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Sample records for regulates flavonol synthesis

  1. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A. B. M.; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized the R2R3-MYB transcription factor EsMYBF1 involved in regulation of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway from E. sagittatum. Sequence analysis indicated that EsMYBF1 belongs to the subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYB family which contains the flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified to date. Transient reporter assay showed that EsMYBF1 strongly activated the promoters of EsF3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase) and EsFLS (flavonol synthase), but not the promoters of EsDFRs (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) and EsANS (anthocyanidin synthase) in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and transient reporter assay validated EsMYBF1 to be independent of EsTT8, or AtTT8 bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway as cofactors. Ectopic expression of EsMYBF1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in the increased flavonol content and the decreased anthocyanin content in flowers. Correspondingly, the structural genes involved in flavonol synthesis were upregulated in the EsMYBF1 overexpression lines, including NtCHS (chalcone synthase), NtCHI (chalcone isomerase), NtF3H and NtFLS, whereas the late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway (NtDFR and NtANS) were remarkably downregulated, compared to the controls. These results suggest that EsMYBF1 is a flavonol-specific R2R3-MYB regulator, and involved in regulation of the biosynthesis of the flavonol-derived BCs in E. sagittatum. Thus

  2. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A B M; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized the R2R3-MYB transcription factor EsMYBF1 involved in regulation of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway from E. sagittatum. Sequence analysis indicated that EsMYBF1 belongs to the subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYB family which contains the flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified to date. Transient reporter assay showed that EsMYBF1 strongly activated the promoters of EsF3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase) and EsFLS (flavonol synthase), but not the promoters of EsDFRs (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) and EsANS (anthocyanidin synthase) in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and transient reporter assay validated EsMYBF1 to be independent of EsTT8, or AtTT8 bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway as cofactors. Ectopic expression of EsMYBF1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in the increased flavonol content and the decreased anthocyanin content in flowers. Correspondingly, the structural genes involved in flavonol synthesis were upregulated in the EsMYBF1 overexpression lines, including NtCHS (chalcone synthase), NtCHI (chalcone isomerase), NtF3H and NtFLS, whereas the late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway (NtDFR and NtANS) were remarkably downregulated, compared to the controls. These results suggest that EsMYBF1 is a flavonol-specific R2R3-MYB regulator, and involved in regulation of the biosynthesis of the flavonol-derived BCs in E. sagittatum. Thus

  3. Ultraviolet-B radiation and water deficit interact to alter flavonol and anthocyanin profiles in grapevine berries through transcriptomic regulation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Delrot, Serge; Aguirreolea, Jone; Pascual, Inmaculada; Gomès, Eric

    2014-11-01

    UV-B radiation and water deficit may trigger flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues. In addition, previous research has showed strong qualitative effects on grape berry skin flavonol and anthocyanin profiles in response to UV-B and water deficit. The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in flavonol and anthocyanin profiles, in response to separate and combined UV-B and water deficit. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) were exposed to three levels of UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to two water regimes. A strong effect of UV-B on flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis was found, resulting in an increased anthocyanin concentration and a change in their profile. Concomitantly, two key biosynthetic genes (FLS1 and UFGT) were up-regulated by UV-B, leading to increased flavonol and anthocyanin skin concentration. Changes in flavonol and anthocyanin composition were explained to a large extend by transcript levels of F3'H, F3'5'H and OMT2. A significant interaction between UV-B and water deficit was found in the relative abundance of 3'4' and 3'4'5' substituted flavonols, but not in their anthocyanin homologues. The ratio between 3'4'5' and 3'4' substituted flavonols was linearly related to the ratios of F3'5'H and FLS1 transcription, two steps up-regulated independently by water deficit and UV-B radiation, respectively. Our results indicate that changes in flavonol profiles in response to environmental conditions are not only a consequence of changes in the expression of flavonoid hydroxylases; but also the result of the competition of FLS, F3'5'H and F3'H enzymes for the same flavonol substrates. PMID:25231967

  4. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  5. The Balance of Expression of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and Flavonol Synthase Regulates Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Red Foliage Coloration in Crabapples

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ji; Han, Zhen-yun; Zhang, Jie; Hu, YuJing; Song, Tingting; Yao, Yuncong

    2015-01-01

    Red leaf color is an attractive trait of Malus families, including crabapple (Malus spp.); however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the coloration. Dihydroflavonols are intermediates in the production of both colored anthocyanins and colorless flavonols, and this current study focused on the gene expression balance involved in the relative accumulation of these compounds in crabapple leaves. Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’. The concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols correlated with leaf color and we propose that the expression of McDFR and McFLS influences their accumulation. Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes. Conversely, elevated flavonol production and green phenotypes in crabapple leaves and apple peel were observed when McFLS was overexpressed or McDFR was silenced. These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common. PMID:26192267

  6. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  7. Regulation of flavonol content and composition in (Syrah×Pinot Noir) mature grapes: integration of transcriptional profiling and metabolic quantitative trait locus analyses.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Giulia; Costantini, Laura; Coller, Emanuela; Battilana, Juri; Velasco, Riccardo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Grando, Maria Stella; Moser, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids that accumulate preferentially in flowers and mature berries. Besides their photo-protective function, they play a fundamental role during winemaking, stabilizing the colour by co-pigmentation with anthocyanins and contributing to organoleptic characteristics. Although the general flavonol pathway has been genetically and biochemically elucidated, the genetic control of flavonol content and composition at harvest is still not clear. To this purpose, the grapes of 170 segregating F1 individuals from a 'Syrah'×'Pinot Noir' population were evaluated at the mature stage for the content of six flavonol aglycons in four seasons. Metabolic data in combination with genetic data enabled the identification of 16 mQTLs (metabolic quantitative trait loci). For the first time, major genetic control by the linkage group 2 (LG 2)/MYBA region on flavonol variation, in particular of tri-hydroxylated flavonols, is demonstrated. Moreover, seven regions specifically associated with the fine control of flavonol biosynthesis are identified. Gene expression profiling of two groups of individuals significantly divergent for their skin flavonol content identified a large set of differentially modulated transcripts. Among these, the transcripts coding for MYB and bZIP transcription factors, methyltranferases, and glucosyltranferases specific for flavonols, proteins, and factors belonging to the UV-B signalling pathway and co-localizing with the QTL regions are proposed as candidate genes for the fine regulation of flavonol content and composition in mature grapes. PMID:26071529

  8. Regulation of flavonol content and composition in (Syrah×Pinot Noir) mature grapes: integration of transcriptional profiling and metabolic quantitative trait locus analyses

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne, Giulia; Costantini, Laura; Coller, Emanuela; Battilana, Juri; Velasco, Riccardo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Grando, Maria Stella; Moser, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids that accumulate preferentially in flowers and mature berries. Besides their photo-protective function, they play a fundamental role during winemaking, stabilizing the colour by co-pigmentation with anthocyanins and contributing to organoleptic characteristics. Although the general flavonol pathway has been genetically and biochemically elucidated, the genetic control of flavonol content and composition at harvest is still not clear. To this purpose, the grapes of 170 segregating F1 individuals from a ‘Syrah’×’Pinot Noir’ population were evaluated at the mature stage for the content of six flavonol aglycons in four seasons. Metabolic data in combination with genetic data enabled the identification of 16 mQTLs (metabolic quantitative trait loci). For the first time, major genetic control by the linkage group 2 (LG 2)/MYBA region on flavonol variation, in particular of tri-hydroxylated flavonols, is demonstrated. Moreover, seven regions specifically associated with the fine control of flavonol biosynthesis are identified. Gene expression profiling of two groups of individuals significantly divergent for their skin flavonol content identified a large set of differentially modulated transcripts. Among these, the transcripts coding for MYB and bZIP transcription factors, methyltranferases, and glucosyltranferases specific for flavonols, proteins, and factors belonging to the UV-B signalling pathway and co-localizing with the QTL regions are proposed as candidate genes for the fine regulation of flavonol content and composition in mature grapes. PMID:26071529

  9. Ethylene-induced flavonol accumulation in guard cells suppresses reactive oxygen species and moderates stomatal aperture.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Justin M; Hechler, Paul J; Muday, Gloria K

    2014-04-01

    Guard cell swelling controls the aperture of stomata, pores that facilitate gas exchange and water loss from leaves. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has a central role in regulation of stomatal closure through synthesis of second messengers, which include reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS accumulation must be minimized by antioxidants to keep concentrations from reaching damaging levels within the cell. Flavonols are plant metabolites that have been implicated as antioxidants; however, their antioxidant activity in planta has been debated. Flavonols accumulate in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, but not surrounding pavement cells, as visualized with a flavonol-specific dye. The expression of a reporter driven by the promoter of CHALCONE SYNTHASE, a gene encoding a flavonol biosynthetic enzyme, in guard cells, but not pavement cells, suggests guard cell-specific flavonoid synthesis. Increased levels of ROS were detected using a fluorescent ROS sensor in guard cells of transparent testa4-2, which has a null mutation in CHALCONE SYNTHASE and therefore synthesizes no flavonol antioxidants. Guard cells of transparent testa4-2 show more rapid ABA-induced closure than the wild type, suggesting that flavonols may dampen the ABA-dependent ROS burst that drives stomatal closing. The levels of flavonols are positively regulated in guard cells by ethylene treatment in the wild type, but not in the ethylene-insensitive2-5 mutant. In addition, in both ethylene-overproducing1 and ethylene-treated wild-type plants, elevated flavonols lead to decreasing ROS and slower ABA-mediated stomatal closure. These results are consistent with flavonols suppressing ROS accumulation and decreasing the rate of ABA-dependent stomatal closure, with ethylene-induced increases in guard cell flavonols modulating these responses. PMID:24596331

