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Sample records for regulates developmental progression

  1. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  2. Developmental regulation with progressive vision loss: Use of control strategies and affective well-being.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Cimarolli, Verena R; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being, in a sample of 364 older adults diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Using longitudinal data from 5 occasions at 6-month intervals, we examined intraindividual change in control strategies, and how it was related to change in affective well-being, in terms of self-rated happiness and depressive symptoms. Mixed model analyses confirmed our hypotheses that (a) intraindividual change, particularly in selective primary control and in compensatory secondary control (CSC), predict change toward higher happiness ratings and lower depression; and (b) as functional abilities (instrumental activities of daily living) declined, CSC became increasingly predictive of better affective well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that CSC strategies are essential for maintaining affective well-being when physical functioning declines. Intensified selective primary control striving may be effective to achieve goals that have become difficult to reach but are not associated with affective well-being, possibly because struggling with difficulties undermines the experience of enjoyable mastery. In contrast, goal adjustments and self-protective thinking may help to find pleasure even from restricted daily activities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845507

  3. Regulation of early T-lineage gene expression and developmental progression by the progenitor cell transcription factor PU.1

    PubMed Central

    Champhekar, Ameya; Damle, Sagar S.; Freedman, George; Carotta, Sebastian; Nutt, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is essential for the development of several blood lineages, including T cells, but its function in intrathymic T-cell precursors has been poorly defined. In the thymus, high PU.1 expression persists through multiple cell divisions in early stages but then falls sharply during T-cell lineage commitment. PU.1 silencing is critical for T-cell commitment, but it has remained unknown how PU.1 activities could contribute positively to T-cell development. Here we employed conditional knockout and modified antagonist PU.1 constructs to perturb PU.1 function stage-specifically in early T cells. We show that PU.1 is needed for full proliferation, restricting access to some non-T fates, and controlling the timing of T-cell developmental progression such that removal or antagonism of endogenous PU.1 allows precocious access to T-cell differentiation. Dominant-negative effects reveal that this repression by PU.1 is mediated indirectly. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis identifies novel targets of PU.1 positive and negative regulation affecting progenitor cell signaling and cell biology and indicating distinct regulatory effects on different subsets of progenitor cell transcription factors. Thus, in addition to supporting early T-cell proliferation, PU.1 regulates the timing of activation of the core T-lineage developmental program. PMID:25846797

  4. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  5. Progressive Polycomb Assembly on H3K27me3 Compartments Generates Polycomb Bodies with Developmentally Regulated Motion

    PubMed Central

    Cheutin, Thierry; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are conserved chromatin factors that maintain silencing of key developmental genes outside of their expression domains. Recent genome-wide analyses showed a Polycomb (PC) distribution with binding to discrete PcG response elements (PREs). Within the cell nucleus, PcG proteins localize in structures called PC bodies that contain PcG-silenced genes, and it has been recently shown that PREs form local and long-range spatial networks. Here, we studied the nuclear distribution of two PcG proteins, PC and Polyhomeotic (PH). Thanks to a combination of immunostaining, immuno-FISH, and live imaging of GFP fusion proteins, we could analyze the formation and the mobility of PC bodies during fly embryogenesis as well as compare their behavior to that of the condensed fraction of euchromatin. Immuno-FISH experiments show that PC bodies mainly correspond to 3D structural counterparts of the linear genomic domains identified in genome-wide studies. During early embryogenesis, PC and PH progressively accumulate within PC bodies, which form nuclear structures localized on distinct euchromatin domains containing histone H3 tri-methylated on K27. Time-lapse analysis indicates that two types of motion influence the displacement of PC bodies and chromatin domains containing H2Av-GFP. First, chromatin domains and PC bodies coordinately undergo long-range motions that may correspond to the movement of whole chromosome territories. Second, each PC body and chromatin domain has its own fast and highly constrained motion. In this motion regime, PC bodies move within volumes slightly larger than those of condensed chromatin domains. Moreover, both types of domains move within volumes much smaller than chromosome territories, strongly restricting their possibility of interaction with other nuclear structures. The fast motion of PC bodies and chromatin domains observed during early embryogenesis strongly decreases in late developmental stages, indicating a

  6. Developmental Progress in Institutional and Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-Kessler, Leslie E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of developmental growth for 104 matched pairs from mentally retarded residents of a public institution and of community living arrangements (CLA) revealed that CLA Ss showed significant developmental progress in reduction of maladaptive behavior while institutionalized Ss showed no change over 2 years. (Author/CL)

  7. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  8. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  9. Developmental Regulation of the Collagenase-3 Promoter in Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Yang, Y.; DAlonzo, R. C.; Winchester, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that collagenase-3 MRNA is developmentally expressed in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. In vivo, the gene is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts and developmentally regulated. Our studies aim at determining the promoter elements and proteins binding to the promoter responsible for tissue and developmental regulation of collagenase-3.

  10. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD’s role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  11. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  12. Developmental pathways during in vitro progression of human islet neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Rikke; Loomans, Cindy; Sharma, Arun; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Islet neogenesis, or the differentiation of islet cells from precursor cells, is seen in vitro and in vivo both embryonically and after birth. However, little is known about the differentiation pathways during embryonic development for human pancreas. Our previously reported in vitro generation of islets from human pancreatic tissue provides a unique system to identify potential markers of neogenesis and to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. To this end, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of three different stages during in vitro islet generation: the Initial Adherent-, Expanded-, and Differentiated- stages. Samples from four human pancreases were hybridized to Affymetrix U95A GeneChips, and data analyzed using GeneSpring 7.0/9.0 software. Using Scatter plots we selected genes with a 2-fold or greater differential expression.. Of the 12,000 genes/ESTs present on these arrays, 295 genes including 38 acinar–enriched genes were selectively lost during the progression from the Initially Adherent stage to the Expanded stage; 468 genes were increased in this progression to Expanded tissue; and 529 genes had a two-fold greater expression in the Differentiated-stage than in the Expanded tissue. Besides the expected increases in insulin, glucagon and duct markers (mucin 6, aquaporin 1 and 5), the beta cell auto-antigen IA-2/phogrin was increased 5-fold in Differentiated. In addition developmentally important pathways, including Notch/jagged, Wnt/Frizzled, TGFβ superfamily (follistatin, BMPs and SMADs), retinoic acid (COUP-TFI, CRABP1, 2 and RAIG1) were differentially regulated during the expansion/differentiation. Two putative markers for islet precursor cells, UCHL1/PGP9.5 and DMBT1, were enhanced during the progression to differentiated cells, but only the latter could be a marker of islet precursor cells. We suggest that appropriate manipulation of these differentiation-associated pathways will enhance the efficiency of differentiation

  13. Epigenetic and developmental regulation in plant polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and adapt in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids. PMID:25765928

  14. Progressive Education as Continuing Education for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedicker, Leslie Kuhn

    2013-01-01

    The need for progressive education is prevalent in one of the most underserved portions of the population: the adult developmentally disabled. Though John Dewey wrote little on the education of the disabled, his philosophy, and that of Mahatma Gandhi's, lend themselves to the further education of this unique segment of society. In this paper,…

  15. Developmental Pathways of Emotion Regulation in Childhood: A Neuropsychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltering, Steven; Lewis, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a model featuring two types of emotion regulation--reactive and deliberate--and discusses the developmental trajectory of both types. We argue that the later-developing capacity for deliberate control builds on and coevolves with earlier-developing reactive control. Findings from the field of developmental neuroscience are…

  16. A size threshold governs Caenorhabditis elegans developmental progression.

    PubMed

    Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-08-22

    The growth of organisms from humans to bacteria is affected by environmental conditions. However, mechanisms governing growth and size control are not well understood, particularly in the context of changes in food availability in developing multicellular organisms. Here, we use a novel microfluidic platform to study the impact of diet on the growth and development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This device allows us to observe individual worms throughout larval development, quantify their growth as well as pinpoint the moulting transitions marking successive developmental stages. Under conditions of low food availability, worms grow very slowly, but do not moult until they have achieved a threshold size. The time spent in larval stages can be extended by over an order of magnitude, in agreement with a simple threshold size model. Thus, a critical worm size appears to trigger developmental progression, and may contribute to prolonged lifespan under dietary restriction. PMID:26290076

  17. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  18. Zebrafish rest regulates developmental gene expression but not neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kok, Fatma O; Taibi, Andrew; Wanner, Sarah J; Xie, Xiayang; Moravec, Cara E; Love, Crystal E; Prince, Victoria E; Mumm, Jeff S; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2012-10-01

    The transcriptional repressor Rest (Nrsf) recruits chromatin-modifying complexes to RE1 'silencer elements', which are associated with hundreds of neural genes. However, the requirement for Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation of embryonic development and cell fate is poorly understood. Conflicting views of the role of Rest in controlling cell fate have emerged from recent studies. To address these controversies, we examined the developmental requirement for Rest in zebrafish using zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting. We discovered that germ layer specification progresses normally in rest mutants despite derepression of target genes during embryogenesis. This analysis provides the first evidence that maternal rest is essential for repression of target genes during blastula stages. Surprisingly, neurogenesis proceeds largely normally in rest mutants, although abnormalities are observed within the nervous system, including defects in oligodendrocyte precursor cell development and a partial loss of facial branchiomotor neuron migration. Mutants progress normally through embryogenesis but many die as larvae (after 12 days). However, some homozygotes reach adulthood and are viable. We utilized an RE1/NRSE transgenic reporter system to dynamically monitor Rest activity. This analysis revealed that Rest is required to repress gene expression in mesodermal derivatives including muscle and notochord, as well as within the nervous system. Finally, we demonstrated that Rest is required for long-term repression of target genes in non-neural tissues in adult zebrafish. Our results point to a broad role for Rest in fine-tuning neural gene expression, rather than as a widespread regulator of neurogenesis or cell fate. PMID:22951640

  19. Intra- and Interprotein Phosphorylation between Two-hybrid Histidine Kinases Controls Myxococcus xanthus Developmental Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Andreas; Lee, Bongsoo; Higgs, Penelope I.

    2012-01-01

    Histidine-aspartate phosphorelay signaling systems are used to couple stimuli to cellular responses. A hallmark feature is the highly modular signal transmission modules that can form both simple “two-component” systems and sophisticated multicomponent systems that integrate stimuli over time and space to generate coordinated and fine-tuned responses. The deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus contains a large repertoire of signaling proteins, many of which regulate its multicellular developmental program. Here, we assign an orphan hybrid histidine protein kinase, EspC, to the Esp signaling system that negatively regulates progression through the M. xanthus developmental program. The Esp signal system consists of the hybrid histidine protein kinase, EspA, two serine/threonine protein kinases, and a putative transport protein. We demonstrate that EspC is an essential component of this system because ΔespA, ΔespC, and ΔespA ΔespC double mutants share an identical developmental phenotype. Neither substitution of the phosphoaccepting histidine residue nor deletion of the entire catalytic ATPase domain in EspC produces an in vivo mutant developmental phenotype. In contrast, substitution of the receiver phosphoaccepting residue yields the null phenotype. Although the EspC histidine kinase can efficiently autophosphorylate in vitro, it does not act as a phosphodonor to its own receiver domain. Our in vitro and in vivo analyses suggest the phosphodonor is instead the EspA histidine kinase. We propose EspA and EspC participate in a novel hybrid histidine protein kinase signaling mechanism involving both inter- and intraprotein phosphotransfer. The output of this signaling system appears to be the combined phosphorylated state of the EspA and EspC receiver modules. This system regulates the proteolytic turnover of MrpC, an important regulator of the developmental program. PMID:22661709

  20. Prothoracicotropic hormone regulates developmental timing and body size in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McBrayer, Zofeyah; Ono, Hajime; Shimell, MaryJane; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Beckstead, Robert B.; Warren, James T.; Thummel, Carl S.; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary In insects, control of body size is intimately linked to nutritional quality as well as environmental and genetic cues that regulate the timing of developmental transitions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) has been proposed to play an essential role in regulating the production and/or release of ecdysone, a steroid hormone that stimulates molting and metamorphosis. In this report we examine the consequences on Drosophila development of ablating the PTTH-producing neurons. Surprisingly, PTTH production is not essential for molting or metamorphosis. Instead, loss of PTTH results in delayed larval development and eclosion of larger flies with more cells. Prolonged feeding, without changing the rate of growth, causes the developmental delay and is a consequence of low ecdysteroid titers. These results indicate that final body size in insects is determined by a balance between growth rate regulators such as insulin and developmental timing cues such as PTTH that set the duration of the feeding interval. PMID:18061567

  1. Promoter architectures and developmental gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Lenhard, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Core promoters are minimal regions sufficient to direct accurate initiation of transcription and are crucial for regulation of gene expression. They are highly diverse in terms of associated core promoter motifs, underlying sequence composition and patterns of transcription initiation. Distinctive features of promoters are also seen at the chromatin level, including nucleosome positioning patterns and presence of specific histone modifications. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing promoters using next-generation sequencing-based technologies have provided the basis for their classification into functional groups and have shed light on their modes of regulation, with important implications for transcriptional regulation in development. This review discusses the methodology and the results of genome-wide studies that provided insight into the diversity of RNA polymerase II promoter architectures in vertebrates and other Metazoa, and the association of these architectures with distinct modes of regulation in embryonic development and differentiation. PMID:26783721

  2. Developmental Gene Regulation and Mechanisms of Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have established a cooperative agreement with the formation of a Center for Advanced Studies 'in the Space Life Sciences (CASSLS) at the MBL. This Center serves as an interface between NASA and the basic science community, addressing issues of mutual interest. The Center for Advanced Studies 'in the Space Life Sciences provides a forum for scientists to think and discuss, often for the first time, the role that gravity and aspects of spaceflight may play 'in fundamental cellular and physiologic processes. In addition the Center will sponsor discussions on evolutionary biology. These interactions will inform the community of research opportunities that are of interest to NASA. This workshop is one of a series of symposia, workshops and seminars that will be held at the MBL to advise NASA on a wide variety of topics in the life sciences, including cell biology, developmental biology, mg evolutionary biology, molecular biology, neurobiology, plant biology and systems biology.

  3. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  4. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N.; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  5. Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jerde, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP3), and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. PMID:26339505

  6. Crim1-, a regulator of developmental organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Swati; Pennisi, David J; Piper, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of growth factor localization, availability and activity is critical during embryogenesis to ensure appropriate organogenesis. This process is regulated through the coordinated expression of growth factors and their cognate receptors, as well as via proteins that can bind, sequester or localize growth factors to distinct locations. One such protein is the transmembrane protein Crim1. This protein has been shown to be expressed broadly within the developing embryo, and to regulate organogenesis within the eye, kidney and placenta. Mechanistically, Crim1 has been revealed to mediate organogenesis via its interaction with growth factors including TGFβs, BMPs, VEGFs and PDFGs. More recently, Crim1 has been shown to influence cardiac development, providing further insights into the function of this protein. This review will provide an overview of the role of Crim1 in organogenesis, largely focusing on how this protein regulates growth factor signaling in the nascent heart. Moreover, we will address the challenges ahead relating to further elucidating how Crim1 functions during development. PMID:27044529

  7. Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction in College Developmental Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Philippakos, Zoi A.; Ianetta, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a curriculum for college developmental writing classes, developed in prior design research and based on self-regulated strategy instruction. Students learned strategies for planning, drafting, and revising compositions with an emphasis on using knowledge of genre organization to guide…

  8. Developmental College Student Self-Regulation: Results from Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dawn; Ley, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    This study compared 34 lower-achieving (developmental) first-time college students' self-reported self-regulation strategies from a Likert scale to those they reported in structured interviews. Likert scales have offered convenient administration and evaluation and have been used to identify what and how learners study. The reported study activity…

  9. Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodeling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of biological processes. The functional classes of genes that are regulated by alternative splicing include both those with widespread homeostatic activities and genes with cell-type-specific functions. Alternative splicing can drive determinative physiological change or can have a permissive role by providing mRNA variability that is utilized by other regulatory mechanisms. PMID:21921927

  10. Developmental checkpoints guarded by regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Christopher P; Tummers, Bart; Baran, Katherine; Green, Douglas R

    2016-06-01

    The process of embryonic development is highly regulated through the symbiotic control of differentiation and programmed cell death pathways, which together sculpt tissues and organs. The importance of programmed necrotic (RIPK-dependent necroptosis) cell death during development has recently been recognized as important and has largely been characterized using genetically engineered animals. Suppression of necroptosis appears to be essential for murine development and occurs at three distinct checkpoints, E10.5, E16.5, and P1. These distinct time points have helped delineate the molecular pathways and regulation of necroptosis. The embryonic lethality at E10.5 seen in knockouts of caspase-8, FADD, or FLIP (cflar), components of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, resulted in pallid embryos that did not exhibit the expected cellular expansions. This was the first suggestion that these factors play an important role in the inhibition of necroptotic cell death. The embryonic lethality at E16.5 highlighted the importance of TNF engaging necroptosis in vivo, since elimination of TNFR1 from casp8 (-/-), fadd (-/-), or cflar (-/-), ripk3 (-/-) embryos delayed embryonic lethality from E10.5 until E16.5. The P1 checkpoint demonstrates the dual role of RIPK1 in both the induction and inhibition of necroptosis, depending on the upstream signal. This review summarizes the role of necroptosis in development and the genetic evidence that helped detail the molecular mechanisms of this novel pathway of programmed cell death. PMID:27056574

  11. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  12. Regulation of terpene metabolism. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: function of monoterpene catabolism; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene catabolism; ultrastructure of oil glands; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene biosynthesis; and regulation of metabolism in peppermints. (ACR)

  13. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation.

  14. School Readiness and Self-Regulation: A Developmental Psychobiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Research on the development of self-regulation in young children provides a unifying framework for the study of school readiness. Self-regulation abilities allow for engagement in learning activities and provide the foundation for adjustment to school. A focus on readiness as self-regulation does not supplant interest in the development of acquired ability, such as early knowledge of letters and numbers; it sets the stage for it. In this article, we review research and theory indicating that self-regulation and consequently school readiness are the product of integrated developmental processes at the biological and behavioral levels that are shaped by the contexts in which development is occurring. In doing so, we illustrate the idea that research on self-regulation powerfully highlights ways in which gaps in school readiness and later achievement are linked to poverty and social and economic inequality and points the way to effective approaches to counteract these conditions. PMID:25148852

  15. Academic Progress of Developmental Students, Fall 1993-Spring 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laramie County Community Coll., Cheyenne, WY.

    A study was conducted at Laramie County Community College to assess the performance of developmental students and evaluate the effectiveness of the college's testing and placement system. The study tracked students entering in fall 1993 whose placement scores identified them as developmental to determine actual enrollment and performance in…

  16. Callose homeostasis at plasmodesmata: molecular regulators and developmental relevance

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata are membrane-lined channels that are located in the plant cell wall and that physically interconnect the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of adjacent cells. Operating as controllable gates, plasmodesmata regulate the symplastic trafficking of micro- and macromolecules, such as endogenous proteins [transcription factors (TFs)] and RNA-based signals (mRNA, siRNA, etc.), hence mediating direct cell-to-cell communication and long distance signaling. Besides this physiological role, plasmodesmata also form gateways through which viral genomes can pass, largely facilitating the pernicious spread of viral infections. Plasmodesmatal trafficking is either passive (e.g., diffusion) or active and responses both to developmental and environmental stimuli. In general, plasmodesmatal conductivity is regulated by the controlled build-up of callose at the plasmodesmatal neck, largely mediated by the antagonistic action of callose synthases (CalSs) and β-1,3-glucanases. Here, in this theory and hypothesis paper, we outline the importance of callose metabolism in PD SEL control, and highlight the main molecular factors involved. In addition, we also review other proteins that regulate symplastic PD transport, both in a developmental and stress-responsive framework, and discuss on their putative role in the modulation of PD callose turn-over. Finally, we hypothesize on the role of structural sterols in the regulation of (PD) callose deposition and outline putative mechanisms by which this regulation may occur. PMID:24795733

  17. Differential Methylation during Maize Leaf Growth Targets Developmentally Regulated Genes1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Candaele, Jasper; Demuynck, Kirin; Mosoti, Douglas; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Inzé, Dirk; Nelissen, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important and widespread epigenetic modification in plant genomes, mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DMTs). DNA methylation is known to play a role in genome protection, regulation of gene expression, and splicing and was previously associated with major developmental reprogramming in plants, such as vernalization and transition to flowering. Here, we show that DNA methylation also controls the growth processes of cell division and cell expansion within a growing organ. The maize (Zea mays) leaf offers a great tool to study growth processes, as the cells progressively move through the spatial gradient encompassing the division zone, transition zone, elongation zone, and mature zone. Opposite to de novo DMTs, the maintenance DMTs were transcriptionally regulated throughout the growth zone of the maize leaf, concomitant with differential CCGG methylation levels in the four zones. Surprisingly, the majority of differentially methylated sequences mapped on or close to gene bodies and not to repeat-rich loci. Moreover, especially the 5′ and 3′ regions of genes, which show overall low methylation levels, underwent differential methylation in a developmental context. Genes involved in processes such as chromatin remodeling, cell cycle progression, and growth regulation, were differentially methylated. The presence of differential methylation located upstream of the gene anticorrelated with transcript expression, while gene body differential methylation was unrelated to the expression level. These data indicate that DNA methylation is correlated with the decision to exit mitotic cell division and to enter cell expansion, which adds a new epigenetic level to the regulation of growth processes. PMID:24488968

  18. (Regulation of terpene metabolism. ) Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1984-01-01

    This research program represents a very broad-based approach to understanding the biochemistry of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene constituents of the essential oils. This program includes basic research on the pathways, enzymes and mechanisms of terpene biosynthesis and catabolism, on the physiology of essential oil production, and on the morphology and development of oil glands, as well as practical approaches to manipulating essential oil composition and yield. As a natural extension of research on monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint we have explored some aspects of possible regulatory mechanisms. Tentative evidence has been obtained for developmental regulation of the levels of biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.; Book, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  20. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  1. Developmental Studies at Nunez Community College: A Work in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accomando, Annette

    2004-01-01

    This paper chronicles the process undertaken by one community college to analyze its Developmental Studies Program. A participant/observer faculty member involved in the college's assessment activities contemplated the institution's complex past, the challenging present, and the unfolding future. An interesting account explicating committee…

  2. Chronic Disease and Perceived Developmental Progression in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether chronic illness causes delays in adolescents' perceived developmental status, using annually-completed questionnaires from insulin-dependent and healthy adolescents. Found that, in first year of study, diabetic adolescents reported delays in physical maturity and an independent lifestyle compared with healthy peers. Overall…

  3. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  4. Positive Parenting Practices, Health Disparities, and Developmental Progress

    PubMed Central

    Sobotka, Sarah A.; Chen, Yi-Fan; Msall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe interactive activities between parents and young children in a nationally representative sample. We hypothesized that the frequency of participation in interactive activities would be different across economic strata and would be associated with developmental delay. METHODS: Children 4 to 36 months of age were identified by using The National Survey of Children’s Health 2011–2012. Interactive caregiving practices were reported by poverty status. Developmental concerns were derived from caregiver responses and scoring of the Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status. Multivariable logistic regressions with weighting were used to explore the effect of interactive practices on risk for developmental delay across poverty levels. Covariates including age, gender, insurance type, maternal education, parenting stress, and ethnicity were adjusted in the models. RESULTS: In our sample (n = 12 642), caregivers with the lowest income versus highest income reported lower participation in reading (33% vs 64%; P < .0001), singing or telling stories (52% vs 77%, P < .0001), and taking their child on an outing (13% vs 22%, P < .0001). Less frequent participation in interactive activities during the week were associated with increased risk of developmental delay among low-income families (Reading odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.13; Singing songs/Telling Stories OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15–2.40; Outings OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11–1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence emphasizing the protective effects of supportive parenting practices on early child development, our work demonstrates significant disparities in parenting practices that promote early child development between economically advantaged and disadvantaged parents. Innovative population-level strategies that enrich parenting practices for vulnerable children in early childhood are needed. PMID:26216325

  5. Developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in plant-microbe interactions in rhizospheres. Soybean roots secrete daidzein and genistein to attract rhizobia. Despite the importance of isoflavones in plant-microbe interactions, little is known about the developmental and nutritional regulation of isoflavone secretion from soybean roots. In this study, soybeans were grown in hydroponic culture, and isoflavone contents in tissues, isoflavone secretion from the roots, and the expression of isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase (ICHG) were investigated. Isoflavone contents did not show strong growth-dependent changes, while secretion of daidzein from the roots dramatically changed, with higher secretion during vegetative stages. Coordinately, the expression of ICHG also peaked at vegetative stages. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in 8- and 15-fold increases in secretion of daidzein and genistein, respectively, with no induction of ICHG. Taken together, these results suggest that large amounts of isoflavones were secreted during vegetative stages via the hydrolysis of (malonyl)glucosides with ICHG. PMID:26168358

  6. Developmental regulation of Tbx5 in zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Begemann, G; Ingham, P W

    2000-02-01

    T-box (tbx) genes constitute a large family of transcriptional regulators involved in developmental patterning processes. In tetrapods, tbx5 has been implicated in specifying forelimb type identity. Here, we report the cloning of the zebrafish tbx5.1 gene and characterise its expression during zebrafish embryogenesis and early larval development of wild type and mutant embryos that affect pectoral fin patterning. tbx5.1 is expressed during development of the heart, the pectoral fins and the eye. Notably, its expression in the lateral plate mesoderm defines a single and continuous region of heart and pectoral fin precursor cells, and constitutes the earliest specific marker for pectoral fin development in the zebrafish. PMID:10640716

  7. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  8. Developmental Progression in the Coral Acropora digitifera Is Controlled by Differential Expression of Distinct Regulatory Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Bermudez, Alejandro; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Ramirez-Portilla, Catalina; Hidaka, Michio; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Corals belong to the most basal class of the Phylum Cnidaria, which is considered the sister group of bilaterian animals, and thus have become an emerging model to study the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Although cell renewal, differentiation, and maintenance of pluripotency are cellular events shared by multicellular animals, the cellular basis of these fundamental biological processes are still poorly understood. To understand how changes in gene expression regulate morphogenetic transitions at the base of the eumetazoa, we performed quantitative RNA-seq analysis during Acropora digitifera’s development. We collected embryonic, larval, and adult samples to characterize stage-specific transcription profiles, as well as broad expression patterns. Transcription profiles reconstructed development revealing two main expression clusters. The first cluster grouped blastula and gastrula and the second grouped subsequent developmental time points. Consistently, we observed clear differences in gene expression between early and late developmental transitions, with higher numbers of differentially expressed genes and fold changes around gastrulation. Furthermore, we identified three coexpression clusters that represented discrete gene expression patterns. During early transitions, transcriptional networks seemed to regulate cellular fate and morphogenesis of the larval body. In late transitions, these networks seemed to play important roles preparing planulae for switch in lifestyle and regulation of adult processes. Although developmental progression in A. digitifera is regulated to some extent by differential coexpression of well-defined gene networks, stage-specific transcription profiles appear to be independent entities. While negative regulation of transcription is predominant in early development, cell differentiation was upregulated in larval and adult stages. PMID:26941230

  9. Developmental Progression in the Coral Acropora digitifera Is Controlled by Differential Expression of Distinct Regulatory Gene Networks.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Bermudez, Alejandro; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Ramirez-Portilla, Catalina; Hidaka, Michio; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    Corals belong to the most basal class of the Phylum Cnidaria, which is considered the sister group of bilaterian animals, and thus have become an emerging model to study the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Although cell renewal, differentiation, and maintenance of pluripotency are cellular events shared by multicellular animals, the cellular basis of these fundamental biological processes are still poorly understood. To understand how changes in gene expression regulate morphogenetic transitions at the base of the eumetazoa, we performed quantitative RNA-seq analysis duringAcropora digitifera's development. We collected embryonic, larval, and adult samples to characterize stage-specific transcription profiles, as well as broad expression patterns. Transcription profiles reconstructed development revealing two main expression clusters. The first cluster grouped blastula and gastrula and the second grouped subsequent developmental time points. Consistently, we observed clear differences in gene expression between early and late developmental transitions, with higher numbers of differentially expressed genes and fold changes around gastrulation. Furthermore, we identified three coexpression clusters that represented discrete gene expression patterns. During early transitions, transcriptional networks seemed to regulate cellular fate and morphogenesis of the larval body. In late transitions, these networks seemed to play important roles preparing planulae for switch in lifestyle and regulation of adult processes. Although developmental progression inA. digitiferais regulated to some extent by differential coexpression of well-defined gene networks, stage-specific transcription profiles appear to be independent entities. While negative regulation of transcription is predominant in early development, cell differentiation was upregulated in larval and adult stages. PMID:26941230

  10. Nucleus downscaling in mouse embryos is regulated by cooperative developmental and geometric programs.

    PubMed

    Tsichlaki, Elina; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a close correlation between cell and nuclear size at any given developmental stage, and show that experimental cytoplasmic reduction can alter nuclear size, together indicating that cell size helps dictate nuclear proportions. Additionally, however, by creating embryos with over-sized blastomeres we present evidence of a developmental program that drives nuclear downscaling independently of cell size. We show that this developmental program does not correspond with nuclear import rates, but provide evidence that PKC activity may contribute to this mechanism. We propose a model in which nuclear size regulation during early development is a multi-mode process wherein nucleus size is set by cytoplasmic factors, and fine-tuned on a cell-by-cell basis according to cell size. PMID:27320842

  11. Nucleus downscaling in mouse embryos is regulated by cooperative developmental and geometric programs

    PubMed Central

    Tsichlaki, Elina; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a close correlation between cell and nuclear size at any given developmental stage, and show that experimental cytoplasmic reduction can alter nuclear size, together indicating that cell size helps dictate nuclear proportions. Additionally, however, by creating embryos with over-sized blastomeres we present evidence of a developmental program that drives nuclear downscaling independently of cell size. We show that this developmental program does not correspond with nuclear import rates, but provide evidence that PKC activity may contribute to this mechanism. We propose a model in which nuclear size regulation during early development is a multi-mode process wherein nucleus size is set by cytoplasmic factors, and fine-tuned on a cell-by-cell basis according to cell size. PMID:27320842

  12. Core Mechanisms Regulating Developmentally Timed and Environmentally Triggered Abscission.

    PubMed

    Patharkar, O Rahul; Walker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Drought-triggered abscission is a strategy used by plants to avoid the full consequences of drought; however, it is poorly understood at the molecular genetic level. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to elucidate the pathway controlling drought-triggered leaf shedding. We further show that much of the pathway regulating developmentally timed floral organ abscission is conserved in regulating drought-triggered leaf abscission. Gene expression of HAESA (HAE) and INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is induced in cauline leaf abscission zones when the leaves become wilted in response to limited water and HAE continues to accumulate in the leaf abscission zones through the abscission process. The genes that encode HAE/HAESA-LIKE2, IDA, NEVERSHED, and MAPK KINASE4 and 5 are all necessary for drought-induced leaf abscission. Our findings offer a molecular mechanism explaining drought-triggered leaf abscission. Furthermore, the ability to study leaf abscission in Arabidopsis opens up a new avenue to tease apart mechanisms involved in abscission that have been difficult to separate from flower development as well as for understanding the mechanistic role of water and turgor pressure in abscission. PMID:27468996

  13. Aphid polyphenisms: trans-generational developmental regulation through viviparity

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kota; Miura, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenism, in which multiple discrete phenotypes develop from a single genotype, is considered to have contributed to the evolutionary success of aphids. Of the various polyphenisms observed in the complex life cycle of aphids, the reproductive and wing polyphenisms seen in most aphid species are conspicuous. In reproductive polyphenism, the reproductive modes can change between viviparous parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction in response to the photoperiod. Under short-day conditions in autumn, sexual morphs (males and oviparous females) are produced parthenogenetically. Winged polyphenism is observed in viviparous generations during summer, when winged or wingless (flightless) aphids are produced depending on a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., density, predators). Here, we review the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive and wing polyphenism in aphids. In reproductive polyphenism, morph determination (male, oviparous or viviparous female) within mother aphids is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) titers in the mothers. In wing polyphenism, although JH is considered to play an important role in phenotype determination (winged or wingless), the role is still controversial. In both cases, the acquisition of viviparity in Aphididae is considered to be the basis for maternal regulation of these polyphenisms, and through which environmental cues can be transferred to developing embryos through the physiological state of the mother. Although the mechanisms by which mothers alter the developmental programs of their progeny have not yet been clarified, continued developments in molecular biology will likely unravel these questions. PMID:24478714

  14. Developmental Regulation of the Tetrahymena thermophila Origin Recognition Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The Tetrahymena thermophila DNA replication machinery faces unique demands due to the compartmentalization of two functionally distinct nuclei within a single cytoplasm, and complex developmental program. Here we present evidence for programmed changes in ORC and MCM abundance that are not consistent with conventional models for DNA replication. As a starting point, we show that ORC dosage is critical during the vegetative cell cycle and development. A moderate reduction in Orc1p induces genome instability in the diploid micronucleus, aberrant division of the polyploid macronucleus, and failure to generate a robust intra-S phase checkpoint response. In contrast to yeast ORC2 mutants, replication initiation is unaffected; instead, replication forks elongation is perturbed, as Mcm6p levels decline in parallel with Orc1p. Experimentally induced down-regulation of ORC and MCMs also impairs endoreplication and gene amplification, consistent with essential roles during development. Unexpectedly Orc1p and Mcm6p levels fluctuate dramatically in developing wild type conjugants, increasing for early cycles of conventional micronuclear DNA replication and macronuclear anlagen replication (endoreplication phase I, rDNA gene amplification). This increase does not reflect the DNA replication load, as much less DNA is synthesized during this developmental window compared to vegetative S phase. Furthermore, although Orc1p levels transiently increase prior to endoreplication phase II, Orc1p and Mcm6p levels decline when the replication load increases and unconventional DNA replication intermediates are produced. We propose that replication initiation is re-programmed to meet different requirements or challenges during the successive stages of Tetrahymena development. PMID:25569357

  15. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  16. Developmental progress and current status of the Animal QTLdb

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Park, Carissa A.; Reecy, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The Animal QTL Database (QTLdb; http://www.animalgenome.org/QTLdb) has undergone dramatic growth in recent years in terms of new data curated, data downloads and new functions and tools. We have focused our development efforts to cope with challenges arising from rapid growth of newly published data and end users’ data demands, and to optimize data retrieval and analysis to facilitate users’ research. Evidenced by the 27 releases in the past 11 years, the growth of the QTLdb has been phenomenal. Here we report our recent progress which is highlighted by addition of one new species, four new data types, four new user tools, a new API tool set, numerous new functions and capabilities added to the curator tool set, expansion of our data alliance partners and more than 20 other improvements. In this paper we present a summary of our progress to date and an outlook regarding future directions. PMID:26602686

  17. Developmental Progression of Looking and Reaching Performance on the A-Not-B Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    From a neuropsychological perspective, the cognitive skills of working memory, inhibition, and attention and the maturation of the frontal lobe are requisites for successful A-not-B performance on both the looking and reaching versions of the task. This study used a longitudinal design to examine the developmental progression of infants'…

  18. Progress in outdoor navigation by the SAIL developmental robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Weng, John J.; Huang, Xiao

    2002-02-01

    A sensory mapping method, called Staggered Hierarchical Mapping (SHM), and its developmental algorithm are described in this paper. SHM is a model motivated by human early visual pathways including processing performed by the retina, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) and the primary visual cortex. The work reported here concerns not only the design of such a series of processors but also their autonomous development. The primary goal is to address a long standing open problem of visual information processing in that processing elements that are dedicated to receptive fields of different retinal positions and different scales (sizes) must be concurrently functioning, in robotic and other applications in unstructured environments. A new Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) method is used to automatically develop orientation sensitive and other needed filters. For a fast convergence, the lateral inhibition of sensory neurons is modelled by what is called residual images. A set of staggered receptive fields models the pattern of positioning of processing cells. From sequentially sensed video frames, the proposed developing algorithm develops a hierarchy of filters, whose outputs are uncorrelated within each layer, but with increasing scale of receptive fields from low to higher layers. To study the completeness of the representation generated by the SHM, we experimentally show that the response produced at any layer is sufficient to corresponding retinal image. As an application domain, we describe out preliminary experiments of autonomous navigation by the SAIL robot, and why a mapping like the SHM is needed in our next phase of work of vision guided autonomous navigation in outdoor environments.

  19. Self-Regulation Behaviors in Underprepared (Developmental) and Regular Admission College Students

    PubMed

    Ley; Young

    1998-01-01

    Although there is evidence that self-regulated learning processes, such as self-efficacy and goal setting, are significantly related to academic success most studies have not included participants from the one third of the entering college students who must take remedial college courses. The purpose of our research was to examine the differences between the self regulation reported by regular admission students and by underprepared students. We hypothesized that self regulating behaviors could predict developmental, that is underprepared, status or regular admission status among postsecondary students. Self regulation processes in randomly selected developmental and regular admission college students were identified using a structured interview. A discriminant function analysis tested the predictive ability of three measures of self regulating behavior. Developmental and regular admission students differed significantly in their self regulatory strategy deployment. The results suggest that self regulation may be a distinguishing characteristic between some developmental and regular admission students. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9514688

  20. Planning an Action: A Developmental Progression in Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Rachel; Lee, Mei-Hua; Adolph, Karen

    2014-01-01

    How children pick up a tool reveals their ability to plan an action with the end goal in mind. When presented with a spoon whose handle points away from their dominant hand, children between infancy and 8 years of age progress from using an awkward ulnar grip that causes food to spill from the spoon to consistently using a radial grip. At 4 years of age children’s grip strategies are highly variable, including the awkward grips of infancy and use of the non-dominant hand, but they also employ adult-like grips never seen in infancy. By 8 years of age the infantile ulnar grip has completely disappeared and is replaced by more mature and effective grips that indicates better planning for the end goal. PMID:24954996

  1. Src Kinase Regulation in Progressively Invasive Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weichen; Allbritton, Nancy; Lawrence, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic progression is a multistep process that involves tumor growth and survival, motility and invasion, and subsequent proliferation in an inappropriate environment. The Src protein tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many of the biochemical pathways that drive these behaviors. Although Src itself is only rarely mutated in human tumors, its aberrant activity has been noted in various cancers and suggested to serve as a barometer of metastatic potential. With these features in mind, we examined Src kinase regulation at the structural, enzymatic, and expression levels as a function of progressively invasive prostate cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, both total Src content and kinase activity decrease with increasing cell line aggressiveness, an observation that appears to be inconsistent with the well-documented role of Src in the signaling pathways that drive growth and invasion. However, we do observe a direct correlation between Src kinase specific activity (total Src kinase activity/total Src content) and metastatic aggressiveness, possibly suggesting that in highly aggressive cell lines, key signaling enzymes are globally recruited to drive the cancerous phenotype. In addition, although the expected enhanced phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 (activation site) is present in the most aggressive prostate cancer cell lines, unexpectedly high phosphorylation levels at the Tyr-527 inhibitory site are observed as well. The latter, rather than representative of inhibited enzyme, is more indicative of primed Src responsive to local phosphorylated binding partners. PMID:23145001

  2. Regulated lysosomal exocytosis mediates cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eda; White-Gilbertson, Shai; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Janke, Laura; Moshiach, Simon; Campos, Yvan; Finkelstein, David; Gomero, Elida; Mosca, Rosario; Qiu, Xiaohui; Morton, Christopher L.; Annunziata, Ida; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tumor cells transition to an invasive and drug-resistant phenotype is central to cancer biology, but the mechanisms underlying this transition remain unclear. We show that sarcomas gain these malignant traits by inducing lysosomal exocytosis, a ubiquitous physiological process. During lysosomal exocytosis, the movement of exocytic lysosomes along the cytoskeleton and their docking at the plasma membrane involve LAMP1, a sialylated membrane glycoprotein and target of the sialidase NEU1. Cleavage of LAMP1 sialic acids by NEU1 limits the extent of lysosomal exocytosis. We found that by down-regulation of NEU1 and accumulation of oversialylated LAMP1, tumor cells exacerbate lysosomal exocytosis of soluble hydrolases and exosomes. This facilitates matrix invasion and propagation of invasive signals, and purging of lysosomotropic chemotherapeutics. In Arf−⁄− mice, Neu1 haploinsufficiency fostered the development of invasive, pleomorphic sarcomas, expressing epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and lysosomal exocytosis effectors, LAMP1 and Myosin-11. These features are analogous to those of metastatic, pleomorphic human sarcomas, where low NEU1 levels correlate with high expression of lysosomal exocytosis markers. In a therapeutic proof of principle, we demonstrate that inhibiting lysosomal exocytosis reversed invasiveness and chemoresistance in aggressive sarcoma cells. Thus, we reveal that this unconventional, lysosome-regulated pathway plays a primary role in tumor progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26824057

  3. Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated.

    PubMed

    Zawahir, Sharmila; Li, Guanghui; Banerjee, Aditi; Shiu, Jessica; Blanchard, Thomas G; Okogbule-Wonodi, Adora C

    2015-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. PMID:26101946

  4. Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Zawahir, Sharmila; Li, Guanghui; Banerjee, Aditi; Shiu, Jessica; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. PMID:26101946

  5. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Social Problems of Boys with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Fernandes-Richards, Siobhan; Aarskog, Cyrena; Osborn, Teresa; Capetillo, Darla

    2007-01-01

    Parents and teachers reported that 6- to 8-year-old boys with developmental delays were less able to regulate their emotions than nondelayed boys matched on chronological age. Compared to nondelayed boys, boys with developmental delays had more social problems, which persisted and increased over a 3-year period. Children's ability to regulate…

  6. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future. PMID:26766213

  7. Unliganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Regulates Developmental Timing via Gene Repression in Xenopus tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinyoung; Suzuki, Ken-ichi T.; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shewade, Leena; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events. Here we examined the role of unliganded TRα in gene repression and development in Xenopus tropicalis. We used transcription activator-like effector nuclease gene disruption technology to generate founder animals with mutations in the TRα gene and bred them to produce F1 offspring with a normal phenotype and a mutant phenotype, characterized by precocious hind limb development. Offspring with a normal phenotype had zero or one disrupted TRα alleles, and tadpoles with the mutant hind limb phenotype had two truncated TRα alleles with frame shift mutations between the two zinc fingers followed by 40–50 mutant amino acids and then an out-of-frame stop codon. We examined TH-response gene expression and early larval development with and without exogenous TH in F1 offspring. As hypothesized, mutant phenotype tadpoles had increased expression of TH-response genes in the absence of TH and impaired induction of these same genes after exogenous TH treatment, compared with normal phenotype animals. Also, mutant hind limb phenotype animals had reduced hind limb and gill responsivity to exogenous TH. Similar results in methimazole-treated tadpoles showed that increased TH-response gene expression and precocious development were not due to early production of TH. These results indicate that unliganded TRα delays developmental progression by repressing TH-response genes. PMID:25456067

  8. Revisiting a Progressive Pedagogy. The Developmental-Interaction Approach. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education: Inquiries and Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nager, Nancy, Ed.; Shapiro, Edna K., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of the developmental-interactive approach, a formulation rooted in developmental psychology and educational practice, progressively informing educational thinking since the early 20th century. The book describes and analyzes key assumptions and assesses the compatibility of new theoretical approaches, focuses on…

  9. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell replication is tightly controlled in normal tissues and aberrant during disease progression, such as in tumorigenesis. The replication of cells can be divided into four distinct phases: Gap 1 (G1), synthesis (S), gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The progression from one phase to the next is intrica...

  10. Suspensor Length Determines Developmental Progression of the Embryo in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Yashodar; Musielak, Thomas; Henschen, Agnes; Bayer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The first structure that differentiates during plant embryogenesis is the extra-embryonic suspensor that positions the embryo in the lumen of the seed. A central role in nutrient transport has been ascribed to the suspensor in species with prominent suspensor structures. Little is known, however, about what impact the size of the rather simple Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suspensor has on embryogenesis. Here, we describe mutations in the predicted exo-polygalacturonase gene NIMNA (NMA) that lead to cell elongation defects in the early embryo and markedly reduced suspensor length. Mutant nma embryos develop slower than wild-type embryos, and we could observe a similar developmental delay in another mutant with shorter suspensors. Interestingly, for both genes, the paternal allele has a stronger influence on the embryonic phenotype. We conclude that the length of the suspensor is crucial for fast developmental progression of the embryo in Arabidopsis. PMID:23709666

  11. Driving Skills of Young Adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder: Regulating Speed and Coping with Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Wann, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we used an automatic car simulator to examine the steering control, speed regulation and response to hazards of young adults with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and limited driving experience. In Experiment 1 participants either used the accelerator pedal to regulate their speed, or used the brake pedal when they…

  12. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Moeller, Morten E; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ou, Qiuxiang; Laursen, Janne M; Soenderholm, Caecilie; Zhuo, Ran; Phelps, Brian; Tang, Kevin; Zeng, Jie; Kondo, Shu; Nielsen, Christian H; Harvald, Eva B; Faergeman, Nils J; Haley, Macy J; O'Connor, Kyle A; King-Jones, Kirst; O'Connor, Michael B; Rewitz, Kim F

    2016-06-20

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms are regulated by TOR and feedback signaling that couples steroidogenesis with growth and ensures proper maturation timing. These results reveal genes regulating steroidogenesis during development that likely modulate disease mechanisms. PMID:27326933

  13. Novel role of p73 as a regulator of developmental angiogenesis: Implication for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Maria C; Marques, Margarita M

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding the role of p73 in the regulation of angiogenesis has been incomplete and quite controversial. Remarkably, several groups, including ours, have recently demonstrated that TP73 plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis regulation and that differential expression of TP73 could have important consequences in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we discuss a possible model for p73 function in the regulation of developmental angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27308533

  14. Resilience as Regulation of Developmental and Family Processes

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, David; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Riggs, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Resilience can be defined as establishing equilibrium subsequent to disturbances to a system caused by significant adversity. When families experience adversity or transitions, multiple regulatory processes may be involved in establishing equilibrium, including adaptability, regulation of negative affect, and effective problem-solving skills. The authors’ resilience-as-regulation perspective integrates insights about the regulation of individual development with processes that regulate family systems. This middle-range theory of family resilience focuses on regulatory processes across levels that are involved in adaptation: whole-family systems such as routines and sense of coherence; coregulation of dyads involving emotion regulation, structuring, and reciprocal influences between social partners; and individual self-regulation. Insights about resilience-as-regulation are then applied to family-strengthening interventions that are designed to promote adaptation to adversity. Unresolved issues are discussed in relation to resilience-as-regulation in families, in particular how risk exposure is assessed, interrelations among family regulatory mechanisms, and how families scaffold the development of children’s resilience. PMID:26568647

  15. (Regulation of teopene metabolism). Progress report. [Mentha piperita

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in elucidating the biosynthesis of several monoterpenes in the peppermint is described. Tracer studies were performed to clarify metabolic pathways involved. Several growth regulators were screened for their influence on monoterpene composition and yield in peppermint and sage. (DT)

  16. Gravid Spot Predicts Developmental Progress and Reproductive Output in a Livebearing Fish, Gambusia holbrooki

    PubMed Central

    Norazmi-Lokman, Nor Hakim; Purser, G. J.; Patil, Jawahar G.

    2016-01-01

    In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23°C and 25°C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P˃0.05) at 25°C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (P<0.05), reaffirming that gravid spot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as

  17. Gravid Spot Predicts Developmental Progress and Reproductive Output in a Livebearing Fish, Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Norazmi-Lokman, Nor Hakim; Purser, G J; Patil, Jawahar G

    2016-01-01

    In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23 °C and 25 °C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P ˃ 0.05) at 25 °C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (P<0.05), reaffirming that gravid spot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as

  18. Developmental regulation of. beta. -conglycinin in soybean axes and cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Ladin, B.F.; Tierney, M.L.; Meinke, D.W.; Hosangadi, P.; Veith, M.; Beachy, R.N.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of the expression of genes encoding the ..beta..-conglycinin seed storage proteins in soybean has been used to extend the authors understanding of developmental gene expression in plants. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..', and ..beta.. subunits of ..beta..-conglycinin are encoded by a multigene family which is organ-specific in its expression. In this study the authors report the differentially programmed accumulation of the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..', and ..beta.. subunits of ..beta..-conglycinin. Multiple isomeric forms of each subunit are present in the dry seed, but the timing of their accumulation is unique for each subunit. The previously reported variation in amount of ..cap alpha..' and ..cap alpha.. subunits in axis and cotyledons is also reflected in the amount of subunit specific mRNA which is present in each tissue. The ..beta.. subunit, previously undetected in soybean axes, is found to be synthesized but rapidly degraded. These differences in ..beta..-conglycinin protein accumulation may be reflected by the morphological differences observed in protein bodies between these two tissues.

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid acts as a nutrient-derived developmental cue to regulate early hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haisen; Yue, Rui; Wei, Bin; Gao, Ge; Du, Jiulin; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac blood islands during vertebrate embryogenesis, where abundant phosphatidylcholines (PC) are available as important nutrients for the developing embryo. However, whether these phospholipids also generate developmental cues to promote hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signaling molecule derived from PC, regulated hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Pharmacological and genetic blockage of LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) or autotoxin (ATX), a secretory lysophospholipase that catalyzes LPA production, inhibited hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and impaired the formation of hemangioblasts. Mechanistic experiments revealed that the regulatory effect of ATX-LPA signaling was mediated by PI3K/Akt-Smad pathway. Furthermore, during in vivo embryogenesis in zebrafish, LPA functioned as a developmental cue for hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Taken together, we identified LPA as an important nutrient-derived developmental cue for primitive hematopoiesis as well as a novel mechanism of hemangioblast regulation. PMID:24829209

  20. 76 FR 81942 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Progress Payments (SF-1443)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Progress Payments (SF-1443) AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... previously information collection requirement concerning progress payments. Public comments are particularly..., Progress Payments, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov ....

