, does not consistently generate similar improvements in physical activity in daily life, there is also a need to develop behavioral interventions that help to promote activity. PMID:24874131

  13. Regularized Grad equations for multicomponent plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magin, Thierry E.; Martins, Gérald; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The moment method of Grad is used to derive macroscopic conservation equations for multicomponent plasmas for small and moderate Knudsen numbers, accounting for the electromagnetic field influence and thermal nonequilibrium. In the low Knudsen number limit, the equations derived are fully consistent with those obtained by means of the Chapman-Enskog method. In particular, we have retieved the Kolesnikov effect coupling electrons and heavy particles in the case of the Boltzmann moment systems. Finally, a regularization procedure is proposed to achieve continuous shock structures at all Mach numbers.

  14. Spectral action with zeta function regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkov, Maxim A.; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Watcharangkool, Apimook

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose a novel definition of the bosonic spectral action using zeta function regularization, in order to address the issues of renormalizability and spectral dimensions. We compare the zeta spectral action with the usual (cutoff-based) spectral action and discuss its origin and predictive power, stressing the importance of the issue of the three dimensionful fundamental constants, namely the cosmological constant, the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and the gravitational constant. We emphasize the fundamental role of the neutrino Majorana mass term for the structure of the bosonic action.

  15. Dense Regular Packings of Irregular Nonconvex Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Joost; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2011-10-01

    We present a new numerical scheme to study systems of nonconvex, irregular, and punctured particles in an efficient manner. We employ this method to analyze regular packings of odd-shaped bodies, both from a nanoparticle and from a computational geometry perspective. Besides determining close-packed structures for 17 irregular shapes, we confirm several conjectures for the packings of a large set of 142 convex polyhedra and extend upon these. We also prove that we have obtained the densest packing for both rhombicuboctahedra and rhombic enneacontrahedra and we have improved upon the packing of enneagons and truncated tetrahedra.

  16. Regularity and Existence of Global Solutions to the Ericksen-Leslie System in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinrui; Lin, Fanghua; Wang, Changyou

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we first establish the regularity theorem for suitable weak solutions to the Ericksen-Leslie system in . Building on such a regularity, we then establish the existence of a global weak solution to the Ericksen-Leslie system in for any initial data in the energy space, under the physical constraints on the Leslie coefficients ensuring the dissipation of energy of the system, which is smooth away from at most finitely many times. This extends earlier works by Lin et al. (Arch Ration Mech Anal 197:297-336, 2010) on a simplified nematic liquid crystal flow to the general Ericksen-Leslie system.

  17. A Regular Tetrahedron Formation Strategy for Swarm Robots in Three-Dimensional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, M. Fikret; Li, Xiang; Liang, Ximing

    A decentralized control method, namely Regular Tetrahedron Formation (RTF), is presented for a swarm of simple robots operating in three-dimensional space. It is based on virtual spring mechanism and enables four neighboring robots to autonomously form a Regular Tetrahedron (RT) regardless of their initial positions. RTF method is applied to various sizes of swarms through a dynamic neighbor selection procedure. Each robot's behavior depends only on position of three dynamically selected neighbors. An obstacle avoidance model is also introduced. Final, algorithm is studied with computational experiments which demonstrated that it is effective.

  18. The Lie-Poisson structure of the symmetry reduced regularized n-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Dullin, Holger R.; Nguyen, Diana M. H.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the symmetry reduction of the regularized n-body problem. The three body problem, regularized through quaternions, is examined in detail. We show that for a suitably chosen symmetry group action the space of quadratic invariants is closed and the Hamiltonian can be written in terms of the quadratic invariants. The corresponding Lie-Poisson structure is isomorphic to the Lie algebra u(3,3). Finally, we generalize this result to the n-body problem for n\\gt 3.

  19. Wavelets-regularization method for particle size inversion in photon correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajing; Shen, Jin; Zheng, Gang; Liu, Wei

    2012-07-01

    For ill-posed inversion problem of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), a wavelet-regularization inversion method (WRIM) which combines wavelet multiscale inversion strategy with classical regularization inversion method (CRIM) was proposed. By using this method, the original inversion problem is decomposed into several subproblems on different multiscale spaces. As a result, we can successively obtain solution of original inversion problem according to the particle sizes inverted from the coarsest scale to the finest scale. The simulation and experimental data was respectively inverted by two methods. The inversion results demonstrate that WRIM has better global convergence, higher accuracy and more strong noise immunity than CRIM.

  20. Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.

  1. Learning about time within the spinal cord: evidence that spinal neurons can abstract and store an index of regularity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuan H.; Turtle, Joel D.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Strain, Misty M.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Grau, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that intermittent noxious stimulation has divergent effects on spinal cord plasticity depending upon whether it occurs in a regular (fixed time, FT) or irregular (variable time, VT) manner: In spinally transected animals, VT stimulation to the tail or hind leg impaired spinal learning whereas an extended exposure to FT stimulation had a restorative/protective effect. These observations imply that lower level systems are sensitive to temporal relations. Using spinally transected rats, it is shown that the restorative effect of FT stimulation emerges after 540 shocks; fewer shocks generate a learning impairment. The transformative effect of FT stimulation is related to the number of shocks administered, not the duration of exposure. Administration of 360 FT shocks induces a learning deficit that lasts 24 h. If a second bout of FT stimulation is given a day after the first, it restores the capacity to learn. This savings effect implies that the initial training episode had a lasting (memory-like) effect. Two bouts of shock have a transformative effect when applied at different locations or at difference frequencies, implying spinal systems abstract and store an index of regularity (rather than a specific interval). Implications of the results for step training and rehabilitation after injury are discussed. PMID:26539090

  2. Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David

    2003-01-01

    We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.

  3. Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738

  4. Nonlinear regularization techniques for seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Loris, I. Douma, H.; Nolet, G.; Regone, C.

    2010-02-01

    The effects of several nonlinear regularization techniques are discussed in the framework of 3D seismic tomography. Traditional, linear, l{sub 2} penalties are compared to so-called sparsity promoting l{sub 1} and l{sub 0} penalties, and a total variation penalty. Which of these algorithms is judged optimal depends on the specific requirements of the scientific experiment. If the correct reproduction of model amplitudes is important, classical damping towards a smooth model using an l{sub 2} norm works almost as well as minimizing the total variation but is much more efficient. If gradients (edges of anomalies) should be resolved with a minimum of distortion, we prefer l{sub 1} damping of Daubechies-4 wavelet coefficients. It has the additional advantage of yielding a noiseless reconstruction, contrary to simple l{sub 2} minimization ('Tikhonov regularization') which should be avoided. In some of our examples, the l{sub 0} method produced notable artifacts. In addition we show how nonlinear l{sub 1} methods for finding sparse models can be competitive in speed with the widely used l{sub 2} methods, certainly under noisy conditions, so that there is no need to shun l{sub 1} penalizations.

  5. Tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy using Tikhonov regularization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Avishek; Schoegl, Ingmar

    2014-12-01

    The application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to flames with nonhomogeneous temperature and concentration fields is an area where only few studies exist. Experimental work explores the performance of tomographic reconstructions of species concentration and temperature profiles from wavelength-modulated TDLAS measurements within the plume of an axisymmetric McKenna burner. Water vapor transitions at 1391.67 and 1442.67 nm are probed using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f). A single collimated laser beam is swept parallel to the burner surface, where scans yield pairs of line-of-sight (LOS) data at multiple radial locations. Radial profiles of absorption data are reconstructed using Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, which suppresses the amplification of experimental noise that is typically observed for reconstructions with high spatial resolution. Based on spectral data reconstructions, temperatures and mole fractions are calculated point-by-point. Here, a least-squares approach addresses difficulties due to modulation depths that cannot be universally optimized due to a nonuniform domain. Experimental results show successful reconstructions of temperature and mole fraction profiles based on two-transition, nonoptimally modulated WMS-2f and Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, and thus validate the technique as a viable diagnostic tool for flame measurements. PMID:25607968

  6. Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738

  7. Regularized Semiparametric Estimation for Ordinary Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Naisyin

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in modeling dynamic systems and have ample applications in the fields of physics, engineering, economics and biological sciences. The ODE parameters often possess physiological meanings and can help scientists gain better understanding of the system. One key interest is thus to well estimate these parameters. Ideally, constant parameters are preferred due to their easy interpretation. In reality, however, constant parameters can be too restrictive such that even after incorporating error terms, there could still be unknown sources of disturbance that lead to poor agreement between observed data and the estimated ODE system. In this paper, we address this issue and accommodate short-term interferences by allowing parameters to vary with time. We propose a new regularized estimation procedure on the time-varying parameters of an ODE system so that these parameters could change with time during transitions but remain constants within stable stages. We found, through simulation studies, that the proposed method performs well and tends to have less variation in comparison to the non-regularized approach. On the theoretical front, we derive finite-sample estimation error bounds for the proposed method. Applications of the proposed method to modeling the hare-lynx relationship and the measles incidence dynamic in Ontario, Canada lead to satisfactory and meaningful results. PMID:26392639

  8. A novel signal processing approach for LEO space debris based on a fence-type space surveillance radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Ghogho, Mounir; Xin, Qin; Du, Xiaoyong; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increase in space debris can seriously threaten regular activities in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop robust, efficient and reliable techniques to understand the potential motions of the LEO debris. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing approach to detect and estimate the motions of LEO space debris that is based on a fence-type space surveillance radar system. Because of the sparse distribution of the orbiting debris through the fence in our observations, we formulate the signal detection and the motion parameter estimation as a sparse signal reconstruction problem with respect to an over-complete dictionary. Moreover, we propose a new scheme to reduce the size of the original over-complete dictionary without the loss of the important information. This new scheme is based on a careful analysis of the relations between the acceleration and the directions of arrival for the corresponding LEO space debris. Our simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve extremely good performance in terms of the accuracy for detection and estimation. Furthermore, our simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the approach in scenarios with a low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the super-resolution properties. We hope our signal processing approach can stimulate further work on monitoring LEO space debris.

  9. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Reger, S I; Levine, S P; Sahgal, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of therapeutic electrical stimulation (ES) specific to wound healing and pressure sore prevention. The application of ES for wound healing has been found to increase the rate of healing by more than 50%. Furthermore, the total number of wounds healed is also increased. However, optimal delivery techniques for ES therapy have not been established to date. A study of stimulation current effects on wound healing in a pig model has shown that direct current (DC) stimulation is most effective in wound area reduction and alternating current (AC) stimulation for wound volume reduction at current densities of 127 microA/cm2 and 1,125 microA/cm2, respectively. Preliminary studies have been carried out at two research centers to assess the role of ES in pressure sore prevention. Surface stimulation studies have shown that ES can produce positive short-term changes in tissue health variables such as regional blood flow and pressure distribution. The use of an implanted stimulation system consisting of intramuscular electrodes with percutaneous leads has been found to produce additional long-term changes. Specifically, gluteal muscle thickness increased by 50% with regular long-term ES application concurrent with a 20% decrease in regional interface pressures and increased tissue oxygen levels. These findings indicate that an implantable ES system may have great potential for pressure sore prevention, particularly for individuals who lack sensation or who are physically unable to perform regular independent pressure relief. PMID:11067577

  10. Regular black holes and noncommutative geometry inspired fuzzy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinpei

    2016-05-01

    We investigated regular black holes with fuzzy sources in three and four dimensions. The density distributions of such fuzzy sources are inspired by noncommutative geometry and given by Gaussian or generalized Gaussian functions. We utilized mass functions to give a physical interpretation of the horizon formation condition for the black holes. In particular, we investigated three-dimensional BTZ-like black holes and four-dimensional Schwarzschild-like black holes in detail, and found that the number of horizons is related to the space-time dimensions, and the existence of a void in the vicinity of the center of the space-time is significant, rather than noncommutativity. As an application, we considered a three-dimensional black hole with the fuzzy disc which is a disc-shaped region known in the context of noncommutative geometry as a source. We also analyzed a four-dimensional black hole with a source whose density distribution is an extension of the fuzzy disc, and investigated the horizon formation condition for it.

  11. A regularized approach for geodesic-based semisupervised multimanifold learning.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Zhongfei; Bao, Hujun

    2014-05-01

    Geodesic distance, as an essential measurement for data dissimilarity, has been successfully used in manifold learning. However, most geodesic distance-based manifold learning algorithms have two limitations when applied to classification: 1) class information is rarely used in computing the geodesic distances between data points on manifolds and 2) little attention has been paid to building an explicit dimension reduction mapping for extracting the discriminative information hidden in the geodesic distances. In this paper, we regard geodesic distance as a kind of kernel, which maps data from linearly inseparable space to linear separable distance space. In doing this, a new semisupervised manifold learning algorithm, namely regularized geodesic feature learning algorithm, is proposed. The method consists of three techniques: a semisupervised graph construction method, replacement of original data points with feature vectors which are built by geodesic distances, and a new semisupervised dimension reduction method for feature vectors. Experiments on the MNIST, USPS handwritten digit data sets, MIT CBCL face versus nonface data set, and an intelligent traffic data set show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24723575

  12. Optokinetic Stimulation Affects Temporal Estimation in Healthy Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The representation of time and space are closely linked in the cognitive system. Optokinetic stimulation modulates spatial attention in healthy subjects and patients with spatial neglect. In order to evaluate whether optokinetic stimulation could influence time perception, a group of healthy subjects performed "time-comparison" tasks of sub- and…

  13. Large separations or regular technical patterns? Could data sampling mimic the frequency range of pulsating Delta Scuti stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparo, Margit; Benko, Jozsef M.; Hareter, Markus; Guzik, Joyce A.

    2015-08-01

    Asteroseismology allows unique information on the inner structure of stars. The large separation between the consecutive radial orders and the small separation of the modes with different l values are well-known and useful parameters characterizing solar-type oscillations. The large separation was derived only for a few Delta Scuti stars which are pulsating in the non-asymptotic regime. Theoretical investigations do not predict a high level of regularity of the excited modes. We carried out a search for regularity in a sample of Delta Scuti stars observed by CoRoT (91 stars). Usually the Fourier Transform or the histogram of frequency differences were used. The echelle diagrams represent the regularity when it was found. As a preliminary step we isolated set(s) of frequencies with quasi-equal spacing. Surprisingly not only a single pattern but up to six patterns were found in most of the stars. The patterns are regularly shifted with respect to each other. The echelle diagrams helped to reduce the scatter of the spacing. The derived spacing supported the better interpretation of the FT diagrams. There is no doubt of the existence of regular patterns. The interpretation is questionable: do the Delta Scuti stars behave so regularly, or we are faced with a technical pattern that obscures the real frequency pattern of the low amplitude Delta Scuti pulsation?

  14. The Essential Special Education Guide for the Regular Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 has placed a renewed emphasis on the importance of the regular classroom, the regular classroom teacher and the general curriculum as the primary focus of special education. This book contains over 100 topics that deal with real issues and concerns regarding the regular classroom and…

  15. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  16. The Regular Education Initiative: Patent Medicine for Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Implications of the regular education initiative for behaviorally disordered students are examined in the context of integration and right to treatment. These students are underserved, often cannot be appropriately served in regular classrooms, are not welcomed by most regular classroom teachers, and have treatment rights the initiative does not…

  17. On Regularity Criteria for the 2D Generalized MHD System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zaihong; Wang, Yanan; Zhou, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of regularity criteria for the 2D generalized MHD system with fractional dissipative terms {-Λ^{2α}u} for the velocity field and {-Λ^{2β}b} for the magnetic field respectively. Various regularity criteria are established to guarantee smoothness of solutions. It turns out that our regularity criteria imply previous global existence results naturally.

  18. 29 CFR 778.408 - The specified regular rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regular rate. (a) To qualify under section 7(f), the contract must specify “a regular rate of pay of not... section 7(f), must specify a “regular rate,” indicates that this criterion of these two cases is...

  19. Recognition Memory for Novel Stimuli: The Structural Regularity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Morris, Alison L.; Langley, Moses M.

    2007-01-01

    Early studies of human memory suggest that adherence to a known structural regularity (e.g., orthographic regularity) benefits memory for an otherwise novel stimulus (e.g., G. A. Miller, 1958). However, a more recent study suggests that structural regularity can lead to an increase in false-positive responses on recognition memory tests (B. W. A.…

  20. 39 CFR 6.1 - Regular meetings, annual meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular meetings, annual meeting. 6.1 Section 6.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.1 Regular meetings, annual meeting. The Board shall meet regularly on a...

  1. Selected Characteristics, Classified & Unclassified (Regular) Students; Community Colleges, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    Fall 1978 enrollment data for Hawaii's community colleges and data on selected characteristics of students enrolled in regular credit programs are presented. Of the 27,880 registrants, 74% were regular students, 1% were early admittees, 6% were registered in non-credit apprenticeship programs, and 18% were in special programs. Regular student…

  2. Global structure of regular tori in a generic 4D symplectic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, S.; Richter, M.; Onken, F.; Bäcker, A.; Ketzmerick, R.

    2014-06-01

    For the case of generic 4d symplectic maps with a mixed phase space, we investigate the global organization of regular tori. For this, we compute elliptic 1-tori of two coupled standard maps and display them in a 3d phase-space slice. This visualizes how all regular 2-tori are organized around a skeleton of elliptic 1-tori in the 4d phase space. The 1-tori occur in two types of one-parameter families: (α) Lyapunov families emanating from elliptic-elliptic periodic orbits, which are observed to exist even far away from them and beyond major resonance gaps, and (β) families originating from rank-1 resonances. At resonance gaps of both types of families either (i) periodic orbits exist, similar to the Poincaré-Birkhoff theorem for 2d maps, or (ii) the family may form large bends. In combination, these results allow for describing the hierarchical structure of regular tori in the 4d phase space analogously to the islands-around-islands hierarchy in 2d maps.

  3. Local orientational mobility in regular hyperbranched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Markelov, Denis A.; Fürstenberg, Florian; Guérin, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamics of local bond orientation in regular hyperbranched polymers modeled by Vicsek fractals. The local dynamics is investigated through the temporal autocorrelation functions of single bonds and the corresponding relaxation forms of the complex dielectric susceptibility. We show that the dynamic behavior of single segments depends on their remoteness from the periphery rather than on the size of the whole macromolecule. Remarkably, the dynamics of the core segments (which are most remote from the periphery) shows a scaling behavior that differs from the dynamics obtained after structural average. We analyze the most relevant processes of single segment motion and provide an analytic approximation for the corresponding relaxation times. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method to calculate the orientational dynamics in the case of very large macromolecular sizes.

  4. Features of the regular F2-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besprozvannaia, A. S.

    1987-10-01

    Results of the empirical modeling of cyclic and seasonal variations of the daytime regular F2-layer are presented. It is shown that the formation of the seasonal anomaly in years of high solar activity is determined mainly by a summer anomaly. This summer anomaly is connected with an increase in the content of molecular nitrogen in the polar ionosphere during summer months due to additional heating and turbulent mixing in connection with intense dissipation of the three-dimensional current system under high-conductivity conditions. In solar-minimum years the seasonal anomaly is determined mainly by seasonal variations of the composition of the neutral atmosphere in the passage from winter to summer.