  10. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  11. Ethylene-Induced Flavonol Accumulation in Guard Cells Suppresses Reactive Oxygen Species and Moderates Stomatal Aperture1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Justin M.; Hechler, Paul J.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2014-01-01

    Guard cell swelling controls the aperture of stomata, pores that facilitate gas exchange and water loss from leaves. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has a central role in regulation of stomatal closure through synthesis of second messengers, which include reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS accumulation must be minimized by antioxidants to keep concentrations from reaching damaging levels within the cell. Flavonols are plant metabolites that have been implicated as antioxidants; however, their antioxidant activity in planta has been debated. Flavonols accumulate in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, but not surrounding pavement cells, as visualized with a flavonol-specific dye. The expression of a reporter driven by the promoter of CHALCONE SYNTHASE, a gene encoding a flavonol biosynthetic enzyme, in guard cells, but not pavement cells, suggests guard cell-specific flavonoid synthesis. Increased levels of ROS were detected using a fluorescent ROS sensor in guard cells of transparent testa4-2, which has a null mutation in CHALCONE SYNTHASE and therefore synthesizes no flavonol antioxidants. Guard cells of transparent testa4-2 show more rapid ABA-induced closure than the wild type, suggesting that flavonols may dampen the ABA-dependent ROS burst that drives stomatal closing. The levels of flavonols are positively regulated in guard cells by ethylene treatment in the wild type, but not in the ethylene-insensitive2-5 mutant. In addition, in both ethylene-overproducing1 and ethylene-treated wild-type plants, elevated flavonols lead to decreasing ROS and slower ABA-mediated stomatal closure. These results are consistent with flavonols suppressing ROS accumulation and decreasing the rate of ABA-dependent stomatal closure, with ethylene-induced increases in guard cell flavonols modulating these responses. PMID:24596331

  12. A new class of flavonol-based anti-prostate cancer agents: Design, synthesis, and evaluation in cell models.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Guanglin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Wang, Guangdi; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously distributed in dietary plants with an array of biological activities. Flavonols are a major sub-class of flavonoids featuring a hydroxyl group at C-3. Certain natural flavonols, such as quercetin and fisetin, have been shown by in vitro cell-based and in vivo animal experiments to be potential anti-prostate cancer agents. However, the Achilles' heel of flavonols as drug candidates is their moderate potency and poor pharmacokinetic profiles. This study aims to explore the substitution effect of 3-OH in flavonols on the in vitro anti-proliferative potency against both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines. Our first lead flavonol (3',4'-dimethoxyflavonol), eight 3-O-alkyl-3',4'-dimethoxyflavonols, and six 3-O-aminoalkyl-3',4'-dimethoxyflavonols have been synthesized through aldol condensation and the Algar-Flynn-Oyamada (AFO) reaction. The WST-1 cell proliferation assay indicates (i) that all synthesized 3-O-alkyl-3',4'-dimethoxyflavonols and 3-O-aminoalkyl-3',4'-dimethoxyflavonols are more potent than the parent 3',4'-dimethoxyflavonol and the natural flavonol quercetin in suppressing prostate cancer cell proliferation; and (ii) that incorporation of a dibutylamino group to the 3-OH group through a three- to five-carbon linker leads to the optimal derivatives with up to 292-fold enhanced potency as compared with the parent flavonol. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the most potent derivative 22 can activate PC-3 cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induce PC-3 cell apoptosis. No inhibitory ability of 22 up to 50μM concentration was observed against PWR-1E normal human epithelial prostate cells, suggesting its in vitro safety profile. The results indicate that chemical modulation at 3-OH is a vital strategy to optimize flavonols as anti-prostate cancer agents. PMID:27476422

  13. Flavonols: old compounds for old roles

    PubMed Central

    Pollastri, Susanna; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Background New roles for flavonoids, as developmental regulators and/or signalling molecules, have recently been proposed in eukaryotic cells exposed to a wide range of environmental stimuli. In plants, these functions are actually restricted to flavonols, the ancient and widespread class of flavonoids. In mosses and liverworts, the whole set of genes for flavonol biosynthesis – CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS and F3′H – has been detected. The flavonol branch pathway has remained intact for millions of years, and is almost exclusively involved in the responses of plants to a wide array of stressful agents, despite the fact that evolution of flavonoid metabolism has produced >10 000 structures. Scope Here the emerging functional roles of flavonoids in the responses of present-day plants to different stresses are discussed based on early, authoritative views of their primary functions during the colonization of land by plants. Flavonols are not as efficient as other secondary metabolites in absorbing wavelengths in the 290–320 nm spectral region, but display the greatest potential to keep stress-induced changes in cellular reactive oxygen species homeostasis under control, and to regulate the development of individual organs and the whole plant. Very low flavonol concentrations, as probably occurred in early terrestrial plants, may fully accomplish these regulatory functions. Conclusions During the last two decades the routine use of genomic, chromatography/mass spectrometry and fluorescence microimaging techniques has provided new insights into the regulation of flavonol metabolism as well as on the inter- and intracellular distribution of stress-responsive flavonols. These findings offer new evidence on how flavonols may have performed a wide array of functional roles during the colonization of land by plants. In our opinion this ancient flavonoid class is still playing the same old and robust roles in present-day plants. PMID:21880658

  14. A novel insulin mimetic vanadium-flavonol complex: synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation in STZ-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai; Kandaswamy, Muthusamy

    2013-05-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al., first demonstrated a serendipitous discovery that oral administration of 0.8 mg/ml of sodium orthovanadate in drinking water to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in normoglycemia, numerous extensive studies have been pursued on the anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic actions of vanadium. The acceptance of vanadium compounds as promising therapeutic antidiabetic agents has been slowed due to the concern for chronic toxicity associated with vanadium accumulation. In order to circumvent the toxic effects of vanadium, we have taken up a combinational approach wherein a novel vanadium-flavonol complex was synthesized, characterized and its toxic as well as insulin mimetic potential was evaluated in STZ-induced experimental diabetes in rats. The results indicate that the complex is non-toxic and possess anti-diabetic activity. PMID:23466606

  15. Post-transcriptional silencing of flavonol synthase mRNA in tobacco leads to fruits with arrested seed set.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Monika; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are synthesized by phenylpropanoid pathway. They are known to participate in large number of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Parthenocarpy and male sterility has earlier been reported by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS) encoding gene. Silencing of CHS has blocked the synthesis of most of useful flavonoids including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Also, these studies could not identify whether parthenocarpy/male sterility were due to lack of flavan-3-ols or flavonols or both. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of flavonols. In this article, we propose a novel strategy towards the generation of seedless or less-seeded fruits by downregulation of flavonol biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of FLS encoding mRNA. The FLS silenced lines were observed for 20-80% reduction in FLS encoding gene expression and 25-93% reduction in flavonol (quercetin) content. Interestingly, these FLS silenced tobacco lines also showed reduction in their anthocyanidins content. While the content of flavan-3-ols (catechin, epi-catechin and epi-gallocatechin) was found to be increased in FLS silenced lines. The delayed flowering in FLS silenced lines could be due to decrease in level of indole acetic acid (IAA) at apical region of their shoots. Furthermore, the pollen germination was hampered and pollens were unable to produce functional pollen tube in FLS silenced tobacco lines. Pods of FLS silenced lines contained significantly less number of seeds. The in vitro and in vivo studies where 1 µM quercetin was supplied to germination media, documented the restoration of normal pollen germination and pollen tube growth. This finding identified the role of flavonols particularly quercetin in pollen germination as well as in the regulation of plant fertility. Results also suggest a novel approach towards generation of seedless

  16. Post-Transcriptional Silencing of Flavonol Synthase mRNA in Tobacco Leads to Fruits with Arrested Seed Set

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Monika; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are synthesized by phenylpropanoid pathway. They are known to participate in large number of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Parthenocarpy and male sterility has earlier been reported by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS) encoding gene. Silencing of CHS has blocked the synthesis of most of useful flavonoids including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Also, these studies could not identify whether parthenocarpy/male sterility were due to lack of flavan-3-ols or flavonols or both. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of flavonols. In this article, we propose a novel strategy towards the generation of seedless or less-seeded fruits by downregulation of flavonol biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of FLS encoding mRNA. The FLS silenced lines were observed for 20-80% reduction in FLS encoding gene expression and 25–93% reduction in flavonol (quercetin) content. Interestingly, these FLS silenced tobacco lines also showed reduction in their anthocyanidins content. While the content of flavan-3-ols (catechin, epi-catechin and epi-gallocatechin) was found to be increased in FLS silenced lines. The delayed flowering in FLS silenced lines could be due to decrease in level of indole acetic acid (IAA) at apical region of their shoots. Furthermore, the pollen germination was hampered and pollens were unable to produce functional pollen tube in FLS silenced tobacco lines. Pods of FLS silenced lines contained significantly less number of seeds. The in vitro and in vivo studies where 1 µM quercetin was supplied to germination media, documented the restoration of normal pollen germination and pollen tube growth. This finding identified the role of flavonols particularly quercetin in pollen germination as well as in the regulation of plant fertility. Results also suggest a novel approach towards generation of seedless