  1. Absence of canonical active chromatin marks in developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Romero, Marina; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of active and repressive histone modifications is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. In contrast to this generally accepted view, we show that transcription of genes temporally regulated during fly and worm development occurs in the absence of canonically active histone modifications. Conversely, strong chromatin marking is related to transcriptional and post-transcriptional stability, an association that we also observe in mammals. Our results support a model in which chromatin marking is associated to stable production of RNA, while unmarked chromatin would permit rapid gene activation and de-activation during development. In this case, regulation by transcription factors would play a comparatively more important regulatory role. PMID:26280901

  2. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  3. SUMOylation-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, Karolin; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2016-01-01

    SUMOylation plays critical roles during cell cycle progression. Many important cell cycle regulators, including many oncogenes and tumor suppressors, are functionally regulated via SUMOylation. The dynamic SUMOylation pattern observed throughout the cell cycle is ensured via distinct spatial and temporal regulation of the SUMO machinery. Additionally, SUMOylation cooperates with other post-translational modifications to mediate cell cycle progression. Deregulation of these SUMOylation and deSUMOylation enzymes causes severe defects in cell proliferation and genome stability. Different types of cancers were recently shown to be dependent on a functioning SUMOylation system, a finding that could potentially be exploited in anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26601932

  4. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Quail, DF; Joyce, JA

    2014-01-01

    Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend upon for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable, and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that reeducation of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here, we will discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, and recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24202395

  5. Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction in Developmental Writing: A Design Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2013-01-01

    This design research project developed and evaluated curriculum for developmental writing classes in community colleges. The core of the curriculum was self-regulated strategy instruction, which has been shown to be effective with adolescents who are struggling as writers. In the curriculum, students learned strategies for planning, drafting, and…

  6. GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR REGULATION IN THE RAT EMBRYO: A POTENTIAL SITE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat embryo: a potential site for developmental toxicity?

    Ghosh B, Wood CR, Held GA, Abbott BD, Lau C.

    National Research Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.

  7. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  8. New Directions in Developmental Emotion Regulation Research across the Life Span: Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of emotion regulation has become a prominent topic in developmental science covering a broad age range from infancy to old age because of its theoretical importance and practical implications. This introductory essay of this special section includes reflections on some of the conceptual themes of this research field and…

  9. A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on ADHD and Comorbid Conditions: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented. PMID:25662998

  10. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, R P

    2001-01-01

    The Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and the facilitated fructose transporter GLUT5 absorb sugars from the intestinal lumen across the brush-border membrane into the cells. The activity of these transport systems is known to be regulated primarily by diet and development. The cloning of these transporters has led to a surge of studies on cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal sugar transport. However, the small intestine can be a difficult organ to study, because its cells are continuously differentiating along the villus, and because the function of absorptive cells depends on both their state of maturity and their location along the villus axis. In this review, I describe the typical patterns of regulation of transport activity by dietary carbohydrate, Na(+) and fibre, how these patterns are influenced by circadian rhythms, and how they vary in different species and during development. I then describe the molecular mechanisms underlying these regulatory patterns. The expression of these transporters is tightly linked to the villus architecture; hence, I also review the regulatory processes occurring along the crypt-villus axis. Regulation of glucose transport by diet may involve increased transcription of SGLT1 mainly in crypt cells. As cells migrate to the villus, the mRNA is degraded, and transporter proteins are then inserted into the membrane, leading to increases in glucose transport about a day after an increase in carbohydrate levels. In the SGLT1 model, transport activity in villus cells cannot be modulated by diet. In contrast, GLUT5 regulation by the diet seems to involve de novo synthesis of GLUT5 mRNA synthesis and protein in cells lining the villus, leading to increases in fructose transport a few hours after consumption of diets containing fructose. In the GLUT5 model, transport activity can be reprogrammed in mature enterocytes lining the villus column. Innovative experimental approaches are needed to increase our understanding of sugar

  11. Developmental methylation pattern regulates porcine GPR120 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, H M; Ma, J D; Jin, L; Liu, Y H; Che, T D; Li, M Z; Li, X W

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important component of the epigenetic machinery and plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation. It mostly occurs in CpG abundant regions, known as CpG islands (CGIs). G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) functions as an omega-3 fatty acid receptor and is involved in multiple-biological processes, including lipogenesis. Herein, we show that GPR120 is highly expressed in porcine mature adipose tissue and is positively associated with adipose tissue development (r = 0.86, P < 0.01). We also predicted 5 CGIs across the GPR120 genomic sequence and investigated their methylation status using the MassArray approach. Our results show that these CGIs exhibit significantly different methylation states (PCGI < 0.01), and that the DNA methylation of GPR120 5ꞌ-untranslated and first exon regions can negatively regulate its expression levels. This study will aid further investigations on the epigenetic mechanism regulating GPR120 expression. PMID:26909944

  12. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' broom, a disease of Theobroma cacao. The pathogen life cycle ends with the production of basidiocarps in dead tissues of the infected host. This structure generates millions of basidiospores that reinfect young tissues of the same or other plants. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual phase of this fungus may help develop chemical, biological or genetic strategies to control the disease. Results Mycelium was morphologically analyzed prior to emergence of basidiomata by stereomicroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological changes in the mycelium before fructification show a pattern similar to other members of the order Agaricales. Changes and appearance of hyphae forming a surface layer by fusion were correlated with primordia emergence. The stages of hyphal nodules, aggregation, initial primordium and differentiated primordium were detected. The morphological analysis also allowed conclusions on morphogenetic aspects. To analyze the genes involved in basidiomata development, the expression of some selected EST genes from a non-normalized cDNA library, representative of the fruiting stage of M. perniciosa, was evaluated. A macroarray analysis was performed with 192 selected clones and hybridized with two distinct RNA pools extracted from mycelium in different phases of basidiomata formation. This analysis showed two groups of up and down-regulated genes in primordial phases of mycelia. Hydrophobin coding, glucose transporter, Rho-GEF, Rheb, extensin precursor and cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes were grouped among the up-regulated. In the down-regulated group relevant genes clustered coding calmodulin, lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase and PIM1. In addition, 12 genes with more detailed expression profiles were analyzed by RT-qPCR. One aegerolysin gene had a peak of expression in mycelium with primordia and a

  13. The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar

  14. Progranulin: a novel regulator of gastrointestinal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a soluble factor that regulates cell proliferation, motility and inflammation. A role for PGRN in the progression of ovarian and breast cancers is well established. However, the expression and subsequent consequences of PGRN on the progression of gastrointestinal tumors is not well recognized. This review briefly summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of PGRN and highlights the role of this signaling molecule in various gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24040621

  15. Developmental mechanisms that regulate retinal ganglion cell dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ning

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is that dendrites of individual RGCs are confined to one or a few narrow strata within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and each RGC synapses only with a small group of presynaptic bipolar and amacrine cells with axons/dendrites ramified in the same strata to process distinct visual features. The underlying mechanisms which control the development of this laminar-restricted distribution pattern of RGC dendrites have been extensively studied, and it is still an open question whether the dendritic pattern of RGCs is determined by molecular cues or by activity-dependent refinement. Accumulating evidence suggests that both molecular cues and activity-dependent refinement might regulate RGC dendrites in a cell subtype-specific manner. However, identification of morphological subtypes of RGCs before they have achieved their mature dendritic pattern is a major challenge in the study of RGC dendritic development. This problem is now being circumvented through the use of molecular markers in genetically engineered mouse lines to identify RGC subsets early during development. Another unanswered fundamental question in the study of activity-dependent refinement of RGC dendrites is how changes in synaptic activity lead to the changes in dendritic morphology. Recent studies have started to shed light on the molecular basis of activity-dependent dendritic refinement of RGCs by showing that some molecular cascades control the cytoskeleton reorganization of RGCs. PMID:21542137

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Regulating Attentional Selection Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to “pay attention” and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development. PMID:22905028

  17. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time.

    PubMed

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to "pay attention" and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development. PMID:22905028

  18. Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

  19. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  20. Light-independent developmental regulation of cab gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Brusslan, J A; Tobin, E M

    1992-01-01

    We found a transient increase in the amount of mRNA for four nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins during early development of Arabidopsis thaliana. This increase began soon after germination as cotyledons emerged from the seed coat; it occurred in total darkness and was not affected by external factors, such as gibberellins or light treatments used to stimulate germination. Three members of the cab gene family and the rbcS-1A gene exhibited this expression pattern. Because timing of the increase coincided with cotyledon emergence and because it occurred independently of external stimuli, we suggest that this increase represents developmental regulation of these genes. Further, 1.34 kilobases of the cab1 promoter was sufficient to confer this expression pattern on a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. The ability of the cab genes to respond to phytochrome preceded this developmental increase, showing that these two types of regulation are independent. Images PMID:1380166

  1. Developmental Stability and Change in Self-Regulation from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Crockett, Lisa J.; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the developmental course of self-regulation in a cohort of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The longitudinal sample included 646 children (48% girls; 52% boys; 36.2% Black, 23.4% Hispanic, 40.4% White) who were 4 to 5 years old in 1986 and who were followed up at ages 8 to 9 and ages 12 to 13. Levels of…

  2. INO80-dependent regression of ecdysone-induced transcriptional responses regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Sarah D; Ihry, Robert J; Gruetzmacher, Kelly M; Bashirullah, Arash

    2014-03-15

    Sequential pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone regulate the major developmental transitions in Drosophila, and the duration of each developmental stage is determined by the length of time between ecdysone pulses. Ecdysone regulates biological responses by directly initiating target gene transcription. In turn, these transcriptional responses are known to be self-limiting, with mechanisms in place to ensure regression of hormone-dependent transcription. However, the biological significance of these transcriptional repression mechanisms remains unclear. Here we show that the chromatin remodeling protein INO80 facilitates transcriptional repression of ecdysone-regulated genes during prepupal development. In ino80 mutant animals, inefficient repression of transcriptional responses to the late larval ecdysone pulse delays the onset of the subsequent prepupal ecdysone pulse, resulting in a significantly longer prepupal stage. Conversely, increased expression of ino80 is sufficient to shorten the prepupal stage by increasing the rate of transcriptional repression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing the rate of regression of the mid-prepupal competence factor βFTZ-F1 is sufficient to determine the timing of head eversion and thus the duration of prepupal development. Although ino80 is conserved from yeast to humans, this study represents the first characterization of a bona fide ino80 mutation in any metazoan, raising the possibility that the functions of ino80 in transcriptional repression and developmental timing are evolutionarily conserved. PMID:24468295

  3. Developmental regulation of the estrogen receptor and the estrogen responsiveness of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M I; O'Malley, P J; Krust, A; Burch, J B

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude of the expression of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver in response to exogenous estradiol is shown to be developmentally regulated. Though each of these yolk protein genes gains the capacity to respond to estradiol during embryonic development, we demonstrate that maximal responses for the different genes are achieved at distinct ages between 1 and 6 weeks after hatching. This observation prompted us to look for possible correlations between yolk protein gene expression and changes in the expression of estrogen receptors that might also occur after hatching. We discovered that indeed the maximal level of nuclear estrogen receptors (assayed following the administration of estradiol) increases progressively over this same period of development from approximately 1000 receptors per cell at 1 week after hatching to approximately 3500 receptors per cell at 6 weeks after hatching. The latter number represents the fully mature state, as comparable levels of receptors are present in the livers of egg-laying hens. Thus, though increases in the expression of estrogen receptors during embryonic liver development have previously been reported, our results indicate that the changes that occur after hatching are quantitatively far more significant to the developmental program for this transcription factor. PMID:3479803

  4. Feeding state-dependent regulation of developmental plasticity via CaMKI and neuroendocrine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Scott J; Takeishi, Asuka; O'Donnell, Michael P; Park, JiSoo; Hong, Myeongjin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Kim, Kyuhyung; Sengupta, Piali

    2015-01-01

    Information about nutrient availability is assessed via largely unknown mechanisms to drive developmental decisions, including the choice of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae to enter into the reproductive cycle or the dauer stage. In this study, we show that CMK-1 CaMKI regulates the dauer decision as a function of feeding state. CMK-1 acts cell-autonomously in the ASI, and non cell-autonomously in the AWC, sensory neurons to regulate expression of the growth promoting daf-7 TGF-β and daf-28 insulin-like peptide (ILP) genes, respectively. Feeding state regulates dynamic subcellular localization of CMK-1, and CMK-1-dependent expression of anti-dauer ILP genes, in AWC. A food-regulated balance between anti-dauer ILP signals from AWC and pro-dauer signals regulates neuroendocrine signaling and dauer entry; disruption of this balance in cmk-1 mutants drives inappropriate dauer formation under well-fed conditions. These results identify mechanisms by which nutrient information is integrated in a small neuronal network to modulate neuroendocrine signaling and developmental plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10110.001 PMID:26335407

  5. Developmental and Endocrine Regulation of Kisspeptin Expression in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adeshina, Ikeoluwa; Chen, Haolin; Zirkin, Barry R.; Hussain, Mehboob A.; Wondisford, Fredric; Wolfe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, binds to a specific G protein-coupled receptor (kisspeptin1 receptor) to regulate the central reproductive axis. Kisspeptin has also been reported to be expressed in peripheral tissues, including the testes. However, factors regulating testicular kisspeptin and its role in reproduction are unknown. Our objective herein was to begin to address kisspeptin function in the testis. In particular, we sought to determine the level of kisspeptin in the testis in comparison with the brain and other tissues, how these levels change from the prepubertal period through sexual maturation, and the factors involved in kisspeptin regulation in the testis. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis sections using a validated kisspeptin antibody localized kisspeptin to the Leydig cells. Kisspeptin was not detected in germ cells or Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules at any developmental time period studied, from prepuberty to sexual maturation. A developmental time course of testicular kisspeptin revealed that its mRNA and protein levels increased during development, reaching robust levels at postnatal day 28, correlating with pubertal onset. In vitro studies of primary mouse Leydig cells, as well as in vivo studies, indicated clearly that LH is involved in regulating levels of Leydig cell kisspeptin. Interestingly, gonadectomy resulted in elevated LH but reduced serum kisspeptin levels, suggesting that testicular kisspeptin may be secreted. These data document kisspeptin expression in mouse Leydig cells, its secretion into peripheral serum, and its regulation by changes in reproductive neuroendocrine function. PMID:25635620

  6. GABAergic synaptic plasticity during a developmentally-regulated sleep-like state in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dabbish, Nooreen S.; Raizen, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately one fourth of the neurons in C. elegans adults are born during larval development, indicating tremendous plasticity in larval nervous system structure. Larval development shows cyclical expression of sleep-like quiescent behavior during lethargus periods, which occur at larval stage transitions. We studied plasticity at the neuromuscular junction during lethargus using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. The rate of animal contraction when exposed to aldicarb is controlled by the balance between excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory GABAergic input on the muscle. During lethargus, there is an accelerated rate of contraction on aldicarb. Mutant analysis and optogenetic studies reveal that GABAergic synaptic transmission is reduced during lethargus. Worms in lethargus show partial resistance to GABA-A receptor agonists, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms contribute to lethargus-dependent plasticity. Using genetic manipulations that separate the quiescent state from the developmental stage, we show that the synaptic plasticity is dependent on developmental time and not on behavioral state of the animal. We propose that the synaptic plasticity regulated by a developmental clock in C. elegans is analogous to synaptic plasticity regulated by the circadian clock in other species. PMID:22049436

  7. GABAergic synaptic plasticity during a developmentally regulated sleep-like state in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Dabbish, Nooreen S; Raizen, David M

    2011-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth of the neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans adults are born during larval development, indicating tremendous plasticity in larval nervous system structure. Larval development shows cyclical expression of sleep-like quiescent behavior during lethargus periods, which occur at larval stage transitions. We studied plasticity at the neuromuscular junction during lethargus using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. The rate of animal contraction when exposed to aldicarb is controlled by the balance between excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory GABAergic input on the muscle. During lethargus, there is an accelerated rate of contraction on aldicarb. Mutant analysis and optogenetic studies reveal that GABAergic synaptic transmission is reduced during lethargus. Worms in lethargus show partial resistance to GABA(A) receptor agonists, indicating that postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to lethargus-dependent plasticity. Using genetic manipulations that separate the quiescent state from the developmental stage, we show that the synaptic plasticity is dependent on developmental time and not on the behavioral state of the animal. We propose that the synaptic plasticity regulated by a developmental clock in C. elegans is analogous to synaptic plasticity regulated by the circadian clock in other species. PMID:22049436

  8. Analysis of developmentally regulated chorion gene promoter architecture via electroporation of silk moth follicles.

    PubMed

    Tsatsarounos, S P; Rodakis, G C; Lecanidou, R

    2015-02-01

    In the silk moth Bombyx mori, chorion genes of the same developmental specificity are organized in divergently transcribed α/β gene pairs, sharing a common 5' flanking promoter region. This bidirectional promoter contains a complete set of cis-elements responsible for developmentally accurate gene expression. In the present paper, based on the observation that Bombyx chorion gene promoters contain cis-elements for the same transcription factors without concrete evidence on which of them are essential, we address the question as to how promoter architecture (number, orientation and position of common factor binding sites) facilitates developmentally accurate chorion gene regulation. To this end, we constructed several mutated promoter regions of an early-middle gene pair and cloned them upstream of a reporter gene to introduce these plasmid constructs into silk moth follicle epithelial cells via electroporation as an efficient and quick method for transient expression. This is the first time that an ex vivo method had been applied to test the impact of systematic cis-element mutations on a chorion gene promoter. Our results confirmed the importance of the HMGA factor and the role of the GATA factor as an early repressor, and led to a more detailed understanding of which C/EBP sites participate in the regulation of early-middle chorion gene expression. PMID:25256090

  9. Butterfly wing pattern mutants: developmental heterochrony and co-ordinately regulated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Koch, P B; Lorenz, U; Brakefield, P M; ffrench-Constant, R H

    2000-11-01

    Butterfly wings are colored late in development, when pigments are synthesized in specialized wing scale cells in a fixed developmental succession. In this succession, colored pigments are deposited first and the remaining areas are later melanized black or brown. Here we studied the developmental changes underlying two wing pattern mutants, firstly melanic mutants of the swallowtail Papilio glaucus, in which the yellow background is turned black, and secondly a Spotty mutant of the satyrid Bicyclus anynana, which carries two additional eyespots. Despite the very different pattern changes in these two mutants, they are both associated with changes in rates of scale development and correspondingly, the final color pattern. In the melanic swallowtail, background scales originally destined to become yellow (normally developing early and synthesizing papiliochrome) show delayed development, fail to make papiliochrome, and subsequently melanize at the same time as scales in the wild-type black pattern. In the B. anynana eyespot, scale maturation begins with the central white focus, then progresses to the surrounding gold ring and later finishes with melanization of the black center. Mutants showing additional eyespots display accelerated rates of scale development (corresponding to new eyespots) in wing cells not normally occupied by eyespots. Thus by either delaying or accelerating rates of scale development, the final color, or position, of a wing pattern element can be changed. We propose that this heterochrony of scale development is a basic mechanism of color pattern formation on which developmental mutants act to change lepidopteran color patterns. PMID:11180804

  10. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner. PMID:26276097

  11. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Regulates Ca2+ Channel in Early Developmental Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lin; Wang, Min; Yin, Wen-Xuan; Yuan, Qi; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Fleischmann, Bernd; Hescheler, Jürgen; Ji, Guangju

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiomyocytes derived from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells possess various membrane currents and signaling cascades link to that of embryonic hearts. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in regulation of membrane potentials and Ca2+ currents has not been investigated in developmental cardiomyocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the role of ANP in regulating L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICaL) in different developmental stages of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells. ANP decreased the frequency of action potentials (APs) in early developmental stage (EDS) cardiomyocytes, embryonic bodies (EB) as well as whole embryo hearts. ANP exerted an inhibitory effect on basal ICaL in about 70% EDS cardiomyocytes tested but only in about 30% late developmental stage (LDS) cells. However, after stimulation of ICaL by isoproterenol (ISO) in LDS cells, ANP inhibited the response in about 70% cells. The depression of ICaL induced by ANP was not affected by either Nω, Nitro-L-Arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) inhibitor, or KT5823, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) selective inhibitor, in either EDS and LDS cells; whereas depression of ICaL by ANP was entirely abolished by erythro-9-(2-Hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a selective inhibitor of type 2 phosphodiesterase(PDE2) in most cells tested. Conclusion/Significances Taken together, these results indicate that ANP induced depression of action potentials and ICaL is due to activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase (GC), cGMP production and cGMP-activation of PDE2 mediated depression of adenosine 3′, 5′–cyclic monophophate (cAMP)–cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in early cardiomyogenesis. PMID:20107504

  12. FSH Regulates mRNA Translation in Mouse Oocytes and Promotes Developmental Competence.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Federica; Manandhar, Shila; Conti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    A major challenge in assisted reproductive technology is to develop conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation yielding high-quality eggs. Efforts are underway to assess whether known hormonal and local factors play a role in oocyte developmental competence and to identify the molecular mechanism involved. Here we have tested the hypothesis that FSH improves oocyte developmental competence by regulating the translational program in the oocyte. Accumulation of oocyte proteins (targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin xklp2 and IL-7) associated with improved oocyte quality is increased when cumulus-oocyte complexes are incubated with FSH. This increase is due to enhanced translation of the corresponding mRNAs, as indicated by microinjection of constructs in which the 3' untranslated region of the Tpx2 or Il7 transcripts is fused to the luciferase reporter. A transient activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-phosphate/AKT cascade in the oocyte preceded the increase in translation. When the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is down-regulated in follicular cells, the FSH-induced rate of maternal mRNA translation and AKT activation were lost, demonstrating that the effects of FSH are indirect and require EGF receptor signaling in the somatic compartment. Using Pten(fl/fl):Zp3cre oocytes in which the AKT is constitutively activated, translation of reporters was increased and was no longer sensitive to FSH stimulation. More importantly, the oocytes lacking the phosphate and tensin homolog gene showed increased developmental competence, even when cultured in the absence of FSH or growth factors. Thus, we demonstrate that FSH intersects with the follicular EGF network to activate the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-phosphate/AKT cascade in the oocyte to control translation and developmental competence. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the use of FSH to improve egg quality. PMID:26653334

  13. VGluT1+ Neuronal Glutamatergic Signaling Regulates Postnatal Developmental Maturation of Cortical Protoplasmic Astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Lydie; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Functional maturation of astroglia is characterized by the development of a unique, ramified morphology and the induction of important functional proteins, such as glutamate transporter GLT1. Although pathways regulating the early fate specification of astroglia have been characterized, mechanisms regulating postnatal maturation of astroglia remain essentially unknown. Here we used a new in vivo approach to illustrate and quantitatively analyze developmental arborization of astroglial processes. Our analysis found a particularly high increase in the number of VGluT1+ neuronal glutamatergic synapses that are ensheathed by processes from individual developing astroglia from postnatal day (P) 14 to P26, when astroglia undergo dramatic postnatal maturation. Subsequent silencing of VGluT1+ synaptic activity in VGluT1 KO mice significantly reduces astroglial domain growth and the induction of GLT1 in the cortex, but has no effect on astroglia in the hypothalamus, where non-VGluT1+ synaptic signaling predominates. In particular, electron microscopy analysis showed that the loss of VGluT1+ synaptic signaling significantly decreases perisynaptic enshealthing of astroglial processes on synapses. To further determine whether synaptically released glutamate mediates VGluT1+ synaptic signaling, we pharmacologically inhibited and genetically ablated metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, especially mGluR5) in developing cortical astroglia and found that developmental arborization of astroglial processes and expression of functional proteins, such as GLT1, is significantly decreased. In summary, our genetic analysis provides new in vivo evidence that VGluT1+ glutamatergic signaling, mediated by the astroglial mGluR5 receptor, regulates the functional maturation of cortical astroglia during development. These results elucidate a new mechanism for regulating the developmental formation of functional neuron-glia synaptic units. PMID:25122895

  14. Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Sanger, Thomas J.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod vertebrates possess multiple α- and β-like globin genes that are ontogenetically regulated, such that functionally distinct hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms are synthesized during different stages of development. The α- and β-like globin genes of amphibians, birds and mammals are differentially expressed during embryonic development and postnatal life, but little is known about the developmental regulation of globin gene expression in non-avian reptiles. Here we report an investigation into the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis. We tested two hypotheses derived from comparative genomic studies of the globin gene clusters in tetrapod vertebrates. First, we tested whether the product of the Anolis αD-globin gene is incorporated into embryonic Hb, thereby performing the role that would normally be performed by the embyronic αE-globin gene (which has been deleted from the green anole genome). Second, we tested whether two ‘lizard-specific’ β-globin paralogs have independently evolved a division of labor between an early-expressed embryonic gene and a later-expressed adult gene. Results of a proteomic analysis revealed that α- and β-like globin genes of the anole are differentially expressed during embryonic development. However, the same repertoire of α- and β-chain Hb isoforms was expressed during all stages of development and postnatal life, and the ontogenetic shifts in isoform composition were relatively subtle. In contrast to the pattern that has been documented in other tetrapod vertebrates, it appears that the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard does not involve discrete, stage-specific switches in gene activation and gene silencing. PMID:21270305

  15. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-07-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant`s essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  16. An Examination of the Impact of Accelerating Community College Students' Progression through Developmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve developmental education students' outcomes, community colleges have been experimenting with acceleration strategies. Models of acceleration allow students to complete their developmental requirements in a shorter amount of time. However, there has been limited empirical research on the effects of accelerating students'…

  17. An Examination of the Impact of Accelerating Community College Students' Progression through Developmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve developmental education students' outcomes, community colleges have been experimenting with acceleration strategies. Models of acceleration allow students to complete their developmental requirements in a shorter amount of time. However, there has been limited empirical research on the effects of accelerating…

  18. Genetic analysis of developmentally regulated resistance to downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    McDowell, John M; Williams, Scott G; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Eulgem, Thomas; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2005-11-01

    Although developmentally regulated disease resistance has been observed in a variety of plant-pathogen interactions, the molecular basis of this phenomenon is not well understood. Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) expresses a developmentally regulated resistance to Hyaloperonospora parasitica isolate Emco5. Col-0 seedlings support profuse mycelial growth and asexual spore formation in the cotyledons. In contrast, Emco5 growth and reproduction is dramatically (but not completely) restricted in the first set of true leaves. Subsequent leaves exhibit progresssively increased resistance. This adult resistance is strongly suppressed by expression of the salicylic acid-degrading transgene NahG and by loss-of-function mutations in the defense-response regulators PAD4, NDR1, RAR1, PBS3, and NPR1. In contrast to Col-0, the Wassilewskija-0 (Ws-0) ecotype supports profuse growth of Emco5 at all stages of development. Gene-dosage experiments and segregation patterns indicate that adult susceptibility in Ws-0 is incomepletely dominant to adult resistance in Col-0. Genetic mapping in a Col x Ws F2 population revealed a major locus on the bottom arm of chromosome 5, which we named RPP31. Analysis of T-DNA insertion lines indicated that the Columbia allele of RPP8, though tightly linked to RPP31, is not necessary for adult resistance. PMID:16353557

  19. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  20. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval-pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval-pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  1. Polygenic risk accelerates the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: Evidence from a 4-Decade Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Baker, Timothy B; Biddle, Andrea K; Evans, James P; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Meier, Madeline; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) influence the developmental progression of smoking behavior. DESIGN A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth-cohort. SETTING The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS N=1037 male and female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES We assessed genetic risk with a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS). The GRS was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in three meta-analyses of GWAS of smoking quantity phenotypes. OUTCOME MEASURES Smoking initiation, conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and cessation difficulties were evaluated at eight assessments spanning ages 11-38 years. RESULTS Genetic risk score was unrelated to smoking initiation. However, individuals at higher genetic risk were more likely to convert to daily smoking as teenagers, progressed more rapidly from smoking initiation to heavy smoking, persisted longer in smoking heavily, developed nicotine dependence more frequently, were more reliant on smoking to cope with stress, and were more likely to fail in their cessation attempts. Further analysis revealed that two adolescent developmental phenotypes—early conversion to daily smoking and rapid progression to heavy smoking--mediated associations between the genetic risk score and mature phenotypes of persistent heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation failure. The genetic risk score predicted smoking risk over and above family history. CONCLUSIONS Initiatives that disrupt the developmental progression of smoking behavior among adolescents may mitigate genetic risks for developing adult smoking problems. Future genetic research may maximize discovery potential by focusing on smoking behavior soon after smoking initiation and by studying young smokers. PMID:23536134

  2. CYLD regulates keratinocyte differentiation and skin cancer progression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, J P; Fernández-Aceñero, M J; Moreno-Maldonado, R; Navarro, M; Quintana, R; Page, A; Ramírez, A; Bravo, A; Casanova, M L

    2011-01-01

    CYLD is a gene mutated in familial cylindromatosis and related diseases, leading to the development of skin appendages tumors. Although the deubiquitinase CYLD is a skin tumor suppressor, its role in skin physiology is unknown. Using skin organotypic cultures as experimental model to mimic human skin, we have found that CYLD acts as a regulator of epidermal differentiation in humans through the JNK signaling pathway. We have determined the requirement of CYLD for the maintenance of epidermal polarity, keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis. We show that CYLD overexpression increases keratinocyte differentiation while CYLD loss of function impairs epidermal differentiation. In addition, we describe the important role of CYLD in the control of human non-melanoma skin cancer progression. Our results show the reversion of the malignancy of human squamous cell carcinomas that express increased levels of CYLD, while its functional inhibition enhances the aggressiveness of these tumors which progress toward spindle cell carcinomas. We have found that the mechanisms through which CYLD regulates skin cancer progression include the control of tumor differentiation, angiogenesis and cell survival. These findings of the role of CYLD in human skin cancer prognosis make our results relevant from a therapeutic point of view, and open new avenues for exploring novel cancer therapies. PMID:21900959

  3. Tumor suppressor Lzap regulates cell cycle progression, doming and zebrafish epiboly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Wen-Der; Melville, David B.; Cha, Yong I.; Yin, Zhirong; Issaeva, Natalia; Knapik, Ela W.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    Initial stages of embryonic development rely on rapid, synchronized cell divisions of the fertilized egg followed by a set of morphogenetic movements collectively called epiboly and gastrulation. Lzap is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in 30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Lzap activities include regulation of cell cycle progression and response to therapeutic agents. Here we explore developmental roles of the lzap gene during zebrafish morphogenesis. Lzap is highly conserved among vertebrates and is maternally deposited. Expression is initially ubiquitous during gastrulation, and later becomes more prominent in the pharyngeal arches, digestive tract and brain. Antisense morpholino-mediated depletion of Lzap resulted in delayed cell divisions and apoptosis during blastomere formation, resulting in fewer, larger cells. Cell cycle analysis suggested that Lzap loss in early embryonic cells resulted in a G2/M arrest. Furthermore, the Lzap-deficient embryos failed to initiate epiboly – the earliest morphogenetic movement in animal development – which has been shown to be dependent on cell adhesion and migration of epithelial sheets. Our results strongly implicate Lzap in regulation of cell cycle progression, adhesion and migratory activity of epithelial cell sheets during early development. These functions provide further insight into Lzap activity that may contribute not only to development, but also to tumor formation. PMID:21523853

  4. Ripening-associated ethylene biosynthesis in tomato fruit is autocatalytically and developmentally regulated

    PubMed Central

    Yokotani, Naoki; Nakano, Ryohei; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Nagata, Masayasu; Inaba, Akitsugu; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) of ethylene biosynthesis in fruit, transgenic tomatoes with all known LeEIL genes suppressed were produced by RNA interference engineering. The transgenic tomato exhibited ethylene insensitivity phenotypes such as non-ripening and the lack of the triple response and petiole epinasty of seedlings even in the presence of exogenous ethylene. Transgenic fruit exhibited a low but consistent increase in ethylene production beyond 40 days after anthesis (DAA), with limited LeACS2 and LeACS4 expression. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene perception, failed to inhibit the limited increase in ethylene production and expression of the two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) genes in the transgenic fruit. These results suggest that ripening-associated ethylene (system 2) in wild-type tomato fruit consists of two parts: a small part regulated by a developmental factor through the ethylene-independent expression of LeACS2 and LeACS4 and a large part regulated by an autocatalytic system due to the ethylene-dependent expression of the same genes. The results further suggest that basal ethylene (system 1) is less likely to be involved in the transition to system 2. Even if the effect of system 1 ethylene is eliminated, fruit can show a small increase in ethylene production due to unknown developmental factors. This increase would be enough for the stimulation of autocatalytic ethylene production, leading to fruit ripening. PMID:19605457

  5. Self-Regulation and Math Attitudes: Effects on Academic Performance in Developmental Math Courses at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otts, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship among math attitudes, self-regulated learning, and course outcomes in developmental math. Math attitudes involved perceived usefulness of math and math anxiety. Self-regulated learning represented the ability of students to control cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral aspects of…

  6. The GATA Factor elt-1 Regulates C. elegans Developmental Timing by Promoting Expression of the let-7 Family MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Max L.; Kim, Sunhong; Morita, Kiyokazu; Kim, Seong Heon; Han, Min

    2015-01-01

    Postembryonic development in Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for the study of the temporal regulation of development and for the roles of microRNAs in controlling gene expression. Stable switch-like changes in gene expression occur during development as stage-specific microRNAs are expressed and subsequently down-regulate other stage-specific factors, driving developmental progression. Key genes in this regulatory network are phylogenetically conserved and include the post-transcriptional microRNA repressor LIN-28; the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12; and the microRNAs LIN-4, LET-7, and the three LET-7 family miRNAs (miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241). DAF-12 is known to regulate transcription of miR-48, miR-84 and miR-241, but its contribution is insufficient to account for all of the transcriptional regulation implied by the mutant phenotypes. In this work, the GATA-family transcription factor ELT-1 is identified from a genetic enhancer screen as a regulator of developmental timing in parallel to DAF-12, and is shown to do so by promoting the expression of the LET-7, miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241 microRNAs. The role of ELT-1 in developmental timing is shown to be separate from its role in cell-fate maintenance during post-embryonic development. In addition, analysis of Chromatin Immnoprecipitation (ChIP) data from the modENCODE project and this work suggest that the contribution of ELT-1 to the control of let-7 family microRNA expression is likely through direct transcription regulation. PMID:25816370

  7. Developmental effects of antiepileptic drugs and the need for improved regulations.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W

    2016-01-19

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the most common teratogenic drugs prescribed to women of childbearing age. AEDs can induce both anatomical (malformations) and behavioral (cognitive/behavioral deficits) teratogenicity. Only in the last decade have we begun to truly discriminate differential AED developmental effects. Fetal valproate exposure carries a special risk for both anatomical and behavioral teratogenic abnormalities, but the mechanisms and reasons for individual variability are unknown. Intermediate anatomical risks exist for phenobarbital and topiramate. Several AEDs (e.g., lamotrigine and levetiracetam) appear to possess low risks for both anatomical and behavioral teratogenesis. Despite advances in the past decade, our knowledge of the teratogenic risks for most AEDs and the underlying mechanisms remain inadequate. Further, the long-term effects of AEDs in neonates and older children remain uncertain. The pace of progress is slow given the lifelong consequences of diminished developmental outcomes, exposing children unnecessarily to potential adverse effects. It is imperative that new approaches be employed to determine risks more expediently. Our recommendations include a national reporting system for congenital malformations, federal funding of the North American AED Pregnancy Registry, routine meta-analyses of cohort studies to detect teratogenic signals, monitoring of AED prescription practices for women, routine preclinical testing of all new AEDs for neurodevelopmental effects, more specific Food and Drug Administration requirements to establish differential AED cognitive effects in children, and improved funding of basic and clinical research to fully delineate risks and underlying mechanisms for AED-induced anatomical and behavioral teratogenesis. PMID:26519545

  8. Subcellular Profiling Reveals Distinct and Developmentally Regulated Repertoire of Growth Cone mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zivraj, Krishna H.; Tung, Yi Chun Loraine; Piper, Michael; Gumy, Laura; Fawcett, James W.; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Holt, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Cue-directed axon guidance depends partly on local translation in growth cones. Many mRNA transcripts are known to reside in developing axons, yet little is known about their subcellular distribution or, specifically, which transcripts are in growth cones. Here laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate the growth cones of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of two vertebrate species, mouse and Xenopus, coupled with unbiased genomewide microarray profiling. An unexpectedly large pool of mRNAs defined predominant pathways in protein synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, cancer, neurological disease, and signaling. Comparative profiling of “young” (pathfinding) versus “old” (target-arriving) Xenopus growth cones revealed that the number and complexity of transcripts increases dramatically with age. Many presynaptic protein mRNAs are present exclusively in old growth cones, suggesting that functionally related sets of mRNAs are targeted to growth cones in a developmentally regulated way. Remarkably, a subset of mRNAs was significantly enriched in the growth cone compared with the axon compartment, indicating that mechanisms exist to localize mRNAs selectively to the growth cone. Furthermore, some receptor transcripts (e.g., EphB4), present exclusively in old growth cones, were equally abundant in young and old cell bodies, indicating that RNA trafficking from the soma is developmentally regulated. Our findings show that the mRNA repertoire in growth cones is regulated dynamically with age and suggest that mRNA localization is tailored to match the functional demands of the growing axon tip as it transforms into the presynaptic terminal. PMID:21084603

  9. E2F mediates developmental and cell cycle regulation of ORC1 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Asano, M; Wharton, R P

    1999-05-01

    Throughout the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the level of origin recognition complex (ORC) is constant and ORCs are bound constitutively to replication origins. Replication is regulated by the recruitment of additional factors such as CDC6. ORC components are widely conserved, and it generally has been assumed that they are also stable factors bound to origins throughout the cell cycle. In this report, we show that the level of the ORC1 subunit changes dramatically throughout Drosophila development. The accumulation of ORC1 is regulated by E2F-dependent transcription. In embryos, ORC1 accumulates preferentially in proliferating cells. In the eye imaginal disc, ORC1 accumulation is cell cycle regulated, with high levels in late G1 and S phase. In the ovary, the sub-nuclear distribution of ORC1 shifts during a developmentally regulated switch from endoreplication of the entire genome to amplification of the chorion gene clusters. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of ORC1 alters the pattern of DNA synthesis in the eye disc and the ovary. Thus, replication origin activity appears to be governed in part by the level of ORC1 in Drosophila. PMID:10228158

  10. Loss of MBNL Leads to Disruption of Developmentally Regulated Alternative Polyadenylation in RNA-Mediated Disease

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Ranjan; Charizanis, Konstantinos; Manchanda, Mini; Mohan, Apoorva; Li, Moyi; Finn, Dustin J.; Goodwin, Marianne; Zhang, Chaolin; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A.; Swanson, Maurice S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibition of muscleblind-like (MBNL) activity due to sequestration by microsatellite expansion RNAs is a major pathogenic event in the RNA-mediated disease myotonic dystrophy (DM). Although MBNL1 and MBNL2 bind to nascent transcripts to regulate alternative splicing during muscle and brain development, another major binding site for the MBNL protein family is the 3′ untranslated region of target RNAs. Here, we report that depletion of Mbnl proteins in mouse embryo fibroblasts leads to mis-regulation of thousands of alternative polyadenylation events. HITS-CLIP and minigene reporter analyses indicate that these polyadenylation switches are a direct consequence of MBNL binding to target RNAs. Mis-regulated alternative polyadenylation also occurs in skeletal muscle in a mouse polyCUG model and human DM resulting in the persistence of neonatal polyadenylation patterns. These findings reveal a novel developmental function for MBNL proteins and demonstrate that DM is characterized by mis-regulation of pre-mRNA processing at multiple levels. PMID:25263597

  11. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. PMID:27037621

  12. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. ); Olsen, N.J. ); Siminovitch, K.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  13. From Premack to PECS: 25 Years of Progress in Communication Intervention for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Educational and behavioural psychologists have made major contributions to the field of communication intervention for individuals with developmental and physical disabilities. A brief personal perspective is provided on some of the major works and contributors that have shaped the field over the past 25 years. Major contributions and personal…

  14. Developmental Regulation of Enzymes of Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Fernandez, Jesus Alvarez; Campbell, Douglas; Kurz, Wolfgang G. W.

    1988-01-01

    Developing seedlings of Catharanthus roseus were analyzed for appearance of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), strictosidine synthase (SS), N-methyltransferase (NMT) and O-acetyltransferase (DAT) enzyme activities. SS enzyme activity appeared early after germination and was present throughout most of the developmental study. TDC activity was highly regulated and peaked over a 48 hour period achieving a maximum by day of 5 of seedling development. Both TDC and SS were present in all tissues of the seedling. NMT and DAT enzyme activities were induced after TDC and SS had peaked and these activities could only be found in hypocotyls and cotyledons. TDC, SS, and NMT did not require light for induction whereas DAT enzyme activity was increased approximately 10-fold after light treatment of dark grown seedlings. PMID:16665928

  15. Transferrin receptor and ferritin-H are developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunxia; Guan, Qiang; Chen, Yuhui; Han, Hongjie; Liu, Wuchao; Nie, Zhiyu

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential trophic element that is required for cell viability and differentiation, especially in oligodendrocytes, which consume relatively high rates of energy to produce myelin. Multiple iron metabolism proteins are expressed in the brain including transferrin receptor and ferritin-H. However, it is still unknown whether they are developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells for myelination. Here, using an in vitro cultured differentiation model of oligodendrocytes, we found that both transferrin receptor and ferritin-H are significantly upregulated during oligodendrocyte maturation, implying the essential role of iron in the development of oligodendrocytes. Additional different doses of Fe(3+) in the cultured medium did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation or ferritin-H expression but decreased the expression of the transferrin receptor. These results indicate that upregulation of both transferrin receptor and ferritin-H contributes to maturation and myelination of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. PMID:25206366

  16. Antimicrobial peptide expression is developmentally regulated in the ovine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huttner, K M; Brezinski-Caliguri, D J; Mahoney, M M; Diamond, G

    1998-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are abundant components of the innate immune system present in species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In mammals, these immune peptides have been localized to epithelial tissues of the pig, mouse, rat, cow and human gastrointestinal tracts. We have identified in sheep two members of the beta-defensin antimicrobial peptide gene family that are expressed in a unique pattern throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Sheep beta-defensin 1 mRNA is the most prevalent from tongue to colon with the exception of the distal ileum, where beta-defensin 2 mRNA predominates. Sheep beta-defensin expression varies significantly between animals and is developmentally regulated both pre- and postnatally. These changes in antimicrobial peptide expression may correlate with anatomical differentiation as well as physiologic adaptations to extra-uterine life. PMID:9478010

  17. Regulation of developmental and environmental signaling by interaction between microtubules and membranes in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Wenhua

    2016-02-01

    Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization. PMID:26687389

  18. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed. PMID:10960478

  19. Two small heat shock protein genes in Apis cerana cerana: characterization, regulation, and developmental expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohua; Yao, Pengbo; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2014-07-25

    In the present study, we identified and characterized two small heat shock protein genes from Apis cerana cerana, named AccHsp24.2 and AccHsp23.0. An alignment analysis showed that AccHsp24.2 and AccHsp23.0 share high similarity with other members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, all of which contain the conserved α-crystallin domain. The recombinant AccHsp24.2 and AccHsp23.0 proteins were shown to have molecular chaperone activity by the malate dehydrogenase thermal aggregation assay. Three heat shock elements were detected in the 5'-flanking region of AccHsp24.2 and eleven in AccHsp23.0, and two Drosophila Broad-Complex genes for ecdysone steroid response sites were found in each of the genes. The presence of these elements suggests that the expression of these genes might be regulated by heat shock and ecdysone, which was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results revealed that the expression of the two genes could be induced by cold shock (4°C) and heat shock (37°C and 43°C) in an analogous manner, and AccHsp24.2 was more susceptible than AccHsp23.0. In addition, the expression of the two genes was induced by high concentrations of ecdysone in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of AccHsp24.2 and AccHsp23.0 mRNA was also detected in different developmental stages and tissues. In spite of the differential expression at the same stage, these genes shared similar developmental patterns, suggesting that they are regulated by similar mechanisms. PMID:24835315

  20. Investigation of developmentally regulated membrane proteins in muscle and nerve cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of membrane glycoproteins in muscle and nerve cells has been studied. One of these glycoproteins, designated 5B4 antigen, is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (5B4) in rat brain neurons. On immunoblots of fetal rat brain membranes, 5B4 stains a diffuse band with an M/sub r/ of 180-250 kilodalton (kd). Prior digestion of such membranes with a bacteriophage-encoded endoneuraminidase specific for ..cap alpha..-2,8-linked poly(sialic acid) results in a shift in the form of the antigen to two sharp bands of 140 and 180 kd. In adult brain, 5B4 recognizes a pair of sharp bands of M/sub r/ 140 and 180 kd, which are neither sensitive to endo-neuraminidase digestion nor recognized by H.46. V8 peptide maps of the enzymatically iodinated 140 kd adult antigen and the 140 kd endo-neuraminidase digested fetal antigen are identical. These results demonstrate that the polypeptide backbone of the adult and fetal forms of the 5B4 antigen are similar, and that the observed microheterogeneity in the native fetal antigen is due to polysialation. Membrane glycoproteins are through to play an essential role in myoblast fusion during muscle development. In order to identify such glycoproteins, L/sub 6/ myoblasts were labeled with /sup 3/H-N-acetylglucosamine and /sup 3/H-mannose during several stages of differentiation. The effects of various inhibitors of fusion of protein expression were also studied. After identifying membrane glycoproteins whose developmental regulation coincides with myoblast fusion, it is important to establish their role in the fusion process, possibly through reconstitution into phospholipid membrane vesicles (liposomes).

  1. An Organizational Hub of Developmentally Regulated Chromatin Loops in the Drosophila Antennapedia Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Ma, Zhibo; Liu, Jiayang K; Roy, Sharmila; Patel, Sapna K; Lane, Derrick C; Cai, Haini N

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin boundary elements (CBEs) are widely distributed in the genome and mediate formation of chromatin loops, but their roles in gene regulation remain poorly understood. The complex expression pattern of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is directed by an unusually long regulatory sequence harboring diverse cis elements and an intervening neighbor gene fushi tarazu (ftz). Here we report the presence of a multitude of CBEs in the Scr regulatory region. Selective and dynamic pairing among these CBEs mediates developmentally regulated chromatin loops. In particular, the SF1 boundary plays a central role in organizing two subsets of chromatin loops: one subset encloses ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and compartmentalizing distinct histone modifications, and the other subset subdivides the Scr regulatory sequences into independent enhancer access domains. We show that these CBEs exhibit diverse enhancer-blocking activities that vary in strength and tissue distribution. Tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2, two strong CBEs that flank the ftz domain, allows the distal enhancers to bypass their block in transgenic Drosophila, providing a mechanism for the endogenous Scr enhancer to circumvent the ftz domain. Our study demonstrates how an endogenous CBE network, centrally orchestrated by SF1, could remodel the genomic environment to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:26391952

  2. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    PubMed Central

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. PMID:25540440

  3. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  4. REN: a novel, developmentally regulated gene that promotes neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rita; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo; Mincione, Claudia; Borello, Ugo; Buanne, Pasquale; D'Eugenio, Roberta; Mackay, Andrew R; Argenti, Beatrice; Gradini, Roberto; Russo, Matteo A; Maroder, Marella; Cossu, Giulio; Frati, Luigi; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto

    2002-08-19

    Expansion and fate choice of pluripotent stem cells along the neuroectodermal lineage is regulated by a number of signals, including EGF, retinoic acid, and NGF, which also control the proliferation and differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) neural progenitor cells. We report here the identification of a novel gene, REN, upregulated by neurogenic signals (retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF) in pluripotent embryonal stem (ES) cells and neural progenitor cell lines in association with neurotypic differentiation. Consistent with a role in neural promotion, REN overexpression induced neuronal differentiation as well as growth arrest and p27Kip1 expression in CNS and PNS neural progenitor cell lines, and its inhibition impaired retinoic acid induction of neurogenin-1 and NeuroD expression. REN expression is developmentally regulated, initially detected in the neural fold epithelium of the mouse embryo during gastrulation, and subsequently throughout the ventral neural tube, the outer layer of the ventricular encephalic neuroepithelium and in neural crest derivatives including dorsal root ganglia. We propose that REN represents a novel component of the neurogenic signaling cascade induced by retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF, and is both a marker and a regulator of neuronal differentiation. PMID:12186855

  5. Down regulation by p60v-src of genes specifically expressed and developmentally regulated in postmitotic quail neuroretina cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guermah, M; Gillet, G; Michel, D; Laugier, D; Brun, G; Calothy, G

    1990-01-01

    The avian neuroretina (NR) is composed of photoreceptors and different neurons that are derived from proliferating precursor cells. Neuronal differentiation takes place after terminal mitosis. We have previously shown that differentiating NR cells can be induced to proliferate by infection with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and that cell multiplication requires expression of a functional v-src gene. We speculated that the quiescence of NR cells could be determined by specific genes. Cell proliferation could then result from the negative regulation of these genes by the v-src protein. By differential hybridization of a cDNA library, we isolated eight clones corresponding to genes expressed in postmitotic NR cells from 13-day-old quail embryos, transcriptional levels of which are significantly reduced in NR cells induced to proliferate by tsNY68, an RSV mutant with temperature-sensitive mitogenic activity. Partial sequencing analysis indicated that one RNA encoded the calmodulin gene, whereas the other seven showed no similarity to known sequences. By using v-src mutants that induce NR cell proliferation in the absence of transformation, we showed that transcription of six genes was negatively regulated by the v-src protein and that of four genes was correlated with NR cell quiescence. We also report that a subset of genes are specifically transcribed in neural cells and developmentally regulated in the NR. These results indicate that the v-src protein regulates expression of genes likely to play a role in the control of neural cell growth or differentiation. Images PMID:2162475

  6. Genotypically Identifying Wheat Mesophyll Conductance Regulation under Progressive Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Olsovska, Katarina; Kovar, Marek; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Slamka, Pavol; Shao, Hong Bo

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis limitation by CO2 flow constraints from sub-stomatal cavities to carboxylation sites in chloroplasts under drought stress conditions is, at least in some plant species or crops not fully understood, yet. Leaf mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) may considerably affect both photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) in plants under drought conditions. The aim of our study was to detect the responses of gm in leaves of four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from different origins under long-term progressive drought. Based on the measurement of gas-exchange parameters the variability of genotypic responses was analyzed at stomatal (stomata closure) and non-stomatal (diffusional and biochemical) limits of net CO2 assimilation rate (AN). In general, progressive drought caused an increasing leaf diffusion resistance against CO2 flow leading to the decrease of AN, gm and stomatal conductance (gs), respectively. Reduction of gm also led to inhibition of carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax). On the basis of achieved results a strong positive relationship between gm and gs was found out indicating a co-regulation and mutual independence of the relationship under the drought conditions. In severely stressed plants, the stomatal limitation of the CO2 assimilation rate was progressively increased, but to a less extent in comparison to gm, while a non-stomatal limitation became more dominant due to the prolonged drought. Mesophyll conductance (gm) seems to be a suitable mechanism and parameter for selection of improved diffusional properties and photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants, thus explaining their better photosynthetic performance at a whole plant level during periods of drought. PMID:27551283

  7. Genotypically Identifying Wheat Mesophyll Conductance Regulation under Progressive Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Olsovska, Katarina; Kovar, Marek; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Slamka, Pavol; Shao, Hong Bo

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis limitation by CO2 flow constraints from sub-stomatal cavities to carboxylation sites in chloroplasts under drought stress conditions is, at least in some plant species or crops not fully understood, yet. Leaf mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) may considerably affect both photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) in plants under drought conditions. The aim of our study was to detect the responses of gm in leaves of four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from different origins under long-term progressive drought. Based on the measurement of gas-exchange parameters the variability of genotypic responses was analyzed at stomatal (stomata closure) and non-stomatal (diffusional and biochemical) limits of net CO2 assimilation rate (AN). In general, progressive drought caused an increasing leaf diffusion resistance against CO2 flow leading to the decrease of AN, gm and stomatal conductance (gs), respectively. Reduction of gm also led to inhibition of carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax). On the basis of achieved results a strong positive relationship between gm and gs was found out indicating a co-regulation and mutual independence of the relationship under the drought conditions. In severely stressed plants, the stomatal limitation of the CO2 assimilation rate was progressively increased, but to a less extent in comparison to gm, while a non-stomatal limitation became more dominant due to the prolonged drought. Mesophyll conductance (gm) seems to be a suitable mechanism and parameter for selection of improved diffusional properties and photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants, thus explaining their better photosynthetic performance at a whole plant level during periods of drought. PMID:27551283

  8. Med1 regulates meiotic progression during spermatogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Jia, Yuzhi; Reddy, Janardan K.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly coordinated process. Signaling from nuclear hormone receptors, like those for retinoic acid, is important for normal spermatogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating these signals are poorly understood. Mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) is a transcriptional enhancer that directly modulates transcription from nuclear hormone receptors. MED1 is present in male germ cells throughout mammalian development, but its function during spermatogenesis is unknown. To determine its role, we generated mice lacking Med1 specifically in their germ cells beginning just before birth. Conditional Med1 knockout males are fertile, exhibiting normal testis weights and siring ordinary numbers of offspring. Retinoic acid-responsive gene products Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) are first detected in knockout spermatogonia at the expected time points during the first wave of spermatogenesis and persist with normal patterns of cellular distribution in adult knockout testes. Meiotic progression, however, is altered in the absence of Med1. At postnatal day 7 (P7), zygotene-stage knockout spermatocytes are already detected, unlike in control testes, with fewer pre-leptotene-stage cells and more leptotene spermatocytes observed in the knockouts. At P9, Med1 knockout spermatocytes prematurely enter pachynema. Once formed, greater numbers of knockout spermatocytes remain in pachynema relative to the other stages of meiosis throughout testis development and its maintenance in the adult. Meiotic exit is not inhibited. We conclude that MED1 regulates the temporal progression of primary spermatocytes through meiosis, with its absence resulting in abbreviated pre-leptotene, leptotene and zygotene stages, and a prolonged pachytene stage. PMID:25778538

  9. Drosophila melanogaster lipins are tissue-regulated and developmentally regulated and present specific subcellular distributions.