  5. Generalized equations of state and regular universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, F.; Cruz, N.; González, E.

    2016-05-01

    We found non singular solutions for universes filled with a fluid which obey a Generalized Equation of State of the form P(ρ) = – Aρ + γρλ. An emergent universe is obtained if A =1 and λ = 1/2. If the matter source is reinterpret as that of a scalar matter field with some potential, the corresponding potential is derived. For a closed universe, an exact bounce solution is found for A = 1/3 and the same λ. We also explore how the composition of theses universes ean be interpreted in terms of known fluids. It is of interest to note that accelerated solutions previously found for the late time evolution also represent regular solutions at early times.

  6. Dyslexia in regular orthographies: manifestation and causation.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness, phonological STM, and rapid naming) for the emergence of reading fluency and spelling deficits is inferred from two large longitudinal studies with assessments of phonology before learning to read. A review of our cross-sectional studies provides no support for several cognitive deficits (visual-attention deficit, magnocellular dysfunction, skill automatization deficit, and visual-sequential memory deficit), which were proposed as alternatives to the phonological deficit account. Finally, a revised version of the phonological deficit account in terms of a dysfunction in orthographic-phonological connectivity is proposed. PMID:20957684

  7. Local orientational mobility in regular hyperbranched polymers.

    PubMed

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Markelov, Denis A; Fürstenberg, Florian; Guérin, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamics of local bond orientation in regular hyperbranched polymers modeled by Vicsek fractals. The local dynamics is investigated through the temporal autocorrelation functions of single bonds and the corresponding relaxation forms of the complex dielectric susceptibility. We show that the dynamic behavior of single segments depends on their remoteness from the periphery rather than on the size of the whole macromolecule. Remarkably, the dynamics of the core segments (which are most remote from the periphery) shows a scaling behavior that differs from the dynamics obtained after structural average. We analyze the most relevant processes of single segment motion and provide an analytic approximation for the corresponding relaxation times. Furthermore, we describe an iterative method to calculate the orientational dynamics in the case of very large macromolecular sizes. PMID:27575171

  8. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  9. Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.

  10. Electrophysiological channel interactions using focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Shefin S.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Speech intelligibility with existing multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) is thought to be limited by poor spatial selectivity and interactions between CI channels caused by overlapping activation with monopolar (MP) stimulation. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation in the inferior colliculus (IC), compared to MP stimulation. Approach. This study explored interactions in the IC produced by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels. We recorded multi-unit neural activity in the IC of anaesthetized cats with normal and severely degenerated spiral ganglion neuron populations in response to FMP, TP and MP stimulation from a 14 channel CI. Stimuli were applied to a ‘fixed’ CI channel, chosen toward the middle of the cochlear electrode array, and the effects of simultaneously stimulating a more apical ‘test’ CI channel were measured as a function of spatial separation between the two stimulation channels and stimulus level of the fixed channel. Channel interactions were quantified by changes in neural responses and IC threshold (i.e., threshold shift) elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels, compared to stimulation of the test channel alone. Main results. Channel interactions were significantly lower for FMP and TP than for MP stimulation (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between FMP and TP stimulation. With MP stimulation, threshold shifts increased with decreased inter-electrode spacing and increased stimulus levels of the fixed channel. For FMP and TP stimulation, channel interactions were found to be similar for different inter-electrode spacing and stimulus levels of the fixed channel. Significance. The present study demonstrates how the degree of channel interactions in a CI can be controlled using stimulation configurations such as FMP and TP; such knowledge is essential in enhancing CI function in complex

  11. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role. PMID:18767418

  12. Regularization of the circular restricted three-body problem using `similar' coordinate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, R.; Szücs-Csillik, I.

    2012-04-01

    The regularization of a new problem, namely the three-body problem, using `similar' coordinate system is proposed. For this purpose we use the relation of `similarity', which has been introduced as an equivalence relation in a previous paper (see Roman in Astrophys. Space Sci. doi:10.1007/s10509-011-0747-1, 2011). First we write the Hamiltonian function, the equations of motion in canonical form, and then using a generating function, we obtain the transformed equations of motion. After the coordinates transformations, we introduce the fictitious time, to regularize the equations of motion. Explicit formulas are given for the regularization in the coordinate systems centered in the more massive and the less massive star of the binary system. The `similar' polar angle's definition is introduced, in order to analyze the regularization's geometrical transformation. The effect of Levi-Civita's transformation is described in a geometrical manner. Using the resulted regularized equations, we analyze and compare these canonical equations numerically, for the Earth-Moon binary system.

  13. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R B; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J; Lee, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding. PMID:27002902

  14. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R. B.; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J.; Lee, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding. PMID:27002902

  15. First-order quantum phase transitions: Test ground for emergent chaoticity, regularity and persisting symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, M. Leviatan, A.

    2014-12-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the emerging order and chaos and enduring symmetries, accompanying a generic (high-barrier) first-order quantum phase transition (QPT). The interacting boson model Hamiltonian employed, describes a QPT between spherical and deformed shapes, associated with its U(5) and SU(3) dynamical symmetry limits. A classical analysis of the intrinsic dynamics reveals a rich but simply-divided phase space structure with a Hénon–Heiles type of chaotic dynamics ascribed to the spherical minimum and a robustly regular dynamics ascribed to the deformed minimum. The simple pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics persists in the coexistence region and traces the crossing of the two minima in the Landau potential. A quantum analysis discloses a number of regular low-energy U(5)-like multiplets in the spherical region, and regular SU(3)-like rotational bands extending to high energies and angular momenta, in the deformed region. These two kinds of regular subsets of states retain their identity amidst a complicated environment of other states and both occur in the coexistence region. A symmetry analysis of their wave functions shows that they are associated with partial U(5) dynamical symmetry (PDS) and SU(3) quasi-dynamical symmetry (QDS), respectively. The pattern of mixed but well-separated dynamics and the PDS or QDS characterization of the remaining regularity, appear to be robust throughout the QPT. Effects of kinetic collective rotational terms, which may disrupt this simple pattern, are considered.

  16. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

  17. Unitarity and ultraviolet regularity in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agullo, Ivan; Ashtekar, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Quantum field theory in curved space-times is a well developed area in mathematical physics which has had important phenomenological applications to the very early universe. However, it is not commonly appreciated that on time-dependent space-times—including the simplest cosmological models—dynamics of quantum fields is not unitary in the standard sense. This issue is first explained with an explicit example, and it is then shown that a generalized notion of unitarity does hold. The generalized notion allows one to correctly pass to the Schrödinger picture starting from the Heisenberg picture used in the textbook treatments. Finally, we indicate how these considerations can be extended from simple cosmological models to general globally hyperbolic space-times.

  18. Dynamic experiment design regularization approach to adaptive imaging with array radar/SAR sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Shkvarko, Yuriy; Tuxpan, José; Santos, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the "model-free" variational analysis (VA)-based image enhancement approach and the "model-based" descriptive experiment design (DEED) regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED) regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA) regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations. PMID:22163859

  19. [Formula: see text] regularity properties of singular parameterizations in isogeometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Takacs, T; Jüttler, B

    2012-11-01

    Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is a numerical simulation method which is directly based on the NURBS-based representation of CAD models. It exploits the tensor-product structure of 2- or 3-dimensional NURBS objects to parameterize the physical domain. Hence the physical domain is parameterized with respect to a rectangle or to a cube. Consequently, singularly parameterized NURBS surfaces and NURBS volumes are needed in order to represent non-quadrangular or non-hexahedral domains without splitting, thereby producing a very compact and convenient representation. The Galerkin projection introduces finite-dimensional spaces of test functions in the weak formulation of partial differential equations. In particular, the test functions used in isogeometric analysis are obtained by composing the inverse of the domain parameterization with the NURBS basis functions. In the case of singular parameterizations, however, some of the resulting test functions do not necessarily fulfill the required regularity properties. Consequently, numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations cannot be applied properly. We discuss the regularity properties of the test functions. For one- and two-dimensional domains we consider several important classes of singularities of NURBS parameterizations. For specific cases we derive additional conditions which guarantee the regularity of the test functions. In addition we present a modification scheme for the discretized function space in case of insufficient regularity. It is also shown how these results can be applied for computational domains in higher dimensions that can be parameterized via sweeping. PMID:24976795

  20. A new job for an old device: a novel use for nerve stimulators in anorectal malformations.

    PubMed

    Kapuller, Vadim; Arbell, Dan; Udassin, Raphael; Armon, Yaron

    2014-03-01

    Muscle stimulation of the perineum is a crucial step in the repair of anorectal malformations. This allows the surgeon to assess muscle function and locate precisely the sphincter muscles during a pull-through operation. Presently, the device commonly used is very expensive. In searching for a cheaper and amenable device we explored utilizing the nerve stimulator MiniStim (model MS-IIIA, Life-Tech, Inc., Houston, TX) normally used for the "train of four" sign in assessing paralysis during general anesthesia. We have used this device in seven consecutive posterior sagittal anorectoplasties and compared its effectiveness with the regular muscle stimulator. In our experience, the nerve stimulator is easier to work with and is a common device in the operating theater. It gave us information that was at least equal to the regular muscle stimulator. PMID:24650485

  1. Regular treatment with formoterol versus regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Lasserson, Toby J

    2014-01-01

    Background An increase in serious adverse events with both regular formoterol and regular salmeterol in chronic asthma has been demonstrated in previous Cochrane reviews. Objectives We set out to compare the risks of mortality and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials which have randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular formoterol versus regular salmeterol. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked manufacturers’ websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and also checked Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submissions in relation to formoterol and salmeterol. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Selection criteria We included controlled, parallel-design clinical trials on patients of any age and with any severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol versus regular salmeterol (without randomised inhaled corticosteroids), and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review and extracted outcome data. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events from the sponsors and authors. Main results The review included four studies (involving 1116 adults and 156 children). All studies were open label and recruited patients who were already taking inhaled corticosteroids for their asthma, and all studies contributed data on serious adverse events. All studies compared formoterol 12 μg versus salmeterol 50 μg twice daily. The adult studies were all comparing Foradil Aerolizer with Serevent Diskus, and the children’s study compared Oxis Turbohaler to Serevent Accuhaler. There was only one death in an adult (which was unrelated to asthma) and none in children, and there were no significant differences in non-fatal serious adverse events comparing formoterol to salmeterol in adults (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.77; 95

  2. Stimulating Children to Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roy

    1985-01-01

    Special education students can be stimulated to write through a variety of activities, including representation, publicity and display tasks, activities featuring photographs, use of music and poetry, and projects in which students finish stories and describe novel materials. (CL)

  3. Deep brain stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brain The neurostimulator, which puts out the electric current. The stimulator is similar to a heart pacemaker . It is usually placed under the skin near the collarbone, but may be ... pulses travel from the neurostimulator, along the extension ...

  4. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  5. Preparation of Regular Specimens for Atom Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, Kim; Wishard, James

    2003-01-01

    A method of preparation of specimens of non-electropolishable materials for analysis by atom probes is being developed as a superior alternative to a prior method. In comparison with the prior method, the present method involves less processing time. Also, whereas the prior method yields irregularly shaped and sized specimens, the present developmental method offers the potential to prepare specimens of regular shape and size. The prior method is called the method of sharp shards because it involves crushing the material of interest and selecting microscopic sharp shards of the material for use as specimens. Each selected shard is oriented with its sharp tip facing away from the tip of a stainless-steel pin and is glued to the tip of the pin by use of silver epoxy. Then the shard is milled by use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to make the shard very thin (relative to its length) and to make its tip sharp enough for atom-probe analysis. The method of sharp shards is extremely time-consuming because the selection of shards must be performed with the help of a microscope, the shards must be positioned on the pins by use of micromanipulators, and the irregularity of size and shape necessitates many hours of FIB milling to sharpen each shard. In the present method, a flat slab of the material of interest (e.g., a polished sample of rock or a coated semiconductor wafer) is mounted in the sample holder of a dicing saw of the type conventionally used to cut individual integrated circuits out of the wafers on which they are fabricated in batches. A saw blade appropriate to the material of interest is selected. The depth of cut and the distance between successive parallel cuts is made such that what is left after the cuts is a series of thin, parallel ridges on a solid base. Then the workpiece is rotated 90 and the pattern of cuts is repeated, leaving behind a square array of square posts on the solid base. The posts can be made regular, long, and thin, as required for samples

  6. 8. Asymptotically Flat and Regular Cauchy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dain, Sergio

    I describe the construction of a large class of asymptotically flat initial data with non-vanishing mass and angular momentum for which the metric and the extrinsic curvature have asymptotic expansions at space-like infinity in terms of powers of a radial coordinate. I emphasize the motivations and the main ideas behind the proofs.

  7. Spend a Day in Outer Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama as stimulating experience for students in aerospace education. The center has the largest collection of space-age hardware assembled under one roof, a Space Flight simulator, a Skylab space station mock-up and many more interesting exhibits. (BR)

  8. The Relationship between Gentle Tactile Stimulation on the Fetus and Its Temperament 3 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe-Wei; Hua, Jing; Xu, Yu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in its temperament 3 months after birth. Method. A total of 302 mother-3-month-infant dyads enrolled the retrospective cohort study. 76 mothers had regular gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in their pregnancy; 62 mothers had irregular tactile stimulation on the fetus, and the rest of 164 mothers who had no tactile stimulation served as nonexposure group. Temperament was assessed using the EITS (a nine-dimensional scale of temperament). Results. Significant difference in temperament type was found among infants in 3 groups at 3 months of age. In the regular practice group, the babies with easy type temperament accounted for 73.7%, which was higher than that in irregular practice group (53.2%, P = 0.012) and that in the control group (42.1%, P < 0.001). Compared to infants in no practice group, the infants who had received regular gentle tactile stimulation before birth were lower in negative mood (P = 0.047) while higher in adaptability (P < 0.001), approach (P = 0.001), and persistence (P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. Regular gentle tactile stimulation on fetus may promote the formation of easy type infant temperament. PMID:26180374

  9. Local regularity for time-dependent tug-of-war games with varying probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Mikko; Ruosteenoja, Eero

    2016-07-01

    We study local regularity properties of value functions of time-dependent tug-of-war games. For games with constant probabilities we get local Lipschitz continuity. For more general games with probabilities depending on space and time we obtain Hölder and Harnack estimates. The games have a connection to the normalized p (x , t)-parabolic equation ut = Δu + (p (x , t) - 2) Δ∞Nu.

  10. [Spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2016-06-22

    Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy. PMID:27506068

  11. Mapping algorithms on regular parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.

    1989-01-01

    It is significant that many of time-intensive scientific algorithms are formulated as nested loops, which are inherently regularly structured. In this dissertation the relations between the mathematical structure of nested loop algorithms and the architectural capabilities required for their parallel execution are studied. The architectural model considered in depth is that of an arbitrary dimensional systolic array. The mathematical structure of the algorithm is characterized by classifying its data-dependence vectors according to the new ZERO-ONE-INFINITE property introduced. Using this classification, the first complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions for correct transformation of a nested loop algorithm onto a given systolic array of an arbitrary dimension by means of linear mappings is derived. Practical methods to derive optimal or suboptimal systolic array implementations are also provided. The techniques developed are used constructively to develop families of implementations satisfying various optimization criteria and to design programmable arrays efficiently executing classes of algorithms. In addition, a Computer-Aided Design system running on SUN workstations has been implemented to help in the design. The methodology, which deals with general algorithms, is illustrated by synthesizing linear and planar systolic array algorithms for matrix multiplication, a reindexed Warshall-Floyd transitive closure algorithm, and the longest common subsequence algorithm.

  12. Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Titus; Kliegl, Reinhold; Vasishth, Shravan

    2015-09-01

    Scanpaths have played an important role in classic research on reading behavior. Nevertheless, they have largely been neglected in later research perhaps due to a lack of suitable analytical tools. Recently, von der Malsburg and Vasishth (2011) proposed a new measure for quantifying differences between scanpaths and demonstrated that this measure can recover effects that were missed with the traditional eyetracking measures. However, the sentences used in that study were difficult to process and scanpath effects accordingly strong. The purpose of the present study was to test the validity, sensitivity, and scope of applicability of the scanpath measure, using simple sentences that are typically read from left to right. We derived predictions for the regularity of scanpaths from the literature on oculomotor control, sentence processing, and cognitive aging and tested these predictions using the scanpath measure and a large database of eye movements. All predictions were confirmed: Sentences with short words and syntactically more difficult sentences elicited more irregular scanpaths. Also, older readers produced more irregular scanpaths than younger readers. In addition, we found an effect that was not reported earlier: Syntax had a smaller influence on the eye movements of older readers than on those of young readers. We discuss this interaction of syntactic parsing cost with age in terms of shifts in processing strategies and a decline of executive control as readers age. Overall, our results demonstrate the validity and sensitivity of the scanpath measure and thus establish it as a productive and versatile tool for reading research. PMID:25530253

  13. Identifying Cognitive States Using Regularity Partitions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) data can be used to depict functional connectivity of the brain. Standard techniques have been developed to construct brain networks from this data; typically nodes are considered as voxels or sets of voxels with weighted edges between them representing measures of correlation. Identifying cognitive states based on fMRI data is connected with recording voxel activity over a certain time interval. Using this information, network and machine learning techniques can be applied to discriminate the cognitive states of the subjects by exploring different features of data. In this work we wish to describe and understand the organization of brain connectivity networks under cognitive tasks. In particular, we use a regularity partitioning algorithm that finds clusters of vertices such that they all behave with each other almost like random bipartite graphs. Based on the random approximation of the graph, we calculate a lower bound on the number of triangles as well as the expectation of the distribution of the edges in each subject and state. We investigate the results by comparing them to the state of the art algorithms for exploring connectivity and we argue that during epochs that the subject is exposed to stimulus, the inspected part of the brain is organized in an efficient way that enables enhanced functionality. PMID:26317983

  14. Grouping pursuit through a regularization solution surface *

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaotong; Huang, Hsin-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Summary Extracting grouping structure or identifying homogenous subgroups of predictors in regression is crucial for high-dimensional data analysis. A low-dimensional structure in particular–grouping, when captured in a regression model, enables to enhance predictive performance and to facilitate a model's interpretability Grouping pursuit extracts homogenous subgroups of predictors most responsible for outcomes of a response. This is the case in gene network analysis, where grouping reveals gene functionalities with regard to progression of a disease. To address challenges in grouping pursuit, we introduce a novel homotopy method for computing an entire solution surface through regularization involving a piecewise linear penalty. This nonconvex and overcomplete penalty permits adaptive grouping and nearly unbiased estimation, which is treated with a novel concept of grouped subdifferentials and difference convex programming for efficient computation. Finally, the proposed method not only achieves high performance as suggested by numerical analysis, but also has the desired optimality with regard to grouping pursuit and prediction as showed by our theoretical results. PMID:20689721

  15. Compression and regularization with the information bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, Dj; Schwab, David

    Compression fundamentally involves a decision about what is relevant and what is not. The information bottleneck (IB) by Tishby, Pereira, and Bialek formalized this notion as an information-theoretic optimization problem and proposed an optimal tradeoff between throwing away as many bits as possible, and selectively keeping those that are most important. The IB has also recently been proposed as a theory of sensory gating and predictive computation in the retina by Palmer et al. Here, we introduce an alternative formulation of the IB, the deterministic information bottleneck (DIB), that we argue better captures the notion of compression, including that done by the brain. As suggested by its name, the solution to the DIB problem is a deterministic encoder, as opposed to the stochastic encoder that is optimal under the IB. We then compare the IB and DIB on synthetic data, showing that the IB and DIB perform similarly in terms of the IB cost function, but that the DIB vastly outperforms the IB in terms of the DIB cost function. Our derivation of the DIB also provides a family of models which interpolates between the DIB and IB by adding noise of a particular form. We discuss the role of this noise as a regularizer.