  17. Disequilibrium of Flavonol Synthase and Dihydroflavonol-4-Reductase Expression Associated Tightly to White vs. Red Color Flower Formation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ping; Ning, Guogui; Wang, Zhen; Shen, Yuxiao; Jin, Huanan; Li, Penghui; Huang, Shasha; Zhao, Jian; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is the main character throughout the plant kingdom. Though substantial information exists regarding the structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, little is known that what make a diverse white vs. red color flower in natural species. Here, the contents of pigments in seven species from varied phylogenetic location in plants with red and white flowers were determined. Flavonols could be detected in red and white flowers, but anthocyanins were almost undetectable in the white cultivar. Comparisons of expression patterns of gene related to the flavonoid biosynthesis indicated that disequilibrium expression of flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) genes determined the accumulation of flavonols and anothcyanins in both red and white flowers of seven species. To further investigate the role of such common regulatory patterns in determining flower color, FLS genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrFLS1), Prunus persica (PpFLS), and Petunia hybrida (PhFLS), and DFR genes were isolated from Rosa rugosa (RrDFR1) and Petunia hybrida (PhDFR). Heterologous expression of the FLS genes within tobacco host plants demonstrated conservation of function, with the transgenes promoting flavonol biosynthesis and inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation, so resulting in white flowers. Conversely, overexpression of DFR genes in tobacco displayed down-regulation of the endogenous NtFLS gene, and the promotion of anthocyanin synthesis. On this basis, we propose a model in which FLS and DFR gene-products compete for common substrates in order to direct the biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively, thereby determining white vs. red coloration of flowers. PMID:26793227

  18. Molecular characterization of two plant flavonol sulfotransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Varin, L; DeLuca, V; Ibrahim, R K; Brisson, N

    1992-01-01

    cDNA clones coding for flavonol 3- and 4'-sulfotransferases (STs) were isolated by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library produced from poly(A)+ RNA extracted from terminal buds of Flaveria chloraefolia. Sequence analysis revealed full-length cDNA clones with open reading frames of 933 and 960 base pairs, which encode polypeptides containing 311 and 320 amino acids, respectively. This corresponds to a molecular mass of 36,442 Da for the 3-ST and 37,212 Da for the 4'-ST. Expression of these clones in Escherichia coli led to the synthesis of beta-galactosidase-ST fusion proteins having the same substrate and position specificities as those for the 3- and 4'-flavonol ST enzymes isolated from the plant. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the two clones revealed an overall identity of 69% in 311 amino acid residues. The two flavonol STs of F. chloraefolia also shared significant sequence similarities with steroid and aryl STs found in animal tissues and with the senescence marker protein 2 isolated from rat liver, suggesting an evolutionary link between plant and animal STs. Images PMID:1741382

  19. Flavonol Glycosides from Gaura Biennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the native American plant Gaura biennis led to the isolation of three new flavonol glycosides (1-3), along with eight known ones. Their structures were established primarily by spectroscopic data as quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D- gluco...

  20. Neuroprotective actions of flavones and flavonols: mechanisms and relationship to flavonoid structural features.

    PubMed

    Dajas, Federico; Andrés, Abin-Carriquiry Juan; Florencia, Arredondo; Carolina, Echeverry; Felicia, Rivera-Megret

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown positive preventive action of flavonoids on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative events. Among the six groups in which flavonoids are classified, the flavones and flavonols, based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) are the most commonly encountered within the families and genera of the higher plants. Numerous studies support a neuroprotective activity of flavones such as luteolin and flavonols such as kaempherol and quercetin in experimental focal ischemia and models of neurodegeneration. Antioxidation, modulation of signaling cascades and gene expression as well as anti-inflammation appear as the main protective mechanisms and mitochondria are a likely main target mediating the preventive actions against oxidative stress. Flavones and flavonols re-establish the redox regulation of proteins, transcription factors and signaling cascades that are otherwise inhibited by elevated oxidative stress. The final survival or death of the neuron depends on flavone and flavonol concentrations, time of exposure and, mainly, metabolic and oxidative neuronal circumstances. Neuroprotection appears to be linked to specific structural motifs, beyond those involved in antioxidation. By themselves or as templates for synthetic compounds, flavone and flavonol molecules show potential as multi-targeted therapeutic tools for protecting the brain. Nonetheless, more research needs to be done on the correlation of potential beneficial effects of flavones and flavonols and their mechanisms of action. PMID:23092407

  1. Biophysical exploration of protein-flavonol recognition: effects of molecular properties and conformational flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yu-Kui

    2016-04-28

    The current work explores the biomolecular recognition of a series of flavonols by a protein and then uncovers the influences of the structural features of flavonols and the protein's own characteristics, e.g. the dynamics and flexibility, on the bioavailability of flavonols by using the pivotal biomacromolecule hemoglobin as a model. The experimental results revealed that flavonol may lead to a notable decrease in the steady-state fluorescence intensity of the β-37 Trp residue, and in the meantime the R-T transition of the protein transpired. Such noncovalent recognition forms the ground-state adduct, with an association intensity of 3.991 × 10(4) M(-1) in the reaction process, which has already been authenticated by the detailed analysis of time-resolved fluorescence and UV/vis absorption spectra. Furthermore, flavonol can form hydrogen bonds and π-conjugation effects with several amino acid residues on the polypeptide chain, for example, Trp-37, Arg-40, Asp-99 and Asn-102, and this event would induce self-regulation of the compact, regular conformation of the protein to a certain extent, which explicitly corroborates the results of circular dichroism. According to the study of molecular docking and structure-activity relationships, we could see that the recognition capacities of the protein-flavonols are inversely interrelated with the C log P values of the flavonol molecules. Moreover, the properties of the substituents in the structural B-ring unit of flavonols, i.e. polarity, position and number, will also prominently affect the degree of affinity and bioavailability of the protein-flavonol complexes. The analytical results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation testified that the discussions of the structure-activity relationships are entirely logical, and the conformations of the amino acid residues forming noncovalent interactions tend to be stable in the MD simulation, as further elucidated from the dynamics data. Plainly, molecular recognition of

  2. Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the recent advances using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools, many aspects of the cellulose synthesis remain a mystery. In this chapter, we highlight recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24465174

  3. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  4. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods. PMID:26995313

  5. Natural variation in flavonol accumulation in Arabidopsis is determined by the flavonol glucosyltransferase BGLU6

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Tohge, Takayuki; Viehöver, Prisca; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Weisshaar, Bernd; Stracke, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols are colourless secondary metabolites, primarily regarded as UV-protection pigments that are deposited in plants in their glycosylated forms. The glycosylation of flavonols is mainly catalysed by UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Although the structures of flavonol glycosides accumulating in Arabidopsis thaliana are known, many genes involved in the flavonol glycosylation pathway are yet to be discovered. The flavonol glycoside profiles of seedlings from 81 naturally occurring A. thaliana accessions were screened using high performance thin layer chromatography. A qualitative variation in flavonol 3-O-gentiobioside 7-O-rhamnoside (F3GG7R) content was identified. Ler × Col-0 recombinant inbred line mapping and whole genome association mapping led to the identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 1-type gene, At1g60270/BGLU6, that encodes a homolog of acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases involved in the glycosylation of anthocyanins, possibly localized in the cytoplasm, and that is co-expressed with genes linked to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. A causal single nucleotide polymorphism introducing a premature stop codon in non-producer accessions was found to be absent in the producers. Several other naturally occurring loss-of-function alleles were also identified. Two independent bglu6 T-DNA insertion mutants from the producer accessions showed loss of F3GG7R. Furthermore, bglu6 mutant lines complemented with the genomic Ler BGLU6 gene confirmed that BGLU6 is essential for production of F3GGR7. We have thus identified an accession-specific gene that causes a qualitative difference in flavonol glycoside accumulation in A. thaliana strains. This gene encodes a flavonol 3-O-glucoside: 6″-O-glucosyltransferase that does not belong to the large canonical family of flavonol glycosyltransferases that use UDP-conjugates as the activated sugar donor substrate. PMID:26717955

  6. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA synthesis and replication.

    PubMed

    Selisko, Barbara; Wang, Chunling; Harris, Eva; Canard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    RNA synthesis and replication of the members of the Flavivirus genus (including dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses) is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms and actors. These include the sequestration of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for functions other than RNA synthesis, regulatory interactions with other viral and host proteins within the replication complex (RC), and regulatory elements within the RNA genome itself. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the multiple levels at which Flavivirus RNA synthesis is controlled. We aim to bring together two active research fields: the structural and functional biology of individual proteins of the RC and the impressive wealth of knowledge acquired regarding the viral genomic RNA. PMID:25462437

  7. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA synthesis and replication

    PubMed Central

    Selisko, Barbara; Wang, Chunling; Harris, Eva; Canard, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    RNA synthesis and replication of the members of the Flavivirus genus (including dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses) is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms and actors. These include the sequestration of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for functions other than RNA synthesis, regulatory interactions with other viral and host proteins within the replication complex (RC), and regulatory elements within the RNA genome itself. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the multiple levels at which Flavivirus RNA synthesis is controlled. We aim to bring together two active research fields: the structural and functional biology of individual proteins of the RC and the impressive wealth of knowledge acquired regarding the viral genomic RNA. PMID:25462437

  8. Antioxidant flavonols from fruits, vegetables and beverages: measurements and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Crozier, A; Burns, J; Aziz, A A; Stewart, A J; Rabiasz, H S; Jenkins, G I; Edwards, C A; Lean, M E

    2000-01-01

    Flavonols are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites that are present in varying levels in commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and beverages. Flavonols have long held an interest for nutritionists, which has increased following a Dutch study in the early 1990's showing that dietary intake of flavonols was inversely correlated with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The main factors that have hindered workers in the field of flavonol research are (i) the accurate measurement of these compounds in foods and biological samples, and (ii) a dearth of information on their absorption and metabolism. This review aims to highlight the work of the authors in attempting to clarify the situation. The sensitive and selective HPLC procedure to identify and quantify common flavonols and their sugar conjugates is described. In addition, the results of an on-going screening program into the flavonol content of common produce and beverages are presented. The bioavailability of dietary flavonols is discussed with reference to an intervention study with onions, as well as pilot studies with tea, red wine and cherry tomatoes. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbable and accumulate in plasma and that consuming high flavonol-containing varieties of fruits and vegetables and particular types of beverages could increase their circulatory levels. PMID:15693274