    PubMed

    Valente, Valeria; Maia, Rafaela Martins; Vianna, Murilo Carlos Bizam; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa

    2010-11-01

    Lipins constitute a novel family of Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidate phosphatases that catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to yield diacylglycerol, an important intermediate in lipid metabolism and cell signaling. Whereas a single lipin is detected in less complex organisms, in mammals there are distinct lipin isoforms and paralogs that are differentially expressed among tissues. Compatible with organism tissue complexity, we show that the single Drosophila Lpin1 ortholog (CG8709, here named DmLpin) expresses at least three isoforms (DmLpinA, DmLpinK and DmLpinJ) in a temporal and spatially regulated manner. The highest levels of lipin in the fat body, where DmLpinA and DmLpinK are expressed, correlate with the highest levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) measured in this tissue. DmLpinK is the most abundant isoform in the central nervous system, where TAG levels are significantly lower than in the fat body. In the testis, where TAG levels are even lower, DmLpinJ is the predominant isoform. Together, these data suggest that DmLpinA might be the isoform that is mainly involved in TAG production, and that DmLpinK and DmLpinJ could perform other cellular functions. In addition, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence that lipins are most strongly labeled in the perinuclear region of the fat body and ventral ganglion cells. In visceral muscles of the larval midgut and adult testis, lipins present a sarcomeric distribution. In the ovary chamber, the lipin signal is concentrated in the internal rim of the ring canal. These specific subcellular localizations of the Drosophila lipins provide the basis for future investigations on putative novel cellular functions of this protein family. PMID:20977671

  10. The Progression of Severe Behavior Disorder in Young Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Kristen; Curby, Timothy W.; Bernstein, Alec; Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior disorders, such as self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive behavior are common among individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities. While we have learned much about those behaviors over the past few decades, longitudinal research that looks at developmental trajectory has been rare. This study was designed to examine the trajectory of these three forms of severe behavior disorders over a one year time period. The behaviors were measured on two dimensions: frequency of occurrence and severity. Participants were 160 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays in Lima, Peru. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency of self-injury and stereotypic behavior and the severity of aggressive behavior remained stable over the 12 month period. Uni-directional structural models fit the data best for self-injurious and aggressive behavior (with frequency being a leading indicator of future severity of self-injury and severity being a leading indicator of future frequency for aggression). For stereotypic behavior, a cross-lagged autoregressive model fit the data best, with both dimensions of frequency and severity involved as leading indicators of each other. These models did not vary significantly across diagnostic groups, suggesting that toddlers exhibiting behavior disorders may be assisted with interventions that target the specific frequencies or severities of behaviors, regardless of diagnostic category. PMID:24012587

  11. The progression of severe behavior disorder in young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Kristen; Curby, Timothy W; Bernstein, Alec; Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R

    2013-11-01

    Behavior disorders, such as self-injurious, stereotypic, and aggressive behavior are common among individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities. While we have learned much about those behaviors over the past few decades, longitudinal research that looks at developmental trajectory has been rare. This study was designed to examine the trajectory of these three forms of severe behavior disorders over a one year time period. The behaviors were measured on two dimensions: frequency of occurrence and severity. Participants were 160 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays in Lima, Peru. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency of self-injury and stereotypic behavior and the severity of aggressive behavior remained stable over the 12-month period. Uni-directional structural models fit the data best for self-injurious and aggressive behavior (with frequency being a leading indicator of future severity of self-injury and severity being a leading indicator of future frequency for aggression). For stereotypic behavior, a cross-lagged autoregressive model fit the data best, with both dimensions of frequency and severity involved as leading indicators of each other. These models did not vary significantly across diagnostic groups, suggesting that toddlers exhibiting behavior disorders may be assisted with interventions that target the specific frequencies or severities of behaviors, regardless of diagnostic category. PMID:24012587

  12. Peer Relations and Emotion Regulation of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties with and without a Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Sasha; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Cobham, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) and those who also have developmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can experience the same adverse consequences in their peer interactions and relationships. This present study compared the emotion regulation and peer…

  13. Using Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning to Help Developmental Mathematics Students Achieve: A Multi-Campus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Ziehmke, Niesha; Everson, Howard; Issac, Sharlene; Flugman, Bert; Zimmerman, Barry; Moylan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe an Enhanced Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning (EFA-SRL) program designed to improve the achievement of community college students enrolled in developmental mathematics courses. Their model includes the use of specially formatted quizzes designed to assess both the students' mathematics and metacognitive…

  14. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Training on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Campbell, Karen D. Y.; Perez, Tony; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated. The participants were 116 community college students enrolled in developmental math courses. Students enrolled in 16 classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group completed four…

  15. Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Social Communication and Self-Regulation in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…

  16. Roles of the Developmental Regulator unc-62/Homothorax in Limiting Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Wu, Beijing; Nguyen, Andy; Kim, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    The normal aging process is associated with stereotyped changes in gene expression, but the regulators responsible for these age-dependent changes are poorly understood. Using a novel genomics approach, we identified HOX co-factor unc-62 (Homothorax) as a developmental regulator that binds proximal to age-regulated genes and modulates lifespan. Although unc-62 is expressed in diverse tissues, its functions in the intestine play a particularly important role in modulating lifespan, as intestine-specific knockdown of unc-62 by RNAi increases lifespan. An alternatively-spliced, tissue-specific isoform of unc-62 is expressed exclusively in the intestine and declines with age. Through analysis of the downstream consequences of unc-62 knockdown, we identify multiple effects linked to aging. First, unc-62 RNAi decreases the expression of yolk proteins (vitellogenins) that aggregate in the body cavity in old age. Second, unc-62 RNAi results in a broad increase in expression of intestinal genes that typically decrease expression with age, suggesting that unc-62 activity balances intestinal resource allocation between yolk protein expression and fertility on the one hand and somatic functions on the other. Finally, in old age, the intestine shows increased expression of several aberrant genes; these UNC-62 targets are expressed predominantly in neuronal cells in developing animals, but surprisingly show increased expression in the intestine of old animals. Intestinal expression of some of these genes during aging is detrimental for longevity; notably, increased expression of insulin ins-7 limits lifespan by repressing activity of insulin pathway response factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged animals. These results illustrate how unc-62 regulation of intestinal gene expression is responsible for limiting lifespan during the normal aging process. PMID:23468654

  17. Postnatal reduction of BDNF regulates the developmental remodeling of taste bud innervation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-09-15

    The refinement of innervation is a common developmental mechanism that serves to increase the specificity of connections following initial innervation. In the peripheral gustatory system, the extent to which innervation is refined and how refinement might be regulated is unclear. The initial innervation of taste buds is controlled by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Following initial innervation, taste receptor cells are added and become newly innervated. The connections between the taste receptor cells and nerve fibers are likely to be specific in order to retain peripheral coding mechanisms. Here, we explored the possibility that the down-regulation of BDNF regulates the refinement of taste bud innervation during postnatal development. An analysis of BDNF expression in Bdnf(lacZ/+) mice and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that BDNF was down-regulated between postnatal day (P) 5 and P10. This reduction in BDNF expression was due to a loss of precursor/progenitor cells that express BDNF, while the expression of BDNF in the subpopulations of taste receptor cells did not change. Gustatory innervation, which was identified by P2X3 immunohistochemistry, was lost around the perimeter where most progenitor/precursor cells are located. In addition, the density of innervation in the taste bud was reduced between P5 and P10, because taste buds increase in size without increasing innervation. This reduction of innervation density was blocked by the overexpression of BDNF in the precursor/progenitor population of taste bud cells. Together these findings indicate that the process of BDNF restriction to a subpopulation of taste receptor cells between P5 and P10, results in a refinement of gustatory innervation. We speculate that this refinement results in an increased specificity of connections between neurons and taste receptor cells during development. PMID:26164656

  18. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    PubMed

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  19. Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins control vacuole trafficking and developmental programs through the regulation of lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixi; Sun, Ruobai; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2015-01-01

    The vacuole is the most prominent compartment in plant cells and is important for ion and protein storage. In our effort to search for key regulators in the plant vacuole sorting pathway, ribosomal large subunit 4 (rpl4d) was identified as a translational mutant defective in both vacuole trafficking and normal development. Polysome profiling of the rpl4d mutant showed reduction in polysome-bound mRNA compared with wild-type, but no significant change in the general mRNA distribution pattern. Ribsomal profiling data indicated that genes in the lipid metabolism pathways were translationally down-regulated in the rpl4d mutant. Live imaging studies by Nile red staining suggested that both polar and nonpolar lipid accumulation was reduced in meristem tissues of rpl4d mutants. Pharmacological evidence showed that sterol and sphingolipid biosynthetic inhibitors can phenocopy the defects of the rpl4d mutant, including an altered vacuole trafficking pattern. Genetic evidence from lipid biosynthetic mutants indicates that alteration in the metabolism of either sterol or sphingolipid biosynthesis resulted in vacuole trafficking defects, similar to the rpl4d mutant. Tissue-specific complementation with key enzymes from lipid biosynthesis pathways can partially rescue both vacuole trafficking and auxin-related developmental defects in the rpl4d mutant. These results indicate that lipid metabolism modulates auxin-mediated tissue differentiation and endomembrane trafficking pathways downstream of ribosomal protein function. PMID:25535344

  20. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    PubMed Central

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  1. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  2. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for plastid and cytosolic isoprenoid pathways in pepper fruits.

    PubMed Central

    Hugueney, P; Bouvier, F; Badillo, A; Quennemet, J; d'Harlingue, A; Camara, B

    1996-01-01

    Plant cells synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid compounds in different subcellular compartments, which include the plastid, the mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum cytosol. To start the study of the regulation of these parallel pathways, we used pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit as a model. Using different isoprenoid biosynthetic gene probes from cloned cDNAs, we showed that only genes encoding the plastid enzymes (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and capasanthin-capsorubin synthase) are specifically triggered during the normal period of development, at the ripening stage. This pattern of expression can be mimicked and precociously induced by a simple wounding stress. Concerning the cytosol-located enzymes, we observed that the expression of the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase is constitutive, whereas that of farnesyl pyrophosphate cyclase (5-epi-aristolochene synthase) is undetectable during the normal development of the fruit. The expression of these later genes are, however, only selectively triggered after elicitor treatment. The results provide evidence for developmental control of isoprenoid biosynthesis occurring in plastids and that cytoplasmic isoprenoid biosynthesis is regulated, in part, by environmental signals. PMID:8787029

  3. Developmental and Light Regulation of Desacetoxyvindoline 4-Hydroxylase in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.1

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; De Luca, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    The expression of desacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase (D4H), which catalyzes the second to the last reaction in vindoline biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus, appears to be under complex, multilevel developmental and light regulation. Developmental studies with etiolated and light-treated seedlings suggested that although light had variable effects on the levels of d4h transcripts, those of D4H protein and enzyme activity could be increased, depending on seedling development, up to 9- and 8-fold, respectively, compared with etiolated seedlings. However, light treatment of etiolated seedlings could stop and reverse the decline of d4h transcripts at later stages of seedling development. Repeated exposure of seedlings to light was also required to maintain the full spectrum of enzyme activity observed during seedling development. Further studies showed that a photoreversible phytochrome appeared to be involved in the activation of D4H, since red-light treatment of etiolated seedlings increased the detectable levels of d4h transcripts, D4H protein, and D4H enzyme activity, whereas far-red-light treatment completely reversed this process. Additional studies also confirmed that different major isoforms of D4H protein exist in etiolated (isoelectric point, 4.7) and light-grown (isoelectric point, 4.6) seedlings, suggesting that a component of the light-mediated activation of D4H may involve an undetermined posttranslational modification. The biological reasons for this complex control of vindoline biosynthesis may be related to the need to produce structures that could sequester away from cellular activities the cytotoxic vinblastine and vincristine dimers that are derived partially from vindoline. PMID:9701591

  4. Identification of domains required for developmentally regulated SNARE function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, A M; Katz, L; Brennwald, P J

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain two homologues of the mammalian t-SNARE protein SNAP-25, encoded by the SEC9 and SPO20 genes. Although both gene products participate in post-Golgi vesicle fusion events, they cannot substitute for one another; Sec9p is active primarily in vegetative cells while Spo20p functions only during sporulation. We have investigated the basis for the developmental stage-specific differences in the function of these two proteins. Localization of the other plasma membrane SNARE subunits, Ssop and Sncp, in sporulating cells suggests that these proteins act in conjunction with Spo20p in the formation of the prospore membrane. In vitro binding studies demonstrate that, like Sec9p, Spo20p binds specifically to the t-SNARE Sso1p and, once bound to Sso1p, can complex with the v-SNARE Snc2p. Therefore, Sec9p and Spo20p interact with the same binding partners, but developmental conditions appear to favor the assembly of complexes with Spo20p in sporulating cells. Analysis of chimeric Sec9p/Spo20p molecules indicates that regions in both the SNAP-25 domain and the unique N terminus of Spo20p are required for activity during sporulation. Additionally, the N terminus of Spo20p is inhibitory in vegetative cells. Deletion studies indicate that activation and inhibition are separable functions of the Spo20p N terminus. Our results reveal an additional layer of regulation of the SNARE complex, which is necessary only in sporulating cells. PMID:10924463

  5. Developmental expression of chicken antithrombin III is regulated by increased RNA abundance and intracellular processing.

    PubMed

    Amrani, D L; Rosenberg, J; Samad, F; Bergtrom, G; Banfield, D K

    1993-01-23

    We isolated and sequenced a 432 bp cDNA to cAT-III, that encoded 115 nucleotides of 5' untranslated sequence, a 17 amino acid long signal peptide and residues 1-88 of the mature protein, and used it to prepare a probe for measuring and correlating the developmental changes of steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels with known changes in antigen levels. Densitometric analysis of nuclease protection (n = 2), Northern blot (n = 4), and slot blots (n = 3) of total RNA from chick livers of 16-day-old embryos to 6-day-old chicks showed a 2.6 +/- 0.5-fold increase in steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels. Assay of functional mRNA levels by in vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA and specific immunoprecipitation of 35S-Met-labelled cAT-III was comparable to RNA analysis (16-day-old embryos vs. 10-day-old hatchlings). We evaluated whether there were developmental differences in post-translational secretion which may also contribute to the regulation of the circulating level of this protein. Pulse-chase studies of freshly-isolated hepatocytes from 16-day-old embryos and 10-day-old hatchlings maintained in suspension demonstrated a approx. 5.0-5.5-fold increase in cAT-III levels at steady-state secretion. The above findings indicate that changes in circulating cAT-III levels during late embryonic development are primarily due to increased abundance of cAT-III mRNA. In addition, we postulate that post-translational intracellular processing may account for further differences in circulating protein levels. PMID:8424948

  6. Abscisic Acid Induction of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Pantoja, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key component in water-deficit-induced responses, including those triggered by drought, NaCl, and low- temperature stress. In this study a role for ABA in mediating the NaCl-stress-induced increases in tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and Na+/H+ antiport activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, leading to vacuolar Na+ sequestration, were investigated. NaCl or ABA treatment of adult M. crystallinum plants induced V-ATPase H+ transport activity, and when applied in combination, an additive effect on V-ATPase stimulation was observed. In contrast, treatment of juvenile plants with ABA did not induce V-ATPase activity, whereas NaCl treatment resulted in a similar response to that observed in adult plants. Na+/H+ antiport activity was induced in both juvenile and adult plants by NaCl, but ABA had no effect at either developmental stage. Results indicate that ABA-induced changes in V-ATPase activity are dependent on the plant reaching its adult phase, whereas NaCl-induced increases in V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport activity are independent of plant age. This suggests that ABA-induced V-ATPase activity may be linked to the stress-induced, developmentally programmed switch from C3 metabolism to Crassulacean acid metabolism in adult plants, whereas, vacuolar Na+ sequestration, mediated by the V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport, is regulated through ABA-independent pathways. PMID:10398716

  7. Reciprocity in the Developmental Regulation of Aquaporins 1, 3 and 5 during Pregnancy and Lactation in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Sasan; Rahbek, Mette; Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Babamoradi, Hamid; Mehrdana, Foojan; Klærke, Dan Arne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion involves significant flux of water, driven largely by synthesis of lactose within the Golgi apparatus. It has not been determined whether this flux is simply a passive consequence of the osmotic potential between cytosol and Golgi, or whether it involves regulated flow. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water channels that regulate water flux. AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have previously been detected in mammary tissue, but evidence of developmental regulation (altered expression according to the developmental and physiological state of the mammary gland) is lacking and their cellular/subcellular location is not well understood. In this paper we present evidence of developmental regulation of all three of these AQPs. Further, there was evidence of reciprocity since expression of the rather abundant AQP3 and less abundant AQP1 increased significantly from pregnancy into lactation, whereas expression of the least abundant AQP5 decreased. It would be tempting to suggest that AQP3 and AQP1 are involved in the secretion of water into milk. Paradoxically, however, it was AQP5 that demonstrated most evidence of expression located at the apical (secretory) membrane. The possibility is discussed that AQP5 is synthesized during pregnancy as a stable protein that functions to regulate water secretion during lactation. AQP3 was identified primarily at the basal and lateral membranes of the secretory cells, suggesting a possible involvement in regulated uptake of water and glycerol. AQP1 was identified primarily at the capillary and secretory cell cytoplasmic level and may again be more concerned with uptake and hence milk synthesis, rather than secretion. The fact that expression was developmentally regulated supports, but does not prove, a regulatory involvement of AQPs in water flux through the milk secretory cell. PMID:25184686

  8. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, WR; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to

  9. Functional and developmental identification of a molecular subtype of brain serotonergic neuron specialized to regulate breathing dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Rachael D.; Corcoran, Andrea E.; Richerson, George B.; Nattie, Eugene; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. We find, by manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one-by-one chemogenetically, that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Further, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections – increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally, and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth. PMID:25497093

  10. Synaptic commitment: developmentally regulated reciprocal changes in hippocampal granule cell NMDA and AMPA receptors over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Krause, Michael; Rao, Geeta; McNaughton, Bruce L; Barnes, C A

    2008-06-01

    Synaptic transmission in hippocampal field CA1 is largely N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA(R)) dependent during the early postnatal period. It becomes increasingly mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors until an adult ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors is achieved. It is shown here that increases in the AMPA receptor (AMPA(R))-mediated field potential response continue over the life span of the F-344 rat at the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, the NMDA(R)-dependent component of the response decreases with age between 1 and 27 mo, leading to an increase of AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio with age. One possible explanation of this age difference is that the AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio can be modified by experience. To test the idea that the changed ratio is caused by the old rats' longer lives, an intensive 10-mo period of enrichment treatment was given to a group of animals, beginning at 3 mo of age. Compared with animals housed in standard cages, the enrichment treatment did not alter the glutamatergic response ratio measured with field potential recording methods. These data provide support for the conclusion that the observed change with age is developmentally regulated rather than experience dependent. Given the role of the NMDA(R) in synaptic plasticity, these changes suggest a progressive commitment of perforant path synapses to particular weights over the life span. One possible implication of this effect includes preservation of selected memories, ultimately at the expense of a reduced capacity to store new information. PMID:18417629

  11. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  12. Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  13. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  14. New Tools for the Identification of Developmentally Regulated Enhancer Regions in Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jana; Koehler, Carla; Boden, Cindy; Harris, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We have conducted a screen to identify developmentally regulated enhancers that drive tissue-specific Gal4 expression in zebrafish. We obtained 63 stable transgenic lines with expression patterns in embryonic or adult zebrafish. The use of a newly identified minimal promoter from the medaka edar locus resulted in a relatively unbiased set of expression patterns representing many tissue types derived from all germ layers. Subsequent detailed characterization of selected lines showed strong and reproducible Gal4-driven GFP expression in diverse tissues, including neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems, pigment cells, erythrocytes, and peridermal cells. By screening adults for GFP expression, we also isolated lines expressed in tissues of the adult zebrafish, including scales, fin rays, and joints. The new and efficient minimal promoter and large number of transactivating driver-lines we identified will provide the zebrafish community with a useful resource for further enhancer trap screening, as well as precise investigation of tissue-specific processes in vivo. PMID:23461416

  15. Regulation of arcuate genes by developmental exposures to endocrine-disrupting compounds in female rats.

    PubMed

    Roepke, Troy A; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Mamounis, Kyle J; Oruc, Elif; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) alters reproduction and energy homeostasis, both of which are regulated by the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Little is known about the effects of EDC on ARC gene expression. In Experiment #1, pregnant dams were treated with either two doses of bisphenol A (BPA) or oil from embryonic day (E)18-21. Neonates were injected from postnatal day (PND)0-7. Vaginal opening, body weights, and ARC gene expression were measured. Chrm3 (muscarinic receptor 3) and Adipor1 (adiponectin receptor 1) were decreased by BPA. Bdnf (brain-derived neurotropic factor), Igf1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), Htr2c (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor), and Cck2r (cholescystokinin 2 receptor) were impacted. In Experiment #2, females were exposed to BPA, diethylstilbestrol (DES), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, or methoxychlor (MXC) during E11-PND7. MXC and DES advanced the age of vaginal opening and ARC gene expression was impacted. These data indicate that EDCs alter ARC genes involved in reproduction and energy homeostasis in females. PMID:27103539

  16. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Luccioli, Stefano; Bonifazi, Paolo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in developing neuronal circuits, typically composed of only excitatory cells, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally regulated constraints on single neuron excitability and connectivity leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity. This work is part of the activity of the Joint Italian-Israeli Laboratory on Integrative Network Neuroscience supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  17. N6-methyladenosine modification destabilizes developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Yue; Toth, Julia I; Petroski, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2014-02-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA in eukaryotes. m(6)A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast and embryo development in plants. Its mammalian function remains unknown but thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m(6)A modification and m(6)A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility. We identify two proteins, the putative m(6)A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3; ref. ), and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, that function synergistically to control m(6)A formation in mammalian cells. Knockdown of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) led to similar phenotypes, characterized by lack of m(6)A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. A large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, exhibit m(6)A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. The human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways were linked to these effects. This gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m(6)A methylation is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types. PMID:24394384

  18. Developmental regulation of hexosamine biosynthesis by protein phosphatases 2A and 2C in Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Simon, M N; Campanhã, R B; Zapella, P D; Véron, M; Maia, J C

    1993-08-01

    Extracts of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii were found to contain protein phosphatases type 1, type 2A, and type 2C with properties analogous to those found in mammalian tissues. The activities of all three protein phosphatases are developmentally regulated, increasing during sporulation, with maximum level in zoospores. Protein phosphatases 2A and 2C, present in zoospore extracts, catalyze the dephosphorylation of L-glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (EC 2.6.1.16, amidotransferase), a key regulatory enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces encystment and inhibits germ tube formation but does not affect the synthesis of the chitinous cell wall. These results strongly suggest that phosphatase 2C is responsible for the dephosphorylation of amidotransferase in vivo. This dephosphorylation is inhibited by uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine, the end product of hexosamine synthesis and the substrate for chitin synthesis. This result demonstrates a dual role of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine by inhibiting the activity of the phosphorylated form of amidotransferase and by preventing its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. PMID:8394312

  19. The developmental regulation and biosynthesis of GPI-related structures in Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    McConville, M J; Schneider, P; Proudfoot, L; Masterson, C; Ferguson, M A

    1994-02-01

    Most macromolecules on the surface of Leishmania parasites, including the major surface proteins and a complex lipophosphoglycan (LPG) are anchored to the plasma membrane via GPI glycolipids. Free glycoinositol-phospholipids (GIPLs) which are not linked to protein or phosphoglycan are also abundant in the plasma membrane. From structural and metabolic labeling studies it is proposed that most Leishmania species express three distinct pathways of GPI biosynthesis. Some of these pathways (i.e. those involved in the protein and LPG anchor biosynthesis) are down-regulated during the differentiation of the insect (promastigote) stage to the mammalian (amastigote) stage. In contrast, the GIPLs are expressed in high copy number in both developmental stages. Based on analysis of the lipid moieties of the different GPI species it is possible that the pathways of GPI anchor and GIPL biosynthesis are located in different subcellular compartments. The relative flux through the GIPL and LPG biosynthetic pathways has been examined in L. major promastigotes. These studies showed that while the rate of synthesis of the GIPLs and LPG is similar, LPG is shed more rapidly from the plasma membrane and has a higher turnover. The possible metabolic relationship between the GIPL and LPG biosynthetic pathways is discussed. PMID:8081222

  20. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  1. Developmental regulation of the gene for formate dehydrogenase in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, C M; RajBhandary, U L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a gene, fdh, from Neurospora crassa which is developmentally regulated and which produces formate dehydrogenase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene is closely linked (less than 0.6 kb apart) to the leu-5 gene encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase; the two genes are transcribed convergently from opposite strands. The expression patterns of these genes differ: fdh mRNA is found only during conidiation and early germination and is not detectable during mycelial growth, while leu-5 mRNA appears during germination and mycelial growth. The structure of the fdh gene was determined from the sequence of cDNA and genomic DNA clones and from mRNA mapping studies. The gene encodes a 375-amino-acid-long protein with sequence similarity to NAD-dependent dehydrogenases of the E. coli 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (serA gene product) subfamily. In particular, there is striking sequence similarity (52% identity) to formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain 101. All of the residues thought to interact with NAD in the crystal structure of the Pseudomonas enzyme are conserved in the N. crassa enzyme. We have further shown that expression of the N. crassa gene in E. coli leads to the production of formate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that the N. crassa gene specifies a functional polypeptide. Images PMID:8509325

  2. The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Erin J.; Benito-Gonzalez, Ana; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Proper tissue development requires strict coordination of proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Strict coordination is particularly important for the auditory sensory epithelium, where deviations from the normal spatial and temporal pattern of auditory progenitor cell (prosensory cell) proliferation and differentiation result in abnormal cellular organization and, thus, auditory dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved in the timing and coordination of auditory prosensory proliferation and differentiation are poorly understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein LIN28B as a critical regulator of developmental timing in the murine cochlea. We show that Lin28b and its opposing let-7 miRNAs are differentially expressed in the auditory sensory lineage, with Lin28b being highly expressed in undifferentiated prosensory cells and let-7 miRNAs being highly expressed in their progeny—hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Using recently developed transgenic mouse models for LIN28B and let-7g, we demonstrate that prolonged LIN28B expression delays prosensory cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation, resulting in HC and SC patterning and maturation defects. Surprisingly, let-7g overexpression, although capable of inducing premature prosensory cell cycle exit, failed to induce premature HC differentiation, suggesting that LIN28B’s functional role in the timing of differentiation uses let-7 independent mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of LIN28B or let-7g can significantly alter the postnatal production of HCs in response to Notch inhibition; LIN28B has a positive effect on HC production, whereas let-7 antagonizes this process. Together, these results implicate a key role for the LIN28B/let-7 axis in regulating postnatal SC plasticity. PMID:26139524

  3. The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Golden, Erin J; Benito-Gonzalez, Ana; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2015-07-21

    Proper tissue development requires strict coordination of proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Strict coordination is particularly important for the auditory sensory epithelium, where deviations from the normal spatial and temporal pattern of auditory progenitor cell (prosensory cell) proliferation and differentiation result in abnormal cellular organization and, thus, auditory dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved in the timing and coordination of auditory prosensory proliferation and differentiation are poorly understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein LIN28B as a critical regulator of developmental timing in the murine cochlea. We show that Lin28b and its opposing let-7 miRNAs are differentially expressed in the auditory sensory lineage, with Lin28b being highly expressed in undifferentiated prosensory cells and let-7 miRNAs being highly expressed in their progeny-hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Using recently developed transgenic mouse models for LIN28B and let-7g, we demonstrate that prolonged LIN28B expression delays prosensory cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation, resulting in HC and SC patterning and maturation defects. Surprisingly, let-7g overexpression, although capable of inducing premature prosensory cell cycle exit, failed to induce premature HC differentiation, suggesting that LIN28B's functional role in the timing of differentiation uses let-7 independent mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of LIN28B or let-7g can significantly alter the postnatal production of HCs in response to Notch inhibition; LIN28B has a positive effect on HC production, whereas let-7 antagonizes this process. Together, these results implicate a key role for the LIN28B/let-7 axis in regulating postnatal SC plasticity. PMID:26139524

  4. FKBPL Is a Critical Antiangiogenic Regulator of Developmental and Pathological Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yakkundi, Anita; Bennett, Rachel; Hernández-Negrete, Ivette; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Hanna, Mary; Lyubomska, Oksana; Arthur, Kenneth; Short, Amy; McKeen, Hayley; Nelson, Laura; McCrudden, Cian M.; McNally, Ross; McClements, Lana; McCarthy, Helen O.; Burns, Alan J.; Bicknell, Roy; Kissenpfennig, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Objective— The antitumor effects of FK506-binding protein like (FKBPL) and its extracellular role in angiogenesis are well characterized; however, its role in physiological/developmental angiogenesis and the effect of FKBPL ablation has not been evaluated. This is important as effects of some angiogenic proteins are dosage dependent. Here we evaluate the regulation of FKBPL secretion under angiogenic stimuli, as well as the effect of FKBPL ablation in angiogenesis using mouse and zebrafish models. Approach and Results— FKBPL is secreted maximally by human microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and this was specifically downregulated by proangiogenic hypoxic signals, but not by the angiogenic cytokines, VEGF or IL8. FKBPL’s critical role in angiogenesis was supported by our inability to generate an Fkbpl knockout mouse, with embryonic lethality occurring before E8.5. However, whilst Fkbpl heterozygotic embryos showed some vasculature irregularities, the mice developed normally. In murine angiogenesis models, including the ex vivo aortic ring assay, in vivo sponge assay, and tumor growth assay, Fkbpl+/− mice exhibited increased sprouting, enhanced vessel recruitment, and faster tumor growth, respectively, supporting the antiangiogenic function of FKBPL. In zebrafish, knockdown of zFkbpl using morpholinos disrupted the vasculature, and the phenotype was rescued with hFKBPL. Interestingly, this vessel disruption was ineffective when zcd44 was knocked-down, supporting the dependency of zFkbpl on zCd44 in zebrafish. Conclusions— FKBPL is an important regulator of angiogenesis, having an essential role in murine and zebrafish blood vessel development. Mouse models of angiogenesis demonstrated a proangiogenic phenotype in Fkbpl heterozygotes. PMID:25767277

  5. Measuring Developmental Progress of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on School Entry Using Parent Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Berry, Bryony; Prince, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are diagnosed in the preschool years, and their educational progress must be monitored. Parent questionnaire data can augment psychometric assessments and individual planning at low cost. One hundred and twenty-five parents of UK children who entered dedicated autism primary…

  6. Developmental regulation of molecular signalling in fetal and neonatal diaphragm protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Pillow, J Jane

    2013-08-01

    -κB signal transduction. The finding provides new insights into developmental regulation of protein metabolism within development. The implication of these postnatal events for diaphragm adaptation to the ex utero environment needs further investigation. PMID:23828585

  7. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  8. Genetical Toxicogenomics in Drosophila Identifies Master Modulatory Loci that are Regulated by Developmental Exposure to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Ruden, Douglas M.; Chen, Lang; Possidente, Debra; Possidente, Bernard; Rasouli, Parsa; Wang, Luan; Lu, Xiangyi; Garfinkel, Mark D.; Hirsch, Helmut V. B.; Page, Grier P.

    2009-01-01

    The genetics of gene expression in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) can be mapped as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). So-called “genetical genomics” studies have identified locally-acting eQTLs (cis-eQTLs) for genes that show differences in steady state RNA levels. These studies have also identified distantly-acting master-modulatory trans-eQTLs that regulate tens or hundreds of transcripts (hotspots or transbands). We expand on these studies by performing genetical genomics experiments in two environments in order to identify trans-eQTL that might be regulated by developmental exposure to the neurotoxin lead. Flies from each of 75 RIL were raised from eggs to adults on either control food (made with 250 µM sodium acetate), or lead-treated food (made with 250 µM lead acetate, PbAc). RNA expression analyses of whole adult male flies (5–10 days old) were performed with Affymetrix DrosII whole genome arrays (18,952 probesets). Among the 1,389 genes with cis-eQTL, there were 405 genes unique to control flies and 544 genes unique to lead-treated ones (440 genes had the same cis-eQTLs in both samples). There are 2,396 genes with trans-eQTL which mapped to 12 major transbands with greater than 95 genes. Permutation analyses of the strain labels but not the expression data suggests that the total number of eQTL and the number of transbands are more important criteria for validation than the size of the transband. Two transbands, one located on the 2nd chromosome and one on the 3rd chromosome, co-regulate 33 lead-induced genes, many of which are involved in neurodevelopmental processes. For these 33 genes, rather than allelic variation at one locus exerting differential effects in two environments, we found that variation at two different loci are required for optimal effects on lead-induced expression. PMID:19737576

  9. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, B W; Xia, M; Liu, Z; Wang, W; Yang, T; Sathyanarayanan, P V; Franceschi, V R

    1999-08-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther. PMID:10436217

  10. Developmental Regulation of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Family Gene Expression in Tung Tree Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Shockey, Jay M.; Klasson, K. Thomas; Chapital, Dorselyn C.; Mason, Catherine B.; Scheffler, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes. We previously cloned DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes of tung tree (Vernicia fordii), whose novel seed TAGs are useful in a wide range of industrial applications. The objective of this study was to understand the developmental regulation of DGAT family gene expression in tung tree. To this end, we first cloned a tung tree gene encoding DGAT3, a putatively soluble form of DGAT that possesses 11 completely conserved amino acid residues shared among 27 DGAT3s from 19 plant species. Unlike DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, DGAT3 is absent from animals. We then used TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrate that 1) all three isoforms of DGAT genes are expressed in developing seeds, leaves and flowers; 2) DGAT2 is the major DGAT mRNA in tung seeds, whose expression profile is well-coordinated with the oil profile in developing tung seeds; and 3) DGAT3 is the major form of DGAT mRNA in tung leaves, flowers and immature seeds prior to active tung oil biosynthesis. These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. Therefore, DGAT2 should be a primary target for tung oil engineering in transgenic organisms. PMID:24146944

  11. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production. PMID:24916553

  12. Developmental stage-specific regulation of atrial natriuretic factor gene transcription in cardiac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Argentin, S; Ardati, A; Tremblay, S; Lihrmann, I; Robitaille, L; Drouin, J; Nemer, M

    1994-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes undergo a major genetic switch within the first week of postnatal development, when cell division ceases terminally and many cardiac genes are either activated or silenced. We have developed stage-specific cardiocyte cultures to analyze transcriptional control of the rat atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene to identify the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific and developmental regulation of this gene in the heart. The first 700 bp of ANF flanking sequences was sufficient for cardiac muscle- and stage-specific expression in both atrial and ventricular myocytes, and a cardiac muscle-specific enhancer was localized between -136 and -700 bp. Deletion of this enhancer markedly reduced promoter activity in cardiac myocytes and derepressed ANF promoter activity in nonexpressing cells. Two distinct domains of the enhancer appeared to contribute differentially to cardiac specificity depending on the differentiation stage of the myocytes. DNase I footprinting of the enhancer domain active in differentiated cells revealed four putative regulatory elements including an A+T-rich region and a CArG element. Deletion mutagenesis and promoter reconstitution assays revealed an important role for the CArG-containing element exclusively in cardiac cells, where its activity was switched on in differentiated myocytes. Transcriptional activity of the ANF-CArG box correlated with the presence of a cardiac- and stage-specific DNA-binding complex which was not recognized by the c-fos serum response element. Thus, the use of this in vitro model system representing stage-specific cardiac development unraveled the presence of different regulatory mechanisms for transcription of the ANF gene during cardiac differentiation and may be useful for studying the regulatory pathways of other genes that undergo switching during cardiac myogenesis. Images PMID:8264645

  13. Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Aquaporin Gene Expression across Populus Species: Divergence or Redundancy?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Merret, Rémy; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Moretti, Sébastien; Bizet, François; Guilliot, Agnès; Hummel, Irène

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants). The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of functional redundancy

  14. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  15. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed

    Hall, F Scott; Perona, Maria T G

    2012-12-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that is determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  16. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T. G.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that are determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  17. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Maliszewska-Olejniczak, Kamila; Gruchota, Julita; Gromadka, Robert; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Duharcourt, Sandra; Bétermier, Mireille; Nowak, Jacek K.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for

  18. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Olejniczak, Kamila; Gruchota, Julita; Gromadka, Robert; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Duharcourt, Sandra; Bétermier, Mireille; Nowak, Jacek K

    2015-07-01

    Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for

  19. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. PMID:24259184

  20. Developmental Progression of the Coronary Vasculature in Human Embryos and Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tomanek, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable advances in our understanding of mammalian and avian embryonic coronary development have occurred during the last decade, our current knowledge of this topic in humans is limited. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if the development of the human coronary vasculature in humans is like that of other mammals and avians. The data document a progression of events involving mesenchymal cell-containing villi from the proepicardium, establishment of blood islands and a capillary network. The major finding of the study is direct evidence that the capillary plexus associated with spindle cells and erythroblasts invades the base of the aorta to form coronary ostia. A role for the dorsal mesocardium is also indicated by the finding that cells from this region are continuous with the aorta and pulmonary artery. The development of the tunica media of the coronary arteries follows the same base-apex progression as in other species, with the development of branches occurring late in the embryonic period. The fetal period is characterized by 1) growth and a numerical increase in the smallest arterial branches, veins, and venules, 2) innervation of arteries, and 3) inclusion of elastic fibers in the tunica media of the coronary arteries and development of the tunica adventitia. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the development of the coronary system in humans is similar to that of other mammalian and avian species, and for the first time documents that the formation of the ostia and coronary stems in humans occurs by ingrowth of a vascular plexus and associated cells from the epicardium. PMID:26475042

  1. Assessment of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Mixtures of Regulated Drinking Water Chlorination By-Products in a Multigenerational Rat Bioassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological and animal toxicity studies have raised concerns regarding possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. To address these concerns, we provided mixtures of the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs; chlorof...

  2. Developmental consequences of early parenting experiences: self-recognition and self-regulation in three cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis; Borke, Joern; Kärtner, Joscha; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira

    2004-01-01

    This study relates parenting of 3-month-old children to children's self-recognition and self-regulation at 18 to 20 months. As hypothesized, observational data revealed differences in the sociocultural orientations of the 3 cultural samples' parenting styles and in toddlers' development of self-recognition and self-regulation. Children of Cameroonian Nso farmers who experience a proximal parenting style develop self-regulation earlier, children of Greek urban middle-class families who experience a distal parenting style develop self-recognition earlier, and children of Costa Rican middle-class families who experience aspects of both distal and proximal parenting styles fall between the other 2 groups on both self-regulation and self-recognition. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for culturally informed developmental pathways. PMID:15566377

  3. Developmental regulation of myeloerythroid progenitor function by the Lin28b-let-7-Hmga2 axis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, R Grant; Wang, Leo D; Coma, Silvia; Han, Areum; Mathieu, Ronald; Pearson, Daniel S; Ross, Samantha; Sousa, Patricia; Nguyen, Phi T; Rodriguez, Antony; Wagers, Amy J; Daley, George Q

    2016-07-25

    For appropriate development, tissue and organ system morphogenesis and maturation must occur in synchrony with the overall developmental requirements of the host. Mistiming of such developmental events often results in disease. The hematopoietic system matures from the fetal state, characterized by robust erythrocytic output that supports prenatal growth in the hypoxic intrauterine environment, to the postnatal state wherein granulocytes predominate to provide innate immunity. Regulation of the developmental timing of these myeloerythroid states is not well understood. In this study, we find that expression of the heterochronic factor Lin28b decreases in common myeloid progenitors during hematopoietic maturation to adulthood in mice. This decrease in Lin28b coincides with accumulation of mature let-7 microRNAs, whose biogenesis is regulated by Lin28 proteins. We find that inhibition of let-7 in the adult hematopoietic system recapitulates fetal erythroid-dominant hematopoiesis. Conversely, deletion of Lin28b or ectopic activation of let-7 microRNAs in the fetal state induces a shift toward adult-like myeloid-dominant output. Furthermore, we identify Hmga2 as an effector of this genetic switch. These studies provide the first detailed analysis of the roles of endogenous Lin28b and let-7 in the timing of hematopoietic states during development. PMID:27401346

  4. Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes: opposite developmental imbalances in imprinted regulators of placental function and embryonic growth.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K J; Robinson, W P; Lefebvre, L

    2013-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) are two congenital disorders with opposite outcomes on fetal growth, overgrowth and growth restriction, respectively. Although both disorders are heterogeneous, most cases of BWS and SRS are associated with opposite epigenetic or genetic abnormalities on 11p15.5 leading to opposite imbalances in the expression levels of imprinted genes. In this article, we review evidence implicating these genes in the developmental regulation of embryonic growth and placental function in mouse models. The emerging picture suggests that both SRS and BWS can be caused by the simultaneous and opposite deregulation of two groups of imprinted genes on 11p15.5. A detailed description of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with each syndrome must take into consideration the developmental functions of each gene involved. PMID:23495910

  5. Developmentally-regulated sodium channel subunits are differentially sensitive to {alpha}-cyano containing pyrethroids

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, Connie A.; Brodfuehrer, Peter D.; Watkins, Jennifer A.; Shafer, Timothy J.

    2008-09-15

    Juvenile rats have been reported to be more sensitive to the acute neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin than adults. While toxicokinetic differences between juveniles and adults are documented, toxicodynamic differences have not been examined. Voltage-gated sodium channels, the primary targets of pyrethroids, are comprised of {alpha} and {beta} subunits, each of which have multiple isoforms that are expressed in a developmentally-regulated manner. To begin to test whether toxicodynamic differences could contribute to age-dependent deltamethrin toxicity, deltamethrin effects were examined on sodium currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with different combinations of rat {alpha} (Na{sub v}1.2 or Na{sub v}1.3) and {beta} ({beta}{sub 1} or {beta}{sub 3}) subunits. Deltamethrin induced tail currents in all isoform combinations and increased the percent of modified channels in a concentration-dependent manner. Effects of deltamethrin were dependent on subunit combination; Na{sub v}1.3-containing channels were modified to a greater extent than were Na{sub v}1.2-containing channels. In the presence of a {beta} subunit, deltamethrin effects were significantly greater, an effect most pronounced for Na{sub v}1.3 channels; Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} channels were more sensitive to deltamethrin than Na{sub v}1.2/{beta}{sub 1} channels. Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} channels are expressed embryonically, while the Na{sub v}1.2 and {beta}{sub 1} subunits predominate in adults, supporting the hypothesis for age-dependent toxicodynamic differences. Structure-activity relationships for sensitivity of these subunit combinations were examined for other pyrethroids. Permethrin and tetramethrin did not modify currents mediated by either subunit combination. Cypermethrin, {beta}-cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin all modified sodium channel function; effects were significantly greater on Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} than on Na{sub v}1.2/{beta}{sub 1} channels. These

  6. HEB associates with PRC2 and SMAD2/3 to regulate developmental fates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Jin; Foley, Joseph W; Baker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem cells, extracellular signals are required to derepress developmental promoters to drive lineage specification, but the proteins involved in connecting extrinsic cues to relaxation of chromatin remain unknown. We demonstrate that the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein, HEB, directly associates with the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) at a subset of developmental promoters, including at genes involved in mesoderm and endoderm specification and at the Hox and Fox gene families. While we show that depletion of HEB does not affect mouse ESCs, it does cause premature differentiation after exposure to Activin. Further, we find that HEB deposition at developmental promoters is dependent upon PRC2 and independent of Nodal, whereas HEB association with SMAD2/3 elements is dependent of Nodal, but independent of PRC2. We suggest that HEB is a fundamental link between Nodal signalling, the derepression of a specific class of poised promoters during differentiation, and lineage specification in mouse ESCs. PMID:25775035

  7. Developmental change in the neurophysiological correlates of self-regulation in high- and low-emotion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Connie; Lewis, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important tasks of childhood is learning to self-regulate in the presence of negative emotions. Until recently, almost no research has examined the neurophysiological correlates of emotional self-regulation as it develops over childhood and adolescence. We were interested in plotting a fine-grained developmental profile of the neural underpinnings of self-regulation, in the context of negative emotion, for 7- to 14-year-old children. We predicted that children would recruit less cortical activation with age in the service of self-regulation, reflecting increased neural efficiency with development. We also predicted that children would recruit more cortical activation with increased negative emotion, possibly reflecting greater demand on cortical resources. We administered a go/nogo task with an emotion induction block and we measured the amplitude of the N2, an event-related potential associated with inhibitory control, as it varied with block and with age. Furthermore, we estimated activation for a ventral prefrontal region of interest (ROI; suggestive of orbital frontal, ventromedial prefrontal, or rostral anterior cingulate activation) and a dorsomedial prefrontal ROI (suggestive of dorsal anterior cingulate activation) frequently modeled as cortical generators underlying the N2. Results revealed a marginal decrease in mediofrontal scalp activation, but a more pronounced decrease in activation of the ventromedial prefrontal ROI, with age. There were no age-related changes in dorsomedial prefrontal ROI activation. Lastly, as predicted, we found increased ventral prefrontal ROI activation during the negative emotion induction, possibly reflecting greater recruitment of frontocortical resources underlying emotion regulation, but developmental change in this activation was no different than for the other conditions. Thus, both self-regulation in general and emotion regulation in particular recruited less cortical activation with age, suggesting more

  8. Developmental Regulation of a Plasma Membrane Arabinogalactan Protein Epitope in Oilseed Rape Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, RI; Janniche, L; Kjellbom, P; Scofield, GN; Peart, JM; Roberts, K

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the temporal and spatial regulation of a plasma membrane arabinogalactan protein epitope during development of the aerial parts of oilseed rape using the monoclonal antibody JIM8. The JIM8 epitope is expressed by the first cells of the embryo and by certain cells in the sexual organs of flowers. During embryogenesis, the JIM8 epitope ceases to be expressed by the embryo proper but is still found in the suspensor. During differentiation of the stamens and carpels, expression of the JIM8 epitope progresses from one cell type to another, ultimately specifying the endothecium and sperm cells, the nucellar epidermis, synergid cells, and the egg cell. This complex temporal sequence demonstrates rapid turnover of the JIM8 epitope. There is no direct evidence for any cell-inductive process in plant development. However, if cell-cell interactions exist in plants and participate in flower development, the JIM8 epitope may be a marker for one set of them. PMID:12324592

  9. Will new disposal regulations undo decades of progress?

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.

    2009-07-01

    In 1980, the Belville Amendments to RCRA instructed EPA to 'conduct a detailed and comprehensive study and submit a report' to Congress on the 'adverse effects on human health and the environment, if any, of the disposal and utilization' of coal ash. In both 1988 and 1999, EPA submitted reports to Congress and recommended coal ash should not be regulated as hazardous waste. After the failure of a Tennesse power plant's coal ash disposal facility, EPA will be proposing new disposal regulations.