  16. Regularities in movement of subsurface condensated fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ayre, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's law is traditionally considered to be a major filtration law. However, molecular and kinetic analyses of fluid movement in a porous medium with regard for physical interaction between liquids and rocks enabled the authors to derive a new, more general law: {anti V} = Ko (1{minus}Jo/J){sup 2} J, where: {anti v} = filtration rate, J = head gradient, Jo = initial filtration gradient of Ko = V/J with J Jo, i.e., Darcy's permeability coefficient. With J > Jo, this law is transformed into Darcy's law. With J > Jo, filtration stops as any multi-molecular liquid flow, and with J < Jo, it is transformed into an individual molecular movement called filling. Filling rate is determined using the law V = {lambda}J, where {lambda} is filling coefficient. The concept of initial filtration gradient gets a new interpretation. It is now considered as gradient with which pore-liquid movement is transformed from filtration type to a filling one. These regularities are important in evaluating subsurface fluid movement in the original environments or at some distance from exciting wells. In particular, it is found that pore-liquid flow in a natural environment is of filling type, and during this process separation of solution ingredients occurs. Final sizes of a depression cone of a functioning well or mine are controlled by existence of interactions between water and rock.

  17. Sparsity-Regularized HMAX for Visual Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    About ten years ago, HMAX was proposed as a simple and biologically feasible model for object recognition, based on how the visual cortex processes information. However, the model does not encompass sparse firing, which is a hallmark of neurons at all stages of the visual pathway. The current paper presents an improved model, called sparse HMAX, which integrates sparse firing. This model is able to learn higher-level features of objects on unlabeled training images. Unlike most other deep learning models that explicitly address global structure of images in every layer, sparse HMAX addresses local to global structure gradually along the hierarchy by applying patch-based learning to the output of the previous layer. As a consequence, the learning method can be standard sparse coding (SSC) or independent component analysis (ICA), two techniques deeply rooted in neuroscience. What makes SSC and ICA applicable at higher levels is the introduction of linear higher-order statistical regularities by max pooling. After training, high-level units display sparse, invariant selectivity for particular individuals or for image categories like those observed in human inferior temporal cortex (ITC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL). Finally, on an image classification benchmark, sparse HMAX outperforms the original HMAX by a large margin, suggesting its great potential for computer vision. PMID:24392078

  18. Temporal Regularity of the Environment Drives Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It’s reasonable to assume that a regularly paced sequence should be perceived as regular, but here we show that perceived regularity depends on the context in which the sequence is embedded. We presented one group of participants with perceptually regularly paced sequences, and another group of participants with mostly irregularly paced sequences (75% irregular, 25% regular). The timing of the final stimulus in each sequence could be varied. In one experiment, we asked whether the last stimulus was regular or not. We found that participants exposed to an irregular environment frequently reported perfectly regularly paced stimuli to be irregular. In a second experiment, we asked participants to judge whether the final stimulus was presented before or after a flash. In this way, we were able to determine distortions in temporal perception as changes in the timing necessary for the sound and the flash to be perceived synchronous. We found that within a regular context, the perceived timing of deviant last stimuli changed so that the relative anisochrony appeared to be perceptually decreased. In the irregular context, the perceived timing of irregular stimuli following a regular sequence was not affected. These observations suggest that humans use temporal expectations to evaluate the regularity of sequences and that expectations are combined with sensory stimuli to adapt perceived timing to follow the statistics of the environment. Expectations can be seen as a-priori probabilities on which perceived timing of stimuli depend. PMID:27441686

  19. Progressive image denoising through hybrid graph Laplacian regularization: a unified framework.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianming; Zhai, Deming; Zhao, Debin; Zhai, Guangtao; Gao, Wen

    2014-04-01

    Recovering images from corrupted observations is necessary for many real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to perform progressive image recovery based on hybrid graph Laplacian regularized regression. We first construct a multiscale representation of the target image by Laplacian pyramid, then progressively recover the degraded image in the scale space from coarse to fine so that the sharp edges and texture can be eventually recovered. On one hand, within each scale, a graph Laplacian regularization model represented by implicit kernel is learned, which simultaneously minimizes the least square error on the measured samples and preserves the geometrical structure of the image data space. In this procedure, the intrinsic manifold structure is explicitly considered using both measured and unmeasured samples, and the nonlocal self-similarity property is utilized as a fruitful resource for abstracting a priori knowledge of the images. On the other hand, between two successive scales, the proposed model is extended to a projected high-dimensional feature space through explicit kernel mapping to describe the interscale correlation, in which the local structure regularity is learned and propagated from coarser to finer scales. In this way, the proposed algorithm gradually recovers more and more image details and edges, which could not been recovered in previous scale. We test our algorithm on one typical image recovery task: impulse noise removal. Experimental results on benchmark test images demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:24565791

  20. Wave scattering from cavities with both regular and chaotic ray trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Jer; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward

    2013-03-01

    The random plane wave hypothesis has been used to characterize fields inside chaotic cavities where all ray trajectories are chaotic and visit the available phase space uniformly. We consider incident and reflected waves in channels connecting to a chaotic cavity. From Random Matrix Theory, the impedance, obtained from the scattering matrix, for pure chaotic cavities can be described as a Lorentzian random variable with predictable mean and width. For some shapes of cavities, called mixed systems, some rays are chaotic and visit subregions of phase space ergodically, while some rays are regular staying on invariant troi. We generalize the previous chaotic cavity theory to mixed systems by separating the impedance into regular and chaotic parts. We test the theory by numerically solving for eigenmodes of the Helmholtz equation in a mushroom shaped cavity where there is a clear separation between regular and chaotic regions of phase space. We compare our theoretical predictions with numerical calculations for one-port and two-ports cases with different port positions.

  1. About the Regularized Navier Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannone, Marco; Karch, Grzegorz

    2005-03-01

    The first goal of this paper is to study the large time behavior of solutions to the Cauchy problem for the 3-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes system. The Marcinkiewicz space L3,∞ is used to prove some asymptotic stability results for solutions with infinite energy. Next, this approach is applied to the analysis of two classical “regularized” Navier Stokes systems. The first one was introduced by J. Leray and consists in “mollifying” the nonlinearity. The second one was proposed by J.-L. Lions, who added the artificial hyper-viscosity (-Δ)ℓ/ 2, ℓ > 2 to the model. It is shown in the present paper that, in the whole space, solutions to those modified models converge as t → ∞ toward solutions of the original Navier Stokes system.

  2. Intraphagosomal oxygen in stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    James, P E; Grinberg, O Y; Michaels, G; Swartz, H M

    1995-05-01

    A new electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based method was developed to obtain selective information on pO2 in a specific intracellular compartment (phagosomes). This method did not require the use of a broadening agent thereby eliminating one of the potential sources of experimental error with EPR oximetry. An oxygen-sensitive probe (4-(Trimethylammonium) 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-oxyl iodide (d-Cat1)) which has a net positive charge, was incorporated selectively into the phagosomes of macrophages stimulated with zymosan. Extracellular oxygen was measured by addition of a neutral nitroxide (4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d16-1-oxyl (15N PDT)) to this same sample. Measurements based on EPR linewidths showed the average intraphagosomal oxygen concentration to be 11.2 +/- 3.4 microM lower than that measured from the extracellular compartment when the sample was perfused with air, and this was increased on stimulation of mitochondrial consumption or by increasing the oxygen concentration in the extracellular compartment. These experiments provide what we believe to be the first reported measurements of the oxygen concentration in a specific intracellular location (intraphagosomal) and its comparison with the oxygen concentration in the extracellular space. The observed gradient cannot be explained in terms of known coefficients of diffusion, and these results are consistent with previous reports that a gradient in oxygen concentration can occur between the average intracellular and extracellular concentration of oxygen. PMID:7706368

  3. Random matrix theory for mixed regular-chaotic dynamics in the super-extensive regime

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hady, A. Abd; Abul-Magd, A. Y.

    2011-10-27

    We apply Tsallis's q-indexed nonextensive entropy to formulate a random matrix theory (RMT), which may be suitable for systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. We consider the super-extensive regime of q<1. We obtain analytical expressions for the level-spacing distributions, which are strictly valid for 2 X2 random-matrix ensembles, as usually done in the standard RMT. We compare the results with spacing distributions, numerically calculated for random matrix ensembles describing a harmonic oscillator perturbed by Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles.

  4. Using sparse regularization for multiresolution tomography of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicciari, T.; Smith, N. D.; Mitchell, C. N.; Da Dalt, F.; Spencer, P. S. J.

    2015-03-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a technique that allows reconstructing the state of the ionosphere in terms of electron content from a set of Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) measurements. It is usually denoted as an inverse problem. In this experiment, the measurements are considered coming from the phase of the GPS signal and, therefore, affected by bias. For this reason the STEC cannot be considered in absolute terms but rather in relative terms. Measurements are collected from receivers not evenly distributed in space and together with limitations such as angle and density of the observations, they are the cause of instability in the operation of inversion. Furthermore, the ionosphere is a dynamic medium whose processes are continuously changing in time and space. This can affect CIT by limiting the accuracy in resolving structures and the processes that describe the ionosphere. Some inversion techniques are based on l2 minimization algorithms (i.e. Tikhonov regularization) and a standard approach is implemented here using spherical harmonics as a reference to compare the new method. A new approach is proposed for CIT that aims to permit sparsity in the reconstruction coefficients by using wavelet basis functions. It is based on the l1 minimization technique and wavelet basis functions due to their properties of compact representation. The l1 minimization is selected because it can optimise the result with an uneven distribution of observations by exploiting the localization property of wavelets. Also illustrated is how the interfrequency biases on the STEC are calibrated within the operation of inversion, and this is used as a way for evaluating the accuracy of the method. The technique is demonstrated using a simulation, showing the advantage of l1 minimization to estimate the coefficients over the l2 minimization. This is in particular true for an uneven observation geometry and especially for multi resolution CIT.

  5. Markov Boundary Discovery with Ridge Regularized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Ridge regularized linear models (RRLMs), such as ridge regression and the SVM, are a popular group of methods that are used in conjunction with coefficient hypothesis testing to discover explanatory variables with a significant multivariate association to a response. However, many investigators are reluctant to draw causal interpretations of the selected variables due to the incomplete knowledge of the capabilities of RRLMs in causal inference. Under reasonable assumptions, we show that a modified form of RRLMs can get “very close” to identifying a subset of the Markov boundary by providing a worst-case bound on the space of possible solutions. The results hold for any convex loss, even when the underlying functional relationship is nonlinear, and the solution is not unique. Our approach combines ideas in Markov boundary and sufficient dimension reduction theory. Experimental results show that the modified RRLMs are competitive against state-of-the-art algorithms in discovering part of the Markov boundary from gene expression data. PMID:27170915

  6. Regularized path integrals and anomalies: U(1) chiral gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopper, Christoph; Lévêque, Benjamin

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the origin of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly of chiral U(1) gauge theory within the framework of regularized path integrals. Momentum or position space regulators allow for mathematically well-defined path integrals but violate local gauge symmetry. It is known how (nonanomalous) gauge symmetry can be recovered in the renormalized theory in this case [Kopper, C. and Müller, V. F., "Renormalization of spontaneously broken SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with flow equations," Rev. Math. Phys. 21, 781 (2009)], 10.1142/S0129055X0900375X. Here we analyze U(1) chiral gauge theory to show how the appearance of anomalies manifests itself in such a context. We show that the three-photon amplitude leads to a violation of the Slavnov-Taylor identities which cannot be restored on taking the UV limit in the renormalized theory. We point out that this fact is related to the nonanalyticity of this amplitude in the infrared region.

  7. Synthesis and Structure - Property Relationships for Regular Multigraft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Jimmy; Uhrig, David; Gido, Samuel; Zhu, Yuqing; Weidisch, Roland; Iatrou, Hermis; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Hong, Kunlun; Beyer, Frederick; Lach, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Multigraft copolymers with polyisoprene backbones and polystyrene branches, having multiple regularly spaced branch points, were synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and controlled chlorosilane linking chemistry. The functionality of the branch points (1, 2 and 4) can be controlled, through the choice of chlorosilane linking agent. The morphologies of the various graft copolymers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. It was concluded that the morphology of these complex architectures is governed by the behavior of the corresponding miktoarm star copolymer associated with each branch point (constituting block copolymer), which follows Milner's theoretical treatment for miktoarm stars. By comparing samples having the same molecular weight backbone and branches but different number of branches it was found that the extent of long range order decreases with increasing number of branch points. The stress-strain properties in tension were investigated for some of these multigraft copolymers. For certain compositions thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) behavior was observed, and in many instances the elongation at break was much higher (2-3X) than that of conventional triblock TPEs.

  8. Revealing hidden regularities with a general approach to fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Selected aspects of a general approach to nuclear fission are described with the focus on the possible benefit of meeting the increasing need of nuclear data for the existing and future emerging nuclear applications. The most prominent features of this approach are the evolution of quantum-mechanical wave functions in systems with complex shape, memory effects in the dynamics of stochastic processes, the influence of the Second Law of thermodynamics on the evolution of open systems in terms of statistical mechanics, and the topological properties of a continuous function in multi-dimensional space. It is demonstrated that this approach allows reproducing the measured fission barriers and the observed properties of the fission fragments and prompt neutrons. Our approach is based on sound physical concepts, as demonstrated by the fact that practically all the parameters have a physical meaning, and reveals a high degree of regularity in the fission observables. Therefore, we expect a good predictive power within the region extending from Po isotopes to Sg isotopes where the model parameters have been adjusted. Our approach can be extended to other regions provided that there is enough empirical information available that allows determining appropriate values of the model parameters. Possibilities for combining this general approach with microscopic models are suggested. These are supposed to enhance the predictive power of the general approach and to help improving or adjusting the microscopic models. This could be a way to overcome the present difficulties for producing evaluations with the required accuracy.

  9. Comparison of the contractile responses to irregular and regular trains of stimuli during microstimulation of single human motor axons.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2014-04-01

    During voluntary contractions, human motoneurons discharge with a physiological variability of ∼20%. However, studies that have measured the contractile responses to microstimulation of single motor axons have used regular trains of stimuli with no variability. We tested the hypothesis that irregular (physiological) trains of stimuli produce greater contractile responses than regular (nonphysiological) trains of identical mean frequency but zero variability. High-impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve and guided into fascicles supplying a toe extensor muscle. Selective microstimulation was achieved for 14 single motor axons. Contractile responses were measured via an angular displacement transducer over the relevant toe. After the responses to regular trains of 10 stimuli extending from 2 to 100 Hz were recorded, irregular trains of 10 stimuli, based on the interspike intervals recorded from single motor units during voluntary contractions, were delivered. Finally, the stimulation sequences were repeated following a 2-min period of continuous stimulation at 10 Hz to induce muscle fatigue. Regular trains of stimuli generated a sigmoidal increase in displacement with frequency, whereas irregular trains, emulating the firing of volitionally driven motoneurons, displayed significantly greater responses over the same frequency range (8-24 Hz). This was maintained even in the presence of fatigue. We conclude that physiological discharge variability, which incorporates short and long interspike intervals, offers an advantage to the neuromuscular system by allowing motor units to operate on a higher level of the contraction-frequency curve and taking advantage of catch-like properties in skeletal muscle. PMID:24401713

  10. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-05-20

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: {approx}50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, {approx}16% from Plato, {approx}6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that {approx}80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  11. Regularities inherent to Solar Energetic Particle events and fluxes which define properties of interplanetary radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho

    High-energy radiation in the interplanetary space is mainly due to background particles of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar high-energy particles (SEP), the appearance of which has probabilistic nature. If the basic regularities inherent to galactic cosmic rays are relatively well known, the regularities inherent to SEP events are sometimes inaccurate or even erroneous. Ambiguous estimations of the SEP fluxes may lead to incorrect estimates of radiation hazards in the interplanetary space and to significant errors in planning of future human activities in space. Erroneous views on SEP fluxes in space lead to inaccurate conclusions about the characteristics of the radiation environment such as: • Probability and frequency of occurrence of SEP events in the interplanetary space; • SEP events distribution by magnitude and probable values of maximum fluxes; • Shape of the energy spectra of the solar energetic particles. Wrong understanding of SEP features makes difficult the objective assessment of dose characteristics and linear energy transfer for the protection of spacecraft constructions, spacecrafts crew, and future human bases on Moon and Mars.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Joel S.; Mink, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided remarkable benefits for people with a variety of neurologic conditions. Stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus can dramatically relieve tremor associated with essential tremor or Parkinson disease (PD). Similarly, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the internal segment of the globus pallidus can substantially reduce bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and gait difficulties in people with PD. Multiple groups are attempting to extend this mode of treatment to other conditions. Yet, the precise mechanism of action of DBS remains uncertain. Such studies have importance that extends beyond clinical therapeutics. Investigations of the mechanisms of action of DBS have the potential to clarify fundamental issues such as the functional anatomy of selected brain circuits and the relationship between activity in those circuits and behavior. Although we review relevant clinical issues, we emphasize the importance of current and future investigations on these topics. PMID:16776585

  13. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  14. Neural stimulation with optical radiation

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Wells, Jonathon D.; Jansen, E. Duco; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing research on infrared neural stimulation, a means of artificially stimulating neurons that has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is defined as the direct induction of an evoked potential in response to a transient targeted deposition of optical energy. The foremost advantage of using optical radiation for neural stimulation is its spatial resolution. Exogenously applied or trans-genetically synthesized fluorophores are not used to achieve stimulation. Here, current work on INS is presented for motor nerves, sensory nerves, central nervous system, and in vitro preparations. A discussion follows addressing the mechanism of INS and its potential use in neuroprostheses. A brief review of neural depolarization involving other optical methods is also presented. Topics covered include optical stimulation concurrent with electrical stimulation, optical stimulation using exogenous fluorophores, and optical stimulation by transgenic induction of light-gated ion channels. PMID:23082105

  15. Neural stimulation with optical radiation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Wells, Jonathon D; Jansen, E Duco; Walsh, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing research on infrared neural stimulation, a means of artificially stimulating neurons that has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is defined as the direct induction of an evoked potential in response to a transient targeted deposition of optical energy. The foremost advantage of using optical radiation for neural stimulation is its spatial resolution. Exogenously applied or trans-genetically synthesized fluorophores are not used to achieve stimulation. Here, current work on INS is presented for motor nerves, sensory nerves, central nervous system, and in vitro preparations. A discussion follows addressing the mechanism of INS and its potential use in neuroprostheses. A brief review of neural depolarization involving other optical methods is also presented. Topics covered include optical stimulation concurrent with electrical stimulation, optical stimulation using exogenous fluorophores, and optical stimulation by transgenic induction of light-gated ion channels. PMID:23082105

  16. p-exponent and p-leaders, Part I: Negative pointwise regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffard, S.; Melot, C.; Leonarduzzi, R.; Wendt, H.; Abry, P.; Roux, S. G.; Torres, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    Multifractal analysis aims to characterize signals, functions, images or fields, via the fluctuations of their local regularity along time or space, hence capturing crucial features of their temporal/spatial dynamics. Multifractal analysis is becoming a standard tool in signal and image processing, and is nowadays widely used in numerous applications of different natures. Its common formulation relies on the measure of local regularity via the Hölder exponent, by nature restricted to positive values, and thus to locally bounded functions or signals. It is here proposed to base the quantification of local regularity on p-exponents, a novel local regularity measure potentially taking negative values. First, the theoretical properties of p-exponents are studied in detail. Second, wavelet-based multiscale quantities, the p-leaders, are constructed and shown to permit accurate practical estimation of p-exponents. Exploiting the potential dependence with p, it is also shown how the collection of p-exponents enriches the classification of locally singular behaviors in functions, signals or images. The present contribution is complemented by a companion article developing the p-leader based multifractal formalism associated to p-exponents.