  9. The role of glycosylation in flavonol-induced pollen germination.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L P; Strenge, D; Miller, K D

    1998-01-01

    Flavonols are small (C15) plant-specific molecules that are required for petunia and maize pollen to germinate. They exist in two chemical forms: the aglycone or glycosyl conjugates. Flavonol-deficient pollen is biochemically complemented by flavonol aglycones but not by the glycosylated forms that accumulate in wild type (WT) pollen. Coincident with the biochemical induction of germination, the added flavonol aglycone is rapidly converted to a galactoside and then to a glucosyl galactoside (diglycoside) that is identical to the compound present in WT pollen. A flavonol 3-O-galactosyltransferase (F3GalTase) activity has been identified that controls the formation of glycosylated flavonols in pollen. Importantly, this enzyme also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the production of the flavonol aglycone from the galactoside and UDP (Fig. 1). F3GalTase/RevGalTase therefore has the potential to control the level of the bioactive flavonol species and as a result, pollen germination. PMID:9781293

  10. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Tagetes minuta with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Irum; Shah, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta), a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae contains compounds of pharmaceutical and nutritional importance especially essential oils and flavonols. Identification, characterization of flavonols and determination of their antibacterial activity were major objectives of the current study. The isolation and purification of flavonols was accomplished using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was completed by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extracts and purified compounds were tested against various bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. A total of 19 flavonols were isolated from this species. Of these, 17 were of butanol and two of ethyl acetate extracts. Based on the concentration and purity, eight potential flavonols were selected and structurally elucidated. Four flavonols, 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6''-galloylglucopyranoside; 2), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-(6''-galloylglucopyranoside; 7), 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6''-caffeoylglucopyranoside; 9), were identified for the first time from T. minuta. Butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and seeds showed significant antibacterial activity against Micrococcus leteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas pikettii. Among the isolated flavonols only 1, 2, and 18 were found to possess significant antibacterial activity against M. luteus. The extracts and purified flavonols from T. minuta can be potential candidates for antibacterial drug discovery and support to ethnopharmacological use. PMID:26441652

  11. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Tagetes minuta with antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shahzadi, Irum; Shah, Mohammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta), a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae contains compounds of pharmaceutical and nutritional importance especially essential oils and flavonols. Identification, characterization of flavonols and determination of their antibacterial activity were major objectives of the current study. The isolation and purification of flavonols was accomplished using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was completed by LC–MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extracts and purified compounds were tested against various bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. A total of 19 flavonols were isolated from this species. Of these, 17 were of butanol and two of ethyl acetate extracts. Based on the concentration and purity, eight potential flavonols were selected and structurally elucidated. Four flavonols, 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6′′-galloylglucopyranoside; 2), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-(6′′-galloylglucopyranoside; 7), 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6′′-caffeoylglucopyranoside; 9), were identified for the first time from T. minuta. Butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and seeds showed significant antibacterial activity against Micrococcus leteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas pikettii. Among the isolated flavonols only 1, 2, and 18 were found to possess significant antibacterial activity against M. luteus. The extracts and purified flavonols from T. minuta can be potential candidates for antibacterial drug discovery and support to ethnopharmacological use. PMID:26441652

  12. Organization and Regulation of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ott, Martin; Amunts, Alexey; Brown, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles of endosymbiotic origin that are responsible for oxidative phosphorylation within eukaryotic cells. Independent evolution between species has generated mitochondrial genomes that are extremely diverse, with the composition of the vestigial genome determining their translational requirements. Typically, translation within mitochondria is restricted to a few key subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes that are synthesized by dedicated ribosomes (mitoribosomes). The dramatically rearranged mitochondrial genomes, the limited set of transcripts, and the need for the synthesized proteins to coassemble with nuclear-encoded subunits have had substantial consequences for the translation machinery. Recent high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy has revealed the effect of coevolution on the mitoribosome with the mitochondrial genome. In this review, we place the new structural information in the context of the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial translation and focus on the novel ways protein synthesis is organized and regulated in mitochondria. PMID:26789594

  13. Flavonol Intake and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin; Ravine, Erin; Harper, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The change in each score over 6 years was calculated, and a combined standardized change score was calculated. Generalized linear models controlled for age, ethnicity, gender, education level, energy intake, current smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake. Total flavonols across quintiles of intake were positively associated with preserved combined cognitive function (P<.001). This pattern with preserved combined cognitive function was consistent for the three major individual flavonols in the diet, myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin (each P<.001). The positive association with total flavonols was strongest for the digit symbol subtest (P<.001). In this cohort, flavonol intake was correlated with protected cognitive function over time. PMID:26325006

  14. Expression of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Relation to Anthocyanin, Proanthocyanidin, and Flavonol Levels during Bilberry Fruit Development1

    PubMed Central

    Jaakola, Laura; Määttä, Kaisu; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Törrönen, Riitta; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-01-01

    The production of anthocyanins in fruit tissues is highly controlled at the developmental level. We have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes during the development of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit in relation to the accumulation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in wild berries and in color mutants of bilberry. The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label. These homologous probes were used for determining the expression of the flavonoid pathway genes in bilberries. The contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in ripening bilberries were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector and were identified using a mass spectrometry interface. Our results demonstrate a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the flavonoid pathway genes during the ripening of berries. At the early stages of berry development, procyanidins and quercetin were the major flavonoids, but the levels decreased dramatically during the progress of ripening. During the later stages of ripening, the content of anthocyanins increased strongly and they were the major flavonoids in the ripe berry. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced. A connection between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis in bilberry was detected in this study and also in previous data collected from flavonol and anthocyanin analyses from other fruits. In accordance with this, models for the connection between flavonol and anthocyanin syntheses in fruit tissues are presented. PMID:12376640

  15. Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Escherichia coli by Guanosine Tetraphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Merlie, John P.; Pizer, Lewis I.

    1973-01-01

    Phospholipid synthesis has been reported to be subject to stringent control in Escherichia coli. We present evidence that demonstrates a strict correlation between guanosine tetraphosphate accumulation and inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. In vivo experiments designed to examine the pattern of phospholipid labeling with 32P-inorganic phosphate and 32P-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate suggest that regulation must occur at the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase step. Assay of phospholipid synthesis by cell-free extracts and semipurified preparations revealed that guanosine tetraphosphate inhibits at least two enzymes specific for the biosynthetic pathway, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase as well as sn-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyl transferase. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the stringent control of lipid synthesis as well as regulation of steady-state levels of phospholipid in growing cells. Images PMID:4583220

  16. Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, and myricetin 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside were isolated from the petals of Clitoria ternatea cv. Double Blue, together with eleven known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were identified using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. They were characterized as kaempferol and quercetin 3-(2(G)- rhamnosylrutinoside)s, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 3-neohesperidosides, 3-rutinosides, and 3-glucosides in the same tissue. In addition, the presence of myricetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was inferred from LC/MS/MS data for crude petal extracts. The flavonol compounds identified in the petals of C. ternatea differed from those reported in previous studies. PMID:12482461

  17. LC-MS-MS characterization of curry leaf flavonols and antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curry leaf is a commonly used flavoring agent whose flavonol constituents have potential health benefits. This study characterized the curry leaf flavonol profile and antioxidant activity. Flavonols were extracted using ethanol, methanol, or acetone prior to identification and quantification using l...

  18. Regulation of starch synthesis in potato tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, H.; Oparka, K.; Viola, R.; Wright, K.; Ross, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Following tuber excision from the mother plant sucrose synthase activity fell from 3,120 to 960 nmol/g.f. wt./h within 7 days and starch synthesis ({sup 14}C sucrose incorporated into isolated discs) from 23 to 7 nmol/g.f. wt./h. While the maximum catalytic activity of sucrose synthase was more than sufficient to account for the observed rate of starch synthesis a maximum of 27% of sucrose incorporated by discs was converted into starch within 3 h. This compared with 80% conversion of {sup 14}C glucose incorporated. Tuber excision also reduced the rate of starch biosynthesis with glucose as a substrate (from 206 to 64 nmol/g.f. wt./h). The activities of UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, PPi-PFK, ATP-PFK, starch synthase and hexokinase (glucose or fructose substrates) were unaffected by tuber removal. ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity was reduced from 8,000 to 4,500 nmol/g.f. wt./h. Preliminary experiments indicate that the decline in sucrose synthease activity is prevented by maintaining sucrose flux into tubers through the cut stolon.