  10. Developmental regulation of protein kinase-A and -C activities in the baboon fetal adrenal.

    PubMed

    Davies, W A; Berghorn, K A; Albrecht, E D; Pepe, G J

    1993-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the estrogen-regulated change in transuteroplacental metabolism of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) from preferential reduction (E to F) at midgestation to oxidation (F to E) near term results in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the baboon and the ontogenesis of rate-limiting steroidogenic enzymes, culminating in de novo F secretion. It is well established that transcription of messages activated by peptide-mediated binding to membrane receptors can occur via cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A (PKA) and/or phospholipid/calcium-dependent protein kinase-C (PKC). The present study was designed to determine whether basal levels of PKA and PKC in the fetal adrenal are developmentally regulated during baboon gestation and, thus, could provide the mechanism(s) by which activation of the fetal adrenal near term is mediated. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained on day 100 (n = 8) and day 165 (n = 6) of gestation (term = day 184) from untreated baboons and on day 100 after treatment of the mother with estradiol benzoate, injected sc between days 70-100 to increase estrogen production. PKA activity (picomoles of 32P incorporated into kemptide per min/mg protein) was determined by incubation of adrenal cytosol (12,000 x g; 0.3-30 micrograms protein) in reaction mixtures containing 0.25 mM ATP, 1 x 10(6) dpm [lambda-32P]ATP, and 3 micrograms kemptide in the presence or absence of 0.02 mM cAMP. PKC activity (picomoles of 32P incorporated into histone IIIS per min/mg protein) was determined in cytosol (105,000 x g) and detergent-solubilized membrane fractions after incubation with 0.02 mM ATP, 50 micrograms histone IIIS, and 1 x 10(6) dpm [lambda-32P]ATP in the presence or absence of calcium and phospholipids. Mean (+/- SE) maternal serum estradiol concentrations (nanograms per ml) were 3-fold greater (P < 0.05) at term (1.9 +/- 0.3) than at midgestation and increased (P < 0.05) after treatment with estradiol. PKA activity was

  11. Emerging roles of long non-coding RNA in root developmental plasticity and regulation of phosphate homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, Jeremie; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression in a variety of biological process and in multiple species. In plants, they are transcribed by different RNA polymerases and show diverse structural features. With the aid of next-generation sequencing technologies, a large number of lncRNA have been identified in model plants as well as in crops. This review focuses on the demonstration that lncRNAs control root system architecture, notably in response to phosphate availability, through regulation of transcription, alternative splicing, microRNA activity, messenger RNA stability and translation, illustrating remarkable diversity in their roles in regulating developmental plasticity. PMID:26106399

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION OF PROTEIN KINASE B ACTIVATION IS ISOFORM SPECIFIC IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF NEONATAL PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The postprandial activation of the insulin signaling pathway that leads to translation initiation is enhanced in skeletal muscle of the neonate and decreases with development in parallel with the developmental decline in muscle protein synthesis. Our previous study showed that the activity of protei...

  13. Regulation of prostate cancer progression by the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Stephen L; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Chung, Leland W K

    2016-09-28

    Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in North America, and despite recent advances in treatment patients with metastatic disease continue to have poor five-year survival rates. Recent studies in prostate cancer have revealed the critical role of the tumor microenvironment in the initiation and progression to advanced disease. Experimental data have uncovered a reciprocal relationship between the cells in the microenvironment and malignant tumor cells in which early changes in normal tissue microenvironment can promote tumorigenesis and in turn tumor cells can promote further pro-tumor changes in the microenvironment. In the tumor microenvironment, the presence of persistent immune infiltrates contributes to the recruitment and reprogramming of other non-immune stromal cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts and a unique recently identified population of metastasis-initiating cells (MICs). These MICs, which can also be found as part of the circulating tumor cell (CTC) population in PC patients, promote cancer cell transformation, enhance metastatic potential and confer therapeutic resistance. MICs act can on other cells within the tumor microenvironment in part by secreting exosomes that reprogram adjacent stromal cells to create a more favorable tumor microenvironment to support continued cancer growth and progression. We review here the current data on the intricate relationship between inflammation, reactive stroma, tumor cells and disease progression in prostate cancer. PMID:26828013

  14. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1993-02-09

    Polyamines are small positively charged compounds that have been hypothesized to be involved in a wide variety of plant physiological and development functions. The regulation of the polyamine synthesis pathway is uniquely interesting because of the existence of two pathways to putrescine synthesis, and the consequent questions of how these two pathways are compartmentalized and how they interact with each other. The specific directions our research is taking are: (1) A characterization of arginine decarboxylase regulation; we have discovered two post-translational mechanisms for regulating arginine decarboxylase activity. One of these is a novel protease that clips the arginine decarboxylase pre-protein to activate it. We would like to understand this activating protease better, determine its mechanism of action, and determine its importance in the overall scheme of arginine decarboxylase regulation. (2) We have begun a similar characterization of ornithine decarboxylase by purifying it from plants. (3) We are characterizing the polyamine mutant collection we have developed. (4) Finally, we have begun to characterize the evolution of arginine decarboxylase, as an additional approach that could shed light on its functions in plants. Our intent is to understand arginine decarboxylase structure and regulation in detail, and then to further explore regulatory differences between ornithine and arginine decarboxylases.

  15. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  16. Improving child self-regulation and parenting in families of pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Healey, Cynthia V; Yoerger, Karen; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The transition to school may be particularly difficult for children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties. Such children are likely to experience problems with self-regulation skills, which are critical to school adjustment. Additionally, inconsistent discipline practices and low parental involvement in children's schooling may contribute to a poor transition to school. This study employed a randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of a school readiness intervention that focused on children's self-regulation skills as well as parenting and parental involvement in school. Results showed that the intervention had positive effects on children's self-regulation in kindergarten as measured by teacher and observer reports. Additionally, the intervention significantly reduced ineffective parenting prior to school entry, which in turn affected parental involvement. This finding is significant because it demonstrates that parental involvement in school may be increased by efforts to improve parenting skills in general. Overall, the study demonstrated that school adjustment across kindergarten among children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties can be enhanced through an intervention aimed specifically at improving school readiness skills. PMID:24676874

  17. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity.

    PubMed

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  18. The Role of pH Regulation in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-01-01

    Frequently observed phenotypes of tumours include high metabolic activity, hypoxia and poor perfusion; these act to produce an acidic microenvironment. Cellular function depends on pH homoeostasis, and thus, tumours become dependent on pH regulatory mechanisms. Many of the proteins involved in pH regulation are highly expressed in tumours, and their expression is often of prognostic significance. The more acidic tumour microenvironment also has important implications with regard to chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic interventions. In addition, we review pH-sensing mechanisms, the role of pH regulation in tumour phenotype and the use of pH regulatory mechanisms as therapeutic targets. PMID:27557536

  19. A role for pectin de-methylesterification in a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Sandra; Van Orden, Jürgen; Wolf, Sebastian; Vissenberg, Kris; Delacourt, Julien; Ndong, Yves Assoumou; Pelloux, Jérôme; Bischoff, Volker; Urbain, Aurélie; Mouille, Grégory; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman

    2010-11-01

    • We focused on a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in the dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl to study the role of changes in cell wall metabolism in the control of cell elongation. • To this end, precise transcriptome analysis on dissected dark-grown hypocotyls, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and kinematic analysis were used. • Using a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, we showed that the growth acceleration marks a developmental transition during which growth becomes uncoupled from cellulose synthesis. We next investigated the cellular changes that take place during this transition. FT-IR microspectroscopy revealed significant changes in cell wall composition during, but not after, the growth acceleration. Transcriptome analysis suggested a role for cell wall remodeling, in particular pectin modification, in this growth acceleration. This was confirmed by the overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor, which caused a delay in the growth acceleration. • This study shows that the acceleration of cell elongation marks a developmental transition in dark-grown hypocotyl cells and supports a role for pectin de-methylesterification in the timing of this event. PMID:20819179

  20. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  1. The Opposing Forces that Shape Developmental Education: Assessment, Placement, and Progression at CUNY Community Colleges. CCRC Working Paper No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The developmental education process, as it is typically implemented in colleges across the country, seems straightforward: underprepared students are assessed and placed into an appropriate developmental course sequence designed to prepare them for college-level work; once finished with the sequence, these students presumably then move on to…

  2. The Retention, Success, and Progress Rates of Rural Females in Traditional Lecture and Online Developmental Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Newberg, Stacie A.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, 92% of community colleges offer courses online, yet only 13% offer online mathematics developmental courses. Little research has been conducted to verify the effectiveness of such courses. This study attempted to answer: Are online developmental mathematics courses addressing the academic requirements (retention, success, and…

  3. Regulation of cancer progression by β-endorphin neuron.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Dipak K; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Zhang, Changqing; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2012-02-15

    It is becoming increasingly clear that stressful life events can affect cancer growth and metastasis by modulating nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the process by which stress may potentiate carcinogenesis and how reducing body stress may prevent cancer growth and progression. The opioid peptide β-endorphin plays a critical role in bringing the stress axis to a state of homeostasis. We have recently shown that enhancement of endogenous levels of β-endorphin in the hypothalamus via β-endorphin neuron transplantation suppresses stress response, promotes immune function, and reduces the incidence of cancer in rat models of prostate and breast cancers. The cancer-preventive effect of β-endorphin is mediated through the suppression of sympathetic neuronal function, which results in increased peripheral natural killer cell and macrophage activities, elevated levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. β-endorphin inhibition of tumor progression also involves alteration in the tumor microenvironment, possibly because of suppression of catecholamine and inflammatory cytokine production, which are known to alter DNA repair, cell-matrix attachments, angiogenic process, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, β-endorphin cell therapy may offer some therapeutic value in cancer prevention. PMID:22287549

  4. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  5. TRAIP regulates replication fork recovery and progression via PCNA

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wanjuan; Guo, Yingying; Huang, Jun; Deng, Yiqun; Zang, Jianye; Huen, Michael Shing-Yan

    2016-01-01

    PCNA is a central scaffold that coordinately assembles replication and repair machineries at DNA replication forks for faithful genome duplication. Here, we describe TRAIP (RNF206) as a novel PCNA-interacting factor that has important roles during mammalian replicative stress responses. We show that TRAIP encodes a nucleolar protein that migrates to stalled replication forks, and that this is accomplished by its targeting of PCNA via an evolutionarily conserved PIP box on its C terminus. Accordingly, inactivation of TRAIP or its interaction with the PCNA clamp compromised replication fork recovery and progression, and leads to chromosome instability. Together, our findings establish TRAIP as a component of the mammalian replicative stress response network, and implicate the TRAIP-PCNA axis in recovery of stalled replication forks. PMID:27462463

  6. Regulation of mitotic progression by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Equal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis requires that pairs of kinetochores establish proper attachment to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protects against errors in segregation by delaying sister separation in response to improper kinetochore–microtubule interactions, and certain checkpoint proteins help to establish proper attachments. Anaphase entry is inhibited by the checkpoint through assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) composed of the 2 checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, bound to Cdc20. The outer kinetochore acts as a catalyst for MCC production through the recruitment and proper positioning of checkpoint proteins and recently there has been remarkable progress in understanding how this is achieved. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of kinetochore–checkpoint protein interactions and inhibition of the anaphase promoting complex by the MCC. PMID:27308407

  7. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) transferrin-gene structure and the role of ecdysteroids in the developmental regulation of its expression.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Social life is prone to invasion by microorganisms, and binding of ferric ions by transferrin is an efficient strategy to restrict their access to iron. In this study, we isolated cDNA and genomic clones encoding an Apis mellifera transferrin (AmTRF) gene. It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2136 bp spread over nine exons. The deduced protein sequence comprises 686 amino acid residues plus a 26 residues signal sequence, giving a predicted molecular mass of 76 kDa. Comparison of the deduced AmTRF amino acid sequence with known insect transferrins revealed significant similarity extending over the entire sequence. It clusters with monoferric transferrins, with which it shares putative iron-binding residues in the N-terminal lobe. In a functional analysis of AmTRF expression in honey bee development, we monitored its expression profile in the larval and pupal stages. The negative regulation of AmTRF by ecdysteroids deduced from the developmental expression profile was confirmed by experimental treatment of spinning-stage honey bee larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone, and of fourth instar-larvae with juvenile hormone. A juvenile hormone application to spinning-stage larvae, in contrast, had only a minor effect on AmTRF transcript levels. This is the first study implicating ecdysteroids in the developmental regulation of transferrin expression in an insect species. PMID:15110862

  8. Developmentally regulated expression of APG-1, a member of heat shock protein 110 family in murine male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Kimura, T; Nishiyama, H; Noda, Y; Fujita, J

    1997-04-01

    Apg-1 encodes a heat shock protein belonging to the heat shock protein 110 family, and is inducible by a 32 degrees C to 39 degrees C heat shock. Northern blot analysis of the testis from immature and adult mice, and of the purified germ cells revealed the quantitative change of the apg-1 transcripts during germ cell development. By in situ hybridization histochemistry the expressions of the apg-1 transcripts were detected in germ cells at specific stages of development including spermatocytes and spermatids. Although heat-induction of the apg-1 transcripts was observed in W/Wv mutant testis lacking germ cells, it was not detected in wild-type testis nor in the purified germ cells. Thus, the apg-1 expression is not heat-regulated but developmentally regulated in germ cells, suggesting that APG-1 plays a role in normal development of germ cells. PMID:9144406

  9. daf-12 encodes a nuclear receptor that regulates the dauer diapause and developmental age in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Antebi, A; Yeh, W H; Tait, D; Hedgecock, E M; Riddle, D L

    2000-06-15

    The daf-12 gene acts at the convergence of pathways regulating larval diapause, developmental age, and adult longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. It encodes a nuclear receptor most closely related to two C. elegans receptors, NHR-8 and NHR-48, Drosophila DHR96, and vertebrate vitamin D and pregnane-X receptors. daf-12 has three predicted protein isoforms, two of which contain DNA- and ligand-binding domains, and one of which contains the ligand-binding domain only. Mutations cluster in DNA- and ligand-binding domains, but correspond to distinct phenotypic classes. DAF-12 is expressed widely in target tissues from embryo to adult, but is upregulated during midlarval stages. In the adult, expression persists in nervous system and somatic gonad, two tissues that regulate adult longevity. We propose that DAF-12 integrates hormonal signals in cellular targets to coordinate major life history traits. PMID:10859169

  10. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches. PMID:25876422

  11. MUC1 Regulates PDGFA Expression During Pancreatic Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Mahnaz; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Curry, Jennifer M; Teresa, Tinder L; Nath, Sritama; Besmer, Dahlia; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Dalia, Ritu; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) has one of the worst prognoses of all cancers. Mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein, is a key modulator of several signaling pathways that affect oncogenesis, motility, and metastasis. Its expression is known to be associated with poor prognosis in patients. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We report a novel association of MUC1 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). PDGFA is one of the many drivers of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in PDA. Using mouse PDA models as well as human samples, we show clear evidence that MUC1 regulates the expression and secretion of PDGFA. This, in turn, influences proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells leading to higher tumor burden in vivo. In addition, we reveal that MUC1 over expressing cells are heavily dependent on PDGFA both for proliferation and invasion while MUC1-null cells are not. Moreover, PDGFA and MUC1 are critical for translocation of βcatenin to the nucleus for oncogenesis to ensue. Finally, we elucidate the underlying mechanism by which MUC1 regulates PDGFA expression and secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. We show that MUC1 associates with Hif1-α, a known transcription factor involved in controlling PDGFA expression. Furthermore, MUC1 facilitates Hif1-α translocation to the nucleus. In summary, we have demonstrated that MUC1-induced invasion and proliferation occurs via increased exogenous production of PDGFA. Thus, impeding MUC1 regulation of PDGFA signaling may be therapeutically beneficial for patients with PDA. PMID:22266848

  12. Analysis of splice variants for the C. elegans orthologue of human neuroligin reveals a developmentally regulated transcript.

    PubMed

    Calahorro, Fernando; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Neuroligins are synaptic adhesion molecules and important determinants of synaptic function. They are expressed at postsynaptic sites and involved in synaptic organization through key extracellular and intracellular protein interactions. They undergo trans-synaptic interaction with presynaptic neurexins. Distinct neuroligins use differences in their intracellular domains to selectively recruit synaptic scaffolds and this plays an important role in how they encode specialization of synaptic function. Several levels of regulation including gene expression, splicing, protein translation and processing regulate the expression of neuroligin function. We have used in silico and cDNA analyses to investigate the mRNA splicing of the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue nlg-1. Transcript analysis highlights the potential for gene regulation with respect to both temporal expression and splicing. We found nlg-1 splice variants with all the predicted exons are a minor species relative to major splice variants lacking exons 13 and 14, or 14 alone. These major alternatively spliced variants change the intracellular domain of the gene product NLG-1. Interestingly, exon 14 encodes a cassette with two distinct potential functional domains. One is a polyproline SH3 binding domain and the other has homology to a region encoding the binding site for the scaffolding protein gephyrin in mammalian neuroligins. This suggests differential splicing impacts on NLG-1 competence to recruit intracellular binding partners. This may have developmental relevance as nlg-1 exon 14 containing transcripts are selectively expressed in L2-L3 larvae. These results highlight a developmental regulation of C. elegans nlg-1 that could play a key role in the assembly of synaptic protein complexes during the early stages of nervous system development. PMID:25726726

  13. (Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Constitutive adhC mutants were used as a starting point for the isolation of further mutants, some of which are defective in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and/or acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH) activities and some of which are regulatory and express elevated enzyme levels. The structural mutants map close to the adhC gene, suggesting the existence of an anaerobically controlled operon responsible for the conversion of acetyl-CoA to ethanol. Purification of the two enzyme activities indicates that both copurify as a complex of approximately 200,000 daltons. Although confirmation is required, both enzyme activities appear to be functions of a single polypeptide of MW 100,000 daltons. This interpretation is consistent with genetic data which show that most mutants selected directly for loss of either enzyme have also lost the other activity. Temperature sensitive mutants in which both enzymes are thermolabile also support the idea of a single polypeptide for the two activities. Regulatory mutants located away from the adhC locus have been isolated, and result in two to tenfold elevation of both ADH and ACDH. These mutants are in process of further characterization. Study of adh regulation by means of gene fusions has been slowed by technical problems, however we have devised a direct method for the selection of mutants unable to excrete acidic fermentation products and have accumulated a variety of anaerobically regulated gene fusions which have allowed us to estimate that anaerobiosis in E. coli requires the induction of around 50 genes.

  14. Challenges to Developmental Regulation across the Life Course: What Are They and Which Individual Differences Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the major processes involved in individuals' motivation and self-regulation of goal striving throughout the life course. While much is regulated based on the biological and societal scaffolding of lifespan development, certain challenges for motivation and self-regulation are more substantial and need to be managed by the individual,…

  15. Progression to Impaired Glucose Regulation and Diabetes in the Population-Based Inter99 Study

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine; Glümer, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population–based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From a population-based primary prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, or impaired glucose tolerance). High-risk individuals (57.1%) were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test at 1 and 3 years, and all of the participants were reexamined at the 5-year follow-up. Person-years at risk were calculated. Progression rates to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes were estimated directly from baseline to the 5-year follow-up for all the participants and from baseline through the 1- and 3- to 5-year follow-up examinations for the high-risk individuals, separately. RESULTS In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 individuals per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to impaired glucose regulation or diabetes. Among high-risk individuals, 5.8 per 100 person-years with NGT progressed to impaired glucose regulation or diabetes, and 4.9 per 100 person-years progressed from impaired glucose regulation to diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Progression rates to impaired glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies. PMID:19114617

  16. Parental influences on children's self-regulation of energy intake: Insights from developmental literature on emotion regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to childre...

  17. (Regulation of terpene metabolism). Progress report. [Mentha piperita

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the regulation of monoterpene metabolism in M. piperita were conducted. All of the steps from the acyclic precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to the various menthol isomers have been demonstrated. The first intermediate to accumulate in vivo is d-pulegone. The emphasis has been on the demonstration, partial purification and characterization of the relevant enzymes in the pathway. The studies on the isopiperitenol dehydrogenase and isopiperitenone isomerase have been completed. We are not studying the endocyclic double-bond reductase (NADPH-dependent) and, based on substrate specificity studies and the previously demonstrated isomerization of cis- isopulegone to pulegone, are now virtually convinced that the major pathway to menthol(s) in peppermint involves reduction of isopiperitenone to isopulegone and isomerication of isopulegone to pulegone. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Meireles-Filho, Antonio C. A.; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  19. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shlyueva, Daria; Meireles-Filho, Antonio C A; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  20. Differential regulation of plastid mRNA stability. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    Our goal is to identify cis-acting sequences and transacting factors that function in plastid mRNA maturation, stabilization, and/or decay through an in vitro and in vivo analysis of mRNA:protein interactions. Our previous results emphasized the study of 3{prime}end inverted repeat sequences (IRs) that serve both as mRNA processing elements and stability determinants, and associate with plastid proteins that potentially play enzymatic, structural and/or regulatory roles. We seek to define, by single base and internal deletion mutagenesis, the sequence and structural requirements for protein binding to the 3{prime} IRs of petD and psbA mRNAs; to purify RNA-binding proteins that demonstrate gene- or sequence-specific binding, or that are implicated in RNA stabilization or decay; and to investigate the native form of mRNA in the plastid, by attempting to purify ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles from organelles. Our view of mRNA decay is that it is regulated by three interactive components: RNA structure, ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. We have used mutagenesis to study the role of RNA structure in regulating RNA decay rates, and to identify protein binding and endonuclease recognition sites. We have identified at least three endonuclease activities; one that cleaves psbA RNA; and two whose cleavage patterns with petD 3{prime} IR-RNA has been studied (endoC1 and endoC2). Additionally, we have continued to analyze the properties of the major RNA processing exoribonuclease. We have concentrated our efforts on three RNA-binding proteins. A 100 kd protein with properties suggestive of a mammalian RNP component has been purified. A protein of 55 kd that may also be an endonuclease has been partially purified. We have studied the interaction of a 29 kd protein with the petD stem/loop, and its role in RNA processing. Recently, we have used a novel gel shift/SDS-PAGE technique to identify new RNA-binding proteins.

  1. Characterization of Plasmodium developmental transcriptomes in Anopheles gambiae midgut reveals novel regulators of malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Akinosoglou, Karolina A; Bushell, Ellen S C; Ukegbu, Chiamaka Valerie; Schlegelmilch, Timm; Cho, Jee-Sun; Redmond, Seth; Sala, Katarzyna; Christophides, George K; Vlachou, Dina

    2015-01-01

    The passage through the mosquito is a major bottleneck for malaria parasite populations and a target of interventions aiming to block disease transmission. Here, we used DNA microarrays to profile the developmental transcriptomes of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in vivo, in the midgut of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, from parasite stages in the midgut blood bolus to sporulating oocysts on the basal gut wall. Data analysis identified several distinct transcriptional programmes encompassing genes putatively involved in developmental processes or in interactions with the mosquito. At least two of these programmes are associated with the ookinete development that is linked to mosquito midgut invasion and establishment of infection. Targeted disruption by homologous recombination of two of these genes resulted in mutant parasites exhibiting notable infection phenotypes. GAMER encodes a short polypeptide with granular localization in the gametocyte cytoplasm and shows a highly penetrant loss-of-function phenotype manifested as greatly reduced ookinete numbers, linked to impaired male gamete release. HADO encodes a putative magnesium phosphatase with distinctive cortical localization along the concave ookinete periphery. Disruption of HADO compromises ookinete development leading to significant reduction of oocyst numbers. Our data provide important insights into the molecular framework underpinning Plasmodium development in the mosquito and identifies two genes with important functions at initial stages of parasite development in the mosquito midgut. PMID:25225164

  2. Smooth muscle FGF/TGFβ cross talk regulates atherosclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Tellides, George; Simons, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative phenotype is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of this process to plaque growth has never been fully defined. In this study, we show that activation of SMC TGFβ signaling, achieved by suppression of SMC fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling input, induces their conversion to a contractile phenotype and dramatically reduces atherosclerotic plaque size. The FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk was observed in vitro and in vivo In vitro, inhibition of FGF signaling increased TGFβ activity, thereby promoting smooth muscle differentiation and decreasing proliferation. In vivo, smooth muscle-specific knockout of an FGF receptor adaptor Frs2α led to a profound inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque growth when these animals were crossed on Apoe(-/-) background and subjected to a high-fat diet. In particular, there was a significant reduction in plaque cellularity, increase in fibrous cap area, and decrease in necrotic core size. In agreement with these findings, examination of human coronary arteries with various degrees of atherosclerosis revealed a strong correlation between the activation of FGF signaling, loss of TGFβ activity, and increased disease severity. These results identify SMC FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk as an important regulator of SMC phenotype switch and document a major contribution of medial SMC proliferation to atherosclerotic plaque growth. PMID:27189169

  3. ERRβ splice variants differentially regulate cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Mary Mazzotta; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2015-01-01

    Orphan receptors comprise nearly half of all members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Despite having broad structural similarities to the classical estrogen receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) have their own unique DNA response elements and functions. In this study, we focus on 2 ERRβ splice variants, short form ERRβ (ERRβsf) and ERRβ2, and identify their differing roles in cell cycle regulation. Using DY131 (a synthetic agonist of ERRβ), splice-variant selective shRNA, and exogenous ERRβsf and ERRβ2 cDNAs, we demonstrate the role of ERRβsf in mediating the G1 checkpoint through p21. We also show ERRβsf is required for DY131-induced cellular senescence. A key novel finding of this study is that ERRβ2 can mediate a G2/M arrest in response to DY131. In the absence of ERRβ2, the DY131-induced G2/M arrest is reversed, and this is accompanied by p21 induction and a G1 arrest. This study illustrates novel functions for ERRβ splice variants and provides evidence for splice variant interaction. PMID:25496115

  4. Estrogen target gene regulation and coactivator expression in rat uterus after developmental exposure to the ultraviolet filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Durrer, Stefan; Maerkel, Kirsten; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2005-05-01

    Because the estrogen receptor (ER) ligand type influences transactivation, it is important to obtain information on molecular actions of nonclassical ER agonists. UV filters from cosmetics represent new classes of endocrine active chemicals, including the preferential ER beta ligands 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor. We studied estrogen target gene expression in uterus of Long Evans rats after developmental exposure to 4-MBC (0.7, 7, 24, and 47 mg/kg x d) administered in feed to the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. 4-MBC altered steady-state levels of mRNAs encoding for ER alpha, ER beta, progesterone receptor (PR), IGF-I, androgen receptor, determined by real-time RT-PCR in uterus of 12-wk-old offspring. Western-blot analyses of the same tissue homogenates indicated changes in ER alpha and PR but not ER beta proteins. To assess sensitivity to estradiol (E2), offspring were ovariectomized on d 70, injected with E2 (10 or 50 microg/kg sc) on d 84, and killed 6 h later. Acute up-regulation of PR and IGF-I and down-regulation of ER alpha and androgen receptor by E2 were dose-dependently reduced in 4-MBC-exposed rats. The reduced response to E2 was accompanied by reduced coactivator SRC-1 mRNA and protein levels. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to 4-MBC affects the regulation of estrogen target genes and the expression of nuclear receptor coregulators in uterus at mRNA and protein levels. PMID:15705771

  5. TORC1 Regulates Developmental Responses to Nitrogen Stress via Regulation of the GATA Transcription Factor Gaf1

    PubMed Central

    Laor, Dana; Cohen, Adiel; Kupiec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The TOR (target of rapamycin [sirolimus]) is a universally conserved kinase that couples nutrient availability to cell growth. TOR complex 1 (TORC1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe positively regulates growth in response to nitrogen availability while suppressing cellular responses to nitrogen stress. Here we report the identification of the GATA transcription factor Gaf1 as a positive regulator of the nitrogen stress-induced gene isp7+, via three canonical GATA motifs. We show that under nitrogen-rich conditions, TORC1 positively regulates the phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of Gaf1 via the PP2A-like phosphatase Ppe1. Under nitrogen stress conditions when TORC1 is inactivated, Gaf1 becomes dephosphorylated and enters the nucleus. Gaf1 was recently shown to negatively regulate the transcription induction of ste11+, a major regulator of sexual development. Our findings support a model of a two-faceted role of Gaf1 during nitrogen stress. Gaf1 positively regulates genes that are induced early in the response to nitrogen stress, while inhibiting later responses, such as sexual development. Taking these results together, we identify Gaf1 as a novel target for TORC1 signaling and a step-like mechanism to modulate the nitrogen stress response. PMID:26152587

  6. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  7. Chromatin states of developmentally-regulated genes revealed by DNA and histone methylation patterns in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Leif C; Winata, Cecilia L; Aanes, Hvard; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Alestrom, Peter; Collas, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Embryo development proceeds from a cascade of gene activation and repression events controlled by epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. Little is known about epigenetic states in the developing zebrafish, despite its importance as a model organism. We report here DNA methylation and histone modification profiles of promoters of developmentally-regulated genes (pou5f1, sox2, sox3, klf4, nnr, otx1b, nes, vasa), as well as tert and bactin2, in zebrafish embryos at the mid-late blastula transition, shortly after embryonic genome activation. We identify four classes of promoters based on the following profiles: (i) those enriched in marks of active genes (H3K9ac, H4ac, H3K4me3) without transcriptionally repressing H3K9me3 or H3K27me3; (ii) those enriched in H3K9ac, H4ac and H3K27me3, without H3K9me3; one such gene was klf4, shown by in situ hybridization to be mosaically expressed, likely accounting for the detection of both activating and repressive marks on its promoter; (iii) those enriched in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 without acetylation; and (iv) those enriched in all histone modifications examined. Culture of embryo-derived cells under differentiation conditions leads to H3K9 and H4 deacetylation and H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation on genes that are inactivated, yielding an epigenetic profile similar to those of fibroblasts or muscle. All promoters however retain H3K4me3, indicating an uncoupling of H3K4me3 occupancy and gene expression. All non-CpG island developmentally-regulated promoters are DNA unmethylated in embryos, but hypermethylated in fibroblasts. Our results suggest that differentially expressed embryonic genes are regulated by various patterns of histone modifications on unmethylated DNA, which create a developmentally permissive chromatin state. PMID:20336603

  8. MicroRNAs in Breastmilk and the Lactating Breast: Potential Immunoprotectors and Developmental Regulators for the Infant and the Mother

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Human milk (HM) is the optimal source of nutrition, protection and developmental programming for infants. It is species-specific and consists of various bioactive components, including microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. microRNAs are both intra- and extra-cellular and are present in body fluids of humans and animals. Of these body fluids, HM appears to be one of the richest sources of microRNA, which are highly conserved in its different fractions, with milk cells containing more microRNAs than milk lipids, followed by skim milk. Potential effects of exogenous food-derived microRNAs on gene expression have been demonstrated, together with the stability of milk-derived microRNAs in the gastrointestinal tract. Taken together, these strongly support the notion that milk microRNAs enter the systemic circulation of the HM fed infant and exert tissue-specific immunoprotective and developmental functions. This has initiated intensive research on the origin, fate and functional significance of milk microRNAs. Importantly, recent studies have provided evidence of endogenous synthesis of HM microRNA within the human lactating mammary epithelium. These findings will now form the basis for investigations of the role of microRNA in the epigenetic control of normal and aberrant mammary development, and particularly lactation performance. PMID:26529003

  9. Environmental and Developmental Regulation of the Wound-Induced Cell Wall Protein WI12 in the Halophyte Ice Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shyi-Kae; Chung, Mei-Chu; Chen, Pei-Chung; Yen, Hungchen E.

    2001-01-01

    A wounded gene WI12 was used as a marker to examine the interaction between biotic stress (wounding) and abiotic stress (high salt) in the facultative halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). The deduced WI12 amino acid sequence has 68% similarity to WUN1, a known potato (Solanum tuberosum) wound-induced protein. Wounding, methyl jasmonate, and pathogen infection induced local WI12 expression. Upon wounding, the expression of WI12 reached a maximum level after 3 h in 4-week-old juvenile leaves, whereas the maximum expression was after 24 h in 8-week-old adult leaves. The temporal expression of WI12 in salt-stressed juvenile leaves was similar to that of adult leaves. The result suggests that a salt-induced switch from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism has a great influence on the ice plant's response to wounding. The expression of WI12 and the accumulation of WI12 protein were constitutively found in phloem and in wounded mesophyll cells. At the reproductive stage, WI12 was constitutively found in petals and styles, and developmentally regulated in the placenta and developing seeds. The histochemical analysis showed that the appearance of WI12 is controlled by both environmental and developmental factors. Immunogold labeling showed WI12 preferentially accumulates in the cell wall, suggesting its role in the reinforcement of cell wall composition after wounding and during plant development. PMID:11598226

  10. Regulation of Melanoma Progression through the TCF4/miR-125b/NEDD9 Cascade.

    PubMed

    Rambow, Florian; Bechadergue, Audrey; Luciani, Flavie; Gros, Gwendoline; Domingues, Melanie; Bonaventure, Jacky; Meurice, Guillaume; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Larue, Lionel

    2016-06-01

    Melanoma progression from a primary lesion to a distant metastasis is a complex process associated with genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications, and phenotypic switches. Elucidation of these phenomena may indicate how to interfere with this fatal disease. The role of microRNAs as key negative regulators of gene expression, controlling all cellular processes including cell migration and invasion, is now being recognized. Here, we used in silico analysis of microRNA expression profiles of primary and metastatic melanomas and functional experiments to show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is a determinant candidate of melanoma progression: (i) miR-125b is more strongly expressed in aggressive metastatic than primary melanomas, (ii) there is an inverse correlation between the amount of miR-125b and overall patient survival, (iii) invasion/migration potentials in vitro are inversely correlated with the amount of miR-125b in a series of human melanoma cell lines, and (iv) inhibition of miR-125b reduces migratory and invasive potentials without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we show that neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (i.e., NEDD9) is a direct target of miR-125b and is involved in modulating melanoma cell migration and invasion. Also, transcription factor 4, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion, induces the transcription of miR-125b-1. In conclusion, the transcription factor 4/miR-125b/NEDD9 cascade promotes melanoma cell migration/invasion. PMID:26968260

  11. Modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the proximal promoter of a cell-growth-regulated histone gene during onset and progression of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, T A; Holthuis, J; Markose, E; van Wijnen, A J; Wolfe, S A; Grimes, S R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S

    1990-01-01

    A temporal sequence of interrelated cellular, biochemical, and molecular events which occurs during the progressive expression of the differentiated osteoblast phenotype in primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells results in the development of a bone-tissue-like organization. This ordered developmental sequence encompasses three periods: proliferation, matrix maturation, and mineralization. Initially, the cells actively proliferate and synthesize type I collagen. This is followed by a period of matrix organization and maturation and then by a period of extracellular matrix mineralization. At the completion of proliferation, when expression of osteoblast phenotype markers such as alkaline phosphatase is observed, the cell-cycle-related histone genes are down-regulated transcriptionally, suggesting that a key signaling mechanism at this transition point involves modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the regulatory elements of these growth-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate that there is a selective loss of interaction of the promoter binding factor HiNF-D with the site II region of an H4 histone gene proximal promoter that regulates the specificity and level of transcription only when the down-regulation of proliferation is accompanied by modifications in the extracellular matrix that contribute to progression of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, this specific loss of protein-DNA interaction serves as a marker for a key transition point in the osteoblast developmental sequence, where the down-regulation of proliferation is functionally coupled to the appearance of osteoblast phenotypic properties associated with the organization and maturation of an extracellular matrix that becomes competent to mineralize. Images PMID:2367528

  12. Tracking developmentally regulated post-synthetic processing of homogalacturonan and chitin using reciprocal oligosaccharide probes.

    PubMed

    Mravec, Jozef; Kračun, Stjepan K; Rydahl, Maja G; Westereng, Bjørge; Miart, Fabien; Clausen, Mads H; Fangel, Jonatan U; Daugaard, Mathilde; Van Cutsem, Pierre; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Höfte, Herman; Malinovsky, Frederikke G; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides are major components of extracellular matrices and are often extensively modified post-synthetically to suit local requirements and developmental programmes. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics and functional significance of these modifications is limited by a lack of suitable molecular tools. Here, we report the development of a novel non-immunological approach for producing highly selective reciprocal oligosaccharide-based probes for chitosan (the product of chitin deacetylation) and for demethylesterified homogalacturonan. Specific reciprocal binding is mediated by the unique stereochemical arrangement of oppositely charged amino and carboxy groups. Conjugation of oligosaccharides to fluorophores or gold nanoparticles enables direct and rapid imaging of homogalacturonan and chitosan with unprecedented precision in diverse plant, fungal and animal systems. We demonstrated their potential for providing new biological insights by using them to study homogalacturonan processing during Arabidopsis thaliana root cap development and by analyzing sites of chitosan deposition in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. PMID:25395456

  13. Moving Targets: A Developmental Framework for Understanding Children's Changes following Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a developmental framework for disaster studies with children that allows researchers to explore the interaction between developmental change (defined as change that is extended, self-regulated, qualitative, and progressive) and cataclysmic change. It outlines three levels of analysis related to disasters: 1) observing the harm…

  14. Identifying developmental cascades among differentiated dimensions of social competence and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Blair, Bethany L; Perry, Nicole B; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-08-01

    This study used data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among 3 dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete dimension of social competence and emotion regulation were also examined. The results suggest that there are important distinctions among the dimensions of social competence as they relate to one another and to emotion regulation. Model comparisons provided evidence of cascading and reciprocal effects among the variables, demonstrating complex associations that are ongoing across middle childhood. Specifically, there were cascading effects from emotion regulation abilities at age 5 years to social skills at age 7, which was then associated with age 10 outcomes of more positive friendship quality, greater peer acceptance, and greater emotion regulation. PMID:26147773

  15. Identifying Developmental Cascades among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized data from 356 children, their mothers, teachers, and peers, to examine the longitudinal and dynamic associations among three dimensions of social competence derived from Hinde's (1987) framework of social complexity: social skills, peer group acceptance, and friendship quality. Direct and indirect associations among each discrete dimension of social competence and emotion regulation were also examined. Results suggest that there are important distinctions among the dimensions of social competence as they relate to one another and to emotion regulation. Model comparisons provided evidence of cascade and reciprocal effects among the variables, demonstrating complex associations that are ongoing across middle childhood. Specifically, there were cascading effects from emotion regulation abilities at age 5 to social skills at age 7, which was then associated with age 10 outcomes of more positive friendship quality, greater peer acceptance, and greater emotion regulation. PMID:26147773

  16. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  17. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  18. Coordinated Regulation of Genes for Secretion in Tobacco at Late Developmental Stages: Association with Resistance against Oomycetes1[w

    PubMed Central

    Hugot, Karine; Rivière, Marie-Pierre; Moreilhon, Chimène; Dayem, Manal A.; Cozzitorto, Joseph; Arbiol, Gilles; Barbry, Pascal; Weiss, Catherine; Galiana, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Besides the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induced in response to microbial stimulation, host plants may also acquire resistance to pathogens in response to endogenous stimuli associated with their own development. In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), the vegetative-to-flowering transition comes along with a susceptibility-to-resistance transition to the causal agent of black shank disease, the oomycete Phytophthora parasitica. This resistance affects infection effectiveness and hyphal expansion and is associated with extracellular accumulation of a cytotoxic activity that provokes in vitro cell death of P. parasitica zoospores. As a strategy to determine the extracellular events important for restriction of pathogen growth, we screened the tobacco genome for genes encoding secreted or membrane-bound proteins expressed in leaves of flowering plants. Using a signal sequence trap approach in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 298 clones were selected that appear to encode for apoplastic, cell wall, or membrane-bound proteins involved in stress response, in plant defense, or in cell wall modifications. Microarray and northern-blot analyses revealed that, at late developmental stages, leaves were characterized by the coordinate up-regulation of genes involved in SAR and in peroxidative cross-linking of structural proteins to cell wall. This suggests the potential involvement of these genes in extracellular events that govern the expression of developmental resistance. The analysis of the influence of salicylic acid on mRNA accumulation also indicates a more complex network for regulation of gene expression at a later stage of tobacco development than during SAR. Further characterization of these genes will permit the formulation of hypotheses to explain resistance and to establish the connection with development. PMID:14764907

  19. Chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway normalizes some developmental effects of trisomy in Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Dutka, Tara; Hallberg, Dorothy; Reeves, Roger H.

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly complex developmental genetic disorder caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS exhibit some degree of brain structural changes and cognitive impairment; mouse models such as Ts65Dn have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Several phenotypes of DS might arise from a reduced response of trisomic cells to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) growth factor. If all trisomic cells show a similar reduced response to SHH, then up-regulation of the pathway in trisomic cells might ameliorate multiple DS phenotypes. We crossed Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice, in which the canonical SHH pathway is expected to be up-regulated in every SHH-responsive cell due to the loss of function of one allele of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1, to the Ts65Dn DS model and assessed the progeny for possible rescue of multiple DS-related phenotypes. Down-regulation of Ptch produced several previously unreported effects on development by itself, complicating interpretation of some phenotypes, and a number structural or behavioral effects of trisomy were not compensated by SHH signaling. However, a deficit in a nest-building task was partially restored in Ts;Ptch+/− mice, as were structural anomalies of the cerebellum in Ts65Dn mice. These results extend the body of evidence indicating that reduced response to SHH in trisomic cells and tissues contributes to various aspects of the trisomic phenotype. PMID:25511459

  20. Chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway normalizes some developmental effects of trisomy in Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Dutka, Tara; Hallberg, Dorothy; Reeves, Roger H

    2015-02-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly complex developmental genetic disorder caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS exhibit some degree of brain structural changes and cognitive impairment; mouse models such as Ts65Dn have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Several phenotypes of DS might arise from a reduced response of trisomic cells to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) growth factor. If all trisomic cells show a similar reduced response to SHH, then up-regulation of the pathway in trisomic cells might ameliorate multiple DS phenotypes. We crossed Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice, in which the canonical SHH pathway is expected to be up-regulated in every SHH-responsive cell due to the loss of function of one allele of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1, to the Ts65Dn DS model and assessed the progeny for possible rescue of multiple DS-related phenotypes. Down-regulation of Ptch produced several previously unreported effects on development by itself, complicating interpretation of some phenotypes, and a number of structural or behavioral effects of trisomy were not compensated by SHH signaling. However, a deficit in a nest-building task was partially restored in Ts;Ptch+/- mice, as were the structural anomalies of the cerebellum seen in Ts65Dn mice. These results extend the body of evidence indicating that reduced response to SHH in trisomic cells and tissues contributes to various aspects of the trisomic phenotype. PMID:25511459

  1. Social Possible Selves, Self-Regulation, and Social Goal Progress in Older Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Han-Jung; Mejía, Shannon; Hooker, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Lifespan development involves setting and pursuing self-guided goals. This study examines how in the social domain, possible selves, a future-oriented self-concept, and self-regulation, including self-regulatory beliefs and intraindividual variability in self-regulatory behavior, relate to differences in overall daily social goal progress. An…

  2. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1988--March 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-12-31

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  3. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Adeiye A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Lok, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3) or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs), a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP) DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s) to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD) of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24–48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for iL3 arrest

  4. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Albarqi, Mennatallah M Y; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Pilgrim, Adeiye A; Nolan, Thomas J; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Lok, James B

    2016-01-01

    The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3) or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs), a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP) DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s) to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD) of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24-48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for iL3 arrest

  5. Involvement of an ABC transporter in a developmental pathway regulating hypocotyl cell elongation in the light

    PubMed Central

    Sidler, M; Hassa, P; Hasan, S; Ringli, C; Dudler, R

    1998-01-01

    In the dark, plant seedlings follow the skotomorphogenetic developmental program, which results in hypocotyl cell elongation. When the seedlings are exposed to light, a switch to photomorphogenetic development occurs, and hypocotyl cell elongation is inhibited. We have manipulated the expression of the AtPGP1 (for Arabidopsis thaliana P glycoprotein1) gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by using sense and antisense constructs. We show that within a certain light fluence rate window, overexpression of the AtPGP1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter causes plants to develop longer hypocotyls, whereas expression of the gene in antisense orientation results in hypocotyls shorter than those occurring in the wild type. In the dark, hypocotyls of transgenic and wild-type plants are indistinguishable. Because the AtPGP1 gene encodes a member of the superfamily of ATP binding cassette-containing (ABC) transporters, these results imply that a transport process is involved in a hypocotyl cell elongation pathway active in the light. The AtPGP1 transporter is localized in the plasmalemma, as indicated by immunohistochemical techniques and biochemical membrane separation methods. Analysis of the AtPGP1 expression pattern by using reporter gene constructs and in situ hybridization shows that in wild-type seedlings, AtPGP1 is expressed in both the root and shoot apices. PMID:9761790

  6. Environmental and developmental signals modulate proline homeostasis: evidence for a negative transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, N; Hua, X J; May, M; Van Montagu, M

    1996-01-01

    In many plants, osmotic stress induces a rapid accumulation of proline through de novo synthesis from glutamate. This response is thought to play a pivotal role in osmotic stress tolerance [Kishor, P. B. K., Hong, Z., Miao, G.-H., Hu, C.-A. A. and Verma, D. P. S. (1995) Plant Physiol. 108, 1387-1394]. During recovery from osmotic stress, accumulated proline is rapidly oxidized to glutamate and the first step of this process is catalyzed by proline oxidase. We have isolated a full-length cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, At-POX, which maps to a single locus on chromosome 3 and that encodes a predicted polypeptide of 499 amino acids showing significant similarity with proline oxidase sequences from Drosophila and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (55.5% and 45.1%, respectively). The predicted location of the encoded polypeptide is the inner mitochondrial membrane. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that At-POX mRNA levels declined rapidly upon osmotic stress and this decline preceded proline accumulation. On the other hand, At-POX mRNA levels rapidly increased during recovery. Free proline, exogenously added to plants, was found to be an effective inducer of At-POX expression; indeed, At-POX was highly expressed in flowers and mature seeds where the proline level is higher relative to other organs of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that stress- and developmentally derived signals interact to determine proline homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710950

  7. Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Song, Kiwon; Wolfner, M.F.

    1995-12-01

    The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutant alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that Ya function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The History of Legislation and Regulations Related to Children with Developmental Disabilities: Implications for School Nursing Practice Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Michelle T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of children in the United States have developmental disabilities. Historically, many children with developmental disabilities were institutionalized and rarely seen in public. Currently, children with developmental disabilities are entitled to education and health-related support services that permit them access to public…

  9. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:24798404

  10. Emotion Regulation in the Brain: Conceptual Issues and Directions for Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.; Stieben, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Emotion regulation cannot be temporally distinguished from emotion in the brain, but activation patterns in prefrontal cortex appear to mediate cognitive control during emotion episodes. Frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) can tap cognitive control hypothetically mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, and developmentalists have used these…

  11. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M; Vroom, Jonathan A; Kao, Camilla M

    2008-08-12

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (M(r) = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  12. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M.; Vroom, Jonathan A.; Kao, Camilla M.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (Mr = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  13. PPARy and GLUT-4 expression as developmental regulators/markers for preadipocyte differentiation into an adipocyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this document, we have integrated knowledge about two major cellular markers found in cells of the adipocyte lineage. The first factor is PPARy, which has been identified as an important adipogenic regulator. PPARy plays an important role in converting adipofibroblasts, fibroblasts or preadipocyt...

  14. Regulation of c-Myc ubiquitination controls chronic myelogenous leukemia initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Reavie, Linsey; Buckley, Shannon M.; Loizou, Evangelia; Takeishi, Shoichiro; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Ndiaye-Lobry, Delphine; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Ibrahim, Sherif; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Aifantis, Iannis

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) function are of important clinical significance. We use chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as a model of LIC-dependent malignancy and identify the interaction between the ubiquitin ligase Fbw7 and its substrate c-Myc as a regulator of LIC homeostasis. Deletion of Fbw7 leads to c-Myc overexpression, p53-dependent LIC-specific apoptosis and the eventual inhibition of tumor progression. Decrease of either c-Myc protein levels or attenuation of the p53 response rescues LIC activity and disease progression. Further experiments showed that Fbw7 expression is required for survival and maintenance of human CML LIC. These studies identify a ubiquitin ligase:substrate pair regulating LIC activity, suggesting that targeting of the Fbw7:c-Myc axis is an attractive therapy target in refractory CML. PMID:23518350

  15. Structural and Functional Features of a Developmentally Regulated Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Krasity, Benjamin C.; Troll, Joshua V.; Lehnert, Erik M.; Hackett, Kathleen T.; Dillard, Joseph P.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) occur mainly in extracellular fluids and promote LPS delivery to specific host cell receptors. The function of LBPs has been studied principally in the context of host defense; the possible role of LBPs in nonpathogenic host-microbe interactions has not been well characterized. Using the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri model, we analyzed the structure and function of an LBP family protein, E. scolopes LBP1 (EsLBP1), and provide evidence for its role in triggering a symbiont-induced host developmental program. Previous studies showed that, during initial host colonization, the LPS of V. fischeri synergizes with peptidoglycan (PGN) monomer to induce morphogenesis of epithelial tissues of the host animal. Computationally modeled EsLBP1 shares some but not all structural features of mammalian LBPs that are thought important for LPS binding. Similar to human LBP, recombinant EsLBP1 expressed in insect cells bound V. fischeri LPS and Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with nanomolar or greater affinity but bound Francisella tularensis LPS only weakly and did not bind PGN monomer. Unlike human LBP, EsLBP1 did not bind N. meningitidis LOS:CD14 complexes. The eslbp1 transcript was upregulated ~22-fold by V. fischeri at 24 h postinoculation. Surprisingly, this upregulation was not induced by exposure to LPS but, rather, to the PGN monomer alone. Hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) localized eslbp1 transcript and protein in crypt epithelia, where V. fischeri induces morphogenesis. The data presented here provide a window into the evolution of LBPs and the scope of their roles in animal symbioses. PMID:26463160

  16. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  17. The activation of insulin signaling components leading to mRNA translation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids can act independently to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the developmental regulation of the activation of signaling components leading to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle that is induced by insulin...