  17. Stable iteratively regularized gradient method for nonlinear irregular equations under large noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokurin, Mihail Yu

    2006-02-01

    We consider an iteratively regularized version of the method of gradient descent for solving nonlinear irregular equations F(x) = 0 in a Hilbert space. When studying regularization methods for such equations with noisy operators F, traditional conditions on available approximations {\\skew3\\widetilde{F}} amount to error estimates of the form \\Vert {\\skew3\\widetilde{F}}(x)- F(x) \\Vert \\leq \\delta , for x from a neighbourhood of a solution. Convergence of the methods is usually established on the assumption that the error level δ → 0, i.e. that noisy elements {\\skew3\\widetilde{F}}(x) strongly converge to the exact value F(x). In this paper we analyse approximating properties of the regularized gradient method assuming that {\\skew3\\widetilde{F}}(x) may converge to F(x) only weakly. We suggest an a priori stopping rule for the gradient iteration and give error estimates for obtained approximate solutions in terms of levels of strong and weak perturbations of the original operator. The main theorem generalizes recent results of Bakushinsky and Kokurin (2004 Iterative Methods for Approximate Solution of Inverse Problems (Dordrecht: Springer)) on the stopping of regularized gradient method under strong perturbations of F.

  18. Manifold regularized multitask learning for semi-supervised multilabel image classification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Tao, Dacheng; Geng, Bo; Xu, Chao; Maybank, Stephen J

    2013-02-01

    It is a significant challenge to classify images with multiple labels by using only a small number of labeled samples. One option is to learn a binary classifier for each label and use manifold regularization to improve the classification performance by exploring the underlying geometric structure of the data distribution. However, such an approach does not perform well in practice when images from multiple concepts are represented by high-dimensional visual features. Thus, manifold regularization is insufficient to control the model complexity. In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized multitask learning (MRMTL) algorithm. MRMTL learns a discriminative subspace shared by multiple classification tasks by exploiting the common structure of these tasks. It effectively controls the model complexity because different tasks limit one another's search volume, and the manifold regularization ensures that the functions in the shared hypothesis space are smooth along the data manifold. We conduct extensive experiments, on the PASCAL VOC'07 dataset with 20 classes and the MIR dataset with 38 classes, by comparing MRMTL with popular image classification algorithms. The results suggest that MRMTL is effective for image classification. PMID:22997267

  19. Copeptin under glucagon stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Lewiński, Andrzej; Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elżbieta; Stasiak, Magdalena; Horzelski, Wojciech; Brabant, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion by glucagon is a standard procedure to assess pituitary dysfunction but the pathomechanism of glucagon action remains unclear. As arginine vasopressin (AVP) may act on the release of both, GH and ACTH, we tested here the role of AVP in GST by measuring a stable precursor fragment, copeptin, which is stoichiometrically secreted with AVP in a 1:1 ratio. ACTH, cortisol, GH, and copeptin were measured at 0, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min during GST in 79 subjects: healthy controls (Group 1, n = 32), subjects with pituitary disease, but with adequate cortisol and GH responses during GST (Group 2, n = 29), and those with overt hypopituitarism (Group 3, n = 18). Copeptin concentrations significantly increased over baseline 150 and 180 min following glucagon stimulation in controls and patients with intact pituitary function but not in hypopituitarism. Copeptin concentrations were stimulated over time and the maximal increment correlated with ACTH, while correlations between copeptin and GH were weaker. Interestingly, copeptin as well as GH secretion was significantly attenuated when comparing subjects within the highest to those in the lowest BMI quartile (p < 0.05). Copeptin is significantly released following glucagon stimulation. As this release is BMI-dependent, the time-dependent relation between copeptin and GH may be obscured, whereas the close relation to ACTH suggests that AVP/copeptin release might be linked to the activation of the adrenal axis. PMID:26578365

  20. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    PubMed

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. PMID:24112926

  1. Heliostat Stimulator operator's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The Heliostat Stimulator is a portable test tool, housed in a suitcase, which can be used to perform the following functions: (1) acceptance testing of newly manufactured Heliostat Controllers (HC) and Heliostat Field Controllers (HFC); (2) aid in the installation and alignment of Heliostats; and (3) provide diagnostic troubleshooting capability in the event of Heliostat failure in the field.

  2. A regularizing iterative ensemble Kalman method for PDE-constrained inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Marco A.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a derivative-free computational framework for approximating solutions to nonlinear PDE-constrained inverse problems. The general aim is to merge ideas from iterative regularization with ensemble Kalman methods from Bayesian inference to develop a derivative-free stable method easy to implement in applications where the PDE (forward) model is only accessible as a black box (e.g. with commercial software). The proposed regularizing ensemble Kalman method can be derived as an approximation of the regularizing Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) scheme (Hanke 1997 Inverse Problems 13 79-95) in which the derivative of the forward operator and its adjoint are replaced with empirical covariances from an ensemble of elements from the admissible space of solutions. The resulting ensemble method consists of an update formula that is applied to each ensemble member and that has a regularization parameter selected in a similar fashion to the one in the LM scheme. Moreover, an early termination of the scheme is proposed according to a discrepancy principle-type of criterion. The proposed method can be also viewed as a regularizing version of standard Kalman approaches which are often unstable unless ad hoc fixes, such as covariance localization, are implemented. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed numerical investigation of the regularizing and convergence properties of the proposed regularizing ensemble Kalman scheme; the proof of these properties is an open problem. By means of numerical experiments, we investigate the conditions under which the proposed method inherits the regularizing properties of the LM scheme of (Hanke 1997 Inverse Problems 13 79-95) and is thus stable and suitable for its application in problems where the computation of the Fréchet derivative is not computationally feasible. More concretely, we study the effect of ensemble size, number of measurements, selection of initial ensemble and tunable parameters on the performance of the method

  3. Dose domain regularization of MLC leaf patterns for highly complex IMRT plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y.; Ruan, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The advent of automated beam orientation and fluence optimization enables more complex intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using an increasing number of fields to exploit the expanded solution space. This has created a challenge in converting complex fluences to robust multileaf collimator (MLC) segments for delivery. A novel method to regularize the fluence map and simplify MLC segments is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy, and plan quality. Methods: In this work, we implemented a novel approach to regularize optimized fluences in the dose domain. The treatment planning problem was formulated in an optimization framework to minimize the segmentation-induced dose distribution degradation subject to a total variation regularization to encourage piecewise smoothness in fluence maps. The optimization problem was solved using a first-order primal-dual algorithm known as the Chambolle-Pock algorithm. Plans for 2 GBM, 2 head and neck, and 2 lung patients were created using 20 automatically selected and optimized noncoplanar beams. The fluence was first regularized using Chambolle-Pock and then stratified into equal steps, and the MLC segments were calculated using a previously described level reducing method. Isolated apertures with sizes smaller than preset thresholds of 1–3 bixels, which are square units of an IMRT fluence map from MLC discretization, were removed from the MLC segments. Performance of the dose domain regularized (DDR) fluences was compared to direct stratification and direct MLC segmentation (DMS) of the fluences using level reduction without dose domain fluence regularization. Results: For all six cases, the DDR method increased the average planning target volume dose homogeneity (D95/D5) from 0.814 to 0.878 while maintaining equivalent dose to organs at risk (OARs). Regularized fluences were more robust to MLC sequencing, particularly to the stratification and small aperture removal. The maximum and

  4. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  5. 5 CFR 532.203 - Structure of regular wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Each nonsupervisory and leader regular wage schedule shall have 15 grades, which shall be designated as follows: (1) WG means an appropriated fund nonsupervisory grade; (2) WL means an appropriated fund leader... leader grade. (b) Each supervisory regular wage schedule shall have 19 grades, which shall be...

  6. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section 551.421 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... have a regularly scheduled administrative workweek. However, under title 5 United States Code, and...

  7. Endemic infections are always possible on regular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Genio, Charo I.; House, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    We study the dependence of the largest component in regular networks on the clustering coefficient, showing that its size changes smoothly without undergoing a phase transition. We explain this behavior via an analytical approach based on the network structure, and provide an exact equation describing the numerical results. Our work indicates that intrinsic structural properties always allow the spread of epidemics on regular networks.

  8. Pairing renormalization and regularization within the local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Borycki, P.J.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    2006-04-15

    We discuss methods used in mean-field theories to treat pairing correlations within the local density approximation. Pairing renormalization and regularization procedures are compared in spherical and deformed nuclei. Both prescriptions give fairly similar results, although the theoretical motivation, simplicity, and stability of the regularization procedure make it a method of choice for future applications.

  9. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  10. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  11. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  12. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  13. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  14. Cognitive Aspects of Regularity Exhibit When Neighborhood Disappears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sau-Chin; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Although regularity refers to the compatibility between pronunciation of character and sound of phonetic component, it has been suggested as being part of consistency, which is defined by neighborhood characteristics. Two experiments demonstrate how regularity effect is amplified or reduced by neighborhood characteristics and reveals the…

  15. Myth 13: The Regular Classroom Teacher Can "Go It Alone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    With most gifted students being educated in a mainstream model of education, the prevailing myth that the regular classroom teacher can "go it alone" and the companion myth that the teacher can provide for the education of gifted students through differentiation are alive and well. In reality, the regular classroom teacher is too often concerned…

  16. The Inclusion of Differently Abled Students in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Angela

    This study sought to evaluate the implementation of a program to foster the inclusion of differently abled students into a regular elementary school classroom. The report is based on interviews with eight regular and two special education teachers, as well as the school principal, along with classroom materials and information on inclusion…

  17. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  18. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  19. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  20. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  1. 29 CFR 778.500 - Artificial regular rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Artificial regular rates. 778.500 Section 778.500 Labor... Circumvent the Act Devices to Evade the Overtime Requirements § 778.500 Artificial regular rates. (a) Since... of his compensation. Payment for overtime on the basis of an artificial “regular” rate will...

  2. 77 FR 76078 - Regular Board of Directors Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Regular Board of Directors Sunshine Act Meeting TIME & DATE: 2:00 p.m., Wednesday, January 9, 2013.... Call to Order II. Executive Session III. Approval of the Regular Board of Directors Meeting Minutes...

  3. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  4. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television operators transmitting carriers in the frequency bands...

  5. Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A practically important regularization of the Navier-Stokes equations was analyzed. As a continuation of the previous work, the structure of the attractors characterizing the solutins was studied. Local as well as global invariant manifolds were found. Regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.

  6. Fundamental and Regular Elementary Schools: Do Differences Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry J.; And Others

    This study compared the academic achievement and other outcomes of three public fundamental elementary schools with three regular elementary schools in a metropolitan school district. Modeled after the John Marshal Fundamental School in Pasadena, California, which opened in the fall of 1973, fundamental schools differ from regular schools in that…

  7. Inclusion Professional Development Model and Regular Middle School Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Otelia; Reglin, Gary L.; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a professional development model on regular education middle school teachers' knowledge of best practices for teaching inclusive classes and attitudes toward teaching these classes. There were 19 regular education teachers who taught the core subjects. Findings for Research Question 1…

  8. 29 CFR 553.233 - “Regular rate” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime Compensation Rules § 553.233 “Regular rate” defined. The rules for computing an employee's “regular rate”, for purposes of the Act's overtime pay...

  9. Different levels of Ih determine distinct temporal integration in bursting and regular-spiking neurons in rat subiculum

    PubMed Central

    van Welie, Ingrid; Remme, Michiel W H; van Hooft, Johannes A; Wadman, Wytse J

    2006-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the subiculum typically display either bursting or regular-spiking behaviour. Although this classification into two neuronal classes is well described, it is unknown how these two classes of neurons contribute to the integration of input to the subiculum. Here, we report that bursting neurons posses a hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) that is two-fold larger (conductance, 5.3 ± 0.5 nS) than in regular-spiking neurons (2.2 ± 0.6 nS), whereas Ih exhibits similar voltage-dependent and kinetic properties in both classes of neurons. Bursting and regular-spiking neurons display similar morphology. The difference in Ih between the two classes of neurons is not responsible for the distinct firing patterns, as neither pharmacological blockade of Ih nor enhancement of Ih using a dynamic clamp affects the qualitative firing patterns. Instead, the difference in Ih between bursting and regular-spiking neurons determines the temporal integration of evoked synaptic input from the CA1 area. In response to stimulation at 50 Hz, bursting neurons, with a large Ih, show ∼50% less temporal summation than regular-spiking neurons. The amount of temporal summation in both neuronal classes is equal after pharmacological blockade of Ih. A computer simulation model of a subicular neuron with the properties of either a bursting or a regular-spiking neuron confirmed the pivotal role of Ih in temporal integration of synaptic input. These data suggest that in the subicular network, bursting neurons are better suited to discriminate the content of high-frequency input, such as that occurring during gamma oscillations, than regular-spiking neurons. PMID:16809363

  10. Regular and chaotic motions in applied dynamics of a rigid body.

    PubMed

    Beletskii, V. V.; Pivovarov, M. L.; Starostin, E. L.

    1996-06-01

    Periodic and regular motions, having a predictable functioning mode, play an important role in many problems of dynamics. The achievements of mathematics and mechanics (beginning with Poincare) have made it possible to establish that such motion modes, generally speaking, are local and form "islands" of regularity in a "chaotic sea" of essentially unpredictable trajectories. The development of computer techniques together with theoretical investigations makes it possible to study the global structure of the phase space of many problems having applied significance. A review of a number of such problems, considered by the authors in the past four or five years, is given in this paper. These include orientation and rotation problems of artificial and natural celestial bodies and the problem of controlling the motion of a locomotion robot. The structure of phase space is investigated for these problems. The phase trajectories of the motion are constructed by a numerical implementation of the Poincare point map method. Distinctions are made between regular (or resonance), quasiregular (or conditionally periodic), and chaotic trajectories. The evolution of the phase picture as the parameters are varied is investigated. A large number of "phase portraits" gives a notion of the arrangement and size of the stability islands in the "sea" of chaotic motions, about the appearance and disappearance of these islands as the parameters are varied, etc. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12780243

  11. Formation of the regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, E.

    One cannot overlook the fact that many of the regularities which are found in the Solar System are also to be seen in the regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, e.g., the spacing of the regular satellites is a variation of the Titius-Bode "rule." This may suggest that the same cosmogonic process must have been responsible for the origin of both types of systems. In this work the early massive gas and dust protosatellite disk in orbit around a planet is considered: the gasdynamic theory is applied to study the gravitational Jeans-type instability. The implications for the origin of a satellite system of a giant planet are discussed. It is shown that a collective process, forming the basis of the gravitational instability hypothesis, solves with surprising simplicity the two main problems of the dynamical characteristics of the system, which are associated with its observed spacing and orbital momentum distribution. Computer simulations are also described which are used to verify the theoretical predictions. This work was supported in part by the Israel Science Foundation and the Israeli Ministry of Immigrant Absorption.

  12. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  13. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. Recent findings Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified rules. In contrast, adaptive closed-loop stimulation dynamically adjusts stimulation settings based on the occurrence of stimulation-induced state changes. Summary Approaches that take into account trait-related and state-related determinants of stimulation-induced plasticity bear considerable potential to establish noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation as interventional therapeutic tool. PMID:27224087

  14. [An electro-stimulating oral splint for dry mouth treatment].

    PubMed

    Fedele, S; Wolff, A; Strietzel, F P; Granizo López, R M; Porter, S; Konttinen, Y T

    2008-11-01

    Dentists encounter regularly patients with xerostomia, which is the accepted term for dry mouth complaint. Left untreated, xerostomia can lead to psychosocial distress and to impaired quality of life. Oral complications of the most frequent cause of xerostomia, salivary gland hypofunction, include dental caries and candidiasis. In addition, quality of life is significantly hampered. The etiology of xerostomia is multiple, but the most common conditions are Sjögren's syndrome, radiotherapy to the head and neck and use of medications. Current therapies offered by dentists rely on saliva substitutes and stimulants such as chewing gum, and are somewhat limited by their short-term efficacy. Oral mucosal electro-stimulation increases salivary secretion and relieves symptoms of dry mouth in patients with xerostomia. Therefore, intra-oral electronic devices have been developed aimed at stimulating salivary gland function. They offer promise as an optional safe and non-chemical treatment of xerostomia. PMID:19263865

  15. Centers for the commercial development of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Susan E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, NASA initiated an innovative effort called Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). The CCDS program was designed to increase private-sector interest and investment in space-related activities, while encouraging U.S. economic leadership and stimulating advances in promising areas of research and development. Research conducted in the Centers handling the following areas is summarized: materials processing; life sciences; remote sensing; automation and robotics; space propulsion; space structures and materials; and space power.