  19. Regulation of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis in the Soil Bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

    PubMed

    Quelas, J I; Mesa, S; Mongiardini, E J; Jendrossek, D; Lodeiro, A R

    2016-07-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon and energy reserve polymer in various prokaryotic species. We determined that, when grown with mannitol as the sole carbon source, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens produces a homopolymer composed only of 3-hydroxybutyrate units (PHB). Conditions of oxygen limitation (such as microoxia, oxic stationary phase, and bacteroids inside legume nodules) were permissive for the synthesis of PHB, which was observed as cytoplasmic granules. To study the regulation of PHB synthesis, we generated mutations in the regulator gene phaR and the phasin genes phaP1 and phaP4 Under permissive conditions, mutation of phaR impaired PHB accumulation, and a phaP1 phaP4 double mutant produced more PHB than the wild type, which was accumulated in a single, large cytoplasmic granule. Moreover, PhaR negatively regulated the expression of phaP1 and phaP4 as well as the expression of phaA1 and phaA2 (encoding a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A [CoA] thiolases), phaC1 and phaC2 (encoding PHB synthases), and fixK2 (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]/fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator [FNR]-type transcription factor of genes for microoxic lifestyle). In addition to the depressed PHB cycling, phaR mutants accumulated more extracellular polysaccharides and promoted higher plant shoot dry weight and competitiveness for nodulation than the wild type, in contrast to the phaC1 mutant strain, which is defective in PHB synthesis. These results suggest that phaR not only regulates PHB granule formation by controlling the expression of phasins and biosynthetic enzymes but also acts as a global regulator of excess carbon allocation and symbiosis by controlling fixK2 IMPORTANCE: In this work, we investigated the regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in the soybean-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and its influence in bacterial free-living and symbiotic lifestyles. We uncovered a new interplay between the synthesis of this carbon reserve polymer

  20. Temperature-Regulated Protein Synthesis by Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Timoney, John F.; Stevenson, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is an important mammalian pathogen. Transmission from an environmental source requires adaptations to a range of new environmental conditions in the organs and tissues of the infected host. Since many pathogenic bacteria utilize temperature to discern their environment and regulate the synthesis of appropriate proteins, we investigated the effects of temperature on protein synthesis in L. interrogans. Bacteria were grown for several days after culture temperatures were shifted from 30 to 37°C. Triton X-114 cellular fractionation identified several proteins of the cytoplasm, periplasm, and outer membrane for which synthesis was dependent on the culture temperature. Synthesis of a cytoplasmic protein of 20 kDa was switched off at 37°C, whereas synthesis of a 66-kDa periplasmic protein was increased at the higher temperature. Increased synthesis of a 25-kDa outer membrane protein was observed when the organisms were shifted from 30 to 37°C. A 36-kDa protein synthesized at 30 but not at 37°C was identified as LipL36, an outer membrane lipoprotein. In contrast, expression of another lipoprotein, LipL41, was the same at either temperature. Immunoblotting with convalescent equine sera revealed that some proteins exhibiting thermoregulation of synthesis elicited antibody responses during infection. Our results show that sera from horses which aborted as a result of naturally acquired infection with L. interrogans serovar pomona type kennewicki recognize periplasmic and outer membrane proteins which are differentially synthesized in response to temperature and which therefore may be important in the host-pathogen interaction during infection. PMID:11119530

  1. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  2. Regulation of toxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Connan, Chloé; Denève, Cécile; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2013-12-01

    Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins are structurally and functionally related proteins that are potent inhibitors of neuroexocytosis. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes, whereas tetanus toxin (TeNT) does not form any complex. The BoNT and ANTP genes are clustered in a DNA segment called the botulinum locus, which has different genomic localization (chromosome, plasmid, phage) in the various Clostridium botulinum types and subtypes. The botulinum locus genes are organized in two polycistronic operons (ntnh-bont and ha/orfX operons) transcribed in opposite orientations. A gene called botR lying between the two operons in C. botulinum type A encodes an alternative sigma factor which regulates positively the synthesis of BoNT and ANTPs at the late exponential growth phase and beginning of the stationary phase. In Clostridium tetani, the gene located immediately upstream of tent encodes a positive regulatory protein, TetR, which is related to BotR. C. botulinum and C. tetani genomes contain several two-component systems and predicted regulatory orphan genes. In C. botulinum type A, four two-component systems have been found that positively or negatively regulate the synthesis of BoNT and ANTPs independently of BotR/A. The synthesis of neurotoxin in Clostridia seems to be under the control of complex network of regulation. PMID:23769754

  3. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1993-02-09

    Polyamines are small positively charged compounds that have been hypothesized to be involved in a wide variety of plant physiological and development functions. The regulation of the polyamine synthesis pathway is uniquely interesting because of the existence of two pathways to putrescine synthesis, and the consequent questions of how these two pathways are compartmentalized and how they interact with each other. The specific directions our research is taking are: (1) A characterization of arginine decarboxylase regulation; we have discovered two post-translational mechanisms for regulating arginine decarboxylase activity. One of these is a novel protease that clips the arginine decarboxylase pre-protein to activate it. We would like to understand this activating protease better, determine its mechanism of action, and determine its importance in the overall scheme of arginine decarboxylase regulation. (2) We have begun a similar characterization of ornithine decarboxylase by purifying it from plants. (3) We are characterizing the polyamine mutant collection we have developed. (4) Finally, we have begun to characterize the evolution of arginine decarboxylase, as an additional approach that could shed light on its functions in plants. Our intent is to understand arginine decarboxylase structure and regulation in detail, and then to further explore regulatory differences between ornithine and arginine decarboxylases.

  4. Anti-androgenic effects of flavonols in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boam, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Dietary-derived agents, such as the flavonoids, are of particular interest for prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention as they may offer a favourable safety and side-effect profile. An agent that demonstrates action on the androgen receptor (AR) axis may have value for preventing or treating castrate-resistant PCa. Four main flavonols – quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and fisetin – have been demonstrated in laboratory studies to have chemopreventive action in both castrate-resistant and castrate-sensitive PCa models. Mechanisms of flavonol action on the AR axis in PCa have been proposed to be inhibition of the 5α-reductase enzymes, direct androgen competition, suppression of the AR complex and transactivation by coregulators such as c-Jun, Sp1, and the PI3K/Akt pathway. It is, however, still unclear with current levels of evidence whether AR axis-mediated effects can fully account for the flavonols’ chemopreventive action. PMID:26557883

  5. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kristin L.; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M.; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A.; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca2+ levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca2+-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca2+-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  6. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Kristin L; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A; Chen, Lu

    2015-10-20

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca(2+) levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca(2+)-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca(2+)-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  7. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. PMID:21292287

  8. Toxin Synthesis by Clostridium difficile Is Regulated through Quorum Signaling

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.; Norris, Steven J.; Kaplan, Heidi B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is dramatically increasing as a cause of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, flourishes in the colon after the gut microbiota has been altered by antibiotic therapy. Consequently, it produces toxins A and B that directly cause disease. Despite the enormous public health problem posed by this pathogen, the molecular mechanisms that regulate production of the toxins, which are directly responsible for disease, remained largely unknown until now. Here, we show that C. difficile toxin synthesis is regulated by an accessory gene regulator quorum-signaling system, which is mediated through a small (<1,000-Da) thiolactone that can be detected directly in stools of CDI patients. These findings provide direct evidence of the mechanism of regulation of C. difficile toxin synthesis and offer exciting new avenues both for rapid detection of C. difficile infection and development of quorum-signaling-based non-antibiotic therapies to combat this life-threatening emerging pathogen. PMID:25714717

  9. Regulation of lung surfactant phospholipid synthesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goss, Victoria; Hunt, Alan N; Postle, Anthony D

    2013-02-01

    The alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cell is highly specialised for the synthesis and storage, in intracellular lamellar bodies, of phospholipid destined for secretion as pulmonary surfactant into the alveolus. Regulation of the enzymology of surfactant phospholipid synthesis and metabolism has been extensively characterised at both molecular and functional levels, but understanding of surfactant phospholipid metabolism in vivo in either healthy or, especially, diseased lungs is still relatively poorly understood. This review will integrate recent advances in the enzymology of surfactant phospholipid metabolism with metabolic studies in vivo in both experimental animals and human subjects. It will highlight developments in the application of stable isotope-labelled precursor substrates and mass spectrometry to probe lung phospholipid metabolism in terms of individual molecular lipid species and identify areas where a more comprehensive metabolic model would have considerable potential for direct application to disease states. PMID:23200861

  10. Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

  11. An oxygen-regulated switch in the protein synthesis machinery

    PubMed Central

    Uniacke, James; Holterman, Chet E.; Lachance, Gabriel; Franovic, Aleksandra; Jacob, Mathieu D.; Fabian, Marc R.; Payette, Josianne; Holcik, Martin; Pause, Arnim; Lee, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein synthesis involves the translation of ribonucleic acid information into proteins, the building blocks of life. The initial step of protein synthesis consists of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding to the 7-methylguanosine (m7-GpppG) 5′cap of mRNAs1,2. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) represses cap-mediated translation by sequestering eIF4E through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent mechanisms3–6. While the internal ribosome entry site is an alternative translation initiation mechanism, this pathway alone cannot account for the translational capacity of hypoxic cells7,8. This raises a fundamental question in biology as to how proteins are synthesized in periods of oxygen scarcity and eIF4E inhibition9. Here, we uncover an oxygen-regulated translation initiation complex that mediates selective cap-dependent protein synthesis. Hypoxia stimulates the formation of a complex that includes the oxygen-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α), the RNA binding protein RBM4 and the cap-binding eIF4E2, an eIF4E homologue. PAR-CLIP10 analysis identified an RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE) that recruits this complex to a wide array mRNAs, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Once assembled at the rHRE, HIF-2α/RBM4/eIF4E2 captures the 5′cap and targets mRNAs to polysomes for active translation thereby evading hypoxia-induced repression of protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that cells have evolved a program whereby oxygen tension switches the basic translation initiation machinery. PMID:22678294

  12. [The first steps of chlorophyll synthesis: RNA involvement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Soell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Glu-tRNA[sup Glu] is synthesized from glutamate and tRNA[sup Glu] by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). Recent work has demonstrated that Glu-tRNA[sup Glu] has dual functions and is a precursor for protein and 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthesis. Current data does not provide compelling evidence for the notion that GluRS is regulated by chlorophyll precursors or in concert with the other enzymes of ALA synthesis. We have redefined the C5-pathway as a two-step route to ALA starting with Glu-tRNA[sup Glu]. Only two enzymes, Glu-tRNA reductase (GluTR) and GSA-2,1-amino-mutase (GSA-AM), are specifically involved in ALA synthesis. We have purified these enzymatic activities from Chlamydomonas and demonstrated that the two purified proteins in the presence of their cofactors NADPH and pyridoxal phosphate are sufficient for the in vitro Glu-tRNA [yields] ALA conversion. We have cloned the genes encoding GluTR. The sequences of the GluTR proteins deduced from these genes share highly conserved regions with those of bacterial origin. We havealso cloned and analyzed the gene encoding GSA-AM from Arabidopsis. As in Salmonella typhimurium, there are indications of the existence of an additional pathway for ALA formation in E. coli. To shed light on the recognition of the single tRNA[sup Glu] by the chloroplast enzymes GluTR, GluRS we characterized a chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Euglena having tRNA[sup Glu] with a point mutation in the T[Psi]C-loop. The altered tRNA supports protein but not ALA synthesis.