  18. piggyBac-Based Mosaic Screen Identifies a Postmitotic Function for Cohesin in Regulating Developmental Axon Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Schuldiner, Oren; Berdnik, Daniela; Levy, Jonathan Ma; Wu, Joy Sing-Yi; Luginbuhl, David; Gontang, Allison Camille; Luo, Liqun

    2008-01-01

    Summary Developmental axon pruning is widely used to refine neural circuits. We performed a mosaic screen to identify mutations affecting axon pruning of Drosophila mushroom body γ neurons. We constructed a modified piggyBac vector with improved mutagenicity and generated insertions in >2000 genes. We identified two cohesin subunits (SMC1 and SA) as essential for axon pruning. The cohesin complex maintains sister chromatid cohesion during cell division in eukaryotes. However, we show that the pruning phenotype in SMC1-/- clones is rescued by expressing SMC1 in neurons, revealing a new postmitotic function. SMC1-/- clones exhibit reduced levels of the ecdysone receptor EcR-B1, a key regulator of axon pruning. The pruning phenotype is significantly suppressed by overexpressing EcR-B1 and enhanced by reduced dosage of EcR, supporting a causal relationship. We also demonstrate a postmitotic role for SMC1 in dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons. We suggest that cohesin regulates diverse aspects of neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:18267091

  19. piggyBac-based mosaic screen identifies a postmitotic function for cohesin in regulating developmental axon pruning.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Oren; Berdnik, Daniela; Levy, Jonathan Ma; Wu, Joy S; Luginbuhl, David; Gontang, Allison Camille; Luo, Liqun

    2008-02-01

    Developmental axon pruning is widely used to refine neural circuits. We performed a mosaic screen to identify mutations affecting axon pruning of Drosophila mushroom body gamma neurons. We constructed a modified piggyBac vector with improved mutagenicity and generated insertions in >2000 genes. We identified two cohesin subunits (SMC1 and SA) as being essential for axon pruning. The cohesin complex maintains sister-chromatid cohesion during cell division in eukaryotes. However, we show that the pruning phenotype in SMC1(-/-) clones is rescued by expressing SMC1 in neurons, revealing a postmitotic function. SMC1(-/-) clones exhibit reduced levels of the ecdysone receptor EcR-B1, a key regulator of axon pruning. The pruning phenotype is significantly suppressed by overexpressing EcR-B1 and is enhanced by a reduced dose of EcR, supporting a causal relationship. We also demonstrate a postmitotic role for SMC1 in dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons. We suggest that cohesin regulates diverse aspects of neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:18267091

  20. HBx induces hypomethylation of distal intragenic CpG islands required for active expression of developmental regulators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Young-gun; Bae, Jae-Bum; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Tayama, Chiharu; Hata, Kenichiro; Yun, Yungdae; Seong, Je-Kyung; Kim, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Epigenetic alterations caused by viral oncoproteins are strong initiation factors for cancer development, but their mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify the epigenetic effects of viral hepatitis B virus X (HBx) that lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we profiled the DNA methylomes of normal and HBx transgenic mouse liver. Intriguingly, severe hypomethylation of intragenic CpG islands (CGIs) was observed in HBx liver before the full development of HCC. Normally, these CGIs were highly methylated (mCGIs) by the DNMT3L complex and marked with epigenetic signatures associated with active expression, such as H3K36me3. Hypomethylation of mCGI was caused by the downregulation of Dnmt3L and Dnmt3a due to HBx bound to their promoters, along with HDAC1. These events lead to the downregulation of many developmental regulators that could facilitate tumorigenesis. Here we provide an intriguing epigenetic regulation mediated by mCGI that is required for cell differentiation and describe a previously unidentified epigenetic role for HBx in promoting HCC development. PMID:24941955

  1. Gastric and pyloric sphincter muscle function and the developmental-dependent regulation of gastric content emptying in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sobchak, Curtis; Fajardo, A Felipe; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2016-06-01

    Feeding intolerance is a common issue in the care of preterm neonates. The condition manifests as delayed emptying of gastric contents and represents a therapeutic challenge, since the factors accounting for its manifestations are unknown. The main goal of this study was to comparatively investigate the age-related function of rat gastric and pyloric smooth muscle and their putative regulators. We hypothesized that a reduced gastric muscle contraction potential early in life contributes to the delayed gastric emptying of the newborn. Newborn and adult rat gastric (fundus) and pyloric sphincter tissues were comparatively studied in vitro. Shortening of the tissue-specific dissociated smooth muscle cell was evaluated, and expression of the key regulatory proteins Rho-associated kinase 2 and myosin light chain kinase was determined. Gastric and pyloric smooth muscle cell shortening was significantly greater in the adult than the respective newborn counterpart. Expression of myosin light chain kinase and Rho-associated kinase 2 was developmentally regulated and increased with age. Pyloric sphincter muscle expresses a higher neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein content in newborn than adult tissue. Compared with later in life, the newborn rat gastropyloric muscle has a Ca(2+)-related reduced potential for contraction and the pyloric sphincter relaxation-dependent modulators are overexpressed. To the extent that these rodent data can be extrapolated to humans, the delayed gastric emptying in the newborn reflects reduced stomach muscle contraction potential, as opposed to increased pyloric sphincter tone. PMID:27125274

  2. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  3. Dkk4 and Eda regulate distinctive developmental mechanisms for subtypes of mouse hair.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Piao, Yulan; Childress, Victoria; Ko, Minoru S H; Schlessinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The mouse hair coat comprises protective "primary" and thermo-regulatory "secondary" hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda(-/y)) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda. PMID:20386733

  4. Toll-like receptors as developmental tools that regulate neurogenesis during development: an update.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons in the brain, fascinates researchers for its promise to affect multiple cognitive and functional processes in both health and disease. Many cellular pathways are involved in the regulation of neurogenesis, a complexity exemplified by the extensive regulation of this process during brain development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), hallmarks of innate immunity, are increasingly implemented in various central nervous system plasticity-related processes including neurogenesis. As TLRs are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, understanding the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis may hold keys for future therapeutic interventions. Herein, we describe the current knowledge on the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity and point to current knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:25221470

  5. Toll-like receptors as developmental tools that regulate neurogenesis during development: an update

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Boaz; Feldman, Noa; Okun, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons in the brain, fascinates researchers for its promise to affect multiple cognitive and functional processes in both health and disease. Many cellular pathways are involved in the regulation of neurogenesis, a complexity exemplified by the extensive regulation of this process during brain development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), hallmarks of innate immunity, are increasingly implemented in various central nervous system plasticity-related processes including neurogenesis. As TLRs are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, understanding the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis may hold keys for future therapeutic interventions. Herein, we describe the current knowledge on the involvement of TLRs in neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity and point to current knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:25221470

  6. Mild Developmental Foreign Accent Syndrome and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Altered White Matter Integrity in Speech and Emotion Regulation Networks.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Falcon, Carles; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Paredes-Pacheco, José; Torres-Prioris, María J; De-Torres, Irene; Alfaro, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Cardo, Antonio L; Baquero, Miquel; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Dávila, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a speech disorder that is defined by the emergence of a peculiar manner of articulation and intonation which is perceived as foreign. In most cases of acquired FAS (AFAS) the new accent is secondary to small focal lesions involving components of the bilaterally distributed neural network for speech production. In the past few years FAS has also been described in different psychiatric conditions (conversion disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia) as well as in developmental disorders (specific language impairment, apraxia of speech). In the present study, two adult males, one with atypical phonetic production and the other one with cluttering, reported having developmental FAS (DFAS) since their adolescence. Perceptual analysis by naïve judges could not confirm the presence of foreign accent, possibly due to the mildness of the speech disorder. However, detailed linguistic analysis provided evidence of prosodic and segmental errors previously reported in AFAS cases. Cognitive testing showed reduced communication in activities of daily living and mild deficits related to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric evaluation revealed long-lasting internalizing disorders (neuroticism, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, depression, alexithymia, hopelessness, and apathy) in both subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from each subject with DFAS were compared with data from a group of 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Diffusion parameters (MD, AD, and RD) in predefined regions of interest showed changes of white matter microstructure in regions previously related with AFAS and psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the present findings militate against the possibility that these two subjects have FAS of psychogenic origin. Rather, our findings provide evidence that mild DFAS occurring in the context of subtle, yet persistent, developmental speech disorders may be associated with structural brain

  7. Mild Developmental Foreign Accent Syndrome and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Altered White Matter Integrity in Speech and Emotion Regulation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Falcon, Carles; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Paredes-Pacheco, José; Torres-Prioris, María J.; De-Torres, Irene; Alfaro, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Cardo, Antonio L.; Baquero, Miquel; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Dávila, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a speech disorder that is defined by the emergence of a peculiar manner of articulation and intonation which is perceived as foreign. In most cases of acquired FAS (AFAS) the new accent is secondary to small focal lesions involving components of the bilaterally distributed neural network for speech production. In the past few years FAS has also been described in different psychiatric conditions (conversion disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia) as well as in developmental disorders (specific language impairment, apraxia of speech). In the present study, two adult males, one with atypical phonetic production and the other one with cluttering, reported having developmental FAS (DFAS) since their adolescence. Perceptual analysis by naïve judges could not confirm the presence of foreign accent, possibly due to the mildness of the speech disorder. However, detailed linguistic analysis provided evidence of prosodic and segmental errors previously reported in AFAS cases. Cognitive testing showed reduced communication in activities of daily living and mild deficits related to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric evaluation revealed long-lasting internalizing disorders (neuroticism, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, depression, alexithymia, hopelessness, and apathy) in both subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from each subject with DFAS were compared with data from a group of 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Diffusion parameters (MD, AD, and RD) in predefined regions of interest showed changes of white matter microstructure in regions previously related with AFAS and psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the present findings militate against the possibility that these two subjects have FAS of psychogenic origin. Rather, our findings provide evidence that mild DFAS occurring in the context of subtle, yet persistent, developmental speech disorders may be associated with structural brain

  8. Acute Multiple Organ Failure in Adult Mice Deleted for the Developmental Regulator Wt1

    PubMed Central

    Chau, You-Ying; Brownstein, David; Mjoseng, Heidi; Lee, Wen-Chin; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Nerlov, Claus; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Perry, Paul; Berry, Rachel; Thornburn, Anna; Sexton, David; Morton, Nik; Hohenstein, Peter; Freyer, Elisabeth; Samuel, Kay; van't Hof, Rob; Hastie, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the mechanisms that regulate adult tissue homeostasis and their relationship to processes governing foetal development. Mice deleted for the Wilms' tumour gene, Wt1, lack kidneys, gonads, and spleen and die at mid-gestation due to defective coronary vasculature. Wt1 is vital for maintaining the mesenchymal–epithelial balance in these tissues and is required for the epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Although Wt1 is only expressed in rare cell populations in adults including glomerular podocytes, 1% of bone marrow cells, and mesothelium, we hypothesised that this might be important for homeostasis of adult tissues; hence, we deleted the gene ubiquitously in young and adult mice. Within just a few days, the mice suffered glomerulosclerosis, atrophy of the exocrine pancreas and spleen, severe reduction in bone and fat, and failure of erythropoiesis. FACS and culture experiments showed that Wt1 has an intrinsic role in both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell lineages and suggest that defects within these contribute to the phenotypes we observe. We propose that glomerulosclerosis arises in part through down regulation of nephrin, a known Wt1 target gene. Protein profiling in mutant serum showed that there was no systemic inflammatory or nutritional response in the mutant mice. However, there was a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels, which is likely to contribute to the bone and fat phenotypes. The reduction of IGF-1 did not result from a decrease in circulating GH, and there is no apparent pathology of the pituitary and adrenal glands. These findings 1) suggest that Wt1 is a major regulator of the homeostasis of some adult tissues, through both local and systemic actions; 2) highlight the differences between foetal and adult tissue regulation; 3) point to the importance of adult mesenchyme in tissue turnover. PMID:22216009

  9. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and “delivering” remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:27621770

  10. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and "delivering" remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:27621770

  11. Developmental Functions of miR156-Regulated SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingli; Hu, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jianfei; Park, Mee-Yeon; Earley, Keith W; Wu, Gang; Yang, Li; Poethig, R Scott

    2016-08-01

    Correct developmental timing is essential for plant fitness and reproductive success. Two important transitions in shoot development-the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition-are mediated by a group of genes targeted by miR156, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP) genes. To determine the developmental functions of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized their expression patterns, and their gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes. Our results reveal that SBP-LIKE (SPL) genes in Arabidopsis can be divided into three functionally distinct groups: 1) SPL2, SPL9, SPL10, SPL11, SPL13 and SPL15 contribute to both the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition, with SPL9, SP13 and SPL15 being more important for these processes than SPL2, SPL10 and SPL11; 2) SPL3, SPL4 and SPL5 do not play a major role in vegetative phase change or floral induction, but promote the floral meristem identity transition; 3) SPL6 does not have a major function in shoot morphogenesis, but may be important for certain physiological processes. We also found that miR156-regulated SPL genes repress adventitious root development, providing an explanation for the observation that the capacity for adventitious root production declines as the shoot ages. miR156 is expressed at very high levels in young seedlings, and declines in abundance as the shoot develops. It completely blocks the expression of its SPL targets in the first two leaves of the rosette, and represses these genes to different degrees at later stages of development, primarily by promoting their translational repression. These results provide a framework for future studies of this multifunctional family of transcription factors, and offer new insights into the role of miR156 in Arabidopsis development. PMID:27541584

  12. Developmental Functions of miR156-Regulated SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tieqiang; Park, Mee-Yeon; Earley, Keith W.; Wu, Gang; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Correct developmental timing is essential for plant fitness and reproductive success. Two important transitions in shoot development—the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition—are mediated by a group of genes targeted by miR156, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP) genes. To determine the developmental functions of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized their expression patterns, and their gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes. Our results reveal that SBP-LIKE (SPL) genes in Arabidopsis can be divided into three functionally distinct groups: 1) SPL2, SPL9, SPL10, SPL11, SPL13 and SPL15 contribute to both the juvenile-to-adult vegetative transition and the vegetative-to-reproductive transition, with SPL9, SP13 and SPL15 being more important for these processes than SPL2, SPL10 and SPL11; 2) SPL3, SPL4 and SPL5 do not play a major role in vegetative phase change or floral induction, but promote the floral meristem identity transition; 3) SPL6 does not have a major function in shoot morphogenesis, but may be important for certain physiological processes. We also found that miR156-regulated SPL genes repress adventitious root development, providing an explanation for the observation that the capacity for adventitious root production declines as the shoot ages. miR156 is expressed at very high levels in young seedlings, and declines in abundance as the shoot develops. It completely blocks the expression of its SPL targets in the first two leaves of the rosette, and represses these genes to different degrees at later stages of development, primarily by promoting their translational repression. These results provide a framework for future studies of this multifunctional family of transcription factors, and offer new insights into the role of miR156 in Arabidopsis development. PMID:27541584

  13. The Housekeeping Gene Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Regulates Multiple Developmental and Metabolic Pathways of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Joel S.; Friedmann, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND) are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA) multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease. PMID:24130677

  14. Developmental Regulation and Induction of Cytochrome P450 2W1, an Enzyme Expressed in Colon Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Eva; Guo, Jia; Persson, Anna; Virding, Susanne; Johansson, Inger; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1) is expressed predominantly in colorectal and also in hepatic tumors, whereas the levels are insignificant in the corresponding normal human adult tissues. CYP2W1 has been proposed as an attractive target for colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy by exploiting its ability to activate duocarmycin prodrugs to cytotoxic metabolites. However, its endogenous function, regulation and developmental pattern of expression remain unexplored. Here we report the CYP2W1 developmental expression in the murine and human gastrointestinal tissues. The gene expression in the colon and small intestine commence at early stages of embryonic life and is completely silenced shortly after the birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fetal colon revealed that CYP2W1 expression is restricted to the crypt cells. The silencing of CYP2W1 after birth correlates with the increased methylation of CpG-rich regions in both murine and human CYP2W1 genes. Analysis of CYP2W1 expression in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCC2998 revealed that the gene expression can be induced by e.g. the antitumor agent imatinib, linoleic acid and its derivatives. The imatinib mediated induction of CYP2W1 suggests an adjuvant therapy to treatment with duocarmycins that thus would involve induction of tumor CYP2W1 levels followed by the CYP2W1 activated duocarmycin prodrugs. Taken together these data strongly support further exploration of CYP2W1 as a specific drug target in CRC. PMID:25844926

  15. The developmental basis of epigenetic regulation of HTR2A and psychiatric outcomes.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alison G; Marsit, Carmen J

    2014-12-01

    The serotonin receptor 5-HT2A (encoded by HTR2A) is an important regulator of fetal brain development and adult cognitive function. Environmental signals that induce epigenetic changes of serotonin response genes, including HTR2A, have been implicated in adverse mental health outcomes. The objective of this perspective article is to address the medical implications of HTR2A epigenetic regulation, which has been associated with both infant neurobehavioral outcomes and adult mental health. Ongoing research has identified a region of the HTR2A promoter that has been associated with a number of medical outcomes in adults and infants, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, borderline personality disorder, suicidality, and neurobehavioral outcomes. Epigenetic regulation of HTR2A has been studied in several different types of tissues, including the placenta. The placenta is an important source of serotonin during fetal neurodevelopment, and placental epigenetic variation of HTR2A has been associated with infant neurobehavioral outcomes, which may represent the basis of adult mental health disorders. Further analysis is needed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that modulate HTR2A methylation, and the mechanism by which this epigenetic variation influences fetal growth and leads to altered brain development, manifesting in psychiatric disorders. PMID:25043477

  16. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  17. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  18. Developmental Toxicity of Diclofenac and Elucidation of Gene Regulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Bin; Gao, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Li, Chun-Qi; Gao, Hai-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Environmental pollution by emerging contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, has become a matter of widespread concern in recent years. We investigated the membrane transport of diclofenac and its toxic effects on gene expression and the development of zebrafish embryos. The association of diclofenac with the embryos conformed to the general partition model at low concentration, the partition coefficient being 0.0033 ml per embryo. At high concentration, the interaction fitted the Freundlich model. Most of the diclofenac remained in the extracellular aqueous solution with less than 5% interacting with the embryo, about half of which was adsorbed on the membranes while the rest entered the cytoplasm. Concentrations of diclofenac over 10.13 μM were lethal to all the embryos, while 3.78 μM diclofenac was teratogenic. The development abnormalities at 4 day post treatment (dpt) include shorter body length, smaller eye, pericardial and body edema, lack of liver, intestine and circulation, muscle degeneration, and abnormal pigmentation. The portion of the diclofenac transferred into the embryo altered the expression of certain genes, e.g. down-regulation of Wnt3a and Gata4 and up-regulation of Wnt8a. The alteration of expression of such genes or the regulation of downstream genes could cause defects in the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

  19. DLK induces developmental neuronal degeneration via selective regulation of proapoptotic JNK activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Wang, Bei; Pozniak, Christine D; Chen, Mark; Watts, Ryan J; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2011-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential for neuronal degeneration in multiple contexts but also regulates neuronal homeostasis. It remains unclear how neurons are able to dissociate proapoptotic JNK signaling from physiological JNK activity. In this paper, we show that the mixed lineage kinase dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) selectively regulates the JNK-based stress response pathway to mediate axon degeneration and neuronal apoptosis without influencing other aspects of JNK signaling. This specificity is dependent on interaction of DLK with the scaffolding protein JIP3 to form a specialized JNK signaling complex. Local activation of DLK-based signaling in the axon results in phosphorylation of c-Jun and apoptosis after redistribution of JNK to the cell body. In contrast, regulation of axon degeneration by DLK is c-Jun independent and mediated by distinct JNK substrates. DLK-null mice displayed reduced apoptosis in multiple neuronal populations during development, demonstrating that prodegenerative DLK signaling is required in vivo. PMID:21893599

  20. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Block, Dena H. S.; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A.; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity. PMID:26016853

  1. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the rat apolipoprotein B gene.

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, L A; Levin, M S; Elovson, J; Reuben, M A; Lusis, A J; Gordon, J I

    1986-01-01

    encountered at birth. Analysis of these developmental changes offers an opportunity to generate testable hypotheses about the factors that modulate apoB synthesis. Images PMID:3464945

  2. Refinements in the care and use of animals in toxicology studies-regulation, validation, and progress.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Smiler, Kathleen L; Hargaden, Maureen; Koch, Michael A

    2003-11-01

    During the past decade, important advances have been made in the humane care and use of laboratory animals used in toxicology studies, and there is strong international interest by the pharmaceutical sector in continuing with this progress. Because of the potential influence on human health, safety studies are highly regulated, and implementing refinements in laboratory animal care and use may require an initial validation study to demonstrate a lack of effect on study outcome. This paper provides an overview of issues surrounding implementation of animal care refinements in toxicology laboratory settings, including regulatory constraints, conducting validation studies, current progress in refinements, and areas for future consideration. PMID:14615954

  3. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor

    PubMed Central

    Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Kadonaga, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of gene transcription is critical for the proper development and growth of an organism. The transcription of protein-coding genes initiates at the RNA polymerase II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE). To understand the basis for core promoter diversity, we explored potential biological functions of the DPE. We found that nearly all of the Drosophila homeotic (Hox) gene promoters, which lack TATA-box elements, contain functionally important DPE motifs that are conserved from Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila virilis. We then discovered that Caudal, a sequence-specific transcription factor and key regulator of the Hox gene network, activates transcription with a distinct preference for the DPE relative to the TATA box. The specificity of Caudal activation for the DPE is particularly striking when a BREu core promoter motif is associated with the TATA box. These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks. PMID:18923080

  4. Dkk4 and Eda Regulate Distinctive Developmental Mechanisms for Subtypes of Mouse Hair

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Piao, Yulan; Childress, Victoria; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Schlessinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The mouse hair coat comprises protective “primary” and thermo-regulatory “secondary” hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda-/y) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda. PMID:20386733

  5. Developmentally regulated cleavage of tRNAs in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Haiser, Henry J.; Karginov, Fedor V.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Elliot, Marie A.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to environmental and physiological signals is critical for the survival of the soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Nutrient deprivation triggers the onset of a complex morphological differentiation process that involves the raising of aerial hyphae and formation of spore chains, and coincides with the production of a diverse array of clinically relevant antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. These processes are tightly regulated; however, the genes and signals involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report a novel tRNA cleavage event that follows the same temporal regulation as morphological and physiological differentiation, and is growth medium dependent. All tRNAs appear to be susceptible to cleavage; however, there appears to be a bias towards increased cleavage of those tRNAs that specify highly utilized codons. In contrast to what has been observed in eukaryotes, accumulation of tRNA halves in S. coelicolor is not significantly affected by amino acid starvation, and is also not affected by induction of the stringent response or inhibition of ribosome function. Mutants defective in aerial development and antibiotic production exhibit altered tRNA cleavage profiles relative to wild-type strains. PMID:18084030

  6. Role of primary afferents in the developmental regulation of motor axon synapse numbers on Renshaw cells.

    PubMed

    Siembab, Valerie C; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Rotterman, Travis M; Shneider, Neil A; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2016-06-15

    Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development. In other well-studied neurons, such as Purkinje cells, heterosynaptic competition between inputs from different sources shapes synaptic organization. To examine the possibility that sensory afferents modulate synaptic maturation on developing Renshaw cells, we used three animal models in which afferent inputs in the ventral horn are dramatically reduced (ER81(-/-) knockout), weakened (Egr3(-/-) knockout), or strengthened (mlcNT3(+/-) transgenic). We demonstrate that increasing the strength of sensory inputs on Renshaw cells prevents their deselection and reduces motor axon synaptic density, and, in contrast, absent or diminished sensory afferent inputs correlate with increased densities of motor axons synapses. No effects were observed on other glutamatergic inputs. We conclude that the early strength of Ia synapses influences their maintenance or weakening during later development and that heterosynaptic influences from sensory synapses during early development regulates the density and organization of motor inputs on mature Renshaw cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1892-1919, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660356

  7. Developmental and UV Light Regulation of the Snapdragon Chalcone Synthase Promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, K; Staiger, D; Czaja, I; Walden, R; Schell, J; Wing, D

    1991-01-01

    Expression directed by the 1.1-kb snapdragon chalcone synthase (CHS) promoter linked to the [beta]-glucuronidase reporter gene has been studied in transgenic tobacco. The pattern of expression of the chimeric gene was compared with the expression of the endogenous CHS genes in tobacco and snapdragon. We demonstrate that expression of the CHS promoter is controlled in both an organ-specific and tissue-specific manner. The highest level of expression was observed in immature seeds. Deletions were used to define regions of the promoter required for expression in roots, stems, leaves, seeds, and flower petals of transgenic plants. We have defined the minimal sequences required for expression in different organs and mapped regions of the promoter that influence expression in either a positive or negative manner. A promoter fragment truncated to -39 activates transcription in roots of 4-week-old seedlings, whereas a fragment extending to -197 bp directs expression in petals and seeds. A positive regulatory element located between -661 and -566 and comprising a 47-bp direct repeat is active in all tissues investigated except petals. UV light-regulated expression in leaves of transgenic tobacco seedlings is dependent on the presence of sequences also required for leaf-specific expression. Within the intact promoter, sequences that individually confer different patterns of expression interact to produce the highly regulated expression pattern of CHS. PMID:12324622

  8. Initiation of stem cell differentiation involves cell cycle-dependent regulation of developmental genes by Cyclin D.

    PubMed

    Pauklin, Siim; Madrigal, Pedro; Bertero, Alessandro; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-02-15

    Coordination of differentiation and cell cycle progression represents an essential process for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. These mechanisms ultimately determine the quantities of specific cell types that are generated. Despite their importance, the precise molecular interplays between cell cycle machinery and master regulators of cell fate choice remain to be fully uncovered. Here, we demonstrate that cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1-3 control cell fate decisions in human pluripotent stem cells by recruiting transcriptional corepressors and coactivator complexes onto neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm genes. This activity results in blocking the core transcriptional network necessary for endoderm specification while promoting neuroectoderm factors. The genomic location of Cyclin Ds is determined by their interactions with the transcription factors SP1 and E2Fs, which result in the assembly of cell cycle-controlled transcriptional complexes. These results reveal how the cell cycle orchestrates transcriptional networks and epigenetic modifiers to instruct cell fate decisions. PMID:26883361

  9. Initiation of stem cell differentiation involves cell cycle-dependent regulation of developmental genes by Cyclin D

    PubMed Central

    Pauklin, Siim; Madrigal, Pedro; Bertero, Alessandro; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of differentiation and cell cycle progression represents an essential process for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. These mechanisms ultimately determine the quantities of specific cell types that are generated. Despite their importance, the precise molecular interplays between cell cycle machinery and master regulators of cell fate choice remain to be fully uncovered. Here, we demonstrate that cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1–3 control cell fate decisions in human pluripotent stem cells by recruiting transcriptional corepressors and coactivator complexes onto neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm genes. This activity results in blocking the core transcriptional network necessary for endoderm specification while promoting neuroectoderm factors. The genomic location of Cyclin Ds is determined by their interactions with the transcription factors SP1 and E2Fs, which result in the assembly of cell cycle-controlled transcriptional complexes. These results reveal how the cell cycle orchestrates transcriptional networks and epigenetic modifiers to instruct cell fate decisions. PMID:26883361

  10. Complex organization of promoter and enhancer elements regulate the tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene.

    PubMed Central

    Keplinger, B L; Guo, X; Quine, J; Feng, Y; Cavener, D R

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene has multiple and diverse developmental and physiological functions. We report herein that interactions among proximal promoter elements and a cluster of intronically located enhancers and silencers specify the complex regulation of Gld that underlies its diverse functions. Gld expression in nonreproductive tissues is largely determined by proximal promoter elements with the exception of the embryonic labium where Gld is activated by an enhancer within the first intron. A nuclear protein, GPAL, has been identified that binds the Gpal elements in the proximal promoter region. Regulation of Gld in the reproductive organs is particularly complex, involving interactions among the Gpal proximal promoter elements, a unique TATA box, three distinct enhancer types, and one or more silencer elements. The three somatic reproductive organ enhancers each activate expression in male and female pairs of reproductive organs. One of these pairs, the male ejaculatory duct and female oviduct, are known to be developmentally homologous. We report evidence that the other two pairs of organs are developmentally homologous as well. A comprehensive model to explain the full developmental regulation of Gld and its evolution is presented. PMID:11156990

  11. Characterization of the Dictyostelium homolog of chromatin binding protein DET1 suggests a conserved pathway regulating cell type specification and developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Manu J; Kasten, Sonja; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    DET1 (De-etiolated 1) is a chromatin binding protein involved in developmental regulation in both plants and animals. DET1 is largely restricted to multicellular eukaryotes, and here we report the characterization of a DET1 homolog from the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. As in other species, Dictyostelium DET1 is nuclear localized. In contrast to other species, where it is an essential protein, loss of DET1 is nonlethal in Dictyostelium, although viability is significantly reduced. The phenotype of the det1(-) mutant is highly pleiotropic and results in a large degree of heterogeneity in developmental parameters. Loss of DET1 results in delayed and abnormal development with enlarged aggregation territories. Mutant slugs displayed cell type patterning with a bias toward the prestalk pathway. A number of DET1-interacting proteins are conserved in Dictyostelium, and the apparently conserved role of DET1 in regulatory pathways involving the bZIP transcription factors DimB, c-Jun, and HY5 suggests a highly conserved mechanism regulating development in multicellular eukaryotes. While the mechanism by which DET1 functions is unclear, it appears that it has a key role in regulation of developmental plasticity and integration of information on environmental conditions into the developmental program of an organism. PMID:21193547

  12. Developmental and hormonal regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis and catabolism in pea fruit.

    PubMed

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Reinecke, Dennis M; Ayele, Belay T; Ngo, Phuong; Nadeau, Courtney; Wickramarathna, Aruna D

    2009-05-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum), normal fruit growth requires the presence of the seeds. The coordination of growth between the seed and ovary tissues involves phytohormones; however, the specific mechanisms remain speculative. This study further explores the roles of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism genes during pollination and fruit development and in seed and auxin regulation of pericarp growth. Pollination and fertilization events not only increase pericarp PsGA3ox1 message levels (codes for GA 3-oxidase that converts GA(20) to bioactive GA(1)) but also reduce pericarp PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels (codes for GA 2-oxidase that mainly catabolizes GA(20) to GA(29)), suggesting a concerted regulation to increase levels of bioactive GA(1) following these events. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) was found to mimic the seeds in the stimulation of PsGA3ox1 and the repression of PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels as well as the stimulation of PsGA2ox2 mRNA levels (codes for GA 2-oxidase that mainly catabolizes GA(1) to GA(8)) in pericarp at 2 to 3 d after anthesis, while the other endogenous pea auxin, IAA, did not. This GA gene expression profile suggests that both seeds and 4-Cl-IAA can stimulate the production, as well as modulate the half-life, of bioactive GA(1), leading to initial fruit set and subsequent growth and development of the ovary. Consistent with these gene expression profiles, deseeded pericarps converted [(14)C]GA(12) to [(14)C]GA(1) only if treated with 4-Cl-IAA. These data further support the hypothesis that 4-Cl-IAA produced in the seeds is transported to the pericarp, where it differentially regulates the expression of pericarp GA biosynthesis and catabolism genes to modulate the level of bioactive GA(1) required for initial fruit set and growth. PMID:19297588

  13. Risk for anxiety and implications for treatment: developmental, environmental, and genetic factors governing fear regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Casey, BJ

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric disorders affecting as many as 10% of youth, with a peak during adolescence. A core component of these disorders is an unremitting fear in the absence of present threat. One of the most commonly used therapies to treat these disorders is exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy that identifies the source of the fear and anxiety and then desensitizes the individual to it. This treatment builds on basic principles of fear extinction learning. A number of patients improve with this therapy, but 40–50% do not. This paper provides an overview of recent empirical studies employing both human imaging and cross-species behavioral genetics to examine how fear regulation varies across individuals and across development, especially during adolescence. These studies have important implications for understanding who may be at risk for anxiety disorders and for whom and when during development exposure-based therapies may be most effective. PMID:24147742

  14. Developmental and hormonal regulation of protein H1 degrees in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Gjerset, R; Gorka, C; Hasthorpe, S; Lawrence, J J; Eisen, H

    1982-01-01

    The tissue and cellular distribution and regulation of the chromatin protein H1 degrees has been examined in developing and adult mouse and in rat. The protein appears in specific cell types of solid tissues only when the cells have terminated their maturation. This was found for brain, retina, striated and cardiac muscle, and liver. In tissues that depend on hormones for their function and maintenance, the expression of H1 degrees is dependent on the continued presence of the specific maintenance hormone. In regenerating rat liver the amount of H1 degrees decreases to one-third after the onset of DNA synthesis. The possible role of H1 degrees is discussed in light of these results. Images PMID:6954544

  15. Developmental and hormonal regulation of leptin receptor (Ob-R) messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; Zhang, F P; González, L C; Huhtaniemi, I; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E

    2001-02-01

    In target tissues, leptin receptor (Ob-R) gene expression results in an array of alternatively spliced isoforms (Ob-Ra to Ob-Rf) with different functional features. Recent evidence has pointed to a direct role of leptin in the control of testicular function. However, complete elucidation of the pattern of Ob-R gene expression in the male gonad is still pending. The focus of this study was to characterize in detail the developmental pattern of expression and hormonal regulation of Ob-R gene in rat testis. To this end, the overall expression of Ob-R mRNA was compared to that of the fully functional, long Ob-Rb isoform in different experimental settings, using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of Ob-R mRNA was detected in testes from 15-, 30-, 45-, and 75-day-old rats at rather constant relative levels. In contrast, testicular expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was higher in pubertal testes (15- to 30-day-old rats) and declined in adulthood. In testes from 30-day-old animals, analysis of isoform distribution revealed that, in addition to abundant Ob-Rb mRNA levels, expression of Ob-Ra, Ob-Rf, and, to a lesser extent, Ob-Rc and Ob-Re messages is detected. Testicular Ob-R mRNA expression appeared sensitive to neonatal imprinting as neonatal treatment with estradiol benzoate (500 microg/rat; Day 1 postpartum) resulted in a persistent increase (P: < 0.01) in the relative expression level of Ob-R mRNA, a phenomenon only partially mimicked by neonatal suppression of serum gonadotropins by means of LHRH-antagonist administration. In addition, neonatal estrogenization differentially altered the pattern of expression of Ob-R isoforms in adult rat testis, as expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was decreased to undetectable levels, whereas that of Ob-Rc remained unaltered, and Ob-Ra, Ob-Rf, and, to a lesser extent, Ob-Re mRNA levels were significantly increased (P: < 0.01) by neonatal exposure to estrogen. Finally, down-regulation of testicular Ob-R gene

  16. The piRNA pathway is developmentally regulated during spermatogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Quénerch'du, Emilie; Anand, Amit; Kai, Toshie

    2016-07-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are predominantly produced in animal gonads to suppress transposons during germline development. Our understanding about the piRNA biogenesis and function is predominantly from studies of the Drosophila female germline. piRNA pathway function in the male germline, however, remains poorly understood. To study overall and stage-specific features of piRNAs during spermatogenesis, we analyzed small RNAs extracted from entire wild-type testes and stage-specific arrest mutant testes enriched with spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes. We show that most active piRNA clusters in the female germline do not majorly contribute to piRNAs in testes, and abundance patterns of piRNAs mapping to different transposon families also differ between male and female germlines. piRNA production is regulated in a stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis. The piRNAs in spermatogonia-enriched testes are predominantly transposon-mapping piRNAs, and almost half of those exhibit a ping-pong signature. In contrast, the primary spermatocyte-enriched testes have a dramatically high amount of piRNAs targeting repeats like suppressor of stellate and AT-chX The transposon-mapping piRNAs in the primary spermatocyte stages lacking Argonaute3 expression also show a ping-pong signature, albeit to a lesser extent. Consistently, argonaute3 mutant testes also retain ping-pong signature-bearing piRNAs, suggesting that a noncanonical ping-pong cycle might act during spermatogenesis. Our study shows stage-specific regulation of piRNA biogenesis during spermatogenesis: An active ping-pong cycle produces abundant transposon-mapping piRNAs in spermatogonia, while in primary spermatocytes, piRNAs act to suppress the repeats and transposons. PMID:27208314

  17. Developmental regulation of p53-dependent radiation-induced thymocyte apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentil Dit Maurin, A; Lemercier, C; Collin-Faure, V; Marche, P N; Jouvin-Marche, E; Candéias, S M

    2015-01-01

    The production of T cell receptor αβ+ (TCRαβ+) T lymphocytes in the thymus is a tightly regulated process that can be monitored by the regulated expression of several surface molecules, including CD4, CD8, cKit, CD25 and the TCR itself, after TCR genes have been assembled from discrete V, D (for TCR-β) and J gene segments by a site-directed genetic recombination. Thymocyte differentiation is the result of a delicate balance between cell death and survival: developing thymocytes die unless they receive a positive signal to proceed to the next stage. This equilibrium is altered in response to various physiological or physical stresses such as ionizing radiation, which induces a massive p53-dependent apoptosis of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Interestingly, these cells are actively rearranging their TCR-α chain genes. To unravel an eventual link between V(D)J recombination activity and thymocyte radio-sensitivity, we analysed the dynamics of thymocyte apoptosis and regeneration following exposure of wild-type and p53-deficient mice to different doses of γ-radiation. p53-dependent radio-sensitivity was already found to be high in immature CD4−CD8− (double-negative, DN) cKit+CD25+ thymocytes, where TCR-β gene rearrangement is initiated. However, TCR-αβ−CD8+ immature single-positive thymocytes, an actively cycling intermediate population between the DN and DP stages, are the most radio-sensitive cells in the thymus, even though their apoptosis is only partially p53-dependent. Within the DP population, TCR-αβ+ thymocytes that completed TCR-α gene recombination are more radio-resistant than their TCR-αβ− progenitors. Finally, we found no correlation between p53 activation and thymocyte sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:24635132

  18. Epigenetic regulator RBP2 is critical for breast cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Liu, Zongzhi; Cheung, William K.C.; Zhao, Minghui; Chen, Sophia Y.; Chan, Siew Wee; Booth, Carmen J.; Nguyen, Don X.; Yan, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic aberrations contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene expression datasets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in the MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutically targeting RBP2 is a potential strategy to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24582965

  19. Developmentally regulated neurosteroid synthesis enhances GABAergic neurotransmission in mouse thalamocortical neurones

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adam R; Herd, Murray B; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    During brain development the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs) progressively reduces, to accommodate the temporal demands required for precise network activity. Conventionally, this synaptic plasticity results from GABAAR subunit reorganisation. In particular, in certain developing neurones synaptic α2-GABAARs are replaced by α1-GABAARs. However, in thalamocortical neurones of the mouse ventrobasal (VB) thalamus, the major alteration to mIPSC kinetics occurs on postnatal (P) day 10, some days prior to the GABAAR isoform change. Here, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from VB neurones of mouse thalamic slices revealed that early in postnatal development (P7–P8), the mIPSC duration is prolonged by local neurosteroids acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner to enhance GABAAR function. However, by P10, this neurosteroid ‘tone’ rapidly dissipates, thereby producing brief mIPSCs. This plasticity results from a lack of steroid substrate as pre-treatment of mature thalamic slices (P20–24) with the GABAAR-inactive precursor 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) resulted in markedly prolonged mIPSCs and a greatly enhanced tonic conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs, respectively. In summary, endogenous neurosteroids profoundly influence GABAergic neurotransmission in developing VB neurones and govern a transition from slow to fast phasic synaptic events. Furthermore, the retained capacity for steroidogenesis in the mature thalamus raises the prospect that certain physiological or pathophysiological conditions may trigger neurosteroid neosynthesis, thereby providing a local mechanism for fine-tuning neuronal excitability. PMID:25556800

  20. Role of the tumor microenvironment in regulating apoptosis and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Yaacoub, Katherine; Pedeux, Remy; Tarte, Karin; Guillaudeux, Thierry

    2016-08-10

    Apoptosis is a gene-directed program that is engaged to efficiently eliminate dysfunctional cells. Evasion of apoptosis may be an important gate to tumor initiation and therapy resistance. Like any other developmental program, apoptosis can be disrupted by several genetic aberrations driving malignant cells into an uncontrolled progression and survival. For its sustained growth, cancer develops in a complex environment, which provides survival signals and rescues malignant cells from apoptosis. Recent studies have clearly shown a wide interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment, confirming the influence of the surrounding cells on tumor expansion and invasion. These non-malignant cells not only intensify tumor cells growth but also upgrade the process of metastasis. The strong crosstalk between malignant cells and a reactive microenvironment is mediated by soluble chemokines and cytokines, which act on tumor cells through surface receptors. Disturbing the microenvironment signaling might be an encouraging approach for patient's treatment. Therefore, the ultimate knowledge of "tumor-microenvironment" interactions facilitates the identification of novel therapeutic procedures that mobilize cancer cells from their supportive cells. This review focuses on cancer progression mediated by the dysfunction of apoptosis and by the fundamental relationship between tumor and reactive cells. New insights and valuable targets for cancer prevention and therapy are also presented. PMID:27224890

  1. STAT3 in Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammation and Tumor Progression to Malignant State in Colon1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Andrew V; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Donghai; Nguyen, Stephanie; Loh, Ricky; Pang, Joey; Friedman, Kenneth; Orlofsky, Amos; Augenlicht, Leonard; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Lin, Elaine Y

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine. PMID:24027425

  2. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A; Orkin, Stuart H; Chen, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:26626423

  3. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Chen, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:26626423

  4. Developmental Stage-dependent Regulation of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylation in Tendon Type I Collagen.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), which is unique to collagen, is a fairly rare post-translational modification. Recent studies have suggested a function of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in fibril assembly and its relationships with certain disorders, including recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and high myopia. However, no direct evidence for the physiological and pathological roles of 3-Hyp has been presented. In this study, we first estimated the overall alterations in prolyl hydroxylation in collagens purified from skin, bone, and tail tendon of 0.5-18-month-old rats by LC-MS analysis with stable isotope-labeled collagen, which was recently developed as an internal standard for highly accurate collagen analyses. 3-Hyp was found to significantly increase in tendon collagen until 3 months after birth and then remain constant, whereas increased prolyl 3-hydroxylation was not observed in skin and bone collagen. Site-specific analysis further revealed that 3-Hyp was increased in tendon type I collagen in a specific sequence region, including a previously known modification site at Pro(707) and newly identified sites at Pro(716) and Pro(719), at the early ages. The site-specific alterations in prolyl 3-hydroxylation with aging were also observed in bovine Achilles tendon. We postulate that significant increases in 3-Hyp at the consecutive modification sites are correlated with tissue development in tendon. The present findings suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation incrementally regulates collagen fibril diameter in tendon. PMID:26567337

  5. Deciphering RNA Regulatory Elements Involved in the Developmental and Environmental Gene Regulation of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gazestani, Vahid H.; Salavati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a vector-borne parasite with intricate life cycle that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals. This pathogen relies on fine regulation of gene expression to respond and adapt to variable environments, with implications in transmission and infectivity. However, the involved regulatory elements and their mechanisms of actions are largely unknown. Here, benefiting from a new graph-based approach for finding functional regulatory elements in RNA (GRAFFER), we have predicted 88 new RNA regulatory elements that are potentially involved in the gene regulatory network of T. brucei. We show that many of these newly predicted elements are responsive to both transcriptomic and proteomic changes during the life cycle of the parasite. Moreover, we found that 11 of predicted elements strikingly resemble previously identified regulatory elements for the parasite. Additionally, comparison with previously predicted motifs on T. brucei suggested the superior performance of our approach based on the current limited knowledge of regulatory elements in T. brucei. PMID:26529602

  6. Obestatin Enhances In Vitro Generation of Pancreatic Islets through Regulation of Developmental Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Baragli, lessandra; Grande, Cristina; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Settanni, Fabio; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Davide; Gargantini, Eleonora; Ghigo, Ezio; Granata, Riccarda

    2013-01-01

    Availability of large amounts of in vitro generated β-cells may support replacement therapy in diabetes. However, methods to obtain β-cells from stem/progenitor cells are limited by inefficient endocrine differentiation. We have recently shown that the ghrelin gene product obestatin displays beneficial effects on pancreatic β-cell survival and function. Obestatin prevents β-cell apoptosis, preserves β-cell mass and stimulates insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo, in both normal and diabetic conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether obestatin may promote in vitro β-cell generation from mouse pancreatic islet-derived precursor cells. Treatment of cultured islets of Langerhans with obestatin (i) enriched cells expressing the mesenchymal/neuronal marker nestin, which is associated with pancreatic precursors; (ii) increased cell survival and reduced apoptosis during precursor selection; (iii) promoted the generation of islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) with increased insulin gene expression and C-peptide secretion. Furthermore, obestatin modulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), Notch receptors and neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) during islet-derived precursor cell selection and endocrine differentiation. These results indicate that obestatin improves the generation of functional β-cells/ICCs in vitro, suggesting implications for cell-based replacement therapy in diabetes. Moreover, obestatin may play a role in regulating pathways involved in pancreas development and regeneration. PMID:23741322

  7. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the human fgr proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, T.J. . Dept. of Medicine); Connolly, N.L.; Senior, R.M. ); Katamine, S.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Robbins

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the authors show that c-fgr proto-oncogene expression is limited to normal peripheral blood granulocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages, all of which contain 50 to 100 copies of c-fgr mRNA per cell. The c-fgr RNA molecules in these cells consisted of partially spliced transcripts containing intron 7 and completely spliced molecules capable of encoding the predicted p55 c-fgr protein. The splicing of intron 7 appeared to occur after the splicing of most of the other introns; partially spliced molecules containing intron 7 did not appear to be transported into the cytoplasm. Very low levels of fgr transcripts were also present in U937 promonocytic cells and increased in abundance with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation. The level of fgr transcripts began to increase 2 to 4 after TPA addition peaked at 8 h, and subsequently declined. Since the authors found that the half-life of fgr mRNA was longer than 8 h, these changes are best explained by transient transcriptional activation of fgr during TPA-induced differentiation, although nuclear runoff experiments were not sensitive enough to detect this event. Their results demonstrate that the c-fgr gene is expressed in a tissue- and development-specific fashion and suggest that constitutive expression of c-fgr in U937 cells is regulated by a labile transcriptional repressor.

  8. FoxP2 directly regulates the reelin receptor VLDLR developmentally and by singing.

    PubMed

    Adam, Iris; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Kobalz, Ursula; Wohlgemuth, Sandra; Scharff, Constance

    2016-07-01

    Mutations of the transcription factor FOXP2 cause a severe speech and language disorder. In songbirds, FoxP2 is expressed in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the avian basal ganglia song nucleus, Area X, which is crucial for song learning and adult song performance. Experimental downregulation of FoxP2 in Area X affects spine formation, prevents neuronal plasticity induced by social context and impairs song learning. Direct target genes of FoxP2 relevant for song learning and song production are unknown. Here we show that a lentivirally mediated FoxP2 knockdown in Area X of zebra finches downregulates the expression of VLDLR, one of the two reelin receptors. Zebra finch FoxP2 binds to the promoter of VLDLR and activates it, establishing VLDLR as a direct FoxP2 target. Consistent with these findings, VLDLR expression is co-regulated with FoxP2 as a consequence of adult singing and during song learning. We also demonstrate that knockdown of FoxP2 affects glutamatergic transmission at the corticostriatal MSN synapse. These data raise the possibility that the regulatory relationship between FoxP2 and VLDLR guides structural plasticity towards the subset of FoxP2-positive MSNs in an activity dependent manner via the reelin pathway. PMID:27105823

  9. A developmentally regulated Caulobacter flagellar promoter is activated by 3' enhancer and IHF binding elements.

    PubMed Central

    Gober, J W; Shapiro, L

    1992-01-01

    The transcription of a group of flagellar genes is temporally and spatially regulated during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. These genes all share the same 5' cis-regulatory elements: a sigma 54 promoter, a binding site for integration host factor (IHF), and an enhancer sequence, known as the ftr element. We have partially purified the ftr-binding proteins, and we show that they require the same enhancer sequences for binding as are required for transcriptional activation. We have also partially purified the Caulobacter homolog of IHF and demonstrate that it can facilitate in vitro integrase-mediated lambda recombination. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we provide the first demonstration that natural enhancer sequences and IHF binding elements that reside 3' to the sigma 54 promoter of a bacterial gene, flaNQ, are required for transcription of the operon, in vivo. The IHF protein and the ftr-binding protein is primarily restricted to the predivisional cell, the cell type in which these promoters are transcribed. flaNQ promoter expression is localized to the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell, as are other flagellar promoters that possess these regulatory sequences 5' to the start site. The requirement for an IHF binding site and an ftr-enhancer element in spatially transcribed flagellar promoters indicates that a common mechanism may be responsible for both temporal and polar transcription. Images PMID:1392079

  10. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) deficiency accelerates the progression of kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Noh, Mira; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Kwon Moo

    2014-09-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a potent negative regulator of Gq protein signals including the angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor signal, which plays a critical role in the progression of fibrosis. However, the role of RGS2 on the progression of kidney fibrosis has not been assessed. Here, we investigated the role of RGS2 in kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice. UUO resulted in increased expression of RGS2 mRNA and protein in the kidney along with increases of AngII and its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and fibrosis. Furthermore, UUO increased the levels of F4/80, Ly6G, myeloperoxidase, and CXCR4 in the kidneys. RGS2 deficiency significantly enhanced these changes in the kidney. RGS2 deletion in the bone marrow-derived cells by transplanting the bone marrow of RGS2 knock-out mice into wild type mice enhanced UUO-induced kidney fibrosis. Overexpression of RGS2 in HEK293 cells, a human embryonic kidney cell line, and RAW264.7 cells, a monocyte/macrophage line, inhibited the AngII-induced activation of ERK and increase of CXCR4 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that RGS2 negatively regulates the progression of kidney fibrosis following UUO, likely by suppressing fibrogenic and inflammatory responses through the inhibition of AngII/AT1R signaling. PMID:24973550

  11. Synthesis of sigma 29, an RNA polymerase specificity determinant, is a developmentally regulated event in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Trempy, J E; Morrison-Plummer, J; Haldenwang, W G

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunological probe, we have determined that the synthesis of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase promoter specificity determinant sigma 29 is a developmentally regulated event. sigma 29 is absent from vegetatively growing cells but is abundant in sporulating cells for a restricted (2-h) period during differentiation (hour 2 to hour 4 into the sporeforming process). The narrowness of this period suggests that sigma 29 is a regulatory factor that directs the transcription of a subpopulation of genes at a precise, intermediate stage of spore formation. This view predicts that sigma 29 should be dispensable for early sporulation events. We verified this prediction by an analysis of sigma 29 accumulation in mutants that are blocked at different stages of sporulation in which we show that cells can advance to at least an intermediate point in development (stage III) in the absence of detectable sigma 29. Lastly, our anti-sigma 29 antibody probe detected a second, previously unrecognized protein in Bacillus cell extracts that may be a precursor to sigma 29. This protein, P31 (molecular weight, 31,000) is synthesized earlier in sporulation than is sigma 29. It has a peptide profile that is similar to sigma 29 and is present in all Bacillus subtilis Spo- mutants that were tested and found to still be able to accumulate sigma 29. Images PMID:3918005

  12. A heparin-binding growth factor secreted from breast cancer cells homologous to a developmentally regulated cytokine.