  16. Electrical stimulation characteristics of denervated orbicularis oculi muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Keyong; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Yiting; Geng, Liang; Sun, Yajing; Tian, Hongchang

    2015-08-01

    This research is to study the electrical stimulation characteristics of orbicularis oculi muscle and the characteristics of the mechanical contraction. We observed the stimulus current diffusion regularity and its relationship with mechanical contraction in the orbicularis oculi muscle using an electrode gathering line. Under different stimulus intensities of 2 or 4 mA, the closer the recording electrodes were to the stimulating electrode, the larger was the amplitude. When the recording electrode and stimulating electrode distance increased, the amplitude declined linearly with decreasing function. In addition, current conduction across the muscle fiber was studied. Under different stimulus intensities of 2 or 4 mA, it was found that the closer the recording electrodes were to the stimulating electrode, the larger was the amplitude. When the recording electrode and stimulating electrode distance increased, the amplitude declined linearly with decreasing function. The transverse current reached a maximum 4 mA range, and increasing the current intensity did not increase the propagation range. Under different stimulation intensities, the larger the stimulus intensity, the greater is the potential change and the faster is the attenuation. Longitudinal current, even in the range of 6 mm, can still record electrical activity. While a transverse current diffuser has a maximum range of 4 mm, increasing the current intensity does not increase the propagation range. PMID:25724806

  17. The Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Sleep and Olfactory Function in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Breen, David P; Low, Hu Liang; Misbahuddin, Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the effects of deep brain stimulation on non-motor symptoms. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of deep brain stimulation on sleep and olfactory function in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: Subjective sleep quality and olfactory testing were performed on 11 consecutive Parkinson’s disease patients (eight men and three women) undergoing bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation. All patients consented to undergo clinical assessments prior to the procedure, and at regular intervals afterwards. Results: Subjective sleep quality improved at six months following deep brain stimulation and this benefit was sustained in the majority of patients at later follow-up assessments. There was no significant change in olfactory function following deep brain stimulation. Conclusions: In addition to having beneficial effects on motor function and quality of life, bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation improves subjective sleep quality in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26535069

  18. Generalisation for regular black holes on general relativity to f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Marques, Glauber T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general f( R) theory, coupled to a non-linear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian {L}_NED. The functions f( R) and {L}_NED are in principle left unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function M( r) presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC), which is violated near the Cauchy horizon. We present also a new theorem related to the energy conditions in f( R) gravity, re-obtaining the well-known conditions in the context of general relativity when the geometry of the solution is the same.

  19. A regularized model for impact in explicit dynamics applied to the split Hopkinson pressure bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Peter; De Lorenzis, Laura; Unger, Jörg F.

    2016-07-01

    In the numerical simulation of impact phenomena, artificial oscillations can occur due to an instantaneous change of velocity in the contact area. In this paper, a nonlinear penalty regularization is used to avoid these oscillations. A particular focus is the investigation of higher order methods in space and time to increase the computational efficiency. The spatial discretization is realized by higher order spectral element methods that are characterized by a diagonal mass matrix. The time integration scheme is based on half-explicit Runge-Kutta scheme of fourth order. For the conditionally stable scheme, the critical time step is influenced by the penalty regularization. A framework is presented to adjust the penalty stiffness and the time step for a specific mesh to avoid oscillations. The methods presented in this paper are applied to 1D-simulations of a split Hopkinson pressure bar, which is commonly used for the investigation of materials under dynamic loading.

  20. A New 2-Dimensional Millimeter Wave Radiation Imaging System Based on Finite Difference Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Suhua; Hu, Fei; Chen, Zhizhang (David)

    2015-04-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging radiometer (SAIR) has the potential to meet the spatial resolution requirement of passive millimeter remote sensing from space. A new two-dimensional (2-D) imaging radiometer at millimeter wave (MMW) band is described in this paper; it uses a one-dimensional (1-D) synthetic aperture digital radiometer (SADR) to obtain an image on one dimension and a rotary platform to provide a scan on the second dimension. Due to the ill-posed inverse problem of SADR, we proposed a new reconstruction algorithm based on Finite Difference (FD) regularization to improve brightness temperature images. Experimental results show that the proposed 2-D MMW radiometer can give the brightness temperature images of natural scenes and the FD regularization reconstruction algorithm is able to improve the quality of brightness temperature images.

  1. Regularization methods to assess the eddy current density inside conductive non-ferromagnetic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. Lopes; Ramos, H. G.; Pasadas, D.; Rocha, T.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation describes two regularization methods that were applied to preview the current density induced in an aluminum plate. The images that result from the measurement of one magnetic field component by scanning the plate were used to determine the current density. The scanning was performed using a constant field eddy current probe and a rectangular area including the defect was covered. With the constant field probe a sinusoidal excitation was imposed to the plate, being the amplitude and phase invariant under a limited space translation. The obtained data was inverted and two regularization methods were applied, Tikhonov and total variation. The two methods were compared to conclude about their inclusion into nondestructive test and evaluation instrumentation.

  2. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  3. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  4. Occipital nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

    2015-01-01

    Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

  5. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  6. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  7. A Note on the Regularization of Linear Inversion for Estimating Quasi-Static Fault Slip Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardid Segura, A.; Ortega Culaciati, F. H.; Simons, M.

    2014-12-01

    During all the stages of the seismic cycle, earthquakes, aseismic slip, or even the onset of locking on the fault, may produce geodetically measurable deformation at the surface of the Earth. For instance, we can use space geodetic observations to measure crustal deformation associated to aseismic behavior of faults, which is essential to increase our level of understanding of the kinematics and physical processes controlling earthquake and tsunami occurrence. Estimating subsurface processes, such as distribution of fault slip, from surface observations at the Earth's crust is an inherently ill-posed problem. Therefore, the adopted inverse methodology to obtain such estimates plays a key role in this learning process. There are two general end member approaches to estimate the distribution of slip on a fault that deals with the inherent instability of the inverse problem: An unregularized, computationally expensive, fully Bayesian approach and a much more expedient but biased optimization approach using some form of regularized least squares. We focus our efforts in the latter approach. On the regularized inversion, the chosen form of regularization will introduce a priori information on fault slip estimates that needs to be well understood to be able to reach rigorous interpretation of the inversion results. We discuss the effects that the a priori information implied by commonly used regularization schemes has on slip estimates of fault behavior. Also we discuss the importance of using a regularization scheme that accounts for the spatial variability of the constraints provided by the observations (typically onland), in order to improve the stability and resolution of the inferred slip distributions of fault behavior. We present study cases in the Japan Trench and Central Andean subduction megathrusts. We also discuss the impact that off-shore geodetic monitoring has on our ability to provide insights on the mechanical behavior of the shallower portions of

  8. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  9. Two hybrid regularization frameworks for solving the electrocardiography inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mingfeng; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guofa; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, two hybrid regularization frameworks, LSQR-Tik and Tik-LSQR, which integrate the properties of the direct regularization method (Tikhonov) and the iterative regularization method (LSQR), have been proposed and investigated for solving ECG inverse problems. The LSQR-Tik method is based on the Lanczos process, which yields a sequence of small bidiagonal systems to approximate the original ill-posed problem and then the Tikhonov regularization method is applied to stabilize the projected problem. The Tik-LSQR method is formulated as an iterative LSQR inverse, augmented with a Tikhonov-like prior information term. The performances of these two hybrid methods are evaluated using a realistic heart-torso model simulation protocol, in which the heart surface source method is employed to calculate the simulated epicardial potentials (EPs) from the action potentials (APs), and then the acquired EPs are used to calculate simulated body surface potentials (BSPs). The results show that the regularized solutions obtained by the LSQR-Tik method are approximate to those of the Tikhonov method, the computational cost of the LSQR-Tik method, however, is much less than that of the Tikhonov method. Moreover, the Tik-LSQR scheme can reconstruct the epcicardial potential distribution more accurately, specifically for the BSPs with large noisy cases. This investigation suggests that hybrid regularization methods may be more effective than separate regularization approaches for ECG inverse problems.

  10. A local-order regularization for geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheymasi, H. Mohammadi; Gholami, A.

    2013-11-01

    Different types of regularization have been developed to obtain stable solutions to linear inverse problems. Among these, total variation (TV) is known as an edge preserver method, which leads to piecewise constant solutions and has received much attention for solving inverse problems arising in geophysical studies. However, the method shows staircase effects and is not suitable for the models including smooth regions. To overcome the staircase effect, we present a method, which employs a local-order difference operator in the regularization term. This method is performed in two steps: First, we apply a pre-processing step to find the edge locations in the regularized solution using a properly defined minmod limiter, where the edges are determined by a comparison of the solutions obtained using different order regularizations of the TV types. Then, we construct a local-order difference operator based on the information obtained from the pre-processing step about the edge locations, which is subsequently used as a regularization operator in the final sparsity-promoting regularization. Experimental results from the synthetic and real seismic traveltime tomography show that the proposed inversion method is able to retain the smooth regions of the regularized solution, while preserving sharp transitions presented in it.

  11. Intralaminar stimulation of the inferior colliculus facilitates frequency-specific activation in the auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allitt, B. J.; Benjaminsen, C.; Morgan, S. J.; Paolini, A. G.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Auditory midbrain implants (AMI) provide inadequate frequency discrimination for open set speech perception. AMIs that can take advantage of the tonotopic laminar of the midbrain may be able to better deliver frequency specific perception and lead to enhanced performance. Stimulation strategies that best elicit frequency specific activity need to be identified. This research examined the characteristic frequency (CF) relationship between regions of the auditory cortex (AC), in response to stimulated regions of the inferior colliculus (IC), comparing monopolar, and intralaminar bipolar electrical stimulation. Approach. Electrical stimulation using multi-channel micro-electrode arrays in the IC was used to elicit AC responses in anaesthetized male hooded Wistar rats. The rate of activity in AC regions with CFs within 3 kHz (CF-aligned) and unaligned CFs was used to assess the frequency specificity of responses. Main results. Both monopolar and bipolar IC stimulation led to CF-aligned neural activity in the AC. Altering the distance between the stimulation and reference electrodes in the IC led to changes in both threshold and dynamic range, with bipolar stimulation with 400 µm spacing evoking the lowest AC threshold and widest dynamic range. At saturation, bipolar stimulation elicited a significantly higher mean spike count in the AC at CF-aligned areas than at CF-unaligned areas when electrode spacing was 400 µm or less. Bipolar stimulation using electrode spacing of 400 µm or less also elicited a higher rate of elicited activity in the AC in both CF-aligned and CF-unaligned regions than monopolar stimulation. When electrodes were spaced 600 µm apart no benefit over monopolar stimulation was observed. Furthermore, monopolar stimulation of the external cortex of the IC resulted in more localized frequency responses than bipolar stimulation when stimulation and reference sites were 200 µm apart. Significance. These findings have implications for the

  12. Regular Cosmogenic Nuclide Dosing of Sediment Moving Down Desert Piedmonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Hooke, R. L.; Eppes, M. C.; Persico, L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-gradient alluvial piedmonts are common in desert areas throughout the world; however, long-term rates of processes that modify these landscapes are poorly understood. Using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al, we attempt to quantify the long-term (>103 y) behavior of desert piedmonts in Southern California. We measured the activity of 10Be and 26Al in three samples of drainage basin alluvium and six amalgamated samples from transects spaced at 1-km intervals down a piedmont in Fort Irwin, Mojave Desert, California. Each transect sample consists of sediment from 21 collection sites spaced at 150 m intervals. Such sampling averages the variability of nuclide activity between sub-sample locations and thus gives a long-term dosing history of sediment as it is transported from uplands to the distal piedmont. The piedmont is heavily used during military training exercises during which hundreds of wheeled and tracked vehicles traverse the surface. The piedmont surface is planar, and fan-head incision is minimal at the rangefront decreasing to zero between the first and second transects, 1.5 km from the rangefront. 10Be activity increases steadily from 5.87 X 105 atoms g-1 at the rangefront to 1.02 X 6 atoms g-1 at the piedmont bottom. Nuclide activity and distance are well correlated (r2 = 0.95) suggesting that sediment is dosed uniformly as it is transported down piedmont. We have measured similar increases in nuclide activity in transect samples collected from two other Mojave Desert piedmonts, those fringing the Iron and Granite Mountains (Nichols et al, in press, Geomorphology). These piedmonts have nuclide activities that also correlate well with distance (r2 = 0.98 and 0.96, respectively) from their rangefronts, but nuclides increase at a lower rate down piedmont. Modeled sediment transport speeds for the Iron and Granite Mountain piedmonts are decimeters per year. The regular increase in nuclide activities down three different Mojave Desert piedmonts suggests that

  13. Structural source identification using a generalized Tikhonov regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucejo, M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying mechanical exciting forces from vibration measurements. The proposed approach is based on a generalized Tikhonov regularization that allows taking into account prior information on the measurement noise as well as on the main characteristics of sources to identify like its sparsity or regularity. To solve such a regularization problem efficiently, a Generalized Iteratively Reweighted Least-Squares (GIRLS) algorithm is introduced. Proposed numerical and experimental validations reveal the crucial role of prior information in the quality of the source identification and the performance of the GIRLS algorithm.

  14. Regularity criterion for the 3D Hall-magneto-hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mimi

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the regularity problem for the 3D incompressible resistive viscous Hall-magneto-hydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) system. The Kolmogorov 41 phenomenological theory of turbulence [14] predicts that there exists a critical wavenumber above which the high frequency part is dominated by the dissipation term in the fluid equation. Inspired by this idea, we apply an approach of splitting the wavenumber combined with an estimate of the energy flux to obtain a new regularity criterion. The regularity condition presented here is weaker than conditions in the existing criteria (Prodi-Serrin type criteria) for the 3D Hall-MHD system.

  15. Regular modes in a mixed-dynamics-based optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Allgaier, M; Doya, V

    2016-02-01

    A multimode optical fiber with a truncated transverse cross section acts as a powerful versatile support to investigate the wave features of complex ray dynamics. In this paper, we concentrate on the case of a geometry inducing mixed dynamics. We highlight that regular modes associated with stable periodic orbits present an enhanced spatial intensity localization. We report the statistics of the inverse participation ratio whose features are analogous to those of Anderson localized modes. Our study is supported by both numerical and experimental results on the spatial localization and spectral regularity of the regular modes. PMID:26986325

  16. Some results on the spectra of strongly regular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Luís António de Almeida; Mano, Vasco Moço

    2016-06-01

    Let G be a strongly regular graph whose adjacency matrix is A. We associate a real finite dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra 𝒱, of rank three to the strongly regular graph G, spanned by I and the natural powers of A, endowed with the Jordan product of matrices and with the inner product as being the usual trace of matrices. Finally, by the analysis of the binomial Hadamard series of an element of 𝒱, we establish some inequalities on the parameters and on the spectrum of a strongly regular graph like those established in theorems 3 and 4.

  17. Blind image deblurring with edge enhancing total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Hong, Hanyu; Song, Jie; Hua, Xia

    2015-04-01

    Blind image deblurring is an important issue. In this paper, we focus on solving this issue by constrained regularization method. Motivated by the importance of edges to visual perception, the edge-enhancing indicator is introduced to constrain the total variation regularization, and the bilateral filter is used for edge-preserving smoothing. The proposed edge enhancing regularization method aims to smooth preferably within each region and preserve edges. Experiments on simulated and real motion blurred images show that the proposed method is competitive with recent state-of-the-art total variation methods.

  18. Loop Invariants, Exploration of Regularities, and Mathematical Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginat, David

    2001-01-01

    Presents an approach for illustrating, on an intuitive level, the significance of loop invariants for algorithm design and analysis. The illustration is based on mathematical games that require the exploration of regularities via problem-solving heuristics. (Author/MM)

  19. Regularized Chapman-Enskog expansion for scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schochet, Steven; Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Rosenau has recently proposed a regularized version of the Chapman-Enskog expansion of hydrodynamics. This regularized expansion resembles the usual Navier-Stokes viscosity terms at law wave-numbers, but unlike the latter, it has the advantage of being a bounded macroscopic approximation to the linearized collision operator. The behavior of Rosenau regularization of the Chapman-Enskog expansion (RCE) is studied in the context of scalar conservation laws. It is shown that thie RCE model retains the essential properties of the usual viscosity approximation, e.g., existence of traveling waves, monotonicity, upper-Lipschitz continuity..., and at the same time, it sharpens the standard viscous shock layers. It is proved that the regularized RCE approximation converges to the underlying inviscid entropy solution as its mean-free-path epsilon approaches 0, and the convergence rate is estimated.

  20. Vectorial total variation-based regularization for variational image registration.

    PubMed

    Chumchob, Noppadol

    2013-11-01

    To use interdependence between the primary components of the deformation field for smooth and non-smooth registration problems, the channel-by-channel total variation- or standard vectorial total variation (SVTV)-based regularization has been extended to a more flexible and efficient technique, allowing high quality regularization procedures. Based on this method, this paper proposes a fast nonlinear multigrid (NMG) method for solving the underlying Euler-Lagrange system of two coupled second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical experiments using both synthetic and realistic images not only confirm that the recommended VTV-based regularization yields better registration qualities for a wide range of applications than those of the SVTV-based regularization, but also that the proposed NMG method is fast, accurate, and reliable in delivering visually-pleasing registration results. PMID:23893729

  1. Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159699.html Regular Doctor Visits Can Help Spot Colon Cancer Early detection improves likelihood of survival, researchers ... increases the odds you'll be screened for colon cancer, a new study says. Colon cancer is ...

  2. Generic quantum walks with memory on regular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Mc Gettrick, Michael; Gao, Fei; Xu, Jie; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Quantum walks with memory (QWM) are a type of modified quantum walks that record the walker's latest path. As we know, only two kinds of QWM have been presented up to now. It is desired to design more QWM for research, so that we can explore the potential of QWM. In this work, by presenting the one-to-one correspondence between QWM on a regular graph and quantum walks without memory (QWoM) on a line digraph of the regular graph, we construct a generic model of QWM on regular graphs. This construction gives a general scheme for building all possible standard QWM on regular graphs and makes it possible to study properties of different kinds of QWM. Here, by taking the simplest example, which is QWM with one memory on the line, we analyze some properties of QWM, such as variance, occupancy rate, and localization.

  3. Analytic regularization for landmark-based image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusharina, Nadezhda; Sharp, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Landmark-based registration using radial basis functions (RBF) is an efficient and mathematically transparent method for the registration of medical images. To ensure invertibility and diffeomorphism of the RBF-based vector field, various regularization schemes have been suggested. Here, we report a novel analytic method of RBF regularization and demonstrate its power for Gaussian RBF. Our analytic formula can be used to obtain a regularized vector field from the solution of a system of linear equations, exactly as in traditional RBF, and can be generalized to any RBF with infinite support. We statistically validate the method on global registration of synthetic and pulmonary images. Furthermore, we present several clinical examples of multistage intensity/landmark-based registrations, where regularized Gaussian RBF are successful in correcting locally misregistered areas resulting from automatic B-spline registration. The intended ultimate application of our method is rapid, interactive local correction of deformable registration with a small number of mouse clicks.

  4. 32 CFR 901.14 - Regular airmen category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... status when appointed as cadets. (b) Regular category applicants must arrange to have their high school.... Applicants not selected are reassigned on Academy notification to the CBPO. Applicants to technical...

  5. 32 CFR 901.14 - Regular airmen category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... status when appointed as cadets. (b) Regular category applicants must arrange to have their high school.... Applicants not selected are reassigned on Academy notification to the CBPO. Applicants to technical...

  6. 32 CFR 901.14 - Regular airmen category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... status when appointed as cadets. (b) Regular category applicants must arrange to have their high school.... Applicants not selected are reassigned on Academy notification to the CBPO. Applicants to technical...

  7. 5 CFR 550.1307 - Authority to regularize paychecks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... caused by work scheduling cycles that result in varying hours in the firefighters' tours of duty from pay... for regular tours of duty over the firefighter's entire work scheduling cycle must, to the...