  13. Rapid intra-adrenal feedback regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Spiga, F; Gupta, R; Zhao, Z; Lightman, S L; Terry, J R

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a vital neuroendocrine system that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. This system is characterized by a dynamic ultradian hormonal oscillation, and in addition is highly responsive to stressful stimuli. We have recently shown that a primary mechanism generating this ultradian rhythm is a systems-level interaction where adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids, which in turn feedback at the level of the pituitary to rapidly inhibit ACTH secretion. In this study, we combine experimental physiology and mathematical modelling to investigate intra-adrenal mechanisms regulating glucocorticoid synthesis. Our modelling results suggest that glucocorticoids can inhibit their own synthesis through a very rapid (within minutes), presumably non-genomic, intra-adrenal pathway. We present further evidence for the existence of a short time delay in this intra-adrenal inhibition, and also that at the initiation of each ACTH stimulus, this local feedback mechanism is rapidly antagonized, presumably via activation of the specific ACTH receptor (MC2R) signalling pathway. This mechanism of intra-adrenal inhibition enables the gland to rapidly release glucocorticoids while at the same time preventing uncontrolled release of glucocorticoids in response to large surges in ACTH associated with stress. PMID:25392395

  14. Cyclin B synthesis and rapamycin-sensitive regulation of protein synthesis during starfish oocyte meiotic divisions.

    PubMed

    Lapasset, Laure; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère; Vergé, Valérie; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Oulhen, Nathalie; Cormier, Patrick; Peaucellier, Gérard

    2008-11-01

    Translation of cyclin mRNAs represents an important event for proper meiotic maturation and post-fertilization mitoses in many species. Translational control of cyclin B mRNA has been described to be achieved through two separate but related mechanisms: translational repression and polyadenylation. In this paper, we evaluated the contribution of global translational regulation by the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein) on the cyclin B protein synthesis during meiotic maturation of the starfish oocytes. We used the immunosupressant drug rapamycin, a strong inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, to check for the involvement of this protein synthesis during this physiological process. Rapamycin was found to prevent dissociation of 4E-BP from the initiation factor eIF4E and to suppress correlatively a burst of global protein synthesis occurring at the G2/M transition. The drug had no effect on first meiotic division but defects in meiotic spindle formation prevented second polar body emission, demonstrating that a rapamycin-sensitive pathway is involved in this mechanism. While rapamycin affected the global protein synthesis, the drug altered neither the specific translation of cyclin B mRNA nor the expression of the Mos protein. The expression of these two proteins was correlated with the phosphorylation and the dissociation of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein from eIF4E. PMID:18361417

  15. From UVR8 to flavonol synthase: UV-B-induced gene expression in Sauvignon blanc grape berry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Gregan, Scott; Winefield, Chris; Jordan, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of development and UV-B on flavonols and the regulation of gene activity in Vitis vinifera L. var. Sauvignon blanc grapes. Particular emphasis was placed on gene activity associated with the low and high fluence UV-B responses. Flavonols, particularly quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, increased substantially upon fruit exposure due to UV-B, with spatial analysis locating the changes to the berry skin. Of five VvFLS genes in grapes, two (VvFLS4 and 5) were found to be transcriptionally active, with VvFLS4 also being responsive to UV-B but VvFLS5 was not. Of the transcription factors known to regulate FLS (VvMYB12, VvMYCA1 and VvWDRs), only VvMYB12 was found to be responsive to UV-B. A number of candidate genes associated with the low and high UV-B fluence responses were also studied (VvUVR8, VvHY5, VvCOP1 and VvCHS; PR genes and VvMAPK3; respectively). The genes associated with the low fluence response exhibited transcriptional regulation in line with reports from other species, while the PR genes and VvMAPK3 only appeared to be responsive in a high UV-B fluence environment. Together, these data supports the view flavonol biosynthesis in grape is stimulated predominantly through the low fluence UV-B response pathway. PMID:24738597

  16. The grapevine VvibZIPC22 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne, Giulia; Coller, Emanuela; Czemmel, Stefan; Vrhovsek, Urska; Engelen, Kristof; Goremykin, Vadim; Bogs, Jochen; Moser, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In grapevine, flavonoids constitute one of the most abundant subgroups of secondary metabolites, influencing the quality, health value, and typicity of wines. Their synthesis in many plant species is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level by modulation of flavonoid pathway genes either by single regulators or by complexes of different regulators. In particular, bZIP and MYB factors interact synergistically in the recognition of light response units present in the promoter of some genes of the pathway, thus mediating light-dependent flavonoid biosynthesis. We recently identified VvibZIPC22, a member of clade C of the grapevine bZIP family, in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) specifically associated with kaemperol content in mature berries. Here, to validate the involvement of this candidate gene in the fine regulation of flavonol biosynthesis, we characterized its function by in vitro and in vivo experiments. A role for this gene in the control of flavonol biosynthesis was indeed confirmed by its highest expression at flowering and during UV light-mediated induction, paralleled by accumulation of the flavonol synthase 1 transcript and flavonol compounds. The overexpression of VvibZIPC22 in tobacco caused a significant increase in several flavonoids in the flower, via induction of general and specific genes of the pathway. In agreement with this evidence, VvibZIPC22 was able to activate the promoters of specific genes of the flavonoid pathway, alone or together with other factors, as revealed by transient reporter assays. These findings, supported by in silico indications, allowed us to propose VvibZIPC22 as a new regulator of flavonoid biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:27194742

  17. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    PubMed

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  18. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)

    PubMed Central

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m−2 s−1 or 100 μmol m−2 s−1 at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m−2 s−1 with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  19. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers. PMID:16042335

  20. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2016-03-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  1. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B.; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Stanley, Lauren E.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  2. Biochemistry and molecular biology of regulation of starch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M.; Morell, M.; Preiss, J.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of plant starch synthesis occurs at the level of ADPglc synthetase. 3-P-glycerate (3PGA) activates and P/sub i/ inhibits ADPG synthesis. 3PGA at high concentrations reverses P/sub i/ inhibition. Pyridoxal-P (PLP) activates the spinach leaf enzyme about 5- to 6-fold, but is not as effective as 3PGA which stimulates ADPglc synthesis 20-fold. PLP competes with 3PGA as an activator and reverses P/sub i/ inhibition thus suggesting that PLP binds at or close to the activator site. Reductive phosphopyridoxylation of the spinach leaf ADPglc synthetase with NaBH4 yields an enzyme with 5- to 6-fold higher activity in the absence of activator than the untreated enzyme when about 0.5 mol of (TH)-PLP is bound per mole of native enzyme. This modified enzyme is highly resistant to P/sub i/ inhibition in contrast to the treated enzyme. (TH)-PLP is incorporated into both 54 KD and 51 KD subunits of the enzyme. Incorporation into both peptides is inhibited by both 3PGA and P/sub i/. After incorporation of (TH)-PLP, the 51 KD subunit has been separated from the 54 KD subunit and subjected to tryptic digestion. A major radioactive peptide has been purified by HPLC and sequenced. The determined sequence was Ser-Gly-Ile-Val-Thr-Val-Ile-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Ile-Pro-(Ser)- and is very similar to the deduced amino acid sequence obtained from a cDNA clone of the rice endosperm ADPglc synthetase gene. The amino acid sequence, the putative activator binding region, is situated near the C-terminus.

  3. Hormonal regulation of mannan-binding lectin synthesis in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, C M; Hansen, T K; Steffensen, R; Jensenius, J C; Thiel, S

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the complement system via the plasma protein mannan-binding lectin (MBL) provides a first line of defence against infections. The plasma level of MBL is, in part, determined genetically, but may also be influenced by different hormones in vivo. Here we study the hormonal regulation of MBL synthesis from the human hepatocyte cell line HuH-7. Cells were exposed to medium with growth hormone (GH), hydrocortisone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, insulin, interleukin (IL)-6 or thyroid hormones (T3 or T4). After 3 days the concentration of MBL in the culture supernatants was determined and the amount of mRNA for MBL was measured, relative to mRNA for β2 microglobulin. GH, IL-6, T3 and T4 significantly increased MBL synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, while hydrocortisone, insulin and IGF-1 had no effect. T3 caused a fourfold increase at 1 nM of T3 (P < 0·001) and at 100 nM of T3 the production was increased more than eightfold. The effect of T4 was less potent, reaching an eightfold increase at 1 µM of T4 (P < 0·001). GH augmented the production of MBL threefold at a concentration of 100 ng/ml (P = 0·018) with no further effect up to 10 µg/ml, whereas IL-6 caused only a very weak increase in MBL production. MBL mRNA levels were stable during the first 24 h of T3 stimulation but increased significantly between 24 and 48 h. The results suggest that MBL synthesis in humans may be increased by thyroid hormone and GH, whereas it does not exhibit a classical IL-6-dependent response. PMID:16792688

  4. Genetic regulation of sporopollenin synthesis and pollen exine development.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Toriyama, Kinya

    2011-01-01

    Pollen acts as a biological protector of male sperm and is covered by an outer cell wall polymer called the exine, which consists of durable sporopollenin. Despite the astonishingly divergent structure of the exine across taxa, the developmental processes of its formation surprisingly do not vary, which suggests the preservation of a common molecular mechanism. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying pollen exine patterning remain highly elusive, but they appear to be dependent on at least three major developmental processes: primexine formation, callose wall formation, and sporopollenin synthesis. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sporopollenin is built up via catalytic enzyme reactions in the tapetum, and both the primexine and callose wall provide an efficient substructure for sporopollenin deposition. Herein, we review the currently accepted understanding of the molecular regulation of sporopollenin biosynthesis and examine unanswered questions regarding the requirements underpinning proper exine pattern formation, as based on genetic evidence. PMID:21275644

  5. Regulation of isopropylmalate isomerase synthesis in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbecher, V E; Fischer, M; Gross, S R

    1978-01-01

    The capacity to synthetize isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) by Neurospora crassa increased during induction in the presence of cycloheximide but was inhibited by proflavine and other inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Turnover of the enzyme once formed appeared negligible, but the message (measured as enzyme-forming capacity) had a half-life of 4 to 8 min. A comparison of the kinetics of induction in the wild type and a newly isolated alpha-isopropylmalate-permeable strain suggested strongly that feedback control by leucine of alpha-isopropylmalate production can adequately serve as the primary physiological regulator of endogenous inducer concentration. Genetic data are presented which implicate the involvement of two unlinked genes, ipm-1 and ipm-2, in determining permeation of alpha-isopropylmalate. PMID:146702

  6. The regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis in pigeon liver

    PubMed Central

    Gevers, W.