    PubMed

    Wellstein, A; Fang, W J; Khatri, A; Lu, Y; Swain, S S; Dickson, R B; Sasse, J; Riegel, A T; Lippman, M E

    1992-02-01

    We report purification of an 18-kDa heparin-binding growth factor secreted from human cancer cells which is homologous to a developmentally regulated, neurotrophic factor, heparin-binding growth-associated molecule/pleiotrophin (HB-GAM/PTN; Merenmies, J., and Rauvala, H. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16721-16724; Li, Y. S., Milner, P. G., Chauhan, A. K., Watson, M. A., Hoffman, R. M., Kodner, C. M., Milbrandt, J., and Deuel, T. F. (1990) Science 250, 1690-1694). We have purified the protein from tissue culture supernatants of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB 231) and have used soft agar cloning of an epithelial cell line (SW-13) to detect its growth stimulating activity. A 32,000-fold purification was achieved by isoelectric focusing, heparin affinity chromatography, and reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein was confirmed by gel filtration chromatography in the presence of detergent and bioassay of the fractions. The N-terminal sequence was homologous to HB-GAM/PTN, and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing confirmed that the respective transcript was present in the cancer cells. We conclude that HB-GAM/PTN can function as a tumor growth factor in addition to its role during neuronal development. PMID:1733956

  13. QTL identification and microphenotype characterisation of the developmentally regulated yellow rust resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian.

    PubMed

    Melichar, J P E; Berry, S; Newell, C; MacCormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2008-08-01

    Yellow rust (causal agent: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian is developmentally regulated, resistance increasing as the plant matures. Yellow rust resistance was assessed under field conditions on plants after ear emergence to ensure maximum expression of resistance. Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance were identified, being located on chromosomes 1B (QPst.jic-1B), 2D (QPst.jic-2D) and 4B (QPst.jic-4B). The largest resistance effect, QPst.jic-1B located to the same position on the long arm of chromosome 1B as the known durable source of yellow rust resistance, Yr29. Microscopic studies were carried out to determine what effect the resistance in Guardian had on the development of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. While the adult plant resistance in Guardian did not prevent germinated urediniospores from establishing an effective infection site, the growth of hyphae within flag leaf tissue was significantly inhibited, slowing the development of microcolonies. 3,3-diaminabenzadine (DAB) and trypan blue staining indicated that this inhibition of hyphal growth was not associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation or extensive plant cell death. PMID:18481042

  14. Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimoldi, M.T.; Sher, A.; Heiny, A.; Lituchy, A.; Hammer, C.H.; Joiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors recently showed that culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (CMT), but not epimastigotes (Epi), of the Miranda 99 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi evade lysis by the human alternative complement pathway because of inefficient binding of factor B to complement component C3b on the parasite surface. These results suggested that CMT and tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), which also activate the alternative pathway poorly, might produce a molecule capable of interfering with factor B binding to C3b. They now demonstrate that CMT and TCT lysates, as well as molecules spontaneously shed from CMT and TCT but not Epi, accelerate decay of /sup 125/I-labeled factor Bb from the alternative-pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb) assembled on zymosan or Epi and also accelerate decay of the classical-pathway C3 convertase (C4b2a) on sheep erythrocytes. Parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine spontaneously shed a limited number of radioactive components, ranging in molecular mass from 86 to 155 kDa for trypomastigotes and 25 to 80 kDa for Epi. Decay-accelerating activity within supernatants is inactivated by papain and is coeluted with /sup 35/S-containing polypeptides on FPLC anion-exchange chromatography, suggesting that the active constituents are protein molecules. Molecules with decay-accelerating activity may explain the developmentally regulated resistance to complement-mediated lysis in infective and vertebrate stages for T. cruzi life cycle.

  15. Quantitative proteomics identify DAB2 as a cardiac developmental regulator that inhibits WNT/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hofsteen, Peter; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Chapman, Daniel Patrick; Moon, Randall T.; Murry, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac lineage determination and differentiation, we quantified the proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and cardiomyocytes during a time course of directed differentiation by label-free quantitative proteomics. This approach correctly identified known stage-specific markers of cardiomyocyte differentiation, including SRY-box2 (SOX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). This led us to determine whether our proteomic screen could reveal previously unidentified mediators of heart development. We identified Disabled 2 (DAB2) as one of the most dynamically expressed proteins in hESCs, CPCs, and cardiomyocytes. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis in zebrafish to assess whether DAB2 plays a functional role during cardiomyocyte differentiation. We found that deletion of Dab2 in zebrafish embryos led to a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte number and increased endogenous WNT/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, the Dab2-deficient defects in cardiomyocyte number could be suppressed by overexpression of dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling by DAB2 is essential for establishing the correct number of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Our work demonstrates that quantifying the proteome of human stem cells can identify previously unknown developmental regulators. PMID:26755607

  16. Quantitative proteomics identify DAB2 as a cardiac developmental regulator that inhibits WNT/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hofsteen, Peter; Robitaille, Aaron M; Chapman, Daniel Patrick; Moon, Randall T; Murry, Charles E

    2016-01-26

    To reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac lineage determination and differentiation, we quantified the proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and cardiomyocytes during a time course of directed differentiation by label-free quantitative proteomics. This approach correctly identified known stage-specific markers of cardiomyocyte differentiation, including SRY-box2 (SOX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). This led us to determine whether our proteomic screen could reveal previously unidentified mediators of heart development. We identified Disabled 2 (DAB2) as one of the most dynamically expressed proteins in hESCs, CPCs, and cardiomyocytes. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis in zebrafish to assess whether DAB2 plays a functional role during cardiomyocyte differentiation. We found that deletion of Dab2 in zebrafish embryos led to a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte number and increased endogenous WNT/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, the Dab2-deficient defects in cardiomyocyte number could be suppressed by overexpression of dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling by DAB2 is essential for establishing the correct number of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Our work demonstrates that quantifying the proteome of human stem cells can identify previously unknown developmental regulators. PMID:26755607

  17. Developmental expression of mouse Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1): Dynamic regulation during organogenesis of the kidney and lung.

    PubMed

    Adams, Derek; Larman, Barry; Oxburgh, Leif

    2007-02-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a distantly related homolog of the Activin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein antagonist Follistatin. Interestingly, this molecule also has homology with the extracellular matrix modifying protein BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin. Previous studies in chick have identified Fstl1 as a regulator of early mesoderm patterning, somitogenesis, myogenesis and neural development. In this study, we determine the developmental expression pattern of Fstl1 in the mouse. We find that Fstl1 is ubiquitously expressed in the early embryo, and that expression becomes regionalized later during development. In the majority of tissues, Fstl1 is strongly expressed in the mesenchymal component and excluded from the epithelium. Notable exceptions include the central nervous system, in which Fstl1 expression is entirely absent with the exception of the choroid plexi and floor plate, the lung, in which Fstl1 expression can be seen in airway epithelia and the kidney, in which collecting ducts and nascent nephron epithelia express the highest levels of Fstl1. PMID:17129766

  18. Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Subramanium, Sathiyamoorty; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2010-10-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. A putative novel gene encoding PGIP was isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and Arabidopsis PGIPs. The RACE PCR was preformed to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Panax ginseng. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA of PgPGIP is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing ORF encodes for a polypeptide of 366 amino acids. Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PgPGIP have a typical PGIP topology. The transcription level of PgPGIP was up-regulated in ginseng in response to wounding and infection with phytopathogenic fungi i.e., Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythium ultimum, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cylindrocarpon destructans, which causes drastic damage in ginseng plants. The constitutive PgPGIP expression of 4 years old plant, showed elevated transcript level, especially roots, showed maximum then buds, stems and leaves, indicating that the gene is developmentally regulated. The crude PGIP extracts derived from the fungal infected plants directly reduces the aggressive potential of PGs from diverse group of fungi. Like other PGIPs, PgPGIP also possess board spectrum of inhibitory activity. Thus, the presence of PgPGIP gene and their active role in defense mechanism was proved. The structural model of PgPGIP was predicted based on the alignment generated by EBI-Align, the program "MOODELLER" and the predicted structure showed 10 β-strands and 10 α-helixes region. PMID:19946753

  19. Highly Polymorphic Family of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Surface Antigens with Evidence of Developmental Regulation in Toxoplasma gondii▿

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Angela M.; Onatolu, Krystal N.; Hiller, Luisa; Haldar, Kasturi; Knoll, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires that an infectious cyst develop and be maintained throughout the life of the host. The molecules displayed on the parasite surface are important in controlling the immune response to the parasite. T. gondii has a superfamily of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface antigens, termed the surface antigen (SAG) and SAG-related surface antigens, that are developmentally regulated during infection. Using a clustering algorithm, we identified a new family of 31 surface proteins that are predicted to be GPI anchored but are unrelated to the SAG proteins, and thus we named these proteins SAG-unrelated surface antigens (SUSA). Analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism density showed that the members of this family are the most polymorphic genes within the T. gondii genome. Immunofluorescence of SUSA1 and SUSA2, two members of the family, revealed that they are found on the parasite surface. We confirmed that SUSA1 and SUSA2 are GPI anchored by phospholipase cleavage. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed that SUSA1 had 22 of 23 ESTs from chronic infection. Analysis of mRNA and protein confirmed that SUSA1 is highly expressed in the chronic form of the parasite. Sera from mice with chronic T. gondii infection reacted to SUSA1, indicating that SUSA1 interacts with the host immune system during infection. This group of proteins likely represents a new family of polymorphic GPI-anchored surface antigens that are recognized by the host's immune system and whose expression is regulated during infection. PMID:17938221

  20. Identification of developmentally-regulated proteins in Leishmania panamensis by proteome profiling of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Walker, John; Vasquez, Juan-José; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Drummelsmith, Jolyne; Burchmore, Richard; Girard, Isabelle; Ouellette, Marc

    2006-05-01

    We have employed proteomics to identify proteins upregulated in the amastigote life-stage of Leishmaniapanamensis, using axenically-differentiated forms as models of authentic intracellular parasites. Resolution of the soluble proteomes of axenic amastigotes and promastigotes by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in the neutral pI range (5-7) revealed equivalent numbers of protein spots in both life-stages (644-682 using Coomassie Blue and 851-863 by silver staining). Although representing a relatively low proportion (8.1-10.8%) of the predicted 8000 gene products of Leishmania, these proteome maps enabled the reproducible detection of 75 differentially-regulated protein spots in amastigotes, comprising 24 spots "uniquely" expressed in this life-stage and 51 over-expressed by 1.2-5.7-fold compared to promastigotes. Of the 11 amastigote-specific spots analysed by mass spectrometry (MS), 5 yielded peptide sequences with no orthologues in Leishmania major, and the remaining 6 were identified as 7 distinct proteins (some of which were truncated isoforms) representing several functional classes: carbohydrate/energy metabolism (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase), stress response (heat shock protein [HSP] 83), cell membrane/cytoskeleton (beta-tubulin), amino acid metabolism (cysteine synthase) and cell-cycle (ran-binding protein). Four additional over-expressed spots were tentatively identified as HSPs 60 and 70 and HSP 70-related proteins -1 and -4 by positional analogy with these landmark proteins in the Leishmania guyanensis proteome. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify novel developmentally-regulated proteins linked to Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival, while simultaneously pinpointing therapeutic targets. In particular, the amastigote-specific expression of cysteine synthase underlines the importance of de novo cysteine synthesis both as a

  1. Transcriptome Sequencing and Developmental Regulation of Gene Expression in Anopheles aquasalis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria C. P.; Lopes, Adriana R.; Barros, Michele S.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Kojin, Bianca B.; Carvalho, Eneas; Suesdek, Lincoln; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto C.; James, Anthony A.; Capurro, Margareth L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles aquasalis is a major malaria vector in coastal areas of South and Central America where it breeds preferentially in brackish water. This species is very susceptible to Plasmodium vivax and it has been already incriminated as responsible vector in malaria outbreaks. There has been no high-throughput investigation into the sequencing of An. aquasalis genes, transcripts and proteins despite its epidemiological relevance. Here we describe the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the An. aquasalis transcriptome. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 419 thousand cDNA sequence reads, encompassing 164 million nucleotides, were assembled in 7544 contigs of ≥2 sequences, and 1999 singletons. The majority of the An. aquasalis transcripts encode proteins with their closest counterparts in another neotropical malaria vector, An. darlingi. Several analyses in different protein databases were used to annotate and predict the putative functions of the deduced An. aquasalis proteins. Larval and adult-specific transcripts were represented by 121 and 424 contig sequences, respectively. Fifty-one transcripts were only detected in blood-fed females. The data also reveal a list of transcripts up- or down-regulated in adult females after a blood meal. Transcripts associated with immunity, signaling networks and blood feeding and digestion are discussed. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the first large-scale effort to sequence the transcriptome of An. aquasalis. It provides valuable information that will facilitate studies on the biology of this species and may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The An. aquasalis transcriptome is accessible at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/An_aquasalis/Anaquexcel.xlsx. PMID:25033462

  2. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Ley, T J; Connolly, N L; Katamine, S; Cheah, M S; Senior, R M; Robbins, K C

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we show that c-fgr proto-oncogene expression is limited to normal peripheral blood granulocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages, all of which contain 50 to 100 copies of c-fgr mRNA per cell. The c-fgr RNA molecules in these cells consisted of partially spliced transcripts containing intron 7 and completely spliced molecules capable of encoding the predicted p55 c-fgr protein. The splicing of intron 7 appeared to occur after the splicing of most of the other introns; partially spliced molecules containing intron 7 did not appear to be transported into the cytoplasm. Very low levels of fgr transcripts were also present in U937 promonocytic cells and increased in abundance with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation. The level of fgr transcripts began to increase 2 to 4 h after TPA addition, peaked at 8 h, and subsequently declined. Since we found that the half-life of fgr mRNA was longer than 8 h, these changes are best explained by transient transcriptional activation of fgr during TPA-induced differentiation, although nuclear runoff experiments were not sensitive enough to detect this event. Cycloheximide also caused accumulation of c-fgr transcripts in U937 cells; no superinduction was observed when TPA and cycloheximide were added at the same time. Induction by either agent was blocked with actinomycin D. These results demonstrate that the c-fgr gene is expressed in a tissue- and development-specific fashion and suggest that constitutive expression of c-fgr in U937 cells is regulated by a labile transcriptional repressor. Images PMID:2538725

  3. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  4. The Aspergillus fumigatus StuA Protein Governs the Up-Regulation of a Discrete Transcriptional Program during the Acquisition of Developmental CompetenceD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Donald C.; Doedt, Thomas; Chiang, Lisa Y.; Kim, H. Stanley; Chen, Dan; Nierman, William C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Asm1p, Phd1p, Sok2p, Efg1p, and StuAp (APSES) family of fungal proteins regulate morphogenesis and virulence in ascomycetes. We cloned the Aspergillus fumigatus APSES gene encoding StuAp and demonstrated that stuA transcription is markedly up-regulated after the acquisition of developmental competence. A. fumigatus ΔstuA mutants were impaired in their ability to undergo asexual reproduction. Conidiophore morphology was markedly abnormal, and only small numbers of dysmorphic conidia were produced, which exhibited precocious germination. Whole genome transcriptional analysis during the onset of developmental competence was performed and identified a subset of developmentally regulated genes that were stuA dependent, including a cluster of putative secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes, genes encoding proteins implicated in the regulation of morphogenesis, and genes encoding allergens and other antigenic proteins. Additionally, hyphae of the ΔstuA mutant displayed reduced expression of the catalase gene CAT1 and were hypersusceptible to hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16207816

  5. Developmental regulation of {beta}-hexosaminidase {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit gene expression in the rat reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Trasler, J.M.; Wakamatsu, N.; Gravel, R.A.; Benoit, G.

    1994-09-01

    {beta}-Hexosaminidase is an essential lysosomal enzyme whose absence in man results in a group of disorders, the G{sub M2} gangliosidoses. Enzyme activity for {beta}-hexosaminidase is many fold higher in the epididymis than in other tissues, is present in sperm and is postulated to be required for mammalian fertilization. To better understand how {beta}-hexosaminidase is regulated in the reproductive system, we quantitated the mRNA expression of the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits (Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta}) of the enzyme in the developing rat testis and epididymis. Hex {alpha} mRNA was differentially expressed and abundant in adult rat testis and epididymis, 13- and 2-fold brain levels, respectively. In contrast, Hex {beta} mRNA levels in the testis and epididymis were .3- and 5-fold brain levels. Within the epididymis both Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNA concentrations were highest in the corpus, 1.5-fold and 9-fold initial segment values, respectively. During testis development from 7-91 days of age, testis levels of Hex {alpha} mRNA increased 10-fold and coincided with the appearance of spermatocytes and spermatids in the epithelium. In isolated male germ cells, Hex {alpha} expression was most abundant in haploid round spermatids. Hex {alpha} mRNA was undetectable after hypophysectomy and returned to normal after testosterone administration and the return of advanced germ cells to the testis. Hex {beta} mRNA was expressed at constant low levels throughout testis development. In the caput-corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis Hex {alpha} mRNA levels increased 2-fold between 14 and 91 days; during the same developmental period epididymal Hex {beta} mRNA levels increased dramatically, by 10-20 fold. In summary, Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNAs are differentially and developmentally expressed at high levels in the rat testis and epididymis and augur for an important role for {beta}-hexosaminidase in normal male reproductive function.

  6. Nercc1, a mammalian NIMA-family kinase, binds the Ran GTPase and regulates mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Joan; Mikhailov, Alexei; Belham, Christopher; Avruch, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The protein kinase NIMA is an indispensable pleiotropic regulator of mitotic progression in Aspergillus. Although several mammalian NIMA-like kinases (Neks) are known, none appears to have the broad importance for mitotic regulation attributed to NIMA. Nercc1 is a new NIMA-like kinase that regulates chromosome alignment and segregation in mitosis. Its NIMA-like catalytic domain is followed by a noncatalytic tail containing seven repeats homologous to those of the Ran GEF, RCC1, a Ser/Thr/Pro-rich segment, and a coiled-coil domain. Nercc1 binds to another NIMA-like kinase, Nek6, and also binds specifically to the Ran GTPase through both its catalytic and its RCC1-like domains, preferring RanGDP in vivo. Nercc1 exists as a homooligomer and can autoactivate in vitro by autophosphorylation. Nercc1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is activated during mitosis and is avidly phosphorylated by active p34Cdc2. Microinjection of anti-Nercc1 antibodies in prophase results in spindle abnormalities and/or chromosomal misalignment. In Ptk2 cells the outcome is prometaphase arrest or aberrant chromosome segregation and aneuploidy, whereas in CFPAC-1 cells prolonged arrest in prometaphase is the usual response. Nercc1 and its partner Nek6 represent a new signaling pathway that regulates mitotic progression. PMID:12101123

  7. Developmental decisions

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David V.; Saito, Richard Mako

    2012-01-01

    The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently has attention been focused on how these animals modify their genetically programmed cell lineages to adapt to altered environments. Here, we summarize the current understanding of how C. elegans responds to food deprivation by adapting their developmental program in order to conserve energy. In particular, we highlight the AMPK-mediated and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways that are the principal regulators of induced cell cycle quiescence. PMID:22510569

  8. Evolution of a symptomatic diffuse developmental venous anomaly with progressive cerebral atrophy in an atypical case of Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koyo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Togawa, Masami; Shinohara, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Sugano, Hidenori; Itamura, Shinji; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    A 2-year-old boy had glaucoma, bilateral facial haemangioma and widespread blue nevi on the trunk and extremities since birth. Dilated medullary veins were detected in the left cerebral periventricular white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Macrocephaly and delayed psychomotor development were observed during late infancy, and susceptibility-weighted angiography revealed an extensive developmental venous anomaly with multiple caput medusae throughout bilateral hemispheres, accompanied by periventricular hyperintense alterations on MRI and progressive diffuse atrophy of the cerebral mantle with left-sided predominance. Hypoperfusion in the left cerebral and cerebellar hemisphere was also uncovered. No meningeal haemangioma was observed. This patient may represent a novel subgroup of phakomatosis cases that can be regarded as a variant of Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25547041

  9. Two-Stage Progressive Femoral Lowering Followed by Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty for Treating Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type 3 Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Binazzi, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    High developmental dysplasia of the hip is commonly treated with total hip arthroplasty and shortening osteotomy. We present a two stage technique, consisting of progressive femoral lowering followed by total hip arthroplasty. The clinico-radiographic results of eleven patients (twelve hips) who were operated on with the two-stage technique were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 11 ± 5 years. At the final follow-up, ten patients (eleven hips) had a mean Harris hip score of 85 ± 5 points with no implant loosening. One patient (one hip) was revised at 5 years due to infection. No neurovascular complications were observed in any patients. With this technique, we could place the cup in the anatomical position and obtain complete limb symmetry with excellent clinical results at long-term. PMID:25599863

  10. E3 Ubiquitin ligase RNF126 regulates the progression of tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yuehan; Niu, Weidong; Ma, Guowu; Yin, Wei; Shi, Chun

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to analyze the role of RNF126 in the oncogenesis of tongue cancer. The cell proliferation and viability of human tongue cancer cells, SCC25 and SCC9 cells, were determined by cell counting and MTT assay, respectively. The effect of RNF126 on regulating AKT signaling pathway was analyzed through western blotting. The transplantation tumor model of nude mice was used to evaluate the tumorigenecity of RNF126. Knockdown of RNF126 inhibited the proliferation and viability of SCC9 and SCC25 cells. Inhibition of RNF126 also decreased the activity of AKT1 as well as its downstream molecules. Furthermore, RNF126 regulated the tumor volume on mice model. These data suggested that RNF126 might be related to the progression of tongue cancer through regulating AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27227488

  11. An Intrinsic MicroRNA Timer Regulates Progressive Decline in Shoot Regenerative Capacity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian-Qi; Lian, Heng; Tang, Hongbo; Dolezal, Karel; Zhou, Chuan-Miao; Yu, Sha; Chen, Juan-Hua; Chen, Qi; Liu, Hongtao; Ljung, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells are totipotent and competent to regenerate from differentiated organs. It has been shown that two phytohormones, auxin and cytokinin, play critical roles within this process. As in animals, the regenerative capacity declines with age in plants, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that an age-regulated microRNA, miR156, regulates shoot regenerative capacity. As a plant ages, the gradual increase in miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors leads to the progressive decline in shoot regenerative capacity. In old plants, SPL reduces shoot regenerative capacity by attenuating the cytokinin response through binding with the B-type ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs, which encode the transcriptional activators in the cytokinin signaling pathway. Consistently, the increased amount of exogenous cytokinin complements the reduced shoot regenerative capacity in old plants. Therefore, the recruitment of age cues in response to cytokinin contributes to shoot regenerative competence. PMID:25649435

  12. Intra-Testicular Signals Regulate Germ Cell Progression and Production of Qualitatively Mature Spermatozoa in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, a highly conserved process in vertebrates, is mainly under the hypothalamic–pituitary control, being regulated by the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, in response to stimulation exerted by gonadotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamic neurons. At testicular level, gonadotropins bind specific receptors located on the somatic cells regulating the production of steroids and factors necessary to ensure a correct spermatogenesis. Indeed, besides the endocrine route, a complex network of cell-to-cell communications regulates germ cell progression, and a combination of endocrine and intra-gonadal signals sustains the production of high quality mature spermatozoa. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the area of the intra-gonadal signals supporting sperm development. PMID:24847312

  13. NMDA-stimulated ERK1/2 Signaling and the Transcriptional Up-regulation of Plasticity-related Genes are Developmentally Regulated following in vitro Neuronal Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianju; Moon, Changjong; Zheng, Fei; Luo, Yongneng; Soellner, Deborah; Nuñez, Joseph L.; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The general features of neuroplasticity are developmentally regulated. Although it has been hypothesized that the loss of plasticity in mature neurons may be due to synaptic saturation and functional reduction of NMDA receptors (NMDAR), the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We examined the effects of NMDAR activation and KCl-mediated membrane depolarization on ERK1/2 signaling following in vitro maturation of cultured cortical neurons. Although NMDA stimulated robust increase of intracellular calcium at both DIV (day in vitro) 3 and 14, the activation of ERK1/2 and CREB was impaired at DIV 14. Specifically, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was stimulated by both NMDA and KCl at DIV 3. However, at DIV 14, NMDA-, but not KCl-stimulated ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation was significantly diminished. Consistently, the NMDA-induced transcription of ERK/CREB-regulated genes Bdnf exon 4, Arc and zif268 was significantly attenuated at DIV 14. Moreover, compared to DIV 3 neurons, the basal level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in DIV 14 neurons increased tremendously following maturation, and was more susceptible to dephosphorylation. Blocking calcium channels by nifedipine or NMDAR by APV caused more dramatic ERK dephosphorylation in DIV 14 neurons. We further demonstrate that the loss of plasticity-related signaling is unrelated to NMDA-induced cell death of the DIV 14 neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the attenuation of certain aspects of neuroplasticity following maturation may be due to the reduction of NMDAR-mediated gene transcription and a saturation of ERK1/2 activity. PMID:19396876

  14. [Progress in expression regulation of bacterial lipase genes--A review].

    PubMed

    Zha, Daiming; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-11-01

    Microbial lipases are major sources of commercial ones, which have been extensively used in a wide variety of industrial fields, such as foods, beverages, lipids, detergents, feeds, textiles, leathers, advanced materials, fine chemicals, medicines, cosmetics, papermaking, pollution treatment, and bioenergy. Compared with fungal lipases, bacterial lipases have more types of reactions and exhibit higher activity and better stability in aqueous or organic phases. Amongst bacterial lipases, the most excellent ones are those originating from the genus Pseudomonas. So far, the conventional strategies, such as traditional breeding, optimization of medium and fermentation conditions, cannot fundamentally solve the problem of low production of bacterial lipases. Construction of genetically engineered strains to efficiently overexpress their own lipases is an effective solution. But it must base on clarifying molecular regulation mechanism of lipase gene expression and further finding out key regulators. In this article, we reviewed the progress in expression regulation of bacterial lipase genes from the aspects of direct regulators, quorum sensing system, Gac/Rsm signal transduction system, regulators controlling the Gac/Rsm system, and other regulators. To provide a useful reference for the construction of genetically engineered strains, we also discussed a research prospect in this field based on our ongoing research. PMID:26915218

  15. The Transcriptional Modulator Interferon-Related Developmental Regulator 1 in Osteoblasts Suppresses Bone Formation and Promotes Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujikawa, Koichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamashita, Yui; Shioi, Go; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Although interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) has been identified as a transcriptional coactivator/repressor in various cells, little attention has been paid to its role in osteoblastogenesis and bone homeostasis thus far. Here, we show that Ifrd1 is a critical mediator of both the cell-autonomous regulation of osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblast-specific deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, causing high bone mass. Ifrd1 deficiency enhanced osteoblast differentiation and maturation along with increased expression of Runx2 and osterix (Osx). Mechanistically, Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation status of p65, a component of NF-κB, at residues K122 and K123 via the attenuation of the interaction between p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC). This led to the nuclear export of p65 and a decrease in NF-κB-dependent Smad7 expression and the subsequent enhancement of Smad1/Smad5/Smad8-dependent transcription. Moreover, a high bone mass phenotype in the osteoblast-specific deletion of Ifrd1 was markedly rescued by the introduction of one Osx-floxed allele but not of Runx2-floxed allele. Coculture experiments revealed that Ifrd1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and a lower ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Ifrd1 deficiency attenuated the interaction between β-catenin and HDAC, subsequently increasing the acetylation of β-catenin at K49, leading to its nuclear accumulation and the activation of the β-catenin-dependent transcription of OPG. Collectively, the expression of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts repressed osteoblastogenesis and activated osteoclastogenesis through modulating the NF-κB/Smad/Osx and β-catenin/OPG pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that Ifrd1 has a pivotal role in bone

  16. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  17. The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring tools have been shown to be essential elements in current approaches to intervention problem-solving models. Such tools have been valuable not only in marking individual children's level of performance relative to peers but also in measuring change in skill level in a way that can be attributed to intervention and development.…

  18. SON Controls Cell Cycle Progression by Coordinated Regulation of RNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun-Young; DeKelver, Russell C.; Lo, Miao-Chia; Nguyen, Tuyet Ann; Matsuura, Shinobu; Boyapati, Anita; Pandit, Shatakshi; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY It has been suspected that cell cycle progression might be functionally coupled with RNA processing. However, little is known about the role of the precise splicing control in cell cycle progression. Here, we report that SON, a large Ser/Arg (SR)-related protein, is a splicing co-factor contributing to efficient splicing of cell cycle regulators. Down-regulation of SON leads to severe impairment of spindle pole separation, microtubule dynamics, and genome integrity. These molecular defects result from inadequate RNA splicing of a specific set of cell cycle-related genes that possess weak splice sites. Furthermore, we show that SON facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and other key spliceosome components, suggesting its function in efficient co-transcriptional RNA processing. These results reveal a mechanism for controlling cell cycle progression through SON-dependent constitutive splicing at suboptimal splice sites, with strong implications for its role in cancer and other human diseases. PMID:21504830

  19. Phosphorylation of Plk1 at Ser326 regulates its functions during mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J; Yang, X; Liu, X

    2009-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), the best characterized member of the mammalian polo-like kinase family, is well regulated throughout the cell cycle at the protein expression level. Moreover, it is known that Plk1 kinase activity is also regulated at the post-translational level through phosphorylation. However, the upstream kinases of Plk1 have not been identified. Although the involvement of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in cellular responses to stress has been well documented, the role of this pathway in normal cell cycle progression is unclear. Here, we show that phosphorylated p38 and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) are colocalized with Plk1 to the spindle poles during prophase and metaphase. Specific depletion of various members of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the use of RNA interference revealed that the pathway is required for mitotic progression under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, MK2 directly phosphorylates Ser326 of Plk1. Ectopic expression of Plk1-S326A completely blocked cells at mitosis, likely due to the defect of bipolar spindle formation and subsequent activation of the spindle checkpoint. Only Plk1-S326E, but not the Plk1-S326A, efficiently rescued the p38 or MK2-depletion-induced mitotic defects, further solidifying the requirement of S326 phosphorylation during mitotic progression. PMID:18695677

  20. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is regulated at post-transcriptional levels by transforming growth factor-β signaling during tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β acts as a tumor suppressor during cancer initiation, but as a tumor promoter during tumor progression. It has become increasingly clear that TGF-β plays fundamental roles in multiple steps of tumor progression, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT, first described by developmental biologists at the beginning of the 1980s, plays crucial roles in appropriate embryonic development, but also functions in adults during wound healing, organ fibrosis, and tumor progression. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their epithelial polarity and acquire mesenchymal phenotypes, endowing them with migratory and invasive properties. Many secreted polypeptides are implicated in this process, and act in a sequential or cooperative manner. TGF-β induces EMT by propagating intracellular signaling pathways and activating transcriptional factors. Here, I discuss new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of EMT by TGF-β in cooperation with Ras or growth factors, along with the signals that induce EMT through transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25664423

  1. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1990--March 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1991-12-31

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target ``regulatory`` enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 30}) produced by oil glands.

  2. Expression and Developmental Regulation of Oxytocin (OT) and Oxytocin Receptors (OTR) in the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) and Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Martha G.; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J.; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in ~1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology. PMID:19003903

  3. Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function as pore channels for the transport of water and other small solutes across the cell membrane. Considering the important roles of these proteins in several biological processes, including host-parasite interactions, there has been increased research on aquaporin proteins recently. The present study expands on the knowledge of aquaporin family genes in parasitic copepods, examining diversity and expression during the ontogeny of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Furthermore, aquaporin expression was evaluated during the early infestation of Atlantic (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed eight full length and two partial open reading frames belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Clustering analyses with identified Caligidae sequences revealed three major clades of aquaglyceroporins (Cr-Glp), classical aquaporin channels (Cr-Bib and Cr-PripL), and unorthodox aquaporins (Cr-Aqp12-like). In silico analysis revealed differential expression of aquaporin genes between developmental stages and between sexes. Male-biased expression of Cr-Glp1_v1 and female-biased expression of Cr-Bib were further confirmed in adults by RT-qPCR. Additionally, gene expressions were measured for seven aquaporins during the early infestation stage. The majority of aquaporin genes showed significant differential transcription expressions between sea lice parasitizing different hosts, with Atlantic salmon sea lice exhibiting overall reduced expression as compared to Coho salmon. The observed differences in the regulation of aquaporin genes may reveal osmoregulatory adaptations associated with nutrient ingestion and metabolite waste export, exposing complex host-parasite relationships in C. rogercresseyi. PMID:27016299

  4. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity. As observed in FASD phenotypes, 5-azaC exposure was able to induce microcephaly and craniofacial cartilage deformities in Japanese rice fish. Moreover, we have observed that expression of DNMTs (dnmt1, dnmt3aa, and dnmt3bb.1) are developmentally regulated; high mRNA copies were found in early stages (1-2day-post-fertilization, dpf), followed by gradual reduction until hatched. In ethanol-treated embryos, compared to controls, dnmt1 mRNA is in reduced level in 2dpf and in enhanced level in 6dpf embryos. While dnmt3aa and 3bb.1 remained unaltered. In contrast, embryos exposed to 5-azaC have an enhanced level of dnmt1 and dnmt3bb.1 mRNAs both in 2 and 6dpf embryos while dnmt3aa is enhanced only in 6dpf embryos. Moreover, endocannabinoid receptor 1a (cnr1a) mRNA which was found to be reduced by ethanol remained unaltered and cnr1b and cnr2 mRNAs, which were remained unaltered by ethanol, were increased significantly by 5-azaC in 6dpf embryos. This study indicates that the craniofacial defects observed in FASD phenotypes are the results of dysregulations in DNMT expressions. PMID:26183885

  5. Silent NMDA receptor-mediated synapses are developmentally regulated in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Moore, K A; Woolf, C J

    2000-02-01

    In vitro whole cell patch-clamp recording techniques were utilized to study silent pure-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa, SG) and lamina III of the spinal dorsal horn. To clarify whether these synapses are present in the adult and contribute to neuropathic pain, transverse lumbar spinal cord slices were prepared from neonatal, naive adult and adult sciatic nerve transected rats. In neonatal rats, pure-NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were elicited in SG neurons either by focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 15 of 20 neurons) or focal stimulation of the dorsal root (n = 2 of 7 neurons). In contrast, in slices from naive adult rats, no silent pure-NMDA EPSCs were recorded in SG neurons following focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 27), and only one pure-NMDA EPSC was observed in lamina III (n = 23). Furthermore, in rats with chronic sciatic nerve transection, pure-NMDA EPSCs were elicited by focal intraspinal stimulation in only 2 of 45 SG neurons. Although a large increase in Abeta fiber evoked mixed alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and NMDA receptor-mediated synapses was detected after sciatic nerve injury, Abeta fiber-mediated pure-NMDA EPSCs were not evoked in SG neurons by dorsal root stimulation. Pure-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs are therefore a transient, developmentally regulated phenomenon, and, although they may have a role in synaptic refinement in the immature dorsal horn, they are unlikely to be involved in receptive field plasticity in the adult. PMID:10669507

  6. Developmentally regulated monocyte recruitment and bone resorption are modulated by functional deletion of the monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Graves, D T; Alsulaimani, F; Ding, Y; Marks, S C

    2002-08-01

    Tooth eruption involves the movement of a tooth from its site of development within the alveolar bone to its functional position in the oral cavity. Because this process is dependent upon monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, it represents an excellent model for examination of these processes under developmental regulation. We investigated the functional role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocyte recruitment and its impact on bone resorption by examining each parameter in MCP-1(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type controls during tooth eruption. The peak number of monocytes occurred on day 5 in the MCP-1(-/-) mice and on day 9 in the wild-type mice. The peak number of osteoclasts followed the same pattern, occurring sooner in the MCP-1(-/-) (day 5) than in wild-type mice (day 9). Consistent with this, MCP-1(-/-) mice had an accelerated rate of tooth eruption in the early phase when the teeth first entered the oral cavity as compared with the wild-type mice. However, there was accelerated eruption in the wild-type group in the later phase of tooth eruption. When examined at the molecular level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-11 and -6 were expressed at considerably higher levels in the experimental group with accelerated tooth eruption. This is the first report identifying these factors as potential modulators of bone resorption that can accelerate the rate of tooth eruption. We conclude that, at early timepoints, monocyte recruitment occurs by MCP-1-independent mechanisms. However, at a later timepoint, MCP-1 may play a contributory role in the recruitment of monocytic cells, allowing the wild-type animals to catch up. PMID:12151080

  7. The tomato Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase genes are developmentally regulated and respond to light and stress.

    PubMed

    Perl-Treves, R; Galun, E

    1991-10-01

    The expression of the two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes of tomato was followed in different organs and plant developmental stages at the transcript and enzymatic activity levels. The cDNA clones used as probes code for the chloroplast Cu,Zn SOD (clone T1) and the cytosolic Cu,Zn SOD (clone P31). The two genes were found to display distinct expression patterns. While the T1 transcript was rare or absent from roots, stems and ripening fruits, the P31 transcript was very abundant in these organs. Shoot tips, flower buds, seedlings and young leaves contained high levels of the two mRNAs. During leaf expansion, the levels of both transcripts diminish markedly. Despite the diminished presence of transcripts, SOD activity levels of the corresponding cytosolic and chloroplast isozymes accumulated and were sustained throughout leaf expansion. In non-photosynthetic organs, the SOD-3 (cytosolic) isozyme contained most of the activity, while in the expanded leaf the SOD-1 (chloroplast) isozyme was more abundant. Light-regulated accumulation of both the P31 transcript (1.7-fold) and the T1 transcript (3-fold) was observed upon light exposure of etiolated seedlings. However, only SOD-1 activity was observed to increase, after a lag of a few hours. The levels of both transcripts increased in response to paraquat and mechanical wounding. The level of the cytosolic transcript and the respective isozyme activity increased dramatically during prolonged drought stress while the chloroplast transcript remained unaffected. The expression of both genes was enhanced by spraying tomato plants with ethephon--a compound that releases ethylene. Our data show that the expression of Cu,Zn SOD genes in tomato is modulated in response to a variety of factors and suggest the importance of oxyradical toxicity as well as the role of SOD in the defence mechanism of plants exposed to stress. PMID:1912497

  8. LARP1 post-transcriptionally regulates mTOR and contributes to cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Mura, M; Hopkins, T G; Michael, T; Abd-Latip, N; Weir, J; Aboagye, E; Mauri, F; Jameson, C; Sturge, J; Gabra, H; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; Curry, E; Blagden, S P

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to and post-transcriptionally regulate the stability of mRNAs. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) is a conserved RBP that interacts with poly-A-binding protein and is known to regulate 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) mRNA translation. Here, we show that LARP1 is complexed to 3000 mRNAs enriched for cancer pathways. A prominent member of the LARP1 interactome is mTOR whose mRNA transcript is stabilized by LARP1. At a functional level, we show that LARP1 promotes cell migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we show that LARP1 expression is elevated in epithelial cancers such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancers, where its expression correlates with disease progression and adverse prognosis, respectively. We therefore conclude that, through the post-transcriptional regulation of genes such as mTOR within cancer pathways, LARP1 contributes to cancer progression. PMID:25531318

  9. LARP1 post-transcriptionally regulates mTOR and contributes to cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Mura, M; Hopkins, T G; Michael, T; Abd-Latip, N; Weir, J; Aboagye, E; Mauri, F; Jameson, C; Sturge, J; Gabra, H; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; Curry, E; Blagden, S P

    2015-09-24

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to and post-transcriptionally regulate the stability of mRNAs. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) is a conserved RBP that interacts with poly-A-binding protein and is known to regulate 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) mRNA translation. Here, we show that LARP1 is complexed to 3000 mRNAs enriched for cancer pathways. A prominent member of the LARP1 interactome is mTOR whose mRNA transcript is stabilized by LARP1. At a functional level, we show that LARP1 promotes cell migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we show that LARP1 expression is elevated in epithelial cancers such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancers, where its expression correlates with disease progression and adverse prognosis, respectively. We therefore conclude that, through the post-transcriptional regulation of genes such as mTOR within cancer pathways, LARP1 contributes to cancer progression. PMID:25531318

  10. Role of eIF3a in regulating cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Zizheng; Liu, Zhaoqian; Cui, Ping; Pincheira, Roxana; Yang, Youyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-07-01

    Translational control is an essential process in regulation of gene expression, which occurs at the initiation step performed by a number of translation initiation factor complexes. eIF3a (eIF3 p170) is the largest subunit of the eIF3 complex. eIF3a has been suggested to play roles in regulating translation of a subset of mRNAs and in regulating cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In this study, we examined the expression profile of eIF3a in cell cycle and its role in cell cycle progression. We found that eIF3a expression oscillated with cell cycle and peaked in S phase. Reducing eIF3a expression also reduced cell proliferation rate by elongating cell cycle but did not change the cell cycle distribution. However, eIF3a appears to play an important role in cellular responses to external cell cycle modulators likely by affecting synthesis of target proteins of these modulators.

  11. Tissue mechanics modulate microRNA-dependent PTEN expression to regulate malignant progression

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Janna K; Yui, Yoshihiro; Damiano, Laura; Bainer, Russell O; Lakins, Johnathan N; Acerbi, Irene; Ou, Guanqing; Wijekoon, Amanda C; Levental, Kandice R; Gilbert, Penney M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Weaver, Valerie M

    2014-01-01

    Tissue mechanics regulate development and homeostasis and are consistently modified in tumor progression. Nevertheless, the fundamental molecular mechanisms through which altered mechanics regulate tissue behavior and the clinical relevance of these changes remain unclear. We demonstrate that increased matrix stiffness modulates microRNA expression to drive tumor progression through integrin activation of β-catenin and MYC. Specifically, in human and mouse tissue, increased matrix stiffness induced miR-18a to reduce levels of the tumor suppressor PTEN, both directly and indirectly by decreasing levels of HOXA9. Clinically, extracellular matrix stiffness correlated significantly with miR-18a in human breast tumor biopsies. miR-18a expression was highest in basal-like breast cancers in which PTEN and HOXA9 levels were lowest and predicted for poor prognosis in patients with luminal breast cancers. Our findings identify a mechanically-regulated microRNA circuit that can promote malignancy and suggest potential prognostic roles for HOXA9 and miR-18a levels in stratifying patients with luminal breast cancers. PMID:24633304

  12. Testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by modifying tumor suppressor genes and tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa J.; Xiong, Yin; Nilubol, Naris; He, Mei; Bommareddi, Swaroop; Zhu, Xuguang; Jia, Li; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Jeong-Won; Xu, Xia; Patel, Dhaval; Willingham, Mark C.; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    Cancer gender disparity has been observed for a variety of human malignancies. Thyroid cancer is one such cancer with a higher incidence in women, but more aggressive disease in men. There is scant evidence on the role of sex hormones on cancer initiation/progression. Using a transgenic mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), we found castration led to lower rates of cancer in females and less advanced cancer in males. Mechanistically, less advanced cancer in castrated males was due to increased expression of tumor suppressor (Glipr1, Sfrp1) and immune-regulatory genes and higher tumor infiltration with M1 macrophages and CD8 cells. Functional study showed that GLIPR1 reduced cell growth and increased chemokine secretion (Ccl5) that activates immune cells. Our data demonstrate that testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by reducing tumor suppressor gene expression and tumor immunity. PMID:25576159

  13. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  14. In-silico analysis and expression profiling implicate diverse role of EPSPS family genes in regulating developmental and metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The EPSPS, EC 2.5.1.19 (5-enolpyruvylshikimate −3-phosphate synthase) is considered as one of the crucial enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids and secondary metabolites in plants, fungi along with microorganisms. It is also proved as a specific target of broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Results On the basis of structure analysis, this EPSPS gene family comprises the presence of EPSPS I domain, which is highly conserved among different plant species. Here, we followed an in-silico approach to identify and characterize the EPSPS genes from different plant species. On the basis of their phylogeny and sequence conservation, we divided them in to two groups. Moreover, the interacting partners and co-expression data of the gene revealed the importance of this gene family in maintaining cellular and metabolic functions in the cell. The present study also highlighted the highest accumulation of EPSPS transcript in mature leaves followed by young leaves, shoot and roots of tobacco. In order to gain the more knowledge about gene family, we searched for the previously reported motifs and studied its structural importance on the basis of homology modelling. Conclusions The results presented here is a first detailed in-silico study to explore the role of EPSPS gene in forefront of different plant species. The results revealed a great deal for the diversification and conservation of EPSPS gene family across different plant species. Moreover, some of the EPSPS from different plant species may have a common evolutionary origin and may contain same conserved motifs with related and important molecular function. Most importantly, overall analysis of EPSPS gene elucidated its pivotal role in immense function within the plant, both in regulating plant growth as well its development throughout the life cycle of plant. Since EPSPS is a direct target of herbicide glyphosate, understanding its mechanism for regulating

  15. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  16. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  17. Growth Attenuation with Developmental Schedule Progression in Embryos and Early Larvae of Sterechinus neumayeri Raised under Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pauline C.; Sewell, Mary A.; Matson, Paul G.; Rivest, Emily B.; Kapsenberg, Lydia; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Ocean, a region that will be an ocean acidification hotspot in the near future, is home to a uniquely adapted fauna that includes a diversity of lightly-calcified invertebrates. We exposed the larvae of the echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri to environmental levels of CO2 in McMurdo Sound (control: 410 µatm, Ω = 1.35) and mildly elevated pCO2 levels, both near the level of the aragonite saturation horizon (510 µatm pCO2, Ω = 1.12), and to under-saturating conditions (730 µatm, Ω = 0.82). Early embryological development was normal under these conditions with the exception of the hatching process, which was slightly delayed. Appearance of the initial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) spicule nuclei among the primary mesenchyme cells of the gastrulae was synchronous between control and elevated pCO2 treatments. However, by prism (7 days after the initial appearance of the spicule nucleus), elongating arm rod spicules were already significantly shorter in the highest CO2 treatment. Unfed larvae in the 730 µatm pCO2 treatment remained significantly smaller than unfed control larvae at days 15–30, and larvae in the 510 µatm treatment were significantly smaller at day 20. At day 30, the arm lengths were more differentiated between 730 µatm and control CO2 treatments than were body lengths as components of total length. Arm length is the most plastic morphological aspect of the echinopluteus, and appears to exhibit the greatest response to high pCO2/low pH/low carbonate, even in the absence of food. Thus, while the effects of elevated pCO2 representative of near future climate scenarios are proportionally minor on these early developmental stages, the longer term effects on these long-lived invertebrates is still unknown. PMID:23300974

  18. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. PMID:26083935

  19. Developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene is mediated by synergistic interactions among multiple tissue- and stage-specific elements.