  8. Are Pupils in Special Education Too "Special" for Regular Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Pijl, Sip J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands special needs pupils are often referred to separate schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) or the Learning Disabled (LD). There is an ongoing debate on how to reduce the growing numbers of special education placements. One of the main issues in this debate concerns the size of the difference in cognitive abilities between pupils in regular education and those eligible for LD or EMR education. In this study meta-analysis techniques were used to synthesize the findings from 31 studies on differences between pupils in regular primary education and those in special education in the Netherlands. Studies were grouped into three categories according to the type of measurements used: achievement, general intelligence and neuropsychological tests. It was found that pupils in regular education and those in special education differ in achievement and general intelligence. Pupils in schools for the educable mentally retarded in particular perform at a much lower level than is common in regular Dutch primary education.

  9. Robust destriping method with unidirectional total variation and framelet regularization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Fang, Houzhang; Yan, Luxin; Liu, Hai

    2013-10-01

    Multidetector imaging systems often suffer from the problem of stripe noise and random noise, which greatly degrade the imaging quality. In this paper, we propose a variational destriping method that combines unidirectional total variation and framelet regularization. Total-variation-based regularizations are considered effective in removing different kinds of stripe noise, and framelet regularization can efficiently preserve the detail information. In essence, these two regularizations are complementary to each other. Moreover, the proposed method can also efficiently suppress random noise. The split Bregman iteration method is employed to solve the resulting minimization problem. Comparative results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art destriping methods on both qualitative and quantitative assessments. PMID:24104244

  10. Aggregation of regularized solutions from multiple observation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jieyang; Pereverzyev, Sergiy, Jr.; Xu, Yuesheng

    2015-07-01

    Joint inversion of multiple observation models has important applications in many disciplines including geoscience, image processing and computational biology. One of the methodologies for joint inversion of ill-posed observation equations naturally leads to multi-parameter regularization, which has been intensively studied over the last several years. However, problems such as the choice of multiple regularization parameters remain unsolved. In the present study, we discuss a rather general approach to the regularization of multiple observation models, based on the idea of the linear aggregation of approximations corresponding to different values of the regularization parameters. We show how the well-known linear functional strategy can be used for such an aggregation and prove that the error of a constructive aggregator differs from the ideal error value by a quantity of an order higher than the best guaranteed accuracy from the most trustable observation model. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by numerical experiments with simulated data.

  11. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art. PMID:26394426

  12. A novel regularized edge-preserving super-resolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Fu-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2013-09-01

    Using super-resolution (SR) technology is a good approach to obtain high-resolution infrared image. However, Image super-resolution reconstruction is essentially an ill-posed problem, it is important to design an effective regularization term (image prior). Gaussian prior is widely used in the regularization term, but the reconstructed SR image becomes over-smoothness. Here, a novel regularization term called non-local means (NLM) term is derived based on the assumption that the natural image content is likely to repeat itself within some neighborhood. In the proposed framework, the estimated high image is obtained by minimizing a cost function. The iteration method is applied to solve the optimum problem. With the progress of iteration, the regularization term is adaptively updated. The proposed algorithm has been tested in several experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and can reconstruct higher quality images both in quantitative term and perceptual effect.

  13. Strategy for implementing research in hydrology to promote space science among school children in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, Omowumi O.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a proposed activity to introduce school children in Nigeria to research in hydrology through the public outreach coordinated by the United Nations affiliated African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E). Over the years, ARCSSTE-E has established a vibrant relationship with Nigerian schools through periodic zonal and national space educational workshops organized for students and teachers. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the brilliant performance in the evaluation tests, indicated that this method of informal education is suitable for stimulating the interest of Nigerian pre-collegiate youths in space science and technology, and also to inspire the young learners and develop their interest in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Because only few representatives from each school can participate in these public outreach programs, it became expedient for the Centre to inaugurate space clubs in schools as a forum for students and teachers to meet regularly to discuss space related issues. Since the first space club was officially launched in 2007, the Centre has inaugurated over 300 space clubs in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions, strategically distributed over the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The presentation highlights a space club activity designed to introduce the students to precipitation data collection, with locally fabricated rain gauges. The paper also documents the proposed post-data collection activities in which ARCSSTE-E, acting as the coordinating Centre will collaborate with other national and international organizations to standardize and utilize the rainfall data collected by the students for ground validation of satellite data from the Global Precipitation Measurement. Key words: Public Outreach, Space Club, Human Capacity Development, Hydrologic Research, Global Precipitation Measurement.

  14. Regular structure in the inner Cassini Division of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Brian C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager imaging, radio occultation, and stellar occultation data for the regular structure of Saturn's inner Cassini Division are presently analyzed. The regular optical depth variation observed by the radio occultation experiment scan and the feature noted in Voyager images is the same structure, namely the gravitational wakes of two 10-km radius satellites orbiting within the division. The structure is azimuthally symmetric, and is judged to rule out the possibility that large moonlets may be responsible for the observed structure.

  15. Note on regular black holes in a brane world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we show that regular black holes in a Randall-Sundrum-type brane world model are generated by the nonlocal bulk influence, expressed by a constant parameter in the brane metric, only in the spherical case. In the axial case (black holes with rotation), this influence forbids them. A nonconstant bulk influence is necessary to generate regular black holes with rotation in this context.

  16. Lesions impairing regular versus irregular past tense production☆

    PubMed Central

    Meteyard, Lotte; Price, Cathy J.; Woollams, Anna M.; Aydelott, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We investigated selective impairments in the production of regular and irregular past tense by examining language performance and lesion sites in a sample of twelve stroke patients. A disadvantage in regular past tense production was observed in six patients when phonological complexity was greater for regular than irregular verbs, and in three patients when phonological complexity was closely matched across regularity. These deficits were not consistently related to grammatical difficulties or phonological errors but were consistently related to lesion site. All six patients with a regular past tense disadvantage had damage to the left ventral pars opercularis (in the inferior frontal cortex), an area associated with articulatory sequencing in prior functional imaging studies. In addition, those that maintained a disadvantage for regular verbs when phonological complexity was controlled had damage to the left ventral supramarginal gyrus (in the inferior parietal lobe), an area associated with phonological short-term memory. When these frontal and parietal regions were spared in patients who had damage to subcortical (n = 2) or posterior temporo-parietal regions (n = 3), past tense production was relatively unimpaired for both regular and irregular forms. The remaining (12th) patient was impaired in producing regular past tense but was significantly less accurate when producing irregular past tense. This patient had frontal, parietal, subcortical and posterior temporo-parietal damage, but was distinguished from the other patients by damage to the left anterior temporal cortex, an area associated with semantic processing. We consider how our lesion site and behavioral observations have implications for theoretical accounts of past tense production. PMID:24273726

  17. Broadband stimulated Raman backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, B.; Aurand, B.; Lehmann, G.; Gangolf, T.; Schnell, M.; Kühl, T.; Spielmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Broadband amplification employing stimulated Raman backscattering is demonstrated. Using seed pulses with a bandwidth of about 200 nm, we study the amplification in a wide spectral range in a single laser shot. With chirped pump pulses and a Ne gas jet, we observed under optimized conditions, amplification in a range of about 80 nm, which is sufficient to support the amplification of sub-20 fs pulses. This broad amplification range is also in excellent agreement with PIC simulations. The conversion efficiency is at certain wavelengths as high as 1.2% and was measured to be better than 6 × 10‑3 on average.

  18. Geothermal well stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

  19. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Naoum, Joseph J.; Arbid, Elias J.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of chronic limb ischemia involves the restoration of pulsatile blood flow to the distal extremity. Some patients cannot be treated with endovascular means or with open surgery; some may have medical comorbidities that render them unfit for surgery, while others may have persistent ischemia or pain even in the face of previous attempts at reperfusion. In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a device with electrodes is implanted in the epidural space to stimulate sensory fibers. This activates cell-signaling molecules that in turn cause the release of vasodilatory molecules, a decrease in vascular resistance, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells. SCS also suppresses sympathetic vasoconstriction and pain transmission. When patient selection is based on microcirculatory parameters, SCS therapy can significantly improve pain relief, halt the progression of ulcers, and potentially achieve limb salvage. PMID:23805343

  20. New solutions of charged regular black holes and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikata, Nami; Yoshida, Shijun; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2012-10-01

    We construct new regular black hole solutions by matching the de Sitter solution and the Reissner-Nordström solution with a timelike thin shell. The thin shell is assumed to have mass but no pressure and obeys an equation of motion derived from Israel’s junction conditions. By investigating the equation of motion for the shell, we obtain stationary solutions of charged regular black holes and examine stability of the solutions. Stationary solutions are found in limited ranges of 0.87L≤m≤1.99L, and they are stable against small radial displacement of the shell with fixed values of m, M, and Q if M>0, where L is the de Sitter horizon radius, m the black hole mass, M the proper mass of the shell, and Q the black hole charge. All the solutions obtained are highly charged in the sense of Q/m>23≈0.866. By taking the massless limit of the shell in the present regular black hole solutions, we obtain the charged regular black hole with a massless shell obtained by Lemos and Zanchin and investigate stability of the solutions. It is found that Lemos and Zanchin’s regular black hole solutions given by the massless limit of the present regular black hole solutions permit stable solutions, which are obtained by the limit of M→0.

  1. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  2. Nonlocal means-based regularizations for statistical CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Yan; Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) methods have shown remarkable gains over the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) method in improving image quality for low-dose computed tomography (CT). They reconstruct the CT images by maximizing/minimizing a cost function in a statistical sense, where the cost function usually consists of two terms: the data-fidelity term modeling the statistics of measured data, and the regularization term reflecting a prior information. The regularization term in SIR plays a critical role for successful image reconstruction, and an established family of regularizations is based on the Markov random field (MRF) model. Inspired by the success of nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm in image processing applications, we proposed, in this work, a family of generic and edgepreserving NLM-based regularizations for SIR. We evaluated one of them where the potential function takes the quadratic-form. Experimental results with both digital and physical phantoms clearly demonstrated that SIR with the proposed regularization can achieve more significant gains than SIR with the widely-used Gaussian MRF regularization and the conventional FBP method, in terms of image noise reduction and resolution preservation.

  3. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  4. Graph Regularized Meta-path Based Transductive Regression in Heterogeneous Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mengting; Ouyang, Yunbo; Kaplan, Lance; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    A number of real-world networks are heterogeneous information networks, which are composed of different types of nodes and links. Numerical prediction in heterogeneous information networks is a challenging but significant area because network based information for unlabeled objects is usually limited to make precise estimations. In this paper, we consider a graph regularized meta-path based transductive regression model (Grempt), which combines the principal philosophies of typical graph-based transductive classification methods and transductive regression models designed for homogeneous networks. The computation of our method is time and space efficient and the precision of our model can be verified by numerical experiments. PMID:26705510

  5. The Mimetic Finite Element Method and the Virtual Element Method for elliptic problems with arbitrary regularity.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco

    2012-07-13

    We develop and analyze a new family of virtual element methods on unstructured polygonal meshes for the diffusion problem in primal form, that use arbitrarily regular discrete spaces V{sub h} {contained_in} C{sup {alpha}} {element_of} N. The degrees of freedom are (a) solution and derivative values of various degree at suitable nodes and (b) solution moments inside polygons. The convergence of the method is proven theoretically and an optimal error estimate is derived. The connection with the Mimetic Finite Difference method is also discussed. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence rate that is expected from the theory.

  6. Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Meller, Yosef

    2010-11-15

    A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

  7. A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

  8. Regularized logistic regression and multiobjective variable selection for classifying MEG data.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the question of maximizing classifier accuracy for classifying task-related mental activity from Magnetoencelophalography (MEG) data. We propose the use of different sources of information and introduce an automatic channel selection procedure. To determine an informative set of channels, our approach combines a variety of machine learning algorithms: feature subset selection methods, classifiers based on regularized logistic regression, information fusion, and multiobjective optimization based on probabilistic modeling of the search space. The experimental results show that our proposal is able to improve classification accuracy compared to approaches whose classifiers use only one type of MEG information or for which the set of channels is fixed a priori. PMID:22854976

  9. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  10. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  11. Therapeutic stimulation versus ablation.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Marwan I; Hariz, Gun-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The renaissance of functional stereotactic neurosurgery was pioneered in the mid 1980s by Laitinen's introduction of Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy for Parkinson´s disease (PD). This ablative procedure experienced a worldwide spread in the 1990s, owing to its excellent effect on dyskinesias and other symptoms of post-l-dopa PD. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), pioneered by Benabid and Pollak in 1987 for the treatment of tremor, first became popular when it was applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mid 1990s, where it demonstrated a striking effect on all cardinal symptoms of advanced PD, and permitted reduced dosages of medication. DBS, as a nondestructive, adaptable, and reversible procedure that is proving safe in bilateral surgery on basal ganglia, has great appeal to clinicians and patients alike, despite the fact that it is expensive, laborious, and relies on very strict patient selection criteria, especially for STN DBS. Psychiatric surgery has experienced the same phenomenon, with DBS supplanting completely stereotactic ablative procedures. This chapter discusses the pros and cons of ablation versus stimulation and investigates the reasons why DBS has overshadowed proven efficient ablative procedures such as pallidotomy for PD, and capsulotomy and cingulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. PMID:24112885

  12. BIOPHYSICAL STIMULATION FOR NONUNIONS.

    PubMed

    Della Bella, E; Tschon, M; Stagni, C; Dallari, D; Fini, M

    2015-01-01

    Nonunions account for 5-10% on the total number of fractures. Biophysical stimulation is a non-surgical, conservative, frequently used therapy in nonunions and a greater efficacy has been demonstrated for pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). The mechanisms of action of PEMF at cellular and molecular levels are still under debate and no dose-response study is available. Moreover, the vast majority of in vitro studies were conducted on healthy cells. The primary aim of the research was to investigate the capacity of PEMF with different exposure times to stimulate the osteogenic process in cells from the callus of a nonunion patient. Another important objective was the characterization of nonunion cells in terms of clonogenicity, cluster of differentiation expression and the tri-lineage differentiation capacity. Overall, the results indicated the presence of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the callus of a nonunion, with an impairment in the osteogenic differentiation process. PEMF may enhance cell viability, the formation of osteoid matrix and accelerate the process of osteogenic differentiation. BMP-4 production, TIMP1 and TIMP2 expression were influenced, as well as VEGFA, whose early upregulation may account for a possible improvement in both the osteogenic and vasculogenic processes. In conclusion, even with some discussed limitations, these preliminary data showed the presence of a multipotent progenitor population and suggested some hints of the effect of PEMF on nonunion cells. PMID:26652488

  13. A comprehensive methodology for algorithm characterization, regularization and mapping into optimal VLSI arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Barada, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation provides a fairly comprehensive treatment of a broad class of algorithms as it pertains to systolic implementation. The authors describe some formal algorithmic transformations that can be utilized to map regular and some irregular compute-bound algorithms into the beat fit time-optimal systolic architectures. The resulted architectures can be one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional or nonplanar. The methodology detailed in the dissertation employs, like other methods, the concept of dependence vector to order, in space and time, the index points representing the algorithm. However, by differentiating between two types of dependence vectors, the ordering procedure is allowed to be flexible and time optimal. Furthermore, unlike other methodologies, the approach reported here does not put constraints on the topology or dimensionality of the target architecture. The ordered index points are represented by nodes in a diagram called Systolic Precedence Diagram (SPD). The SPD is a form of precedence graph that takes into account the systolic operation requirements of strictly local communications and regular data flow. Therefore, any algorithm with variable dependence vectors has to be transformed into a regular indexed set of computations with local dependencies. This can be done by replacing variable dependence vectors with sets of fixed dependence vectors. The SPD is transformed into an acyclic, labeled, directed graph called the Systolic Directed Graph (SDG). The SDG models the data flow as well as the timing for the execution of the given algorithm on a time-optimal array.

  14. A Regularized Linear Dynamical System Framework for Multivariate Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Linear Dynamical System (LDS) is an elegant mathematical framework for modeling and learning Multivariate Time Series (MTS). However, in general, it is difficult to set the dimension of an LDS’s hidden state space. A small number of hidden states may not be able to model the complexities of a MTS, while a large number of hidden states can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we study learning methods that impose various regularization penalties on the transition matrix of the LDS model and propose a regularized LDS learning framework (rLDS) which aims to (1) automatically shut down LDSs’ spurious and unnecessary dimensions, and consequently, address the problem of choosing the optimal number of hidden states; (2) prevent the overfitting problem given a small amount of MTS data; and (3) support accurate MTS forecasting. To learn the regularized LDS from data we incorporate a second order cone program and a generalized gradient descent method into the Maximum a Posteriori framework and use Expectation Maximization to obtain a low-rank transition matrix of the LDS model. We propose two priors for modeling the matrix which lead to two instances of our rLDS. We show that our rLDS is able to recover well the intrinsic dimensionality of the time series dynamics and it improves the predictive performance when compared to baselines on both synthetic and real-world MTS datasets. PMID:25905027

  15. Regular Arrays of Germanium Nanoparticles Assisted by Thermoset Polymer Composites for High Capacity Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2012-02-01

    In recent years Li-batteries have attracted significant interests for a variety of applications such as portable electronics and electric vehicle (EV) batteries due to their high energy densities. Key challenges in advancing the technology lie in specific energy density, the long term cycle properties, and durability at elevated temperature. In present study, we were motivated to prepare high capacity Li-battery by creating regular arrays of germanium nanoparticles (GeNPs, 1600 mAh/g) to replace commercial graphite anode (370 mAh/g). Thermoset polymers were employed to prepare GeNPs/polymer composites with tunable NP loadings and spacings, followed by carbonization process to prepare GeNPs/carbon composite anode material. Due to the large volume change of GeNPs with charge/discharge cycles, the regular arrays of GeNPs are turned out to be a crucial parameter in obtaining enhanced cyclability. The GeNPs/carbon anode materials were cycle tested in a half cell configuration using Lithium foil as a counter electrode and lithium salt doped PS-PEO block copolymers as electrolytes. High capacity and rate capability were achieved, which demonstrate the role of nano-sized and regularly-arrayed anode active materials in obtaining the improved battery performance.

  16. Variational regularization of complex deautoconvolution and phase retrieval in ultrashort laser pulse characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzengruber, Stephan W.; Bürger, Steven; Hofmann, Bernd; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2016-03-01

    The SD-SPIDER method for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses requires the solution of a nonlinear integral equation of autoconvolution type with a device-based kernel function. Taking into account the analytical background of a variational regularization approach for solving the corresponding ill-posed operator equation formulated in complex-valued L 2-spaces over finite real intervals, we suggest and evaluate numerical procedures using NURBS and the TIGRA method for calculating the regularized solutions in a stable manner. In this context, besides the complex deautoconvolution problem with noisy but full data, a phase retrieval problem is introduced which adapts to the experimental state of the art in laser optics. For the treatment of this problem facet, which is formulated as a tensor product operator equation, we derive the well-posedness of variational regularization methods. Case studies with synthetic and real optical data show the capability of the implemented approach as well as its limitations due to measurement deficits.