    1967-01-01

    -oxoglutarate, and the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate. 5. The results suggest that phosphoenolpyruvate formation in pigeon-liver mitochondria is regulated partly by the phosphorylation state of the adenine and guanine nucleotides, and partly by variations in the oxaloacetate concentration, all in the mitochondrial matrix. 6. Phosphoenolpyruvate is assumed to be the metabolite transported from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm during gluconeogenesis from oxaloacetate in pigeon liver. PMID:4962163

  7. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2014-05-01

    Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as "swinging arms" that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like "arm" of biotin were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise, and the BioH esterase is responsible for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl acyl carrier protein of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyltransferase followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C-6 and C-8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized, and, thus, there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast, transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system, exerted through BirA, a dual-function protein

  8. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2008-09-01

    Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as "swinging arms" that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid was discovered 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway, in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like "arm" of biotin, were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise and the BioH esterase for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl-ACP of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyl transferase, followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C6 and C8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized, and thus there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast, transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system exerted through BirA, a dual-function protein that both represses

  9. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cronan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as “swinging arms” that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well-described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like “arm” of biotin were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise and the BioH esterase for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl-ACP of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyl transferase followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C6 and C8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized and thus there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system, exerted through BirA a dual function protein that both represses

  10. Lil3 Assembles with Proteins Regulating Chlorophyll Synthesis in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Daniela; Furnes, Clemens; Reisinger, Veronika; Arnold, Janine; Kmiec, Karol; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins are a family of membrane proteins that share a chlorophyll a/b-binding motif with the major light-harvesting antenna proteins of oxygenic photoautotrophs. LIL proteins have been associated with the regulation of tetrapyrrol biosynthesis, and plant responses to light-stress. Here, it was found in a native PAGE approach that chlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide plus geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate trigger assembly of Lil3 in three chlorine binding fluorescent protein bands, termed F1, F2, and F3. It is shown that light and chlorophyllide trigger accumulation of protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase, and chlorophyll synthase in band F3. Chlorophyllide and chlorophyll esterified to geranylgeraniol were identified as basis of fluorescence recorded from band F3. A direct interaction between Lil3, CHS and POR was confirmed in a split ubiquitin assay. In the presence of light or chlorophyllide, geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate was shown to trigger a loss of the F3 band and accumulation of Lil3 and geranylgeranyl reductase in F1 and F2. No direct interaction between Lil3 and geranylgeraniolreductase was identified in a split ubiquitin assay; however, accumulation of chlorophyll esterified to phytol in F1 and F2 corroborated the enzymes assembly. Chlorophyll esterified to phytol and the reaction center protein psbD of photosystem II were identified to accumulate together with psb29, and APX in the fluorescent band F2. Data show that Lil3 assembles with proteins regulating chlorophyll synthesis in etioplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). PMID:26172838

  11. Polyamines function in stress tolerance: from synthesis to regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Gong, Xiaoqing; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity, and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested. PMID:26528300

  12. A new flavonol glycoside derivative from leaves of Moldenhawera nutans.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Ademir E; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; David, Juceni P

    2005-01-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Moldenhawera nutans Queiroz & Alkin (Leguminosae) furnished, besides methyl gallate and gallic acid, the flavonols named laricetrin, laricetrin 3-glucoside and laricetrin 3-galactoside as well as the new one named laricetrin 5-galloyl-3-beta-D-xylopyranoside. It also was isolated from the hexane extract: beta-sitosterol, lupenone, beta-amyrinone, alpha-amyrinone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin and alpha-tocopherol. The antioxidant activities of flavonoids were measured through DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of auto-oxidation of beta-carotene methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by analyses of spectral data. This is the first report dealing with phytochemical studies of leaves of M. nutans. In addition this current work describes the unequivocal attribution of 1H NMR and 13C NMR data of laricetrin. PMID:15787243

  13. Quantification of flavonol glycosides in Camellia sinensis by MRM mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. PMID:26937589

  14. Flavonols Accumulate Asymmetrically and Affect Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Benjamin M.; Geisler, Markus; Bigler, Laurent; Ringli, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids represent a class of secondary metabolites with diverse functions in plants including ultraviolet protection, pathogen defense, and interspecies communication. They are also known as modulators of signaling processes in plant and animal systems and therefore are considered to have beneficial effects as nutraceuticals. The rol1-2 (for repressor of lrx1) mutation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) induces aberrant accumulation of flavonols and a cell-growth phenotype in the shoot. The hyponastic cotyledons, aberrant shape of pavement cells, and deformed trichomes in rol1-2 mutants are suppressed by blocking flavonoid biosynthesis, suggesting that the altered flavonol accumulation in these plants induces the shoot phenotype. Indeed, the identification of several transparent testa, myb, and fls1 (for flavonol synthase1) alleles in a rol1-2 suppressor screen provides genetic evidence that flavonols interfere with shoot development in rol1-2 seedlings. The increased accumulation of auxin in rol1-2 seedlings appears to be caused by a flavonol-induced modification of auxin transport. Quantification of auxin export from mesophyll protoplasts revealed that naphthalene-1-acetic acid but not indole-3-acetic acid transport is affected by the rol1-2 mutation. Inhibition of flavonol biosynthesis in rol1-2 fls1-3 restores naphthalene-1-acetic acid transport to wild-type levels, indicating a very specific mode of action of flavonols on the auxin transport machinery. PMID:21502189

  15. Flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) contents of selected fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) were determined in 22 plant materials (9 vegetables, 5 fruits, and 8 medicinal plant organs). The materials were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol/HCl, 100:1, v/v) and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) with UV detection. The total flavonols contents varied significantly (P<0.05) among vegetables, fruits and medicinal plant organs ranged from 0 to 1720.5, 459.9 to 3575.4, and 2.42 to 6125.6mgkg(-1) of dry matter, respectively. Among vegetables, spinach and cauliflower exhibited the highest amounts of flavonols (1720.5 and 1603.9mgkg(-1), respectively), however, no flavonols were detected in garlic. Within fruits, highest level of flavonols was observed in strawberry (3575.4mgkg(-1)), whereas, the lowest in apple fruit (459.9mgkg(-1)). Of the medicinal plant organs, moringa and aloe vera leaves contained the highest contents of flavonols (6125.6 and 1636.04mgkg(-1)), respectively, whereas, lowest was present in barks (2.42-274.07mgkg(-1)). Overall, leafy green vegetables, soft fruits and medicinal plant leaves exhibited higher levels of flavonols. PMID:26065748

  16. Synthesis and characterization of TEP-EDTA-regulated bioactive hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haders, Daniel Joseph, II

    Ca2+ concentration enabled the HA crystallization process to be growth dominated, producing films composed of high crystallinity, hexagonal grains on multiple metallic substrates. TEP regulation of HA crystallization enabled the deposition of an adhesive CaTiO3 intermediate layer, and then HA in a continuous, phase sequenced process on Ti6Al4V substrates, the first such process reported in the hydrothermal HA literature. The HA film was found to be deposited by a passivating competitive growth mechanism that enabled the [0001] crystallographic orientation of hexagonal single crystals to be engineered with synthesis time. Bioactivity analysis demonstrated that films were bioactive and bone bonding. Together, these results suggest that these HA films are candidates for use on metallic orthopedic implants, namely Ti6Al4V.