    PubMed Central

    Trepicchio, W L; Dyer, M A; Baron, M H

    1993-01-01

    The stage-specific regulation of mammalian embryonic globin genes has been an experimentally elusive problem, in part because of the developmentally early timing of their expression. We have carried out a systematic analysis of truncation and internal deletion mutations within the 5'-flanking region of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene (epsilon) in erythroid and nonerythroid cell lines. Within a 670-bp region upstream from the constitutive promoter are multiple positive and negative control elements. Of these, a positive regulatory element (epsilon-PRE II) which is active only in embryonic erythroid cells is of particular interest. Remarkably, although it is inactive on its own, in the presence of other sequences located further upstream, it confers tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression on a constitutive epsilon-globin or heterologous promoter. The activity of epsilon-PRE II is also modulated by another positive regulatory domain located further downstream to direct erythroid cell-specific, but little or no embryonic stage-specific, transcription. A nuclear factor highly enriched in embryonic erythroid cells binds specifically within a 19-bp region of epsilon-PRE II. Nuclei from adult erythroid cells also contain a factor that binds to this region but forms a complex of faster electrophoretic mobility. We speculate that interactions between epsilon-PRE II and other upstream control elements play an important role in the developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene. Images PMID:8246963

  20. YAP forms autocrine loops with the ERBB pathway to regulate ovarian cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbo; Lv, Xiangmin; Hua, Guohua; Lele, Subodh M; Remmenga, Steven; Dong, Jixin; Davis, John S; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer initiation and progression are unclear. Herein, we report that the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a major effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, interacts with ERBB signaling pathways to regulate the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemistry studies indicate that YAP expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients. Overexpression or constitutive activation of YAP leads to transformation and tumorigenesis in human ovarian surface epithelial cells, and promotes growth of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. YAP induces expression of EGF receptors (EGFR, ERBB3) and production of EGF-like ligands (HBEGF, NRG1 and NRG2). HBEGF or NRG1, in turn, activates YAP and stimulates cancer cell growth. Knockdown of ERBB3 or HBEGF eliminates YAP effects on cell growth and transformation, while knockdown of YAP abrogates NRG1- and HBEGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrates the existence of HBEGF&NRGs/ERBBs/YAP/HBEGF&NRGs autocrine loop that controls ovarian cell tumorigenesis and cancer progression. PMID:25798835

  1. HERC2 Interacts with Claspin and regulates DNA origin firing and replication fork progression.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Naoki; Wu, Wenwen; Sato, Ko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akihiro; Boku, Narikazu; Itoh, Fumio; Ohta, Tomohiko

    2011-09-01

    DNA replication, recombination, and repair are highly interconnected processes the disruption of which must be coordinated in cancer. HERC2, a large HECT protein required for homologous recombination repair, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets breast cancer suppressor BRCA1 for degradation. Here, we show that HERC2 is a component of the DNA replication fork complex that plays a critical role in DNA elongation and origin firing. In the presence of BRCA1, endogenous HERC2 interacts with Claspin, a protein essential for G(2)-M checkpoint activation and replication fork stability. Claspin depletion slowed S-phase progression and additional HERC2 depletion reduced the effect of Claspin depletion. In addition, HERC2 interacts with replication fork complex proteins. Depletion of HERC2 alleviated the slow replication fork progression in Claspin-deficient cells, suppressed enhanced origin firing, and led to a decrease in MCM2 phosphorylation. In a HERC2-dependent manner, treatment of cells with replication inhibitor aphidicolin enhanced MCM2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that HERC2 regulates DNA replication progression and origin firing by facilitating MCM2 phosphorylation. These findings establish HERC2 as a critical function in DNA repair, checkpoint activation, and DNA replication. PMID:21775519

  2. A focal adhesion protein-based mechanochemical checkpoint regulates cleft progression during branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Daley, William P.; Kohn, Joshua M.; Larsen, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Cleft formation is the initial step of branching morphogenesis in many organs. We previously demonstrated that ROCK 1 regulates a non-muscle myosin II-dependent mechanochemical checkpoint to transition initiated clefts to progressing clefts in developing submandibular salivary glands. Here, we report that ROCK-mediated integrin activation and subsequent formation of focal adhesion complexes comprise this mechanochemical checkpoint. Inhibition of ROCK1 and non-muscle myosin II activity decreased integrin β1 activation in the cleft region and interfered with localization and activation of focal adhesion complex proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK activity also prevented cleft progression, by disrupting recruitment of the focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin and subsequent fibronectin assembly in the cleft region while decreasing ERK1/2 activation. These results demonstrate that inside-out integrin signaling leading to a localized recruitment of active FAK-containing focal adhesion protein complexes generates a mechanochemical checkpoint that facilitates progression of branching morphogenesis. PMID:22016182

  3. Down-regulation of osteopontin attenuates breast tumour progression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Jain, Shalini; Patil, Tushar V; Kundu, Gopal C

    2008-12-01

    Development of breast tumour malignancies results in enhanced expression of various oncogenic molecules. Elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN) in higher grades of breast carcinoma correlates with enhanced expressions of several oncogenic molecules (urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA], matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 [MMP-2 and -9]) and increased angiogenic potential of breast carcinoma. In this study, using in vitro and multiple in vivo models, we have demonstrated that silencing of OPN by its specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) down-regulates the expressions of oncogenic molecules such as uPA, MMP-2 and -9 resulting in inhibition of in vitro cell motility and in vivo tumourigenicity in mice. Moreover our results demonstrated that OPN-/- mice showed slower progression of tumour growth in breast cancer model as compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the data showed that injection of carcinogenic compound, pristane (2, 6,10,14-tetramethylpen-tadecane) induces breast tumour progression leading to enhanced expression of OPN and other oncogenic molecules in mammary fat pad of nude- and wild-type mice but not in OPN-/- mice. However, intratumoural injection of OPN siRNA to pristane-induced tumour significantly suppressed these effects. Our data revealed that knocking down of OPN effectively curb breast cancer progression and further suggested that developing of OPN-based therapeutics might be an emerging approach for the next generation of breast cancer management. PMID:18266970

  4. Differences in kinase-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression in normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Stevenson, A.P.; Kraemer, P.M.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Bradbury, E.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Staurosporine (Stsp), a general protein kinase inhibitor, was used to investigate the role of kinase-mediated mechanisms in regulating mammalian cell proliferation. Low levels of Stsp (1-2nM) prevented nontransformed cells from entering S phase, indicating that protein phosphorylation processes are essential for commitment of DNA replication in normal cells. Cells resumed cycling when Stsp was removed. The period of sensitivity of nontransformed human diploid fibroblasts to low levels of the drug commenced 3 h later than the G0/G1 boundary and extended through the G1/S boundary. The initial block point at 3 h corresponds neither to the serum nor the amino acid restriction point. In contrast, neither low nor high concentrations (100nm) of Stsp affected G1 progression of transformed cells. High drug concentrations blocked normal cells in G1 and G2 but affected only G2-progression in transformed cells. These results indicate that kinase-mediated regulation of DNA replication is lost as a result of neoplastic transformation, but the G2-arrest mechanism remains intact.

  5. S100A4 promotes endometrial cancer progress through epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Teng; Liu, Shuangge; Xin, Xiaoyan; Cai, Liqiong; Shi, Rui; Chi, Shuqi; Feng, Dilu; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major cause of endometrial cancer (EC) to initiate invasion and metastasis. S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, is implicated in multistage of tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The correlation between S100A4 and EMT in EC is still unclear. This study was aimed to clarify the role of S100A4 in EC and the relationship between S100A4 expression and EMT markers. S100A4, E-cadherin, and vimentin were detected in tissues of EC patients (n=50) by immunohistochemistry. The impact of S100A4 on EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion was investigated via RNA interference, and the correlation between S100A4 and EMT markers were also explored. The results showed that S100A4 was significantly increased in epithelial cells of EC compared with the normal endometrium (P<0.05), also S100A4 level was positively related to age (P=0.021), histological grade (P<0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). Additionally, silencing of S100A4 remarkably attenuated EC cell migration and invasion. Significant morphological change accompanied with the downregulation of EMT markers, E-cadherin and vimentin were also observed. Aberrant S100A4 expression may predict EC progression and play an important role in regulating EC cell invasion through EMT regulation. Hence, S100A4 is a promising therapeutic target. PMID:27109209

  6. Negative regulation of Bmi-1 by AMPK and implication in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Deqiang; He, Xiaoling; Zou, Junrong; Guo, Pei; Jiang, Shanshan; Lv, Nonghua; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Luo, Lingyu; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-02-01

    Bmi-1 is a transcriptional regulator that promotes tumor cell self-renewal and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and its upregulation is associated with tumor progression, AMPK is an intracellular fuel-sensing enzyme and plays important roles in tumor cell growth and progression. Thus, the present study aims to examine the regulation of Bmi-1 by AMPK. First, our data revealed that, as compared to adjacent normal tissue, Bmi-1 was highly expressed in gastric cancer, whereas phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK) was reduced. Similar findings were observed in lung adenocarcinomas and appeared that the expression of Bmi-1 was correlated with pathological grades of the cancer, where opposite changes were found in p-AMPK. Second, Metformin, a pharmacological AMPK activator and anti-diabetic drug, or ectopic expression of LKB1, diminished expression of Bmi-1 in cancer cells, an event that was reversed by silencing LKB1. Third, knockdown of LITAF, previously identified as a downstream target of AMPK, upregulated Bmi-1, associated with increased cell viability, colony formation, and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Fourth, metformin increased the abundance of miR-15a, miR-128, miR-192, and miR-194, which was prevented by knockdown of LITAF. Accordingly, transfection of these individual miRNAs downregulated Bmi-1. Altogether, our data for the first time suggest a regulatory axis in cancer cells: AMPK upregulates LITAF, which in turn increases miRNAs, leading to attenuation of Bmi-1 expression. PMID:26717043

  7. An emerging model for BAP1's role in regulating cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Eletr, Ziad M; Wilkinson, Keith D

    2011-06-01

    BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is a 729 residue, nuclear-localized deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that displays tumor suppressor properties in the BAP1-null NCI-H226 lung carcinoma cell line. Studies that have altered BAP1 cellular levels or enzymatic activity have reported defects in cell cycle progression, notably at the G1/S transition. Recently BAP1 was shown to associate with the transcriptional regulator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1). The BAP1/HCF-1 interaction is mediated by the HCF-1 Kelch domain and an HCF-1 binding motif (HBM) within BAP1. HCF-1 is modified with ubiquitin in vivo, and ectopic studies suggest BAP1 deubiquitinates HCF-1. HCF-1 is a chromatin-associated protein thought to both activate and repress transcription by linking appropriate histone-modifying enzymes to a subset of transcription factors. One known role of HCF-1 is to promote cell cycle progression at the G1/S boundary by recruiting H3K4 histone methyltransferases to the E2F1 transcription factor so that genes required for S-phase can be transcribed. Given the robust associations between BAP1/HCF-1 and HCF-1/E2Fs, it is reasonable to speculate that BAP1 influences cell proliferation at G1/S by co-regulating transcription from HCF-1/E2F-governed promoters. PMID:21484256

  8. Negative regulation of Bmi-1 by AMPK and implication in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Deqiang; He, Xiaoling; Zou, Junrong; Guo, Pei; Jiang, Shanshan; Lv, Nonghua; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Luo, Lingyu; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a transcriptional regulator that promotes tumor cell self-renewal and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and its upregulation is associated with tumor progression, AMPK is an intracellular fuel-sensing enzyme and plays important roles in tumor cell growth and progression. Thus, the present study aims to examine the regulation of Bmi-1 by AMPK. First, our data revealed that, as compared to adjacent normal tissue, Bmi-1 was highly expressed in gastric cancer, whereas phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK) was reduced. Similar findings were observed in lung adenocarcinomas and appeared that the expression of Bmi-1 was correlated with pathological grades of the cancer, where opposite changes were found in p-AMPK. Second, Metformin, a pharmacological AMPK activator and anti-diabetic drug, or ectopic expression of LKB1, diminished expression of Bmi-1 in cancer cells, an event that was reversed by silencing LKB1. Third, knockdown of LITAF, previously identified as a downstream target of AMPK, upregulated Bmi-1, associated with increased cell viability, colony formation, and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Fourth, metformin increased the abundance of miR-15a, miR-128, miR-192, and miR-194, which was prevented by knockdown of LITAF. Accordingly, transfection of these individual miRNAs downregulated Bmi-1. Altogether, our data for the first time suggest a regulatory axis in cancer cells: AMPK upregulates LITAF, which in turn increases miRNAs, leading to attenuation of Bmi-1 expression. PMID:26717043

  9. ELK1 is up-regulated by androgen in bladder cancer cells and promotes tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Aljarah, Ali Kadhim; Ide, Hiroki; Li, Yi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Netto, George J.; Zheng, Yichun; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about biological significance of ELK1, a transcriptional factor that activates downstream targets including c-fos proto-oncogene, in bladder cancer. Recent preclinical evidence also suggests the involvement of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in bladder cancer progression. In this study, we aim to investigate the functions of ELK1 in bladder cancer growth and their regulation by AR signals. Immunohistochemistry in bladder tumor specimens showed that the levels of phospho-ELK1 (p-ELK1) expression were significantly elevated in urothelial neoplasms, compared with non-neoplastic urothelium tissues, and were also correlated with AR positivity. Patients with p-ELK1-positive non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive tumors had significantly higher risks for tumor recurrence and progression, respectively. In AR-positive bladder cancer cell lines, dihydrotestosterone treatment increased ELK1 expression (mRNA, protein) and its nuclear translocation, ELK1 transcriptional activity, and c-fos expression, which was restored by an anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide. ELK1 silencing via short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in decreases in cell viability/colony formation, and cell migration/invasion as well as an increase in apoptosis. Importantly, ELK1 appears to require activated AR to regulate bladder cancer cell proliferation, but not cell migration. Androgen also failed to significantly induce AR transactivation in ELK1-knockdown cells. In accordance with our in vitro findings, ELK1-shRNA expression considerably retarded tumor formation as well as its growth in xenograft-bearing male mice. Our results suggest that ELK1 plays an important role in bladder tumorigenesis and cancer progression, which is further induced by AR activation. Accordingly, ELK1 inhibition, together with AR inactivation, has the potential of being a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer. PMID:26342199

  10. Mitochondrial regulation of cell cycle progression through SLC25A43.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Reizer, Edwin; Stål, Olle; Tina, Elisabet

    2016-01-22

    An increasing body of evidence is pointing towards mitochondrial regulation of the cell cycle. In a previous study of HER2-positive tumours we could demonstrate a common loss in the gene encoding for the mitochondrial transporter SLC25A43 and also a significant relation between SLC25A43 protein expression and S-phase fraction. Here, we investigated the consequence of suppressed SLC25A43 expression on cell cycle progression and proliferation in breast epithelial cells. In the present study, we suppressed SLC25A43 using siRNA in immortalised non-cancerous breast epithelial MCF10A cells and HER2-positive breast cancer cells BT-474. Viability, apoptosis, cell proliferation rate, cell cycle phase distribution, and nuclear Ki-67 and p21, were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle related gene expressions were analysed using real-time PCR. We found that SLC25A43 knockdown in MCF10A cells significantly inhibited cell cycle progression during G1-to-S transition, thus significantly reducing the proliferation rate and fraction of Ki-67 positive MCF10A cells. In contrast, suppressed SLC25A43 expression in BT-474 cells resulted in a significantly increased proliferation rate together with an enhanced G1-to-S transition. This was reflected by an increased fraction of Ki-67 positive cells and reduced level of nuclear p21. In line with our previous results, we show a role for SLC25A43 as a regulator of cell cycle progression and proliferation through a putative mitochondrial checkpoint. These novel data further strengthen the connection between mitochondrial function and the cell cycle, both in non-malignant and in cancer cells. PMID:26721434

  11. The developmental regulation of the L2/HNK-1 and L3 carbohydrate epitopes in mouse brain. Evidence for separate control of lipid- and protein-bound epitopes.

    PubMed

    Breen, K C

    1989-04-10

    The carbohydrate epitopes L2/HNK-1 and L3 have previously been identified on various neural cell adhesion molecules and have been suggested to play a role in the mediation of cell-cell adhesion. In this study, the developmental expression of the two epitopes in soluble, membrane-bound and chloroform/methanol-extracted fractions of the constituent mouse brain regions was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein-bound epitopes were shown to be uniformly developmentally regulated, with levels peaking at postnatal day 20 (P20). The epitopes in a crude chloroform/methanol fraction, however, demonstrated a different pattern, with L2 peaking earlier at postnatal day zero (P0). These results suggest a possible interaction between the control of the two pools of the epitope. PMID:2468531

  12. Female-specific gene expression in dioecious liverwort Pellia endiviifolia is developmentally regulated and connected to archegonia production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    developmentally regulated. The contribution of the identified genes may be crucial for successful liverwort sexual reproduction. PMID:24939387

  13. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures. PMID:26514268

  14. miR-340 and ZEB1 negative feedback loop regulates TGF-β- mediated breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-Kun; Yu, Yue; Xie, Ye-Gong; Wang, Jie; Mao, Jie-Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs act as key regulators in carcinogenesis and progression in various cancers. In present study, we explored the role of miR-340 in the breast cancer progression. Our results showed that overexpression of miR-340 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas depletion of miR-340 promotes breast cancer progression. Molecularly, ZEB1 was identified as a target gene of miR-340 and miR-340 suppressed the expression of ZEB1 by directly binding to the 3'-UTR of ZEB1. Furthermore, ZEB1 transcriptionally suppresses miR-340 expression. The negative feedback loop regulated TGF-β-mediated breast cancer progression. In conclusion, our data suggested that miR-340 acted as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer progression. PMID:27036021

  15. Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes and the elongation factor 1B gene show coordinate developmental regulation which is under post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Blumberg, D D

    1999-06-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental program in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum [19, 20]. One of the earliest developmental events is the decline in ribosomal protein synthesis [2, 17, 29, 30]. The ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes with 20 min to 1 h following the removal of nutrients, and their mRNA levels decline sharply at about 9 h into the 24-h developmental cycle [28, 31, 35, 36]. It has been generally assumed that the decline in r-protein mRNA levels during late development reflected a decline in the transcription rate [12, 32, 43]. Here we demonstrate that this is not the case. The transcription rates of three ribosomal protein genes, rpL11, rpL23 and rpS9 as well as an elongation factor 1B gene have been determined during growth and development in Dictyostelium. Throughout growth and development the transcription rate of the ribosomal protein genes remains relatively constant at 0.2%-0.5% of the rate of rRNA transcription while the elongation factor 1B gene is transcribed at 0.4%-0.6% of the rRNA rate. This low but constant transcription rate is in contrast to a spore coat protein gene Psp D, which is transcribed at 6% of the rRNA rate in late developing cells. The elongation factor 1B gene appears to be co-regulated with the ribosomal protein genes both in terms of its transcription rate and mRNA accumulation. Dictyostelium has been a popular model for understanding signal transduction and the growth to differentiation transition, thus it is of significance that the regulation of ribosome biosynthesis in Dictyostelium resembles that of higher eukaryotes in being regulated largely at the post-transcriptional level in response to starvation as opposed to yeasts where the regulation is largely transcriptional [27]. PMID:10374261

  16. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1989--March 14, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C{sub 10}) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C{sub 15} C{sub 20}, C{sub 30}, C{sub 40}) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C{sub 15}) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  17. [Aspects of progesterone receptor (PR) activity regulation - impact on breast cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Dominika; Składanowski, Andrzej C; Kordek, Radzisław; Romańska, Hanna M; Sądej, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) and its specific ligand play a key role in development and physiology of mammary gland. The role of PR in initiation and progression of breast carcinoma (BCa) is unquestionable, although molecular mechanism of PR action is complex and not fully understood. It is known that increased risk of breast cancer is associated with progestin-based (synthetic ligands of progesterone) hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapies. It is estimated that ER/PR-positive tumours represent approximately 50-70% of all BCa cases, and the loss of PR is associated with resistance to hormonal therapy and increased tumour invasiveness. In classical, genomic signalling pathway cytoplasmic PR, following ligand binding, translocates to the nucleus and regulates expression of genes with the PRE sequence. PR is also involved in a large number of alternative, non-genomic signalling cascades, e.g. PR is able to activate MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, which leads to regulation of gene expression. The cross-talk between PR and Growth Factors Receptors (GFR) results in progesterone-independent activation of PR as well as PR-regulated GFR expression and activation. Growth factors signalling promotes formation of a pool of hypersensitive PR responsive to even very low ligand concentration. Transcriptional activity of PR as well as its dynamic impact on processes such as cell migration and adhesion are crucial for BCa progression. Further studies of multifaceted mechanisms of PR action may contribute to new PR-targeting therapeutic strategies for breast cancer patients. PMID:26689013

  18. Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulated SATB1 promotes colorectal cancer tumorigenesis and progression.

    PubMed

    Mir, R; Pradhan, S J; Patil, P; Mulherkar, R; Galande, S

    2016-03-31

    The chromatin organizer SATB1 has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast and colorectal cancers. However, the regulation and role of SATB1 in colorectal cancers is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of SATB1 is induced upon hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and repressed upon depletion of TCF7L2 (TCF4) and β-catenin. Using several colorectal cancer cell line models and the APC min mutant zebrafish in vivo model, we established that SATB1 is a novel target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We show that direct binding of TCF7L2/β-catenin complex on Satb1 promoter is required for the regulation of SATB1. Moreover, SATB1 is sufficient to regulate the expression of β-catenin, members of TCF family, multiple downstream effectors and mediators of Wnt pathway. SATB1 potentiates the cellular changes and expression of key cancer-associated genes in non-aggressive colorectal cells, promotes their aggressive phenotype and tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, depletion of SATB1 from aggressive cells reprograms the expression of cancer-associated genes, reverses their cancer phenotype and reduces the potential of these cells to develop tumors in vivo. We also show that SATB1 and β-catenin bind to the promoters of TCF7L2 and the downstream targets of Wnt signaling and regulate their expression. Our findings suggest that SATB1 shares a feedback regulatory network with TCF7L2/β-catenin signaling and is required for Wnt signaling-dependent regulation of β-catenin. Collectively, these results provide unequivocal evidence to establish that SATB1 reprograms the expression of tumor growth- and metastasis-associated genes to promote tumorigenesis and functionally overlaps with Wnt signaling critical for colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:26165840

  19. KIF14 negatively regulates Rap1a-Radil signaling during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed M; Thériault, Brigitte L; Uppalapati, Maruti; Chiu, Catherine W N; Gallie, Brenda L; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Angers, Stéphane

    2012-12-10

    The small GTPase Rap1 regulates inside-out integrin activation and thereby influences cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Several Rap1 effectors have been described to mediate the cellular effects of Rap1 in a context-dependent manner. Radil is emerging as an important Rap effector implicated in cell spreading and migration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. We report here that the kinesin KIF14 associates with the PDZ domain of Radil and negatively regulates Rap1-mediated inside-out integrin activation by tethering Radil on microtubules. The depletion of KIF14 led to increased cell spreading, altered focal adhesion dynamics, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also show that Radil is important for breast cancer cell proliferation and for metastasis in mice. Our findings provide evidence that the concurrent up-regulation of Rap1 activity and increased KIF14 levels in several cancers is needed to reach optimal levels of Rap1-Radil signaling, integrin activation, and cell-matrix adhesiveness required for tumor progression. PMID:23209302

  20. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong-Woon; Park, So-Young; Choi, Inho

    2016-08-01

    Differentiation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) involves interaction of the proteins present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with MSCs to regulate their activity, and therefore phenotype. Herein, we report fibromodulin (FMOD), a member of the proteoglycan family participating in the assembly of ECM, as a novel regulator of myostatin (MSTN) during myoblast differentiation. In addition to having a pronounced effect on the expression of myogenic marker genes [myogenin (MYOG) and myosin light chain 2 (MYL2)], FMOD was found to maintain the transcriptional activity of MSTN Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and in silico studies performed to investigate the interaction of FMOD helped confirm that it antagonizes MSTN function by distorting its folding and preventing its binding to activin receptor type IIB. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that FMOD plays an active role in healing by increasing satellite cell recruitment to sites of injury. Together, these findings disclose a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role for FMOD in MSCs and highlight new mechanisms whereby FMOD circumvents the inhibitory effects of MSTN and triggers myoblast differentiation. These findings offer a basis for the design of novel MSTN inhibitors that promote muscle regeneration after injury or for the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of different muscle atrophies.-Lee, E. J., Jan, A. T., Baig, M. H., Ashraf, J. M., Nahm, S.-S., Kim, Y.-W., Park, S.-Y., Choi, I. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program. PMID:27069062

  1. KIF14 negatively regulates Rap1a–Radil signaling during breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed M.; Thériault, Brigitte L.; Uppalapati, Maruti; Chiu, Catherine W.N.; Gallie, Brenda L.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 regulates inside-out integrin activation and thereby influences cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Several Rap1 effectors have been described to mediate the cellular effects of Rap1 in a context-dependent manner. Radil is emerging as an important Rap effector implicated in cell spreading and migration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. We report here that the kinesin KIF14 associates with the PDZ domain of Radil and negatively regulates Rap1-mediated inside-out integrin activation by tethering Radil on microtubules. The depletion of KIF14 led to increased cell spreading, altered focal adhesion dynamics, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also show that Radil is important for breast cancer cell proliferation and for metastasis in mice. Our findings provide evidence that the concurrent up-regulation of Rap1 activity and increased KIF14 levels in several cancers is needed to reach optimal levels of Rap1–Radil signaling, integrin activation, and cell–matrix adhesiveness required for tumor progression. PMID:23209302

  2. dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, M J; Keegan, L P; O'Connell, M A; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a homolog of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) class of RNA editases from Drosophila, dADAR. The dADAR locus has been localized to the 2B6-7 region of the X chromosome and the complete genomic sequence organization is reported here. dADAR is most homologous to the mammalian RNA editing enzyme ADAR2, the enzyme that specifically edits the Q/R site in the pre-mRNA encoding the glutamate receptor subunit GluR-B. Partially purified dADAR expressed in Pichia pastoris has robust nonspecific A-to-I deaminase activity on synthetic dsRNA substrates. Transcripts of the dADAR locus originate from two regulated promoters. In addition, alternative splicing generates at least four major dADAR isoforms that differ at their amino-termini as well as altering the spacing between their dsRNA binding motifs. dADAR is expressed in the developing nervous system, making it a candidate for the editase that acts on para voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts in the central nervous system. Surprisingly, dADAR itself undergoes developmentally regulated RNA editing that changes a conserved residue in the catalytic domain. Taken together, these findings show that both transcription and processing of dADAR transcripts are under strict developmental control and suggest that the process of RNA editing in Drosophila is dynamically regulated. PMID:10917596

  3. DNA-PKcs-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation Drives Prostate Cancer Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jonathan F; Kothari, Vishal; Drake, Justin M; Zhao, Shuang; Dylgjeri, Emanuela; Dean, Jeffry L; Schiewer, Matthew J; McNair, Christopher; Jones, Jennifer K; Aytes, Alvaro; Magee, Michael S; Snook, Adam E; Zhu, Ziqi; Den, Robert B; Birbe, Ruth C; Gomella, Leonard G; Graham, Nicholas A; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Graeber, Thomas G; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Takhar, Mandeep; Davicioni, Elai; Tomlins, Scott A; Abate-Shen, Cory; Sharifi, Nima; Witte, Owen N; Feng, Felix Y; Knudsen, Karen E

    2015-07-13

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the DNA repair kinase DNA-PKcs exerts divergent roles in transcriptional regulation of unsolved consequence. Here, in vitro and in vivo interrogation demonstrate that DNA-PKcs functions as a selective modulator of transcriptional networks that induce cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Accordingly, suppression of DNA-PKcs inhibits tumor metastases. Clinical assessment revealed that DNA-PKcs is significantly elevated in advanced disease and independently predicts for metastases, recurrence, and reduced overall survival. Further investigation demonstrated that DNA-PKcs in advanced tumors is highly activated, independent of DNA damage indicators. Combined, these findings reveal unexpected DNA-PKcs functions, identify DNA-PKcs as a potent driver of tumor progression and metastases, and nominate DNA-PKcs as a therapeutic target for advanced malignancies. PMID:26175416

  4. Exosomes from the tumor microenvironment as reciprocal regulators that enhance prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Che-Ming; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Shen, Chia-Ning; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Shigemura, Katsumi; Sung, Shian-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Distant organ metastasis of prostate cancer is a puzzle, and various theories have successively arisen to explain the mechanism of lethal cancer progression. While perhaps agreeable to many cancer biologists, the very statement of "seed and soil" proposed by Stephan Paget in 1881 is arguably still the major statement for organ-specific cancer metastasis. Since recent studies showed important correlations of regulation of cancer cells and the microenvironment, exosomes from cancer and stromal cells seem to create another important niche for metastasis. Stromal cells pretreated with exosomes from metastatic cancer cells increase the potential of change stromal cells. The poorly metastatic cancer cells could also enhance malignancy through transfer of proteins, microribonucleic acid and messenger ribonucleic acid to recipient cancer cells. Herein, we reviewed extracellular exosomes as a factor involved in cross-talk between stromal and prostate cancer epithelial cells. PMID:27397852

  5. Rab6a is a novel regulator of meiotic apparatus and maturational progression in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jiaqi; Li, Ling; Ma, Rujun; Ge, Juan; Han, Longsen; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Rab family GTPases have been well known to regulate intracellular vesicle transport, however their function in mammalian oocytes has not been addressed. In this study, we report that when Rab6a is specifically knockdown, mouse oocytes are unable to progress normally through meiosis, arresting at metaphase I. Moreover, in these oocytes, the defects of chromosome alignment and spindle organization are readily observed during maturation, and resultantly increasing the aneuploidy incidence. We further reveal that kinetochore-microtubule attachments are severely compromised in Rab6a-depleted oocytes, which may in part mediate the meiotic phenotypes described above. In addition, when Rab6a function is altered, BubR1 levels on the kinetochores are markedly increased in metaphase oocytes, indicating the activation of spindle assembly checkpoint. In sum, we identify Rab6a as an important player in modulating oocyte meiosis, specifically the chromosome/spindle organization and metaphase-anaphase transition. PMID:26915694

  6. Transcriptome-wide gene regulation by gentle treadmill walking during the progression of monoiodoacetate induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jin; Perera, Priyangi; Liu, Jie; Wu, Lai-Chu; Rath, Björn; Butterfield, Timothy A.; Agarwal, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Objective Physiotherapies are the most widely recommended conservative treatment options for arthritic diseases. Here we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of gentle treadmill walking (GTW) on various stages of monoiodoacetate-induced arthritis (MIA) to unravel the basis for the success or failure of such therapies on the damaged joints. Methods Rat knees were harvested from untreated control, MIA afflicted but not subjected to GTW, GTW regimens started one day post-MIA induction, or after cartilage damage had progressed to Grade 1 or Grade 2. The cartilage was examined by macroscopic, microscopic, μCT imaging and transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis. Microarray data was analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to construct molecular functional networks regulated by GTW. Results GTW intervention started on day 1 post-MIA induction significantly prevented the MIA progression, but its efficacy was reduced when implemented on the knees exhibiting close to Grade 1 cartilage damage. However, GTW accelerated damage in the knees with close to Grade 2 cartilage pathologies. Transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that GTW intervention started one day post-MIA inception significantly suppressed inflammation-associated genes and upregulated matrix associated gene networks. However, delayed GTW intervention following Grade 1 damage was less effective in suppressing proinflammatory genes or upregulating matrix synthesis. Conclusion The findings suggest that GTW suppresses proinflammatory gene networks and upregulates matrix synthesis to prevent progression of cartilage damage in MIA afflicted knees. However, the extent of cartilage damage at the initiation of GTW may be an important determinant for the success or failure of such therapies. PMID:21400474

  7. Regulation of DCIS to invasive breast cancer progression by Singleminded-2s (SIM2s).

    PubMed

    Scribner, K C; Behbod, F; Porter, W W

    2013-05-23

    Singleminded-2s (SIM2s) is a member of the bHLH/PAS family of transcription factors and a key regulator of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. SIM2s is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells and downregulated in human breast cancer. Loss of Sim2s causes aberrant mouse mammary ductal development, with features suggestive of malignant transformation, whereas overexpression of SIM2s promotes precocious alveolar differentiation in nulliparous mouse mammary glands, suggesting that SIM2s is required for establishing and enhancing mammary gland differentiation. To test the hypothesis that SIM2s regulates tumor cell differentiation, we analyzed SIM2s expression in human primary breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) samples and found that SIM2s is lost with progression from DCIS to invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Using a MCF10DCIS.COM progression model, we have shown that SIM2s expression is decreased in MCF10DCIS.COM cells compared with MCF10A cells, and reestablishment of SIM2s in MCF10DCIS.COM cells significantly inhibits growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of SIM2s-MCF10DCIS.com tumors showed that SIM2s promoted a more differentiated tumor phenotype including the expression of a broad range of luminal markers (CSN2 (β-casein), CDH1 (E-cadherin), and KER18 (keratin-18)) and suppressed genes associated with stem cell maintenance and a basal phenotype (SMO (smoothened), p63, SLUG (snail-2), KER14 (keratin-14) and VIM (vimentin)). Furthermore, loss of SIM2s expression in MCF10DCIS.COM xenografts resulted in a more invasive phenotype and increased lung metastasis likely due to an increase in Hedgehog signaling and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Together, these exciting new data support a role for SIM2s in promoting human breast tumor differentiation and maintaining epithelial integrity. PMID:22777354

  8. Profiling of the Chromatin-associated Proteome Identifies HP1BP3 as a Novel Regulator of Cell Cycle Progression *

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Bamaprasad; Ren, Yan; Hao, Piliang; Sim, Kae Hwan; Cheow, Esther; Adav, Sunil; Tam, James P.; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) regulates cellular gene expression by restricting access of transcriptional machinery to template DNA, and dynamic re-modeling of chromatin structure is required to regulate critical cell functions including growth and replication, DNA repair and recombination, and oncogenic transformation in progression to cancer. Central to the control of these processes is efficient regulation of the host cell cycle, which is maintained by rapid changes in chromatin conformation during normal cycle progression. A global overview of chromatin protein organization is therefore essential to fully understand cell cycle regulation, but the influence of the chromatome and chromatin binding topology on host cell cycle progression remains poorly defined. Here we used partial MNase digestion together with iTRAQ-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics to quantify chromatin-associated proteins during interphase progression. We identified a total of 481 proteins with high confidence that were involved in chromatin-dependent events including transcriptional regulation, chromatin re-organization, and DNA replication and repair, whereas the quantitative data revealed the temporal interactions of these proteins with chromatin during interphase progression. When combined with biochemical and functional assays, these data revealed a strikingly dynamic association of protein HP1BP3 with the chromatin complex during different stages of interphase, and uncovered a novel regulatory role for this molecule in transcriptional regulation. We report that HP1BP3 protein maintains heterochromatin integrity during G1–S progression and regulates the duration of G1 phase to critically influence cell proliferative capacity. PMID:24830416

  9. A novel DAG-dependent mechanism links PKCa and Cyclin B1 regulating cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Ramazzotti, Giulia; Matteucci, Alessandro; Manzoli, Lucia; Lonetti, Annalisa; Suh, Pann-Ghill; McCubrey, James A.; Cocco, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Through the years, different studies showed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in cell cycle control, in particular during G1/S transition. Little is known about their role at G2/M checkpoint. In this study, using K562 human erythroleukemia cell line, we found a novel and specific mechanism through which the conventional isoform PKC⍺ positively affects Cyclin B1 modulating G2/M progression of cell cycle. Since the kinase activity of this PKC isoform was not necessary in this process, we demonstrated that PKC⍺, physically interacting with Cyclin B1, avoided its degradation and stimulated its nuclear import at mitosis. Moreover, the process resulted to be strictly connected with the increase in nuclear diacylglycerol levels (DAG) at G2/M checkpoint, due to the activity of nuclear Phospholipase C β1 (PLCβ1), the only PLC isoform mainly localized in the nucleus of K562 cells. Taken together, our findings indicated a novel DAG dependent mechanism able to regulate the G2/M progression of the cell cycle. PMID:25362646

  10. Role of HOXB7 in regulation of progression and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuelin; Xu, Yu; Li, Shasha; Hu, Yide; Wu, Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of homeobox B7 (HOXB7), a member of the homeobox genes family, was suggested to play a role in regulation of tumorigenesis and metastases of some cancers. However, the functions of HOXB7 in association with lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) have not been investigated. The correlation between the level of HOXB7 expression and cancer progression in patients is not known. In this study, through analysis of 75 LAC samples and their corresponding normal lung epithelium tissues immunohistochemistry (IHC), we demonstrate that HOXB7 was overexpressed in LAC specimens compared to their paired normal lung epithelium tissues. Increased expression of HOXB7 was associated with poor clinical outcomes, correlating significantly with a short survival time in patients who had LAC. Moreover, HOXB7 expression level was correlated with the tumor status (P = 0.028), nodal status (P = 0.012) and tumor stage (P = 0.029) in lung adenocarcinoma. Silencing HOXB7 inhibited cell growth and metastases in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our results suggest that HOXB7 promotes LAC progression by enhancing proliferation and metastasis. The increased expression of HOXB7 in LAC is a potential prognostic indicator for patients, and HOXB7 could be a novel target for treatment of LAC patients. PMID:22911672

  11. Protein kinase STK25 regulates hepatic lipid partitioning and progression of liver steatosis and NASH.

    PubMed

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Nuñez-Durán, Esther; Pirazzi, Carlo; Ståhlman, Marcus; Stenfeldt, Elin; Smith, Ulf; Borén, Jan; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease, and 10% to 20% of NAFLD patients progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The molecular pathways controlling progression to NAFLD/NASH remain poorly understood. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a regulator of whole-body insulin and glucose homeostasis. This study investigates the role of STK25 in liver lipid accumulation and NASH. Stk25 transgenic mice challenged with a high-fat diet displayed a dramatic increase in liver steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance compared to wild-type siblings. Focal fibrosis, hepatocellular damage, and inflammation were readily seen in transgenic but not wild-type livers. Transgenic livers displayed reduced β-oxidation and triacylglycerol secretion, while lipid uptake and synthesis remained unchanged. STK25 was associated with lipid droplets, colocalizing with the main hepatic lipid droplet-coating protein adipose differentiation-related protein, the level of which was increased 3.8 ± 0.7-fold in transgenic livers (P < 0.01), while a key hepatic lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase, was translocated from the lipid droplets surface to the cytoplasm, providing the likely mechanism underlying the effect of STK25. In summary, STK25 is a lipid droplet-associated protein that promotes NAFLD through control of lipid release from the droplets for β-oxidation and triacylglycerol secretion. STK25 also drives pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:25609431

  12. Nephronophthisis-Associated CEP164 Regulates Cell Cycle Progression, Apoptosis and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Slaats, Gisela G.; Le Corre, Stéphanie; Shaltiel, Indra A.; van de Hoek, Glenn; Klasson, Timothy D.; Stokman, Marijn F.; Logister, Ive; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Drummond, Iain A.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Giles, Rachel H.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that centrosomal protein 164 (CEP164) regulates both cilia and the DNA damage response in the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease nephronophthisis. Here we examine the functional role of CEP164 in nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies and concomitant fibrosis. Live cell imaging of RPE-FUCCI (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) cells after siRNA knockdown of CEP164 revealed an overall quicker cell cycle than control cells, although early S-phase was significantly longer. Follow-up FACS experiments with renal IMCD3 cells confirm that Cep164 siRNA knockdown promotes cells to accumulate in S-phase. We demonstrate that this effect can be rescued by human wild-type CEP164, but not disease-associated mutants. siRNA of CEP164 revealed a proliferation defect over time, as measured by CyQuant assays. The discrepancy between accelerated cell cycle and inhibited overall proliferation could be explained by induction of apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Reduction of CEP164 levels induces apoptosis in immunofluorescence, FACS and RT-QPCR experiments. Furthermore, knockdown of Cep164 or overexpression of dominant negative mutant allele CEP164 Q525X induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and concomitant upregulation of genes associated with fibrosis. Zebrafish injected with cep164 morpholinos likewise manifest developmental abnormalities, impaired DNA damage signaling, apoptosis and a pro-fibrotic response in vivo. This study reveals a novel role for CEP164 in the pathogenesis of nephronophthisis, in which mutations cause ciliary defects coupled with DNA damage induced replicative stress, cell death, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and suggests that these events drive the characteristic fibrosis observed in nephronophthisis kidneys. PMID:25340510

  13. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Qi, X.; Souza, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive researches have been done to explore whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in plant and litter pools but not in soil pool. Thus, the basis of PNL occurrence partially exists. However, CO2 enrichment also significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth over time was observed. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, our synthesis showed that CO2 enrichment increased soil ammonium (NH4+) but decreased nitrate (NO3-). The different responses of NH4+ and NO3-, and the consequent biological processes, may result in changes in soil microenvironment, community structures and above-belowground interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and the feedback to climate change.

  14. p120 catenin: an essential regulator of cadherin stability, adhesion-induced signaling, and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Ngok, Siu P.; Anastasiadis, Panos Z.

    2016-01-01

    Summary p120 catenin is the better studied member of a subfamily of proteins that associate with the cadherin juxtamembrane domain to suppress cadherin endocytosis. p120 also recruits the minus ends of microtubules to the cadherin complex leading to junction maturation. In addition, p120 regulates the activity of Rho family GTPases through multiple interactions with Rho GEFs, GAPs, Rho GTPases, and their effectors. Nuclear signaling is affected by the interaction of p120 with Kaiso, which regulates Wnt-responsive genes, as well as transcriptional repression of methylated promoters. Multiple alternative spliced p120 isoforms and complex phosphorylation events affect these p120 functions. In cancer, reduced p120 expression correlates with reduced E-cadherin function and tumor progression. In contrast, in tumor cells that have lost E-cadherin expression p120 promotes cell invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, p120 is required for Src induced oncogenic transformation and provides a potential target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23481205

  15. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) Primary Response Gene E75 Isoforms Mediate Steroidogenesis Autoregulation and Regulate Developmental Timing in Bombyx.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Tian, Ling; Guo, Zhongjian; Guo, Sanyou; Zhang, Jianzhen; Gu, Shi-Hong; Palli, Subba R; Cao, Yang; Li, Sheng

    2016-08-26

    The temporal control mechanisms that precisely control animal development remain largely elusive. The timing of major developmental transitions in insects, including molting and metamorphosis, is coordinated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). 20E involves feedback loops to maintain pulses of ecdysteroid biosynthesis leading to its upsurge, whereas the underpinning molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model, we demonstrated that E75, the 20E primary response gene, mediates a regulatory loop between ecdysteroid biosynthesis and 20E signaling. E75 isoforms A and C directly bind to retinoic acid receptor-related response elements in Halloween gene promoter regions to induce gene expression thus promoting ecdysteroid biosynthesis and developmental transition, whereas isoform B antagonizes the transcriptional activity of isoform A/C through physical interaction. As the expression of E75 isoforms is differentially induced by 20E, the E75-mediated regulatory loop represents a fine autoregulation of steroidogenesis, which contributes to the precise control of developmental timing. PMID:27365399

  16. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  17. RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Houcai; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Lixia; Xiong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wei, Hui; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • RPS27a expression was up-regulated in advanced-phase CML and AL patients. • RPS27a knockdown changed biological property of K562 and K562/G01 cells. • RPS27a knockdown affected Raf/MEK/ERK, P21 and BCL-2 signaling pathways. • RPS27a knockdown may be applicable for new combination therapy in CML patients. - Abstract: Ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27a) could perform extra-ribosomal functions besides imparting a role in ribosome biogenesis and post-translational modifications of proteins. The high expression level of RPS27a was reported in solid tumors, and we found that the expression level of RPS27a was up-regulated in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia (AL) patients. In this study, we explored the function of RPS27a in leukemia cells by using CML cell line K562 cells and its imatinib resistant cell line K562/G01 cells. It was observed that the expression level of RPS27a was high in K562 cells and even higher in K562/G01 cells. Further analysis revealed that RPS27a knockdown by shRNA in both K562 and K562G01 cells inhibited the cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and increased cell apoptosis induced by imatinib. Combination of shRNA with imatinib treatment could lead to more cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression in RPS27a knockdown cells. Further, it was found that phospho-ERK(p-ERK) and BCL-2 were down-regulated and P21 up-regulated in RPS27a knockdown cells. In conclusion, RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells. It appears that drugs targeting RPS27a combining with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) might represent a novel therapy strategy in TKI resistant CML patients.

  18. The Subcellular Localization of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-5 (Telencephalin) in the Visual Cortex is not Developmentally Regulated in the Absence of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Emily A.; Tremblay, Marie-Eve; Gahmberg, Carl G.; Tian, Li; Majewska, Ania K.

    2013-01-01

    The telencephalon-associated intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (Telencephalin; ICAM-5) regulates dendritic morphology in the developing brain. In vitro studies have shown that ICAM-5 is predominantly found within dendrites and immature dendritic protrusions, with reduced expression in mushroom spines, suggesting that ICAM-5 downregulation is critical for the maturation of synaptic structures. However, developmental expression of ICAM-5 has not been explored in depth at the ultrastructural level in intact brain tissue. To investigate the ultrastructural localization of ICAM-5 with transmission electron microscopy, we performed immunoperoxidase histochemistry for ICAM-5 in mouse visual cortex at postnatal day (P)14, a period of intense synaptogenesis, and at P28, when synapses mature. We observed the expected ICAM-5 expression in dendritic protrusions and shafts at both P14 and P28. ICAM-5 expression in these dendritic protrusions decreased in prevalence with developmental age to become predominantly localized to dendritic shafts by P28. To further understand the relationship between ICAM-5 and the endopeptidase metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which mediates ICAM-5 cleavage following glutamate activation during postnatal development, we also explored ICAM-5 expression in MMP-9 null animals. This analysis revealed a similar expression of ICAM-5 in dendritic elements at P14 and P28; however an increased prevalence of ICAM-5 was noted in dendritic protrusions at P28 in the MMP-9 null animals, indicating that in the absence of MMP-9, there is no developmental shift in ICAM-5 subcellular localization. Our ultrastructural observations shed light on possible functions mediated by ICAM-5 and their regulation by extracellular proteases. PMID:23897576

  19. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  20. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  1. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, ... everyday living. There are many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions ...

  2. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    PubMed

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  3. Contrasting Evolutionary Dynamics of the Developmental Regulator PAX9, among Bats, with Evidence for a Novel Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Caleb D.; Butler, Boyd; Fondon, John W.; Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Baker, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution can be the result of natural selection favoring modification of developmental signaling pathways. However, little is known about the genetic basis of such phenotypic diversity. Understanding these mechanisms is difficult for numerous reasons, yet studies in model organisms often provide clues about the major developmental pathways involved. The paired-domain gene, PAX9, is known to be a key regulator of development, particularly of the face and teeth. In this study, using a comparative genetics approach, we investigate PAX9 molecular evolution among mammals, focusing on craniofacially diversified (Phyllostomidae) and conserved (Vespertilionidae) bat families, and extend our comparison to other orders of mammal. Open-reading frame analysis disclosed signatures of selection, in which a small percentage of residues vary, and lineages acquire different combinations of variation through recurrent substitution and lineage specific changes. A few instances of convergence for specific residues were observed between morphologically convergent bat lineages. Bioinformatic analysis for unknown PAX9 regulatory motifs indicated a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism involving a Musashi protein. This regulation was assessed through fluorescent reporter assays and gene knockdowns. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that the number of Musashi binding-elements in PAX9 mRNA proportionally regulates protein translation rate. Although a connection between morphology and binding element frequency was not apparent, results indicate this regulation would vary among craniofacially divergent bat species, but be static among conserved species. Under this model, Musashi’s regulatory control of alternative human PAX9 isoforms would also vary. The presence of Musashi-binding elements within PAX9 of all mammals examined, chicken, zebrafish, and the fly homolog of PAX9, indicates this regulatory mechanism is ancient, originating basal to much of the

  4. Co-expression of mitosis-regulating genes contributes to malignant progression and prognosis in oligodendrogliomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanwei; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Zheng; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dabiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-11-10

    The clinical prognosis of patients with glioma is determined by tumor grades, but tumors of different subtypes with equal malignancy grade usually have different prognosis that is largely determined by genetic abnormalities. Oligodendrogliomas (ODs) are the second most common type of gliomas. In this study, integrative analyses found that distribution of TCGA transcriptomic subtypes was associated with grade progression in ODs. To identify critical gene(s) associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes, we analyzed 34 normal brain tissue (NBT), 146 WHO grade II and 130 grade III ODs by microarray and RNA sequencing, and identified a co-expression network of six genes (AURKA, NDC80, CENPK, KIAA0101, TIMELESS and MELK) that was associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes as well as Ki-67 expression. Validation of the six genes was performed by qPCR in additional 28 ODs. Importantly, these genes also were validated in four high-grade recurrent gliomas and the initial lower-grade gliomas resected from the same patients. Finally, the RNA data on two genes with the highest discrimination potential (AURKA and NDC80) and Ki-67 were validated on an independent cohort (5 NBTs and 86 ODs) by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of AURKA and NDC80 by siRNAs suppressed Ki-67 expression and proliferation of gliomas cells. Survival analysis showed that high expression of the six genes corporately indicated a poor survival outcome. Correlation and protein interaction analysis provided further evidence for this co-expression network. These data suggest that the co-expression of the six mitosis-regulating genes was associated with malignant progression and prognosis in ODs. PMID:26468983

  5. Co-expression of mitosis-regulating genes contributes to malignant progression and prognosis in oligodendrogliomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanwei; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Zheng; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dabiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The clinical prognosis of patients with glioma is determined by tumor grades, but tumors of different subtypes with equal malignancy grade usually have different prognosis that is largely determined by genetic abnormalities. Oligodendrogliomas (ODs) are the second most common type of gliomas. In this study, integrative analyses found that distribution of TCGA transcriptomic subtypes was associated with grade progression in ODs. To identify critical gene(s) associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes, we analyzed 34 normal brain tissue (NBT), 146 WHO grade II and 130 grade III ODs by microarray and RNA sequencing, and identified a co-expression network of six genes (AURKA, NDC80,CENPK, KIAA0101, TIMELESS and MELK) that was associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes as well as Ki-67 expression. Validation of the six genes was performed by qPCR in additional 28 ODs. Importantly, these genes also were validated in four high-grade recurrent gliomas and the initial lower-grade gliomas resected from the same patients. Finally, the RNA data on two genes with the highest discrimination potential (AURKA and NDC80) and Ki-67 were validated on an independent cohort (5 NBTs and 86 ODs) by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of AURKA and NDC80 by siRNAs suppressed Ki-67 expression and proliferation of gliomas cells. Survival analysis showed that high expression of the six genes corporately indicated a poor survival outcome. Correlation and protein interaction analysis provided further evidence for this co-expression network. These data suggest that the co-expression of the six mitosis-regulating genes was associated with malignant progression and prognosis in ODs. PMID:26468983

  6. miR-221/222 control luminal breast cancer tumor progression by regulating different targets

    PubMed Central

    Dentelli, Patrizia; Traversa, Matteo; Rosso, Arturo; Togliatto, Gabriele; Olgasi, Cristina; Marchiò, Caterina; Provero, Paolo; Lembo, Antonio; Bon, Giulia; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Falcioni, Rita; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2014-01-01

    α6β4 integrin is an adhesion molecule for laminin receptors involved in tumor progression. We present a link between β4 integrin expression and miR-221/222 in the most prevalent human mammary tumor: luminal invasive carcinomas (Lum-ICs). Using human primary tumors that display different β4 integrin expression and grade, we show that miR-221/222 expression inversely correlates with tumor proliferating index, Ki67. Interestingly, most high-grade tumors express β4 integrin and low miR-221/222 levels. We ectopically transfected miR-221/222 into a human-derived mammary tumor cell line that recapitulates the luminal subtype to investigate whether miR-221/222 regulates β4 expression. We demonstrate that miR-221/222 overexpression results in β4 expression downregulation, breast cancer cell proliferation, and invasion inhibition. The role of miR-221/222 in driving β4 integrin expression is also confirmed via mutating the miR-221/222 seed sequence for β4 integrin 3′UTR. Furthermore, we show that these 2 miRNAs are also key breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion regulators, via the post-transcriptional regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) and of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM-17). We further confirm these data by silencing ADAM-17, using a dominant-negative or an activated STAT5A form. miR-221/222-driven β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 did not occur in MCF-10A cells, denoted “normal” breast epithelial cells, indicating that the mechanism is cancer cell-specific.   These results provide the first evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 expression, thus controlling breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Pre-miR-221/222 use in the aggressive luminal subtype may be a powerful therapeutic anti-cancer strategy. PMID:24736554

  7. Selective Regulation of Oocyte Meiotic Events Enhances Progress in Fertility Preservation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Onder; Celik, Nilufer; Gungor, Sami; Haberal, Esra Tustas; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    of the GV oocyte, which reduces the number of good quality eggs. Selective regulation of somatic cell signals and oocyte meiotic events enhance progress in fertility preservation methods, which may give us the opportunity to prevent follicle loss in prematurely aging women and young women with cancer are undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26417205

  8. Developmental and hormonal regulation of direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. interspecific hybrids) leaf culture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Prakash; Geijskes, R Jason; Wang, Lifang; Elliott, Adrian; Grof, Christopher P L; Berding, Nils; Smith, Grant R

    2006-10-01

    Rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration methods that minimise somaclonal variation are critical for the genetic transformation and mass propagation of commercial varieties. Using a transverse thin cell layer culture system, we have identified some of the developmental and physiological constraints that limit high-frequency regeneration in sugarcane leaf tissue. Tissue polarity and consequently the orientation of the explant in culture, size and developmental phase of explant, and auxin concentration play a significant role in determining the organogenic potential of leaf tissue in culture. Both adventitious shoot production and somatic embryogenesis occurred on the proximal cut surface of the explant, and a regeneration gradient, decreasing gradually from the basal to the distal end, exists in the leaf roll. Importantly, auxin, when added to the culture medium, reduced this spatial developmental constraint, as well as the effect of genotype on plant regeneration. Transverse sections (1-2 mm thick) obtained from young leaf spindle rolls and orienting explants with its distal end facing the medium (directly in contact with medium) are critical for maximum regeneration. Shoot regeneration was observed as early as 3 weeks on MS medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalenencetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine, while somatic embryogenesis or both adventitious shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis occurred on medium with NAA and chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Twenty shoots or more could be generated from a single transverse section explant. These shoots regenerated roots and successfully established after transplanted to pots. Large numbers of plantlets can be regenerated directly and rapidly using this system. SmartSett, the registered name for this process and the plants produced, will have significant practical applications for the mass propagation of new cultivars and in genetic modification programs. The SmartSett system has already been used commercially to

  9. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Jiang; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bu, Youquan

    2015-03-13

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. PMID:25666944

  10. Systems Modeling in Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual starts off as a single cell, the progeny of which form complex structures that are themselves integrated into progressively larger systems. Developmental biology is concerned with how this cellular complexity and patterning arises through orchestration of cell divi...