  17. A linearized current stimulator for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ding-Lan; Chu, Yu-Jung

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops the front end of the stimulator which is applied in the implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This stimulator adopts the low power switched-capacitor DAC accompanying with voltage-to-current transconductance amplifiers to obtain the adjustable output currents. The proposed distortion cancellation technique improves the linearity of the current stimulator. Multiple transconductance amplifiers sharing a single DAC save the circuit area. The biphasic stimulation waveform is generated from the bridge switching technique and the programmable pulse. This stimulation circuit provides the 0 approximately 165 microA current for a typical loading of 10 kΩ, 8 approximately 120 micros pulse width, and 126 approximately 244 Hz frequencies with a 0.35 microm CMOS technology at 3.3 V supply voltage. PMID:21096724

  18. Regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular salmeterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and FDA submissions in relation to salmeterol. The date of the most recent search was August 2011. Selection criteria We included controlled parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular salmeterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 26 trials comparing salmeterol to placebo and eight trials comparing with salbutamol. These included 62,815 participants with asthma (including 2,599 children). In six trials (2,766 patients), no serious adverse event data could be obtained. All-cause mortality was higher with regular salmeterol than placebo but the increase was not significant (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.08)). Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when regular salmeterol was compared with placebo (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.02 to 1.29). One extra serious adverse event occurred over 28 weeks for every 188 people

  19. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  20. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  1. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-07-01

    Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior. PMID:26589300

  2. Particle motion and Penrose processes around rotating regular black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    2016-07-01

    The neutral particle motion around rotating regular black hole that was derived from the Ayón-Beato-García (ABG) black hole solution by the Newman-Janis algorithm in the preceding paper (Toshmatov et al., Phys. Rev. D, 89:104017, 2014) has been studied. The dependencies of the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbits along geodesics) and unstable orbits on the value of the electric charge of the rotating regular black hole have been shown. Energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole through various processes has been examined. We have found expression of the center of mass energy for the colliding neutral particles coming from infinity, based on the BSW (Baňados-Silk-West) mechanism. The electric charge Q of rotating regular black hole decreases the potential of the gravitational field as compared to the Kerr black hole and the particles demonstrate less bound energy at the circular geodesics. This causes an increase of efficiency of the energy extraction through BSW process in the presence of the electric charge Q from rotating regular black hole. Furthermore, we have studied the particle emission due to the BSW effect assuming that two neutral particles collide near the horizon of the rotating regular extremal black hole and produce another two particles. We have shown that efficiency of the energy extraction is less than the value 146.6 % being valid for the Kerr black hole. It has been also demonstrated that the efficiency of the energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole via the Penrose process decreases with the increase of the electric charge Q and is smaller in comparison to 20.7 % which is the value for the extreme Kerr black hole with the specific angular momentum a= M.

  3. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  4. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  5. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-12-21

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  6. Global services systems - Space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.; Wolbers, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements projected to the year 2000 for space-based global service systems, including both personal communications and innovative services, are developed based on historic trends and anticipated worldwide demographic and economic growth patterns. The growing demands appear to be best satisfied by developing larger, more sophisticated space systems in order to reduce the size, complexity, and expense of ground terminals. The availability of low-cost ground terminals will, in turn, further stimulate the generation of new services and new customers.

  7. Improvements In Optically Stimulated Electron Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Welch, Christopher S.; Joe, Edmond J.; Hefner, Bill B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) used in inspection for contamination of critical bonding surfaces in solid rocket motors of Space Shuttle prior to formation of adhesive bonds on surfaces during manufacture and refurbishment. Fundamental OSEE inspection technique described in "Surface-Contamination Inspection Tool for Field Use" (MFS-25581) and "Detecting Contamination With Photoelectron Emission" (MFS-25619). OSEE measurement head easily portable, and measurement operation convenient and rapid, making it useful inspection technique in industrial environment. Reveals contamination in many situations in which other techniques do not work.

  8. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  9. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  10. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  11. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enclosed and partially enclosed spaces. (a) An enclosed or partially enclosed space within a vessel must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A power ventilation system must... space and any other space occupied by a crew member on a regular basis must be ventilated by a...

  12. Regularization based on steering parameterized Gaussian filters and a Bhattacharyya distance functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Emerson P.

    2001-08-01

    Template regularization embeds the problem of class separability. In the machine vision perspective, this problem is critical when a textural classification procedure is applied to non-stationary pattern mosaic images. These applications often present low accuracy performance due to disturbance of the classifiers produced by exogenous or endogenous signal regularity perturbations. Natural scene imaging, where the images present certain degree of homogeneity in terms of texture element size or shape (primitives) shows a variety of behaviors, especially varying the preferential spatial directionality. The space-time image pattern characterization is only solved if classification procedures are designed considering the most robust tools within a parallel and hardware perspective. The results to be compared in this paper are obtained using a framework based on multi-resolution, frame and hypothesis approach. Two strategies for the bank of Gabor filters applications are considered: adaptive strategy using the KL transform and fix configuration strategy. The regularization under discussion is accomplished in the pyramid building system instance. The filterings are steering Gaussians controlled by free parameters which are adjusted in accordance with a feedback process driven by hints obtained from sequence of frames interaction functionals pos-processed in the training process and including classification of training set samples as examples. Besides these adjustments there is continuous input data sensitive adaptiveness. The experimental result assessments are focused on two basic issues: Bhattacharyya distance as pattern characterization feature and the combination of KL transform as feature selection and adaptive criterion with the regularization of the pattern Bhattacharyya distance functional (BDF) behavior, using the BDF state separability and symmetry as the main indicators of an optimum framework parameter configuration.

  13. Engagement Sensitive Visual Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepesh; Dutta, Anirban; Das, Abhijit; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance. PMID:27478569

  14. Stimulated radiative laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muys, P.

    2008-04-01

    Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to the radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

  15. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rafanelli, G. L.; Capps, D. M.; Drutman, C.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of the optical trains of various strategic defense system scenarios; and discovering possible methods to eliminate, or at least reduce, the deleterious effects of SRRS on the energy deposition on target. The following topics are discussed: the motivation for the accomplishments of the DOE program; the Semiclassical Theory of Non-Resonant SRRS for Diatomic Homonuclear Molecules; and then the following appendices; Calculation of the Dipole Transition Reduced Matrix Element, Guided Tour of Hughes SRRS Code, Running the Hughes SRRS Code, and Hughes SRRS Code Listing.

  16. Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Daniel R; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is an ultrafast nonlinear optical technique that provides vibrational structural information with high temporal (sub-50 fs) precision and high spectral (10 cm(-1) ) resolution. Since the first full demonstration of its capabilities ≈15 years ago, FSRS has evolved into a mature technique, giving deep insights into chemical and biochemical reaction dynamics that would be inaccessible with any other technique. It is now being routinely applied to virtually all possible photochemical reactions and systems spanning from single molecules in solution to thin films, bulk crystals and macromolecular proteins. This review starts with an historic overview and discusses the theoretical and experimental concepts behind this technology. Emphasis is put on the current state-of-the-art experimental realization and several variations of FSRS that have been developed. The unique capabilities of FSRS are illustrated through a comprehensive presentation of experiments to date followed by prospects. PMID:26919612

  17. Engagement Sensitive Visual Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Dutta, Anirban; Das, Abhijit; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-06-13

    Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one's performance. PMID:27478569

  18. Regular treatment with formoterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Christopher J; Cates, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists are safe. Objectives The aim of this review is to assess the risk of fatal and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials that randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular formoterol versus placebo or regular short-acting beta2-agonists. Search methods We identified trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submissions in relation to formoterol. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Selection criteria We included controlled, parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol and were of at least 12 weeks’ duration. Concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids was allowed, as long as this was not part of the randomised treatment regimen. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review. One author extracted outcome data and the second author checked them. We sought unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events. Main results The review includes 22 studies (8032 participants) comparing regular formoterol to placebo and salbutamol. Non-fatal serious adverse event data could be obtained for all participants from published studies comparing formoterol and placebo but only 80% of those comparing formoterol with salbutamol or terbutaline. Three deaths occurred on regular formoterol and none on placebo; this difference was not statistically significant. It was not possible to assess disease-specific mortality in view of the small number of deaths. Non-fatal serious adverse events were significantly increased when

  19. Investigating irregularly patterned deep brain stimulation signal design using biophysical models

    PubMed Central

    Summerson, Samantha R.; Aazhang, Behnaam; Kemere, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which follows from cell loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a nucleus in the basal ganglia (BG). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an electrical therapy that modulates the pathological activity to treat the motor symptoms of PD. Although this therapy is currently used in clinical practice, the sufficient conditions for therapeutic efficacy are unknown. In this work we develop a model of critical motor circuit structures in the brain using biophysical cell models as the base components and then evaluate performance of different DBS signals in this model to perform comparative studies of their efficacy. Biological models are an important tool for gaining insights into neural function and, in this case, serve as effective tools for investigating innovative new DBS paradigms. Experiments were performed using the hemi-parkinsonian rodent model to test the same set of signals, verifying the obedience of the model to physiological trends. We show that antidromic spiking from DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has a significant impact on cortical neural activity, which is frequency dependent and additionally modulated by the regularity of the stimulus pulse train used. Irregular spacing between stimulus pulses, where the amount of variability added is bounded, is shown to increase diversification of response of basal ganglia neurons and reduce entropic noise in cortical neurons, which may be fundamentally important to restoration of information flow in the motor circuit. PMID:26167150

  20. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sreedhar S.; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable ‘state’ to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit

  1. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sreedhar S; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin; Egert, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable 'state' to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit quantitative

  2. McGehee regularization of general SO(3)-invariant potentials and applications to stationary and spherically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Pablo; Mars, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The McGehee regularization is a method to study the singularity at the origin of the dynamical system describing a point particle in a plane moving under the action of a power-law potential. It was used by Belbruno and Pretorius (2011 Class. Quantum Grav. 28 195007) to perform a dynamical system regularization of the singularity at the center of the motion of massless test particles in the Schwarzschild spacetime. In this paper, we generalize the McGehee transformation so that we can regularize the singularity at the origin of the dynamical system describing the motion of causal geodesics (timelike or null) in any stationary and spherically symmetric spacetime of Kerr-Schild form. We first show that the geodesics for both massive and massless particles can be described globally in the Kerr-Schild spacetime as the motion of a Newtonian point particle in a suitable radial potential and study the conditions under which the central singularity can be regularized using an extension of the McGehee method. As an example, we apply these results to causal geodesics in the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. Interestingly, the geodesic trajectories in the whole maximal extension of both spacetimes can be described by a single two-dimensional phase space with non-trivial topology. This topology arises from the presence of excluded regions in the phase space determined by the condition that the tangent vector of the geodesic be causal and future directed.

  3. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  4. Usage possibilities of laser stimulation in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The laser stimulation is used in ophthalmology as a supplement toother way of therapy. Nowadays, the following types of procedures are being performed: eyeball anterior segment stimulation, lacrimal gland stimulation, eyeball posterior pole stimulation, trigeminal nerve opening stimulation. Laser stimulation can be used as an independent procedure or together with pharmacological treatment.

  5. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  6. X-ray computed tomography using curvelet sparse regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, Matthias Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Frikel, Jürgen; Demaret, Laurent; Eggl, Elena; Pfeiffer, Franz; Kopp, Felix; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of x-ray computed tomography (CT) data remains a mathematically challenging problem in medical imaging. Complementing the standard analytical reconstruction methods, sparse regularization is growing in importance, as it allows inclusion of prior knowledge. The paper presents a method for sparse regularization based on the curvelet frame for the application to iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography. Methods: In this work, the authors present an iterative reconstruction approach based on the alternating direction method of multipliers using curvelet sparse regularization. Results: Evaluation of the method is performed on a specifically crafted numerical phantom dataset to highlight the method’s strengths. Additional evaluation is performed on two real datasets from commercial scanners with different noise characteristics, a clinical bone sample acquired in a micro-CT and a human abdomen scanned in a diagnostic CT. The results clearly illustrate that curvelet sparse regularization has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves the restoration and resolution of highly directional, high contrast features with smooth contrast variations. The authors also compare this approach to the popular technique of total variation and to traditional filtered backprojection. Conclusions: The authors conclude that curvelet sparse regularization is able to improve reconstruction quality by reducing noise while preserving highly directional features.

  7. Regularized image system for Stokes flow outside a solid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Jacek K.; Cortez, Ricardo; Varela, Douglas; Fauci, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    The image system for a three-dimensional flow generated by regularized forces outside a solid sphere is formulated and implemented as an extension of the method of regularized Stokeslets. The method is based on replacing a point force given by a delta distribution with a smooth localized function and deriving the exact velocity field produced by the forcing. In order to satisfy zero-flow boundary conditions at a solid sphere, the image system for singular Stokeslets is generalized to give exact cancellation of the regularized flow at the surface of the sphere. The regularized image system contains the same elements as the singular counterpart but with coefficients that depend on a regularization parameter. As this parameter vanishes, the expressions reduce to the image system of the singular Stokeslet. The expression relating force and velocity can be inverted to compute the forces that generate a given velocity boundary condition elsewhere in the flow. We present several examples within the context of biological flows at the microscale in order to validate and highlight the usefulness of the image system in computations.

  8. Incorporating anatomical side information into PET reconstruction using nonlocal regularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Giang; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2013-10-01

    With the introduction of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, there is an increasing emphasis on reconstructing PET images with the aid of the anatomical side information obtained from X-ray CT or MRI scanners. In this paper, we propose a new approach to incorporating prior anatomical information into PET reconstruction using the nonlocal regularization method. The nonlocal regularizer developed for this application is designed to selectively consider the anatomical information only when it is reliable. As our proposed nonlocal regularization method does not directly use anatomical edges or boundaries which are often used in conventional methods, it is not only free from additional processes to extract anatomical boundaries or segmented regions, but also more robust to the signal mismatch problem that is caused by the indirect relationship between the PET image and the anatomical image. We perform simulations with digital phantoms. According to our experimental results, compared to the conventional method based on the traditional local regularization method, our nonlocal regularization method performs well even with the imperfect prior anatomical information or in the presence of signal mismatch between the PET image and the anatomical image. PMID:23744678

  9. In vivo impedance imaging with total variation regularization.

    PubMed

    Borsic, Andrea; Graham, Brad M; Adler, Andy; Lionheart, William R B

    2010-01-01

    We show that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) image reconstruction algorithms with regularization based on the total variation (TV) functional are suitable for in vivo imaging of physiological data. This reconstruction approach helps to preserve discontinuities in reconstructed profiles, such as step changes in electrical properties at interorgan boundaries, which are typically smoothed by traditional reconstruction algorithms. The use of the TV functional for regularization leads to the minimization of a nondifferentiable objective function in the inverse formulation. This cannot be efficiently solved with traditional optimization techniques such as the Newton method. We explore two implementations methods for regularization with the TV functional: the lagged diffusivity method and the primal dual-interior point method (PD-IPM). First we clarify the implementation details of these algorithms for EIT reconstruction. Next, we analyze the performance of these algorithms on noisy simulated data. Finally, we show reconstructed EIT images of in vivo data for ventilation and gastric emptying studies. In comparison to traditional quadratic regularization, TV regularization shows improved ability to reconstruct sharp contrasts. PMID:20051330

  10. SPECT reconstruction using DCT-induced tight framelet regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahan; Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Schmidtlein, C. R.; Lipson, Edward D.; Feiglin, David H.; Krol, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Wavelet transforms have been successfully applied in many fields of image processing. Yet, to our knowledge, they have never been directly incorporated to the objective function in Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction. Our aim has been to investigate if the ℓ1-norm of non-decimated discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the estimated radiotracer distribution could be effectively used as the regularization term for the penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction, where a regularizer is used to enforce the image smoothness in the reconstruction. In this study, the ℓ1-norm of 2D DCT wavelet decomposition was used as a regularization term. The Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm (PAPA), which we proposed in earlier work to solve penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction with non-differentiable regularizers, was used to solve this optimization problem. The DCT wavelet decompositions were performed on the transaxial reconstructed images. We reconstructed Monte Carlo simulated SPECT data obtained for a numerical phantom with Gaussian blobs as hot lesions and with a warm random lumpy background. Reconstructed images using the proposed method exhibited better noise suppression and improved lesion conspicuity, compared with images reconstructed using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with Gaussian post filter (GPF). Also, the mean square error (MSE) was smaller, compared with EM-GPF. A critical and challenging aspect of this method was selection of optimal parameters. In summary, our numerical experiments demonstrated that the ℓ1-norm of discrete cosine transform (DCT) wavelet frame transform DCT regularizer shows promise for SPECT image reconstruction using PAPA method.

  11. Fast multislice fluorescence molecular tomography using sparsity-inducing regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Sedigheh Marjaneh; Sarkar, Saeed; Darezereshki, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a rapidly growing imaging method that facilitates the recovery of small fluorescent targets within biological tissue. The major challenge facing the FMT reconstruction method is the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. In order to overcome this problem, the acquisition of large FMT datasets and the utilization of a fast FMT reconstruction algorithm with sparsity regularization have been suggested recently. Therefore, the use of a joint L1/total-variation (TV) regularization as a means of solving the ill-posed FMT inverse problem is proposed. A comparative quantified analysis of regularization methods based on L1-norm and TV are performed using simulated datasets, and the results show that the fast composite splitting algorithm regularization method can ensure the accuracy and robustness of the FMT reconstruction. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated in an in vivo scenario for the subcutaneous implantation of a fluorescent-dye-filled capillary tube in a mouse, and also using hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography data. The results show that the proposed regularization overcomes the difficulties created by the ill-posed inverse problem.