  11. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3- ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.

  12. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: A meta-analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-10

    Here, the nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one ofmore » the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3–) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3– ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  13. Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Cell-Cycle Progression in Mammalian Colonocytes

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Dallas R.; Wali, Aminah; Brylawski, Bruna P.; Bultman, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    A prodigious number of microbes inhabit the human body, especially in the lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, yet our knowledge of how they regulate metabolic pathways within our cells is rather limited. To investigate the role of microbiota in host energy metabolism, we analyzed ATP levels and AMPK phosphorylation in tissues isolated from germfree and conventionally-raised C57BL/6 mice. These experiments demonstrated that microbiota are required for energy homeostasis in the proximal colon to a greater extent than other segments of the GI tract that also harbor high densities of bacteria. This tissue-specific effect is consistent with colonocytes utilizing bacterially-produced butyrate as their primary energy source, whereas most other cell types utilize glucose. However, it was surprising that glucose did not compensate for butyrate deficiency. We measured a 3.5-fold increase in glucose uptake in germfree colonocytes. However, 13C-glucose metabolic-flux experiments and biochemical assays demonstrated that they shifted their glucose metabolism away from mitochondrial oxidation/CO2 production and toward increased glycolysis/lactate production, which does not yield enough ATPs to compensate. The mechanism responsible for this metabolic shift is diminished pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) levels and activity. Consistent with perturbed PDH function, the addition of butyrate, but not glucose, to germfree colonocytes ex vivo stimulated oxidative metabolism. As a result of this energetic defect, germfree colonocytes exhibited a partial block in the G1-to-S-phase transition that was rescued by a butyrate-fortified diet. These data reveal a mechanism by which microbiota regulate glucose utilization to influence energy homeostasis and cell-cycle progression of mammalian host cells. PMID:23029553

  14. Telomere position effect: regulation of gene expression with progressive telomere shortening over long distances.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; Batten, Kimberly; Magdinier, Frédérique; Stadler, Guido; Wagner, Kathyrin R; Shay, Jerry W; Wright, Woodring E

    2014-11-15

    While global chromatin conformation studies are emerging, very little is known about the chromatin conformation of human telomeres. Most studies have focused on the role of telomeres as a tumor suppressor mechanism. Here we describe how telomere length regulates gene expression long before telomeres become short enough to produce a DNA damage response (senescence). We directly mapped the interactions adjacent to specific telomere ends using a Hi-C (chromosome capture followed by high-throughput sequencing) technique modified to enrich for specific genomic regions. We demonstrate that chromosome looping brings the telomere close to genes up to 10 Mb away from the telomere when telomeres are long and that the same loci become separated when telomeres are short. Furthermore, expression array analysis reveals that many loci, including noncoding RNAs, may be regulated by telomere length. We report three genes (ISG15 [interferon-stimulated gene 15 kd], DSP [Desmoplakin], and C1S [complement component 1s subcomplement]) located at three different subtelomeric ends (1p, 6p, and 12p) whose expressions are altered with telomere length. Additionally, we confirmed by in situ analysis (3D-FISH [three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization]) that chromosomal looping occurs between the loci of those genes and their respective telomere ends. We term this process TPE-OLD for "telomere position effect over long distances." Our results suggest a potential novel mechanism for how telomere shortening could contribute to aging and disease initiation/progression in human cells long before the induction of a critical DNA damage response. PMID:25403178

  15. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-10

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of themore » basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3−) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3− ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  16. Regulation of the seed to seedling developmental phase transition by the LAFL and VAL transcription factor networks

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiyan; Suzuki, Masaharu; McCarty, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    In the seed, a fundamental transition between embryo and vegetative phases of plant development is coordinated by the interaction between the AFL and VAL sub-clades of the plant specific B3 domain transcription factor family. The AFL B3 factors together with LEC1-type HAP3 transcription factors promote embryo maturation; whereas the VAL B3 factors repress the LEC1/AFL (LAFL) network during seed germination. Recent advances reveal that genes in key developmental programs and hormone signaling pathways are downstream targets of the LAFL network highlighting the central role of the LAFL network in integration of intrinsic developmental and hormonal signals during plant development. The VAL B3 proteins are proposed to mediate repression by recruiting a histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) to LAFL genes that contain the Sph/RY cis-element recognized by AFL and VAL B3-DNA-binding domains. In addition to VAL B3 factors, epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in maintaining repression of LAFL network during vegetative development. WIREs Dev Biol 2014, 3:135–145. doi: 10.1002/wdev.126 PMID:24902838

  17. Distinct and developmentally regulated activity-dependent plasticity at descending glutamatergic synapses on flexor and extensor motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Lenschow, Constanze; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) is paramount to synaptic processing and maturation. However, identifying the ADSP capabilities of the numerous synapses converging onto spinal motoneurons (MNs) remain elusive. Using spinal cord slices from mice at two developmental stages, 1–4 and 8–12 postnatal days (P1–P4; P8–P12), we found that high-frequency stimulation of presumed reticulospinal neuron axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induced either an NMDA receptor-dependent-long-term depression (LTD), a short-term depression (STD) or no synaptic modulation in limb MNs. Our study shows that P1–P4 cervical MNs expressed the same plasticity profiles as P8–P12 lumbar MNs rather than P1–P4 lumbar MNs indicating that ADSP expression at VLF-MN synapses is linked to the rostrocaudal development of spinal motor circuitry. Interestingly, we observed that the ADSP expressed at VLF-MN was related to the functional flexor or extensor MN subtype. Moreover, heterosynaptic plasticity was triggered in MNs by VLF axon tetanisation at neighbouring synapses not directly involved in the plasticity induction. ADSP at VLF-MN synapses specify differential integrative synaptic processing by flexor and extensor MNs and could contribute to the maturation of spinal motor circuits and developmental acquisition of weight-bearing locomotion. PMID:27329279

  18. The functional expression of mu opioid receptors on sensory neurons is developmentally regulated; morphine analgesia is less selective in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Reema; Beacham, Daniel; Middleton, Jacqueta; Koltzenburg, Martin; Howard, Richard F; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2004-09-01

    Opioid requirements in neonatal patients are reported to be lower than older infants and this may be a reflection of the developmental regulation of opioid receptors. In this study we have investigated the postnatal regulation of Mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in both rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures and behavioural mechanical and thermal reflex tests in rat pups. Immunostaining with MOR and selective neurofilament (NF200) antibodies was combined with calcium imaging of MOR function in cultured neonatal and adult rat dorsal root ganglion cells. Calcium imaging showed that a significantly greater number of neonatal DRG neurons expressed functional MOR compared to adult (56.5+/-3.4 versus 39.9+/-1.5%, n=8, mean+/-SEM, P<0.001). This expression is confined to the large, neurofilament positive sensory neurons, while expression in small, nociceptive, neurofilament negative neurons remains unchanged. Sensory threshold testing in rat pups showed that the analgesic potency of systemic morphine to mechanical stimulation is significantly greater in the neonate and declines with postnatal age. Morphine analgesic potency in thermal nociceptive tests did not change with postnatal age. These experiments show that the MOR expressed on large DRG neurons in neonates are functional and are subject to postnatal developmental regulation. This changing functional receptor profile is consistent with greater morphine potency in mechanical, but not thermal, sensory tests in young animals. These results have important clinical implications for the use of morphine in neonates and provide a possible explanation for the differences in morphine requirements observed in the youngest patients. PMID:15327807

  19. YB-1 regulates stress granule formation and tumor progression by translationally activating G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Leprivier, Gabriel; Cheng, Hongwei; Hajee, Shamil; Grunewald, Thomas G.P.; Zhang, Fan; Ng, Tony; Delattre, Olivier; Evdokimova, Valentina; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Under cell stress, global protein synthesis is inhibited to preserve energy. One mechanism is to sequester and silence mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as stress granules (SGs), which contain translationally silent mRNAs, preinitiation factors, and RNA-binding proteins. Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) localizes to SGs, but its role in SG biology is unknown. We now report that YB-1 directly binds to and translationally activates the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of G3BP1 mRNAs, thereby controlling the availability of the G3BP1 SG nucleator for SG assembly. YB-1 inactivation in human sarcoma cells dramatically reduces G3BP1 and SG formation in vitro. YB-1 and G3BP1 expression are highly correlated in human sarcomas, and elevated G3BP1 expression correlates with poor survival. Finally, G3BP1 down-regulation in sarcoma xenografts prevents in vivo SG formation and tumor invasion, and completely blocks lung metastasis in mouse models. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for YB-1 in SG formation through translational activation of G3BP1, and highlight novel functions for SGs in tumor progression. PMID:25800057

  20. Cep55 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression in meiotic oocyte.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Yang; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Guo, Lei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Cep55 is a relatively novel member of the centrosomal protein family. Here, we show that Cep55 is expressed in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages. Immuostaining and confocal microscopy as well as time lapse live imaging after injection of mRNA encoding fusion protein of Cep55 and GFP identified that Cep55 was localized to the meiotic spindle, especially to the spindle poles at metaphase, while it was concentrated at the midbody in telophase in meiotic oocytes. Knockdown of Cep55 by specific siRNA injection caused the dissociation of γ-tubulin from the spindle poles, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes, leading to metaphase I arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Correspondingly, cyclin B accumulation and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation were observed in Cep55 knockdown oocytes. Our results suggest that Cep55 may act as an MTOC-associated protein regulating spindle organization, and thus cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:26582107

  1. Down-Regulation of CD9 Expression and its Correlation to Tumor Progression in B Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sun-Ok; Zhang, Xin; Freedman, Arnold S.; Zahrieh, David; Lossos, Izidore S.; Li, Li; Choi, Yong Sung

    2010-01-01

    Histological transformation, a pivotal event in the natural history of cancers including lymphomas, is typically associated with more aggressive clinical behavior. L3055, a B lymphoma cell line of germinal center (GC) origin, is dependent on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) for survival and proliferation, similar to GC-B cells. However, L3055 cells become less FDC-dependent after prolonged culture, which is analogous to transformation in vivo. Comparison of two L3055 subclones (i.e., the FDC-dependent indolent clone 12 and the FDC-independent aggressive clone 33) by DNA microarray revealed that CD9 was the most differentially expressed gene (P = 0.05). L3055-12 expresses high levels of CD9 while L3055-33 does not. Reduced levels or loss of CD9 expression is also observed in other CD9-positive B lymphoma cell lines. The resultant CD9-negative cells grow faster than CD9-positive cells due to their greater resistance to apoptosis. Furthermore, CD9-negative cells are less dependent on FDCs for their survival and growth compared with CD9-positive cells. CD9 down-regulation in B lymphomas appears to be controlled epigenetically, mainly through histone modifications. These findings imply that CD9 is inversely correlated with B lymphoma progression, and CD9 inactivation may play an important role in B lymphoma transformation. PMID:20566742

  2. Cep55 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression in meiotic oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhao-Yang; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Guo, Lei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Cep55 is a relatively novel member of the centrosomal protein family. Here, we show that Cep55 is expressed in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages. Immuostaining and confocal microscopy as well as time lapse live imaging after injection of mRNA encoding fusion protein of Cep55 and GFP identified that Cep55 was localized to the meiotic spindle, especially to the spindle poles at metaphase, while it was concentrated at the midbody in telophase in meiotic oocytes. Knockdown of Cep55 by specific siRNA injection caused the dissociation of γ-tubulin from the spindle poles, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes, leading to metaphase I arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Correspondingly, cyclin B accumulation and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation were observed in Cep55 knockdown oocytes. Our results suggest that Cep55 may act as an MTOC-associated protein regulating spindle organization, and thus cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:26582107

  3. The microRNA feedback regulation of p63 in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Changwei; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yihang; Zhou, Jianyu; Gao, Kai; Dai, Jing; Hu, Gui; Lv, Lv; Du, Juan; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 is a member of the p53 gene family that plays a complex role in cancer due to its involvement in epithelial differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs with an important regulatory role in various cellular processes, as well as in the development and progression of cancer. A number of microRNAs have been shown to function as transcriptional targets of p63. Conversely, microRNAs also can modulate the expression and activity of p63. However, the p63–microRNA regulatory circuit has not been addressed in depth so far. Here, computational genomic analysis was performed using miRtarBase, Targetscan, microRNA.ORG, DIANA-MICROT, RNA22-HSA and miRDB to analyze miRNA binding to the 3′UTR of p63. JASPAR (profile score threshold 80%) and TFSEARCH datasets were used to search transcriptional start sites for p53/p63 response elements. Remarkably, these data revealed 63 microRNAs that targeted p63. Furthermore, there were 39 microRNAs targeting p63 that were predicted to be regulated by p63. These analyses suggest a crosstalk between p63 and microRNAs. Here, we discuss the crosstalk between p63 and the microRNA network, and the role of their interactions in cancer. PMID:25726529

  4. AP-1 Is a Key Regulator of Proinflammatory Cytokine TNFα-mediated Triple-negative Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yichun; He, Huan; Jonsson, Philip; Sinha, Indranil; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2016-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a highly aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanistic aspects of inflammation mediated TNBC progression remain unclear. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrate that the cistrome for the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is comprised of 13,800 binding regions in TNFα-stimulated TNBC cells. In addition, we show that c-Jun regulates nearly a third of the TNFα-regulated transcriptome. Interestingly, high expression level of the c-Jun-regulated pro-invasion gene program is associated with poor clinical outcome in TNBCs. We further demonstrate that c-Jun drives TNFα-mediated increase of malignant characteristics of TNBC cells by transcriptional regulation of Ninj1. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 4, we demonstrate that NF-κB might be a pioneer factor required for the regulation of TNFα-inducible inflammatory genes, whereas c-Jun has little effect. Together, our results uncover AP-1 as an important determinant for inflammation-induced cancer progression, rather than inflammatory response. PMID:26792858

  5. The Developmental Trajectory of Perceived Self-Regulation, Personal Interest, and General Achievement throughout High School: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helle, Laura; Laakkonen, Eero; Tuijula, Tiina; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our interest in perceived self-regulation of learning arose in the context of educational reform. After decades of stability, the Finnish high school system underwent reform in the 1990s, with a significant emphasis being placed on promoting student self-regulation of learning. Aims: The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate…

  6. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  7. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Grape Berry Cell Cultures Reveals that Developmentally Regulated Ripening Related Processes Can Be Studied Using Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharathchandra, Ramaschandra G.; Stander, Charmaine; Jacobson, Dan; Ndimba, Bongani; Vivier, Melané A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This work describes a proteomics profiling method, optimized and applied to berry cell suspensions to evaluate organ-specific cultures as a platform to study grape berry ripening. Variations in berry ripening within a cluster(s) on a vine and in a vineyard are a major impediment towards complete understanding of the functional processes that control ripening, specifically when a characterized and homogenous sample is required. Berry cell suspensions could overcome some of these problems, but their suitability as a model system for berry development and ripening needs to be established first. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report on the proteomic evaluation of the cytosolic proteins obtained from synchronized cell suspension cultures that were established from callus lines originating from green, véraison and ripe Vitis vinifera berry explants. The proteins were separated using liquid phase IEF in a Microrotofor cell and SDS PAGE. This method proved superior to gel-based 2DE. Principal component analysis confirmed that biological and technical repeats grouped tightly and importantly, showed that the proteomes of berry cultures originating from the different growth/ripening stages were distinct. A total of twenty six common bands were selected after band matching between different growth stages and twenty two of these bands were positively identified. Thirty two % of the identified proteins are currently annotated as hypothetical. The differential expression profile of the identified proteins, when compared with published literature on grape berry ripening, suggested common trends in terms of relative abundance in the different developmental stages between real berries and cell suspensions. Conclusions The advantages of having suspension cultures that accurately mimic specific developmental stages are profound and could significantly contribute to the study of the intricate regulatory and signaling networks responsible for berry

  9. Molecular cloning of a Drosophila potential Z-DNA forming sequence hybridizing in situ to a developmentally regulated subdivision of the polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Ruiz, A; Requena, J M; Lancillotti, F; Morales, G; Lopez, M C; Alonso, C

    1989-01-01

    We describe the selection of a group of plasmids with potential to form Z-DNA, from libraries of Drosophila hydei nuclear DNA using anti Z-DNA monoclonal (22) or polyclonal (10c) antibodies. The supercoiled closed circular forms of most of the selected recombinant plasmids from the 10c Z-DNA library show affinity to the polyclonal 10c antibody as indicated by DNA binding assays. One of these plasmids, pF17, was selected for further study. The insert in this plasmid adopts the Z conformation at bacterial supercoiled density. Analysis of deletion plasmids indicates that a Z-epitope is located within a short fragment of the insert in which 3 GC repetitions are found. The Drosophila DNA insert in pF17 hybridizes in situ with locus 4-75C1-2 of the polytene chromosomes, a locus whose transcriptional activity is developmentally regulated during the third instar. Images PMID:2473437

  10. The regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during the progression of cancer cachexia in the Apc(Min/+) mouse.

    PubMed

    White, James P; Baynes, John W; Welle, Stephen L; Kostek, Matthew C; Matesic, Lydia E; Sato, Shuichi; Carson, James A

    2011-01-01

    Muscle wasting that occurs with cancer cachexia is caused by an imbalance in the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is a model of colorectal cancer that develops cachexia that is dependent on circulating IL-6. However, the IL-6 regulation of muscle protein turnover during the initiation and progression of cachexia in the Apc(Min/+) mouse is not known. Cachexia progression was studied in Apc(Min/+) mice that were either weight stable (WS) or had initial (≤5%), intermediate (6-19%), or extreme (≥20%) body weight loss. The initiation of cachexia reduced %MPS 19% and a further ∼50% with additional weight loss. Muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression and mTOR targets were suppressed with the progression of body weight loss, while muscle AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172), AMPK activity, and raptor phosphorylation (Ser 792) were not increased with the initiation of weight loss, but were induced as cachexia progressed. ATP dependent protein degradation increased during the initiation and progression of cachexia. However, ATP independent protein degradation was not increased until cachexia had progressed beyond the initial phase. IL-6 receptor antibody administration prevented body weight loss and suppressed muscle protein degradation, without any effect on muscle %MPS or IGF-1 associated signaling. In summary, the %MPS reduction during the initiation of cachexia is associated with IGF-1/mTOR signaling repression, while muscle AMPK activation and activation of ATP independent protein degradation occur later in the progression of cachexia. IL-6 receptor antibody treatment blocked cachexia progression through the suppression of muscle protein degradation, while not rescuing the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process. PMID:21949739

  11. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S; Morris, Huw R; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T; Bushell, Trevor J; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J; Fox, Nick C; Rossor, Martin N; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-09-15

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC-neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  12. One of the Two Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated HU Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor Is Developmentally Regulated and Specifically Involved in Spore Maturation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Paola; Larsson, Jessica; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Smith, Colin P.; Flärdh, Klas

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces genomes encode two homologs of the nucleoid-associated HU proteins. One of them, here designated HupA, is of a conventional type similar to E. coli HUα and HUβ, while the other, HupS, is a two-domain protein. In addition to the N-terminal part that is similar to that of HU proteins, it has a C-terminal domain that is similar to the alanine- and lysine-rich C termini of eukaryotic linker histones. Such two-domain HU proteins are found only among Actinobacteria. In this phylum some organisms have only a single HU protein of the type with a C-terminal histone H1-like domain (e.g., Hlp in Mycobacterium smegmatis), while others have only a single conventional HU. Yet others, including the streptomycetes, produce both types of HU proteins. We show here that the two HU genes in Streptomyces coelicolor are differentially regulated and that hupS is specifically expressed during sporulation, while hupA is expressed in vegetative hyphae. The developmental upregulation of hupS occurred in sporogenic aerial hyphal compartments and was dependent on the developmental regulators whiA, whiG, and whiI. HupS was found to be nucleoid associated in spores, and a hupS deletion mutant had an average nucleoid size in spores larger than that in the parent strain. The mutant spores were also defective in heat resistance and spore pigmentation, although they possessed apparently normal spore walls and displayed no increased sensitivity to detergents. Overall, the results show that HupS is specifically involved in sporulation and may affect nucleoid architecture and protection in spores of S. coelicolor. PMID:19717607

  13. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J.; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S.; Morris, Huw R.; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J.; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T.; Bushell, Trevor J.; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J.; Fox, Nick C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC–neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  14. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  15. cDNA cloning, heat shock regulation and developmental expression of the hsp83 gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Theodoraki, M A; Mintzas, A C

    2006-12-01

    This report presents the cDNA cloning, heat shock regulation and developmental expression of the hsp90 gene homologue of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly). The isolated cDNA contained the coding region, the 3'UTR and most of the 5'UTR of the medfly hsp90 homologue, which was named Cchsp83. The deduced CcHSP83 polypeptide contained all the highly conserved amino acid segments that characterize the cytosolic members of the HSP90 family. Genomic analysis showed that the Cchsp83 gene is unique and was mapped at the 94C division of the sixth polytene chromosome. The size of the Cchsp83 mRNA was found to be approximately 2.7 kb. The predicted molecular mass of the CcHSP83 protein was 81.4 kDa, while the apparent molecular weight estimated by SDS-PAGE was approximately 90 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis based on 14 insect HSP90 amino acid sequences was consistent with the known phylogeny at low taxonomic level. The Cchsp83 gene is constitutively expressed in all stages of medfly development and is induced from a low level to several-fold by heat, depending on the developmental stage. Heat shock induction begins at 30 degrees C, reaching a maximum between 35 and 41 degrees C. Cchsp83 RNA expression is highly regulated during embryonic development; however, the temporal fluctuations in RNA levels during embryogenesis were not followed by similar fluctuations in the levels of the protein. PMID:17201776

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the matricellular protein Sparc/osteonectin in flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus, and its developmental stage-dependent transcriptional regulation during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Núñez, E; Suarez-Bregua, P; Cal, L; Cal, R; Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Rotllant, J

    2015-09-01

    SPARC/osteonectin is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein, which is expressed in embryonic and adult tissues that undergo active proliferation and dynamic morphogenesis. Recent studies indicate that Sparc expression appears early in development, although its function and regulation during development are largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, characterization, post-embryonic developmental expression and environmental thermal regulation of sparc in turbot. The full-length turbot sparc cDNA contains 930 bp and encodes a protein of 310 amino acids, which shares 77, 75 and 80% identity with human, frog and zebrafish, respectively. Results of whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal a dynamic expression profile during post-embryonic turbot development. Sparc is expressed differentially in the cranioencephalic region; mainly in jaws, branchial arches, fin folds and rays of caudal, dorsal and anal fins. Furthermore, ontogenetic studies demonstrated that Sparc gene expression is dynamically regulated during post-embryonic turbot development, with high expression during stage-specific post-embryonic remodeling. Additionally, the effect of thermal environmental conditions on turbot development and on ontogenetic sparc expression was evaluated. PMID:25981593

  17. Post-developmental microRNA expression is required for normal physiology, and regulates aging in parallel to insulin/IGF-1 signaling in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Castro, Cecilia; Murfitt, Kenneth J; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Griffin, Julian L; Miska, Eric A

    2012-12-01

    Regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential for normal development, but the roles of miRNAs in the physiology of adult animals are poorly understood. We have isolated a conditional allele of DGCR8/pash-1, which allows reversible and rapid inactivation of miRNA synthesis in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a powerful new tool that allows dissection of post-developmental miRNA functions. We demonstrate that continuous synthesis of miRNAs is dispensable for cellular viability but critical for the physiology of adult animals. Loss of miRNA synthesis in the adult reduces lifespan and results in rapid aging. The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway is a critical determinant of lifespan, and is modulated by miRNAs. We find that although miRNA expression is required for some mechanisms of lifespan extension, it is not essential for the longevity of animals lacking insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Further, misregulated insulin/IGF-1 signaling cannot account for the reduced lifespan caused by disruption of miRNA synthesis. We show that miRNAs act in parallel with insulin/IGF-1 signaling to regulate a shared set of downstream genes important for physiological processes that determine lifespan. We conclude that coordinated transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression promotes longevity. PMID:23097426

  18. Novel rice MAP kinases OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 involved in encountering diverse environmental stresses and developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh K; Agrawal, Shyam K; Shibato, Junko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2003-01-17

    We report isolation of two novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), OsMSRMK3 (multiple stress responsive) and OsWJUMK1 (wound- and JA-uninducible) that most likely exist as single copy genes in its genome. OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 encode 369 and 569 amino acid polypeptides having the MAPK family signature and phosphorylation activation motifs TEY and TDY, respectively. Steady state mRNA analyses of these MAPKs with constitutive expression in leaves of two-week-old seedlings revealed that OsMSRMK3 was up-regulated upon wounding (by cut), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), protein phosphatase inhibitors, chitosan, high salt/sugar, and heavy metals, whereas OsWJUMK1 not induced by either wounding, JA or SA, showed up-regulation only by H(2)O(2), heavy metals, and cold stress (12 degrees C). Moreover, these MAPKs were developmentally regulated. These results strongly suggest a role for OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 in both stress-signalling pathways and development in rice. PMID:12507518

  19. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  20. Overexpression of HOX genes is prevalent in Ewing sarcoma and is associated with altered epigenetic regulation of developmental transcription programs

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Laurie K; Harris, Ashley; Bailey, Natashay J; Schwentner, Raphaela; Tomazou, Eleni; von Levetzow, Cornelia; Magnuson, Brian; Ljungman, Mats; Kovar, Heinrich; Lawlor, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    The polycomb proteins BMI-1 and EZH2 are highly overexpressed by Ewing sarcoma (ES), a tumor of stem cell origin that is driven by EWS-ETS fusion oncogenes, most commonly EWS-FLI1. In the current study we analyzed expression of transcription programs that are controlled by polycomb proteins during embryonic development to determine if they are abnormal in ES. Our results show that polycomb target gene expression in ES deviates from normal tissues and stem cells and that, as expected, most targets are relatively repressed. However, we also discovered a paradoxical up regulation of numerous polycomb targets and these were highly enriched for homeobox (HOX) genes. Comparison of HOX profiles between malignant and non-malignant tissues revealed a distinctive HOX profile in ES, which was characterized by overexpression of posterior HOXD genes. In addition, ectopic expression of EWS-FLI1 during stem cell differentiation led to aberrant up regulation of posterior HOXD genes. Mechanistically, this up regulation was associated with altered epigenetic regulation. Specifically, ES and EWS-FLI1+ stem cells displayed a relative loss of polycomb-dependent H3K27me3 and gain of trithorax-dependent H3K4me3 at the promoters of posterior HOXD genes and also at the HOXD11.12 polycomb response element. In addition, a striking correlation was evident between HOXD13 and other genes whose regulation is coordinately regulated during embryonic development by distal enhancer elements. Together, these studies demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of polycomb target genes, in particular HOXD genes, is altered in ES and that these changes are mediated downstream of EWS-FLI1. PMID:25625846

  1. Brain phosphorylation of MeCP2 at serine 164 is developmentally regulated and globally alters its chromatin association

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Gilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Costa, Mario; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Di Marino, Daniele; Barbiero, Isabella; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Ausió, Juan; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    MeCP2 is a transcriptional regulator whose functional alterations are responsible for several autism spectrum and mental disorders. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), and particularly differential phosphorylation, modulate MeCP2 function in response to diverse stimuli. Understanding the detailed role of MeCP2 phosphorylation is thus instrumental to ascertain how MeCP2 integrates the environmental signals and directs its adaptive transcriptional responses. The evolutionarily conserved serine 164 (S164) was found phosphorylated in rodent brain but its functional role has remained uncharacterized. We show here that phosphorylation of S164 in brain is dynamically regulated during neuronal maturation. S164 phosphorylation highly impairs MeCP2 binding to DNA in vitro and largely affects its nucleosome binding and chromatin affinity in vivo. Strikingly, the chromatin-binding properties of the global MeCP2 appear also extensively altered during the course of brain maturation. Functional assays reveal that proper temporal regulation of S164 phosphorylation controls the ability of MeCP2 to regulate neuronal morphology. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis of a complex PTM-mediated functional regulation of MeCP2 potentially involving a still poorly characterized epigenetic code. Furthermore, they demonstrate the relevance of the Intervening Domain of MeCP2 for binding to DNA. PMID:27323888

  2. Brain phosphorylation of MeCP2 at serine 164 is developmentally regulated and globally alters its chromatin association.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Gilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Costa, Mario; Cheema, Manjinder S; Di Marino, Daniele; Barbiero, Isabella; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Ausió, Juan; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    MeCP2 is a transcriptional regulator whose functional alterations are responsible for several autism spectrum and mental disorders. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), and particularly differential phosphorylation, modulate MeCP2 function in response to diverse stimuli. Understanding the detailed role of MeCP2 phosphorylation is thus instrumental to ascertain how MeCP2 integrates the environmental signals and directs its adaptive transcriptional responses. The evolutionarily conserved serine 164 (S164) was found phosphorylated in rodent brain but its functional role has remained uncharacterized. We show here that phosphorylation of S164 in brain is dynamically regulated during neuronal maturation. S164 phosphorylation highly impairs MeCP2 binding to DNA in vitro and largely affects its nucleosome binding and chromatin affinity in vivo. Strikingly, the chromatin-binding properties of the global MeCP2 appear also extensively altered during the course of brain maturation. Functional assays reveal that proper temporal regulation of S164 phosphorylation controls the ability of MeCP2 to regulate neuronal morphology. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis of a complex PTM-mediated functional regulation of MeCP2 potentially involving a still poorly characterized epigenetic code. Furthermore, they demonstrate the relevance of the Intervening Domain of MeCP2 for binding to DNA. PMID:27323888

  3. Genome-wide gene expression analysis supports a developmental model of low temperature tolerance gene regulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify the genes involved in the development of low temperature (LT) tolerance in hexaploid wheat, we examined the global changes in expression in response to cold of the 55,052 potentially unique genes represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome microarray. We compared the expression of genes in winter-habit (winter Norstar and winter Manitou) and spring-habit (spring Manitou and spring Norstar)) cultivars, wherein the locus for the vernalization gene Vrn-A1 was swapped between the parental winter Norstar and spring Manitou in the derived near-isogenic lines winter Manitou and spring Norstar. Global expression of genes in the crowns of 3-leaf stage plants cold-acclimated at 6°C for 0, 2, 14, 21, 38, 42, 56 and 70 days was examined. Results Analysis of variance of gene expression separated the samples by genetic background and by the developmental stage before or after vernalization saturation was reached. Using gene-specific ANOVA we identified 12,901 genes (at p < 0.001) that change in expression with respect to both genotype and the duration of cold-treatment. We examined in more detail a subset of these genes (2,771) where expression was highly influenced by the interaction between these two main factors. Functional assignments using GO annotations showed that genes involved in transport, oxidation-reduction, and stress response were highly represented. Clustering based on the pattern of transcript accumulation identified genes that were up or down-regulated by cold-treatment. Our data indicate that the cold-sensitive lines can up-regulate known cold-responsive genes comparable to that of cold-hardy lines. The levels of expression of these genes were highly influenced by the initial rate and the duration of the gene's response to cold. We show that the Vrn-A1 locus controls the duration of gene expression but not its initial rate of response to cold treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Ta.Vrn-A1 and Ta.Vrt1 originally hypothesized to

  4. Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN2 is a RNA chaperone that is regulated by cold and developmental signals

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kim, Myung-Hee; Imai, Ryozo

    2007-12-21

    Bacterial cold shock proteins (CSPs) are RNA chaperones that unwind RNA secondary structures. Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN2 (AtCSP2) contains a domain that is shared with bacterial CSPs. Here we showed that AtCSP2 binds to RNA and unwinds nucleic acid duplex. Heterologous expression of AtCSP2 complemented cold sensitivity of an Escherichia coli csp quadruple mutant, indicating that AtCSP2 function as a RNA chaperone in E. coli. AtCSP2 mRNA and protein levels increased during cold acclimation, but the protein accumulation was most prominent after 10 days of cold treatment. AtCSP2 promoter::GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtCSP2 is expressed only in root and shoot apical regions during vegetative growth but is expressed in reproductive organs such as pollens, ovules and embryos. These data indicated that AtCSP2 is involved in developmental processes as well as cold adaptation. Localization of AtCSP2::GFP in nucleolus and cytoplasm suggested different nuclear and cytosolic RNA targets.

  5. Skin incision-induced receptive field responses of mechanosensitive peripheral neurons are developmentally regulated in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Giffear, Kelly; Eisenach, James C.; Ririe, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of the nervous system results in changes in both central and peripheral processing. To better understand responses to injury in the young, developmental differences in the acute response to incision were investigated in both tactile and nociceptive myelinated peripheral mechanosensitive afferent neurons in vivo. Neuronal intrasomal recordings were performed in juvenile and infant rats in 34 L5 dorsal root ganglia, and each neuron was phenotypically defined. Neurons had a mechanosensitive receptive field in the glabrous skin on the plantar surface of the hind paw, which was characterized at baseline and for up to 45 min after incision. Fundamental maturational differences in the effect of incision were clear: in high-threshold nociceptive mechanoreceptors, the mechanical threshold decreased immediately and the receptive field size increased rapidly in juvenile rats but not in infant rats. Additionally, a divergence in changes in the instantaneous response frequency of tactile afferents occurred between the two ages. These differences may help explain maturational differences in responses to peripheral injury and suggest that differences in central nervous system responses may be partially mitigated by spatially confined and frequency-dependent differences resulting from tactile and nociceptive mechanosensitive input. PMID:22673323

  6. Abrupt Onset of Mutations in a Developmentally Regulated Gene during Terminal Differentiation of Post-Mitotic Photoreceptor Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ivette M.; Price, Brandee A.; Gross, Alecia K.; Chan, Fung; Sammons, Joshua D.; Wilson, John H.; Wensel, Theodore G.

    2014-01-01

    For sensitive detection of rare gene repair events in terminally differentiated photoreceptors, we generated a knockin mouse model by replacing one mouse rhodopsin allele with a form of the human rhodopsin gene that causes a severe, early-onset form of retinitis pigmentosa. The human gene contains a premature stop codon at position 344 (Q344X), cDNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its 3′ end, and a modified 5′ untranslated region to reduce translation rate so that the mutant protein does not induce retinal degeneration. Mutations that eliminate the stop codon express a human rhodopsin-EGFP fusion protein (hRho-GFP), which can be readily detected by fluorescence microscopy. Spontaneous mutations were observed at a frequency of about one per retina; in every case, they gave rise to single fluorescent rod cells, indicating that each mutation occurred during or after the last mitotic division. Additionally, the number of fluorescent rods did not increase with age, suggesting that the rhodopsin gene in mature rod cells is less sensitive to mutation than it is in developing rods. Thus, there is a brief developmental window, coinciding with the transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin locus, in which somatic mutations of the rhodopsin gene abruptly begin to appear. PMID:25264759

  7. Abrupt onset of mutations in a developmentally regulated gene during terminal differentiation of post-mitotic photoreceptor neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Ivette M; Price, Brandee A; Gross, Alecia K; Chan, Fung; Sammons, Joshua D; Wilson, John H; Wensel, Theodore G

    2014-01-01

    For sensitive detection of rare gene repair events in terminally differentiated photoreceptors, we generated a knockin mouse model by replacing one mouse rhodopsin allele with a form of the human rhodopsin gene that causes a severe, early-onset form of retinitis pigmentosa. The human gene contains a premature stop codon at position 344 (Q344X), cDNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its 3' end, and a modified 5' untranslated region to reduce translation rate so that the mutant protein does not induce retinal degeneration. Mutations that eliminate the stop codon express a human rhodopsin-EGFP fusion protein (hRho-GFP), which can be readily detected by fluorescence microscopy. Spontaneous mutations were observed at a frequency of about one per retina; in every case, they gave rise to single fluorescent rod cells, indicating that each mutation occurred during or after the last mitotic division. Additionally, the number of fluorescent rods did not increase with age, suggesting that the rhodopsin gene in mature rod cells is less sensitive to mutation than it is in developing rods. Thus, there is a brief developmental window, coinciding with the transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin locus, in which somatic mutations of the rhodopsin gene abruptly begin to appear. PMID:25264759

  8. A candidate gene for developmental dyslexia encodes a nuclear tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein dynamically regulated in brain.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Mikko; Kaminen, Nina; Nopola-Hemmi, Jaana; Haltia, Tuomas; Myllyluoma, Birgitta; Lyytinen, Heikki; Muller, Kurt; Kaaranen, Minna; Lindsberg, Perttu J; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Kere, Juha

    2003-09-30

    Approximately 3-10% of people have specific difficulties in reading, despite adequate intelligence, education, and social environment. We report here the characterization of a gene, DYX1C1 near the DYX1 locus in chromosome 15q21, that is disrupted by a translocation t(2;15)(q11;q21) segregating coincidentally with dyslexia. Two sequence changes in DYX1C1, one involving the translation initiation sequence and an Elk-1 transcription factor binding site (-3G --> A) and a codon (1249G --> T), introducing a premature stop codon and truncating the predicted protein by 4 aa, associate alone and in combination with dyslexia. DYX1C1 encodes a 420-aa protein with three tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, thought to be protein interaction modules, but otherwise with no homology to known proteins. The mouse Dyx1c1 protein is 78% identical to the human protein, and the nonhuman primates differ at 0.5-1.4% of residues. DYX1C1 is expressed in several tissues, including the brain, and the protein resides in the nucleus. In human brain, DYX1C1 protein localizes to a fraction of cortical neurons and white matter glial cells. We conclude that DYX1C1 should be regarded as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia. Detailed study of its function may open a path to understanding a complex process of development and maturation of the human brain. PMID:12954984

  9. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Jiang; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bu, Youquan

    2015-03-13

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  10. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypo...

  11. EXPRESSION OF THE TGF-BETA FAMILY OF LIGANDS IS DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF NEONATAL RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To dissect the possible role of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth during the early postnatal period, the protein abundances of the TGF-beta family and their correlation with protein synthesis were determined in skeletal muscle of neonat...

  12. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karen D. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated in this study. The moderator effect of gender, age and ethnicity on the relationships between training and the outcomes of metacognition and math achievement were also explored. The participants for this study were 116 community college students…

  13. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during early adolescence. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine longitudinal relations among these constructs, with results supporting a negative association between use of active distraction and peer rejection and a positive association between peer rejection and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, an indirect effect of active distraction on antisocial behavior was found through peer rejection. Thus, adaptive self-regulation strategy use in early childhood demonstrated direct longitudinal relations with peer rejection and an indirect association with antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation of emotion and reduce risk for later social problems and delinquency. PMID:20161105

  14. The effects of goal-driven and data-driven regulation on metacognitive monitoring during learning: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Ackerman, Rakefet; Adiv, Shiri; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Research in metacognition (Koriat, Ma'ayan, & Nussinson, 2006) suggests bidirectional links between monitoring and control during learning: When self-regulation is goal-driven, monitoring affects control so that increased study time (ST) enhances judgments of learning (JOLs). However, when self-regulation is data-driven, JOLs are based on the feedback from control, and therefore JOLs decrease with ST under the heuristic that ease of encoding is diagnostic of successful recall. Evidence for both types of relationships occurring within the same situation was found for adults. We examined the development of the ability to respond differentially to data-driven and goal-driven variation in ST within the same task. Children in Grades 5 and 6 exhibited a positive ST-JOL relationship for goal-driven regulation and a negative relationship for data-driven regulation but never in the same task. In contrast, the JOLs and recall of 9th graders and college students yielded differential cosensitivity to data-driven and goal-driven variation. The 5th and 6th graders also evidenced an adult-like pattern of JOLs and recall under a partitioning procedure that helped them in factoring the variation in ST due to data-driven and goal-driven variation in ST. The results are discussed in terms of the metacognitive sophistication needed for considering both types of variation simultaneously in making metacognitive judgments. PMID:23421442

  15. A Developmental Approach to Early Childhood Program Quality Improvement: The Relation between State Regulation and NAEYC Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Peggy L.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptive statistics were utilized to examine the relation between early childhood education and care quality indicators found in state child care regulations and the number of National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) accredited programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The data analysis provided the first…

  16. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire. PMID:26552258

  17. Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 regulates cell cycle progression of endothelial progenitor cells through induction of Wnt2 expression.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Ma, Yang; Wang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Endothelial injury is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation contributes to vascular injury repair. Overexpression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) significantly promotes EPC proliferation; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the role of Id1 in cell cycle regulation of EPCs, which is closely associated with proliferation. Overexpression of Id1 increased the proportion of EPCs in the S/G2M phase and significantly increased cyclin D1 expression levels, while knockdown of Id1 arrested the cell cycle progression of EPCs in the G1 phase and inhibited cyclin D1 expression levels. In addition, it was demonstrated that Id1 upregulated wingless‑type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family member 2 (Wnt2) expression levels and promoted β‑catenin accumulation and nuclear translocation. Furthermore, Wnt2 knockdown counteracted the effects of Id1 on cell cycle progression of EPCs. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Id1 promoted Wnt2 expression, which accelerated cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. This suggests that Id1 may promote cell cycle progression of EPCs, and that Wnt2 may be important in Id1 regulation of the cell cycle of EPCs. PMID:27432753

  18. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR. HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR. This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis. PMID:26917685

  19. Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Controls Cell Cycle Progression by Regulating the Expression of Oncogenic Transcription Factor B-MYB

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vidisha; Shen, Zhen; Chakraborty, Arindam; Giri, Sumanprava; Freier, Susan M.; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yongqing; Gorospe, Myriam; Prasanth, Supriya G.; Lal, Ashish; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.

    2013-01-01

    The long noncoding MALAT1 RNA is upregulated in cancer tissues and its elevated expression is associated with hyper-proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We demonstrate that MALAT1 levels are regulated during normal cell cycle progression. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses in normal human diploid fibroblasts reveal that MALAT1 modulates the expression of cell cycle genes and is required for G1/S and mitotic progression. Depletion of MALAT1 leads to activation of p53 and its target genes. The cell cycle defects observed in MALAT1-depleted cells are sensitive to p53 levels, indicating that p53 is a major downstream mediator of MALAT1 activity. Furthermore, MALAT1-depleted cells display reduced expression of B-MYB (Mybl2), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in G2/M progression, due to altered binding of splicing factors on B-MYB pre-mRNA and aberrant alternative splicing. In human cells, MALAT1 promotes cellular proliferation by modulating the expression and/or pre-mRNA processing of cell cycle–regulated transcription factors. These findings provide mechanistic insights on the role of MALAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:23555285

  20. Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or α (adult) and 17 or β (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5′ end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3′ exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5′ flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

  1. Progressive Regulation of Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis and Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) by the miR156-Targeted SPL Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zong-Xia; Wang, Ling-Jian; Zhao, Bo; Shan, Chun-Min; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Chen, Dong-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2014-10-29

    Plant metabolites vary at different stages of life cycle. Although it is well documented that environmental factors stimulate biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the regulation by endogenous developmental cues remains poorly understood. The microRNA156 (miR156)-tageted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) factors function as a major age cue in regulating developmental phase transition and flowering. We show here that the miR156-targeted SPL transcription factor plays an important role in the spatiotemporal regulation of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the miR156-SPL module regulates the formation of (E)-β-caryophyllene in flowering stage through modulating expression of the sesquiterpene synthase gene TPS21. We demonstrated that SPL9 directly binds to TPS21 promoter and activates its expression. In the perennial fragrant herb Pogostemon cablin, the accumulation of "patchouli oil", largely composed of sesquiterpenes dominated by (-)-patchoulol, is also age-regulated, and the SPL promotes biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in elder plants by up-regulating patchoulol synthase (PatPTS) gene expression. As miR156-SPLs are highly conserved in plants, our finding not only uncovers a molecular link between developmental timing and sesquiterpene production, but also suggests a new strategy to engineer plant for accelerated growth with enhanced production of terpenoids. PMID:25355059

  2. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress-induced membrane biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Pei-Chen Lin, C.; Pathak, M. C.; Temple, B. R. S.; Nile, A. H.; Mousley, C. J.; Duncan, M. C.; Eckert, D. M.; Leiker, T. J.; Ivanova, P. T.; Myers, D. S.; Murphy, R. C.; Brown, H. A.; Verdaasdonk, J.; Bloom, K. S.; Ortlund, E. A.; Neiman, A. M.; Bankaitis, V. A.

    2014-01-08

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic, and functional genomics approaches.

  3. Tissue-specific, developmental, hormonal, and dietary regulation of rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Short, M K; Clouthier, D E; Schaefer, I M; Hammer, R E; Magnuson, M A; Beale, E G

    1992-01-01

    The cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene is expressed in multiple tissues and is regulated in a complex tissue-specific manner. To map the cis-acting DNA elements that direct this tissue-specific expression, we made transgenic mice containing truncated PEPCK-human growth hormone (hGH) fusion genes. The transgenes contained PEPCK promoter fragments with 5' endpoints at -2088, -888, -600, -402, and -207 bp, while the 3' endpoint was at +69 bp. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the -2088 transgene was expressed in the correct cell types (hepatocytes, proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney, villar epithelium of the small intestine, epithelium of the colon, smooth muscle of the vagina and lungs, ductal epithelium of the sublingual gland, and white and brown adipocytes). Solution hybridization of hGH mRNA expressed from the transgenes indicated that white and brown fat-specific elements are located distally (-2088 to -888 bp) and that liver-, gut-, and kidney-specific elements are located proximally (-600 to +69 bp). However, elements outside of the region tested are necessary for the correct developmental pattern and level of PEPCK expression in kidney. Both the -2088 and -402 transgenes responded in a tissue-specific manner to dietary stimuli, and the -2088 transgene responded to glucocorticoid stimuli. Thus, different tissues utilize distinct cell-specific cis-acting elements to direct and regulate the PEPCK gene. Images PMID:1545785

  4. A Variable Cluster of Ethylene Response Factor–Like Genes Regulates Metabolic and Developmental Acclimation Responses to Submergence in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Takeshi; Xu, Kenong; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Submergence-1 (Sub1), a major quantitative trait locus affecting tolerance to complete submergence in lowland rice (Oryza sativa), contains two or three ethylene response factor (ERF)–like genes whose transcripts are regulated by submergence. In the submergence-intolerant japonica cultivar M202, this locus encodes two ERF genes, Sub1B and Sub1C. In the tolerant near-isogenic line containing the Sub1 locus from the indica FR13A, M202(Sub1), the locus additionally encodes the ERF gene Sub1A. During submergence, the tolerant M202(Sub1) displayed restrained leaf and internode elongation, chlorophyll degradation, and carbohydrate consumption, whereas the enzymatic activities of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase were increased significantly compared with the intolerant M202. Transcript levels of genes associated with carbohydrate consumption, ethanolic fermentation, and cell expansion were distinctly regulated in the two lines. Sub1A and Sub1C transcript levels were shown to be upregulated by submergence and ethylene, with the Sub1C allele in M202 also upregulated by treatment with gibberellic acid (GA). These findings demonstrate that the Sub1 region haplotype determines ethylene- and GA-mediated metabolic and developmental responses to submergence through differential expression of Sub1A and Sub1C. Submergence tolerance in lowland rice is conferred by a specific allele variant of Sub1A that dampens ethylene production and GA responsiveness, causing quiescence in growth that correlates with the capacity for regrowth upon desubmergence. PMID:16816135

  5. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress–induced membrane biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jihui; Pei-Chen Lin, Coney; Pathak, Manish C.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Nile, Aaron H.; Mousley, Carl J.; Duncan, Mara C.; Eckert, Debra M.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Murphy, Robert C.; Brown, H. Alex; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Bloom, Kerry S.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Neiman, Aaron M.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization fro