  12. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  13. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  14. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

  15. Downscaling Satellite Precipitation with Emphasis on Extremes: A Variational 1-Norm Regularization in the Derivative Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ebtehaj, A. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Hou, A. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of precipitation observations from space, e.g., from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the forthcoming Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) Mission, has fueled renewed interest in developing frameworks for downscaling and multi-sensor data fusion that can handle large data sets in computationally efficient ways while optimally reproducing desired properties of the underlying rainfall fields. Of special interest is the reproduction of extreme precipitation intensities and gradients, as these are directly relevant to hazard prediction. In this paper, we present a new formalism for downscaling satellite precipitation observations, which explicitly allows for the preservation of some key geometrical and statistical properties of spatial precipitation. These include sharp intensity gradients (due to high-intensity regions embedded within lower-intensity areas), coherent spatial structures (due to regions of slowly varying rainfall),and thicker-than-Gaussian tails of precipitation gradients and intensities. Specifically, we pose the downscaling problem as a discrete inverse problem and solve it via a regularized variational approach (variational downscaling) where the regularization term is selected to impose the desired smoothness in the solution while allowing for some steep gradients(called 1-norm or total variation regularization). We demonstrate the duality between this geometrically inspired solution and its Bayesian statistical interpretation, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplace prior distribution for the precipitation intensities in the derivative (wavelet) space. When the observation operator is not known, we discuss the effect of its misspecification and explore a previously proposed dictionary-based sparse inverse downscaling methodology to indirectly learn the observation operator from a database of coincidental high- and low-resolution observations. The proposed method and ideas are illustrated in case

  16. Reconstruction of 3D ultrasound images based on Cyclic Regularized Savitzky-Golay filters.

    PubMed

    Toonkum, Pollakrit; Suwanwela, Nijasri C; Chinrungrueng, Chedsada

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a new three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound reconstruction algorithm for generation of 3D images from a series of two-dimensional (2D) B-scans acquired in the mechanical linear scanning framework. Unlike most existing 3D ultrasound reconstruction algorithms, which have been developed and evaluated in the freehand scanning framework, the new algorithm has been designed to capitalize the regularity pattern of the mechanical linear scanning, where all the B-scan slices are precisely parallel and evenly spaced. The new reconstruction algorithm, referred to as the Cyclic Regularized Savitzky-Golay (CRSG) filter, is a new variant of the Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing filter. The CRSG filter has been improved upon the original SG filter in two respects: First, the cyclic indicator function has been incorporated into the least square cost function to enable the CRSG filter to approximate nonuniformly spaced data of the unobserved image intensities contained in unfilled voxels and reduce speckle noise of the observed image intensities contained in filled voxels. Second, the regularization function has been augmented to the least squares cost function as a mechanism to balance between the degree of speckle reduction and the degree of detail preservation. The CRSG filter has been evaluated and compared with the Voxel Nearest-Neighbor (VNN) interpolation post-processed by the Adaptive Speckle Reduction (ASR) filter, the VNN interpolation post-processed by the Adaptive Weighted Median (AWM) filter, the Distance-Weighted (DW) interpolation, and the Adaptive Distance-Weighted (ADW) interpolation, on reconstructing a synthetic 3D spherical image and a clinical 3D carotid artery bifurcation in the mechanical linear scanning framework. This preliminary evaluation indicates that the CRSG filter is more effective in both speckle reduction and geometric reconstruction of 3D ultrasound images than the other methods. PMID:20696448

  17. Edge-moment-based color constancy using illumination-coherent regularized regression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Luo, Kai; Dang, Jianjun; Zhou, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Considering no previous literature reveals the effectiveness of image similarity coherent with corresponding illuminant in color constancy, we propose an edge-moment-based algorithm using regularized regression in an illumination-coherent space in a divide-and-conquer way. To represent the scene images, we adopt color edge moments which are then projected into an illumination-coherent space using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Further, a mixture of Gaussians (MoG) model is exploited to construct consistent subspaces, in each of which an iterative l2-norm regularized regression is used to learn the correlation between edge moments and illuminants. In the testing phase, estimations from each subspace are fused in a soft way according to the posterior possibility of the test image caused by the MoG. Extensive experiments on the standard datasets including the intra- and inter-dataset evaluations show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26367440

  18. Regularized total least squares approach for nonconvolutional linear inverse problems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Wang, Y; Galatsanos, N P; Zhang, J

    1999-01-01

    In this correspondence, a solution is developed for the regularized total least squares (RTLS) estimate in linear inverse problems where the linear operator is nonconvolutional. Our approach is based on a Rayleigh quotient (RQ) formulation of the TLS problem, and we accomplish regularization by modifying the RQ function to enforce a smooth solution. A conjugate gradient algorithm is used to minimize the modified RQ function. As an example, the proposed approach has been applied to the perturbation equation encountered in optical tomography. Simulation results show that this method provides more stable and accurate solutions than the regularized least squares and a previously reported total least squares approach, also based on the RQ formulation. PMID:18267442

  19. Regularity based descriptor computed from local image oscillations.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo; Legrand, Pierrick; Lutton, Evelyne

    2007-05-14

    This work presents a novel local image descriptor based on the concept of pointwise signal regularity. Local image regions are extracted using either an interest point or an interest region detector, and discriminative feature vectors are constructed by uniformly sampling the pointwise Hölderian regularity around each region center. Regularity estimation is performed using local image oscillations, the most straightforward method directly derived from the definition of the Hölder exponent. Furthermore, estimating the Hölder exponent in this manner has proven to be superior, in most cases, when compared to wavelet based estimation as was shown in previous work. Our detector shows invariance to illumination change, JPEG compression, image rotation and scale change. Results show that the proposed descriptor is stable with respect to variations in imaging conditions, and reliable performance metrics prove it to be comparable and in some instances better than SIFT, the state-of-the-art in local descriptors. PMID:19546918

  20. Selecting protein families for environmental features based on manifold regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingpeng; Xu, Weiwei; Park, E K; Li, Guangrong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, statistics and machine learning have been developed to identify functional or taxonomic features of environmental features or physiological status. Important proteins (or other functional and taxonomic entities) to environmental features can be potentially used as biosensors. A major challenge is how the distribution of protein and gene functions embodies the adaption of microbial communities across environments and host habitats. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization method for linear regression to adapt the challenge. The approach is inspired by local linear embedding (LLE) and we call it a manifold-constrained regularization for linear regression (McRe). The novel regularization procedure also has potential to be used in solving other linear systems. We demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the approach in both simulation and real data. PMID:24802701

  1. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  2. Wavelet domain image restoration with adaptive edge-preserving regularization.

    PubMed

    Belge, M; Kilmer, M E; Miller, E L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wavelet based edge-preserving regularization scheme for use in linear image restoration problems. Our efforts build on a collection of mathematical results indicating that wavelets are especially useful for representing functions that contain discontinuities (i.e., edges in two dimensions or jumps in one dimension). We interpret the resulting theory in a statistical signal processing framework and obtain a highly flexible framework for adapting the degree of regularization to the local structure of the underlying image. In particular, we are able to adapt quite easily to scale-varying and orientation-varying features in the image while simultaneously retaining the edge preservation properties of the regularizer. We demonstrate a half-quadratic algorithm for obtaining the restorations from observed data. PMID:18255433

  3. Analysis of the "Learning in Regular Classrooms" movement in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, M; Manset, G

    2000-04-01

    The Learning in Regular Classrooms experiment has evolved in response to China's efforts to educate its large population of students with disabilities who, until the mid-1980s, were denied a free education. In the Learning in Regular Classrooms, students with disabilities (primarily sensory impairments or mild mental retardation) are educated in neighborhood schools in mainstream classrooms. Despite difficulties associated with developing effective inclusive programming, this approach has contributed to a major increase in the enrollment of students with disabilities and increased involvement of schools, teachers, and parents in China's newly developing special education system. Here we describe the development of the Learning in Regular Classroom approach and the challenges associated with educating students with disabilities in China. PMID:10804702

  4. Hybrid regularization image restoration algorithm based on total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    To reduce the noise amplification and ripple phenomenon in the restoration result by using the traditional Richardson-Lucy deconvolution method, a novel hybrid regularization image restoration algorithm based on total variation is proposed in this paper. The key ides is that the hybrid regularization terms are employed according to the characteristics of different regions in the image itself. At the same time, the threshold between the different regularization terms is selected according to the golden section point which takes into account the human eye's visual feeling. Experimental results show that the restoration results of the proposed method are better than that of the total variation Richardson-Lucy algorithm both in PSNR and MSE, and it has the better visual effect simultaneously.

  5. Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing

    2015-12-01

    By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons. PMID:26764678

  6. Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.

    2006-01-01

    An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

  7. Quantum backflow states from eigenstates of the regularized current operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, J. J.; Gillman, E.; Lennon, O.; Patel, M.; Ramirez, I.

    2013-11-01

    We present an exhaustive class of states with quantum backflow—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta has negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. They are characterized by a general function of momenta subject to very weak conditions. Such a family of states is of interest in the light of a recent experimental proposal to measure backflow. We find one particularly simple state which has surprisingly large backflow—about 41% of the lower bound on flux derived by Bracken and Melloy. We study the eigenstates of a regularized current operator and we show how some of these states, in a certain limit, lead to our class of backflow states. This limit also clarifies the correspondence between the spectrum of the regularized current operator, which has just two non-zero eigenvalues in our chosen regularization, and the usual current operator.

  8. On the Blow-up Criterion of 3D-NSE in Sobolev-Gevrey Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benameur, Jamel; Jlali, Lotfi

    2016-05-01

    In Benameur (Methods Appl 103:87-97, 2014), Benameur proved a blow-up result of the non regular solution of (NSE) in the Sobolev-Gevrey spaces. In this paper we improve this result, precisely we give an exponential type explosion in Sobolev-Gevrey spaces with less regularity on the initial condition. Fourier analysis and standard techniques are used.

  9. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  10. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  11. Local conservative regularizations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic and neutral flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Sachdev, Sonakshi; Thyagaraja, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ideal systems like magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Euler flow may develop singularities in vorticity ( w =∇×v ). Viscosity and resistivity provide dissipative regularizations of the singularities. In this paper, we propose a minimal, local, conservative, nonlinear, dispersive regularization of compressible flow and ideal MHD, in analogy with the KdV regularization of the 1D kinematic wave equation. This work extends and significantly generalizes earlier work on incompressible Euler and ideal MHD. It involves a micro-scale cutoff length λ which is a function of density, unlike in the incompressible case. In MHD, it can be taken to be of order the electron collisionless skin depth c/ωpe. Our regularization preserves the symmetries of the original systems and, with appropriate boundary conditions, leads to associated conservation laws. Energy and enstrophy are subject to a priori bounds determined by initial data in contrast to the unregularized systems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is developed and applied to generalize the constitutive relation to bound higher moments of vorticity. A "swirl" velocity field is identified, and shown to transport w/ρ and B/ρ, generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfvén theorems. The steady regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, MHD pinch, and a plane vortex sheet. The proposed regularization could facilitate numerical simulations of fluid/MHD equations and provide a consistent statistical mechanics of vortices/current filaments in 3D, without blowup of enstrophy. Implications for detailed analyses of fluid and plasma dynamic systems arising from our work are briefly discussed.

  12. Processing SPARQL queries with regular expressions in RDF databases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model is widely used for modeling and sharing a lot of online bioinformatics resources such as Uniprot (dev.isb-sib.ch/projects/uniprot-rdf) or Bio2RDF (bio2rdf.org), SPARQL - a W3C recommendation query for RDF databases - has become an important query language for querying the bioinformatics knowledge bases. Moreover, due to the diversity of users’ requests for extracting information from the RDF data as well as the lack of users’ knowledge about the exact value of each fact in the RDF databases, it is desirable to use the SPARQL query with regular expression patterns for querying the RDF data. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that efficiently supports regular expression processing in SPARQL over RDF databases. Most of the existing techniques for processing regular expressions are designed for querying a text corpus, or only for supporting the matching over the paths in an RDF graph. Results In this paper, we propose a novel framework for supporting regular expression processing in SPARQL query. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. 1) We propose an efficient framework for processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns in RDF databases. 2) We propose a cost model in order to adapt the proposed framework in the existing query optimizers. 3) We build a prototype for the proposed framework in C++ and conduct extensive experiments demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of our technique. Conclusions Experiments with a full-blown RDF engine show that our framework outperforms the existing ones by up to two orders of magnitude in processing SPARQL queries with regular expression patterns. PMID:21489225

  13. Regular heartbeat dynamics are associated with cardiac health.

    PubMed

    Cysarz, Dirk; Lange, Silke; Matthiessen, Peter F; Leeuwen, Peter van

    2007-01-01

    The human heartbeat series is more variable and, hence, more complex in healthy subjects than in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. However, little is known about the complexity of the heart rate variations on a beat-to-beat basis. We present an analysis based on symbolic dynamics that focuses on the dynamic features of such beat-to-beat variations on a small time scale. The sequence of acceleration and deceleration of eight successive heartbeats is represented by a binary sequence consisting of ones and zeros. The regularity of such binary patterns is quantified using approximate entropy (ApEn). Holter electrocardiograms from 30 healthy subjects, 15 patients with CHF, and their surrogate data were analyzed with respect to the regularity of such binary sequences. The results are compared with spectral analysis and ApEn of heart rate variability. Counterintuitively, healthy subjects show a large amount of regular beat-to-beat patterns in addition to a considerable amount of irregular patterns. CHF patients show a predominance of one regular beat-to-beat pattern (alternation of acceleration and deceleration), as well as some irregular patterns similar to the patterns observed in the surrogate data. In healthy subjects, regular beat-to-beat patterns reflect the physiological adaptation to different activities, i.e., sympathetic modulation, whereas irregular patterns may arise from parasympathetic modulation. The patterns observed in CHF patients indicate a largely reduced influence of the autonomic nervous system. In conclusion, analysis of short beat-to-beat patterns with respect to regularity leads to a considerable increase of information compared with spectral analysis or ApEn of heart-rate variations. PMID:16973939

  14. Regularization of languages by adults and children: A mathematical framework.

    PubMed

    Rische, Jacquelyn L; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-02-01

    The fascinating ability of humans to modify the linguistic input and "create" a language has been widely discussed. In the work of Newport and colleagues, it has been demonstrated that both children and adults have some ability to process inconsistent linguistic input and "improve" it by making it more consistent. In Hudson Kam and Newport (2009), artificial miniature language acquisition from an inconsistent source was studied. It was shown that (i) children are better at language regularization than adults and that (ii) adults can also regularize, depending on the structure of the input. In this paper we create a learning algorithm of the reinforcement-learning type, which exhibits patterns reported in Hudson Kam and Newport (2009) and suggests a way to explain them. It turns out that in order to capture the differences between children's and adults' learning patterns, we need to introduce a certain asymmetry in the learning algorithm. Namely, we have to assume that the reaction of the learners differs depending on whether or not the source's input coincides with the learner's internal hypothesis. We interpret this result in the context of a different reaction of children and adults to implicit, expectation-based evidence, positive or negative. We propose that a possible mechanism that contributes to the children's ability to regularize an inconsistent input is related to their heightened sensitivity to positive evidence rather than the (implicit) negative evidence. In our model, regularization comes naturally as a consequence of a stronger reaction of the children to evidence supporting their preferred hypothesis. In adults, their ability to adequately process implicit negative evidence prevents them from regularizing the inconsistent input, resulting in a weaker degree of regularization. PMID:26580218

  15. Zigzag stacks and m-regular linear stacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, William Y C; Guo, Qiang-Hui; Sun, Lisa H; Wang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The contact map of a protein fold is a graph that represents the patterns of contacts in the fold. It is known that the contact map can be decomposed into stacks and queues. RNA secondary structures are special stacks in which the degree of each vertex is at most one and each arc has length of at least two. Waterman and Smith derived a formula for the number of RNA secondary structures of length n with exactly k arcs. Höner zu Siederdissen et al. developed a folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures in which each vertex has maximum degree two. An equation for the generating function of extended RNA secondary structures was obtained by Müller and Nebel by using a context-free grammar approach, which leads to an asymptotic formula. In this article, we consider m-regular linear stacks, where each arc has length at least m and the degree of each vertex is bounded by two. Extended RNA secondary structures are exactly 2-regular linear stacks. For any m ≥ 2, we obtain an equation for the generating function of the m-regular linear stacks. For given m, we deduce a recurrence relation and an asymptotic formula for the number of m-regular linear stacks on n vertices. To establish the equation, we use the reduction operation of Chen, Deng, and Du to transform an m-regular linear stack to an m-reduced zigzag (or alternating) stack. Then we find an equation for m-reduced zigzag stacks leading to an equation for m-regular linear stacks. PMID:25455155

  16. Irrelevant tactile stimulation biases visual exploration in external coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Ossandón, José P.; König, Peter; Heed, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of irrelevant tactile stimulation on humans’ free-viewing behavior during the exploration of complex static scenes. Specifically, we address the questions of (1) whether task-irrelevant tactile stimulation presented to subjects’ hands can guide visual selection during free viewing; (2) whether tactile stimulation can modulate visual exploratory biases that are independent of image content and task goals; and (3) in which reference frame these effects occur. Tactile stimulation to uncrossed and crossed hands during the viewing of static images resulted in long-lasting modulation of visual orienting responses. Subjects showed a well-known leftward bias during the early exploration of images, and this bias was modulated by tactile stimulation presented at image onset. Tactile stimulation, both at image onset and later during the trials, biased visual orienting toward the space ipsilateral to the stimulated hand, both in uncrossed and crossed hand postures. The long-lasting temporal and global spatial profile of the modulation of free viewing exploration by touch indicates that cross-modal cues produce orienting responses, which are coded exclusively in an external reference frame. PMID:26021612

  17. Laser stimulation of auditory neurons at high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Agnella D.; Littlefield, Philip; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Webb, Jim; Ralph, Heather; Bendett, Mark; Jansen, E. Duco; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2007-02-01

    Pulsed, mid-infrared lasers can evoke neural activity from motor as well as sensory neurons in vivo. Lasers allow more selective spatial resolution of stimulation than the conventional electrical stimulation. To date, few studies have examined pulsed, mid-infrared neural stimulation and very little of the available optical parameter space has been studied. We found that pulse durations as short as 20 ?s elicit a compound action potential from the gerbil cochlea. Moreover, stimulation thresholds are not a function of absolute energy or absolute power deposited. Compound action potential peak-to-peak amplitude remained constant over extended periods of stimulation. Stimulation occurred up six hours continuously and up to 50 Hz in repetition rate. Single fiber experiments were made using repetition rates of up to 1 kHz. Action potentials occurred 2.5-4 ms after the laser pulse. Maximum rates of discharge were up to 250 action potentials per second. With increasing stimulation rate (300 Hz), the action potentials did not respond strictly after the light pulse. The results from these experiments are important for designing the next generation of neuroprostheses, specifically cochlear implants.

  18. Charged scalar perturbations around a regular magnetic black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Dao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    We study charged scalar perturbations in the background of a regular magnetic black hole. In this case, the charged scalar perturbation does not result in superradiance. By using a careful time-domain analysis, we show that the charge of the scalar field can change the real part of the quasinormal frequency, but has little impact on the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequency and the behavior of the late-time tail. Therefore, the regular magnetic black hole may be stable under the perturbations of a charged scalar field at the linear level.

  19. On Vertex Covering Transversal Domination Number of Regular Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthi, R.; Subramanian, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple graph G = (V, E) is said to be r-regular if each vertex of G is of degree r. The vertex covering transversal domination number γvct(G) is the minimum cardinality among all vertex covering transversal dominating sets of G. In this paper, we analyse this parameter on different kinds of regular graphs especially for Qn and H3,n. Also we provide an upper bound for γvct of a connected cubic graph of order n ≥ 8. Then we try to provide a more stronger relationship between γ and γvct. PMID:27119089

  20. The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, P; Thien, T; Van 't Laar, A

    1985-01-01

    In a single-blind study the effects of drinking two cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma concentrations of caffeine, renin and catecholamines were studied in 12 normotensive subjects. Drinking regular coffee led to a rise of blood pressure, a fall of heart rate and an increase of plasma catecholamines. Decaffeinated coffee induced a smaller increase of diastolic blood pressure without changing other parameters. This study shows that the cardiovascular effects of drinking coffee are mainly the result of its caffeine content. PMID:4027129