  17. Oxidant-specific regulation of protein synthesis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Arunkumar; Grant, Chris M

    2014-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells typically respond to stress conditions by inhibiting global protein synthesis. The initiation phase is the main target of regulation and represents a key control point for eukaryotic gene expression. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells this is achieved by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). We have examined how the fungal pathogen Candida albicans responds to oxidative stress conditions and show that oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, the heavy metal cadmium and the thiol oxidant diamide inhibit translation initiation. The inhibition in response to hydrogen peroxide and cadmium largely depends on phosphorylation of eIF2α since minimal inhibition is observed in a gcn2 mutant. In contrast, translation initiation is inhibited in a Gcn2-independent manner in response to diamide. Our data indicate that all three oxidants inhibit growth of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner, however, loss of GCN2 does not improve growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or cadmium. Examination of translational activity indicates that these oxidants inhibit translation at a post-initiation phase which may account for the growth inhibition in a gcn2 mutant. As well as inhibiting global translation initiation, phosphorylation of eIF2α also enhances expression of the GCN4 mRNA in yeast via a well-known translational control mechanism. We show that C. albicans GCN4 is similarly induced in response to oxidative stress conditions and Gcn4 is specifically required for hydrogen peroxide tolerance. Thus, the response of C. albicans to oxidative stress is mediated by oxidant-specific regulation of translation initiation and we discuss our findings in comparison to other eukaryotes including the yeast S. cerevisiae. PMID:24699161

  18. Synthesis and regulation of chlorogenic acid in potato: Rerouting phenylpropanoid flux in HQT-silenced lines.

    PubMed

    Payyavula, Raja S; Shakya, Roshani; Sengoda, Venkatesan G; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Swamy, Prashant; Navarre, Duroy A

    2015-05-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the major phenolic sink in potato tubers and can constitute over 90% of total phenylpropanoids. The regulation of CGA biosynthesis in potato and the role of the CGA biosynthetic gene hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) was characterized. A sucrose induced accumulation of CGA correlated with the increased expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) rather than HQT. Transient expression of the potato MYB transcription factor StAN1 (anthocyanin 1) in tobacco increased CGA. RNAi suppression of HQT resulted in over a 90% reduction in CGA and resulted in early flowering. The reduction in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity was less than the reduction in CGA, suggesting flux was rerouted into other phenylpropanoids. Network analysis showed distinct patterns in different organs, with anthocyanins and phenolic acids showing negative correlations in leaves and flowers and positive in tubers. Some flavonols increased in flowers, but not in leaves or tubers. Anthocyanins increased in flowers and showed a trend to increase in leaves, but not tubers. HQT suppression increased biosynthesis of caffeoyl polyamines, some of which are not previously reported in potato. Decreased PAL expression and enzyme activity was observed in HQT suppressed lines, suggesting the existence of a regulatory loop between CGA and PAL. Electrophysiology detected no effect of CGA suppression on potato psyllid feeding. Collectively, this research showed that CGA in potatoes is synthesized through HQT and HQT suppression altered phenotype and redirected phenylpropanoid flux. PMID:25421386

  19. Evaluation for morphological, reproductive, anthocyanin index, and flavonol traits in ornamental and nutraceutical producing Hibiscus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of twenty accessions representing 11 diverse Hibiscus species were evaluated for morphological, anthocyanin index, flavonol variability, and association correlations for these traits. While considerable variation in all morphological traits were found, H. radiatus produced the tallest ...

  20. Developmental effects on phenolic, flavonol, anthocyanin, and carotenoid metabolites and gene expression in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato phytonutrients include phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Developmental effects on phytonutrient concentrations and gene expression was studied in white, yellow and purple potatoes. Purple potatoes contained the most total phenolics, which decreased during development (1...

  1. Development of Marker-Free Transgenic Potato Tubers Enriched in Caffeoylquinic Acids and Flavonols.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Tang, Wenzhao; Chen, Jing; Jia, Ru; Ma, Lianjie; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Jiao; Shen, Xiangling; Chu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Changxiang; Ding, Xinhua

    2016-04-13

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a major crop worldwide that meets human economic and nutritional requirements. Potato has several advantages over other crops: easy to cultivate and store, cheap to consume, and rich in a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we generated three marker-free transgenic potato lines that expressed the Arabidopsis thaliana flavonol-specific transcriptional activator AtMYB12 driven by the tuber-specific promoter Patatin. Marker-free potato tubers displayed increased amounts of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) (3.35-fold increases on average) and flavonols (4.50-fold increase on average). Concentrations of these metabolites were associated with the enhanced expression of genes in the CQA and flavonol biosynthesis pathways. Accumulation of CQAs and flavonols resulted in 2-fold higher antioxidant capacity compared to wild-type potatoes. Tubers from these marker-free transgenic potatoes have therefore improved antioxidant properties. PMID:27019017

  2. The nuclear receptor LRH-1 critically regulates extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Matthias; Cima, Igor; Noti, Mario; Fuhrer, Andrea; Jakob, Sabine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear receptor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1, NR5A2) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of many metabolic pathways. In addition, LRH-1 is expressed in intestinal crypt cells where it regulates the epithelial cell renewal and contributes to tumorigenesis through the induction of cell cycle proteins. We have recently identified the intestinal epithelium as an important extra-adrenal source of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids. We show here that LRH-1 promotes the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes and the synthesis of corticosterone in murine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Interestingly, LRH-1 is also essential for intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis in vivo, as LRH-1 haplo-insufficiency strongly reduces the intestinal expression of steroidogenic enzymes and glucocorticoid synthesis upon immunological stress. These results demonstrate for the first time a novel role for LRH-1 in the regulation of intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis and propose LRH-1 as an important regulator of intestinal tissue integrity and immune homeostasis. PMID:16923850

  3. The nuclear receptor LRH-1 critically regulates extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias; Cima, Igor; Noti, Mario; Fuhrer, Andrea; Jakob, Sabine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    The nuclear receptor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1, NR5A2) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of many metabolic pathways. In addition, LRH-1 is expressed in intestinal crypt cells where it regulates the epithelial cell renewal and contributes to tumorigenesis through the induction of cell cycle proteins. We have recently identified the intestinal epithelium as an important extra-adrenal source of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids. We show here that LRH-1 promotes the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes and the synthesis of corticosterone in murine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Interestingly, LRH-1 is also essential for intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis in vivo, as LRH-1 haplo-insufficiency strongly reduces the intestinal expression of steroidogenic enzymes and glucocorticoid synthesis upon immunological stress. These results demonstrate for the first time a novel role for LRH-1 in the regulation of intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis and propose LRH-1 as an important regulator of intestinal tissue integrity and immune homeostasis. PMID:16923850

  4. Hormonal regulation of fibrinogen synthesis in cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grieninger, G; Plant, P W; Liang, T J; Kalb, R G; Amrani, D; Mosesson, M W; Hertzberg, K M; Pindyck, J

    1983-06-27

    Most of what was originally known of the effects of hormones on fibrinogen synthesis was based, as noted above, on experiments involving surgical removal of endocrine glands. Some caution should be exercised when using such in vivo experiments to derive the hormonal requirements of fibrinogen synthesis, however, since multiple hormonal alterations often occur in these animals. The development of a variety of ex vivo systems has allowed investigators to more carefully control the hepatocellular environment. The work of several laboratories, including our own, has now made it clear that hormones and other agents directly stimulate hepatocellular synthesis of fibrinogen. From the studies summarized here, using chick embryo hepatocytes as a model, several generalizations emerge: Fibrinogen synthesis may be considered to be a "constitutive" liver function, since hepatocytes cultured without serum, hormones or other macromolecular supplements synthesize this protein at a basal rate for several days. Addition of certain hormones (e.g. T3, dexamethasone, insulin), individually and in physiological concentrations, elicits an increase in fibrinogen production, varying with each agent in onset, dose, minimum exposure required and accompanying effects on the synthesis of other plasma proteins. Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones are similar in the selectivity of their stimulation (neither affects albumin or transferrin synthesis) but differ in that thyroid hormones need to be present for just a short "triggering" period. The stimulation of fibrinogen synthesis by insulin occurs only following prolonged exposure to concentrations 10-times higher than the very low doses to which albumin synthesis responds rapidly. PMID:6307104

  5. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside is an endogenous flavonol inhibitor of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis shoots

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ruohe; Han, Kerstin; Heller, Werner; Albert, Andreas; Dobrev, Petre I; Zažímalová, Eva; Schäffner, Anton R

    2014-01-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Flavonoids have been implicated in the inhibition of PAT. However, the active flavonoid derivative(s) involved in this process in vivo has not yet been identified. Here, we provide evidence that a specific flavonol bis-glycoside is correlated with shorter plant stature and reduced PAT. Specific flavonoid-biosynthetic or flavonoid-glycosylating steps were genetically blocked in Arabidopsis thaliana. The differential flavonol patterns established were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and related to altered plant stature. PAT was monitored in stem segments using a radioactive [3H]-indole-3-acetic acid tracer. The flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase mutant ugt78d2 exhibited a dwarf stature in addition to its altered flavonol glycoside pattern. This was accompanied by reduced PAT in ugt78d2 shoots. The ugt78d2-dependent growth defects were flavonoid dependent, as they were rescued by genetic blocking of flavonoid biosynthesis. Phenotypic and metabolic analyses of a series of mutants defective at various steps of flavonoid formation narrowed down the potentially active moiety to kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Moreover, the level of this compound was negatively correlated with basipetal auxin transport. These results indicate that kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside acts as an endogenous PAT inhibitor in Arabidopsis shoots. PMID:24251900

  6. Regulation of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Datta, A

    1979-02-19

    A basal level of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase is detected in yeast cells grown on glucose. However, a burst of enzyme production occurs in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine in pathogenic Candida albicans and non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cervisiae. The enzyme synthesis stops and its concentration in the cells declines rapidly as soon as N-acetylglucosamine is removed from the medium. Experiments with RNA- and protein-synthesis inhibitors indicate that the appearance of new enzyme activity is dependent on concomitant new protein synthesis and the inducer operates at a transcriptional level. However, inhibition of DNA synthesis either by hydroxyurea or by mitomycin-C does not impair the synthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase. PMID:369615

  7. [Determination of 7 flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo biloba reference extract].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Meng-meng; Fu, Xin-tong; Chen, You-gen; Guo, Hong-zhu

    2015-10-01

    Six flavonol glycosides were isolated and calibrated from Ginkgo biloba extract, and then used to calibrate the content in 2 baiches of G. biloba reference extract, so was rutin. RSD values of rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glu- coside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnop-yranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coum-aroyl) - glucoside were around 1.1%-4.6%, nevertheless, RSD values of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were more than 5%. According to the results, the reference extract of G. biloba can be used as the substitute to determine rutin, kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside instead of corresponding reference substances. So reference extract in place of single component reference in assay is feasible. PMID:27062820

  8. Glucocorticoids Regulate Tristetraprolin Synthesis and Posttranscriptionally Regulate Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inflammatory Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Smoak, Kathleen; Cidlowski, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used to treat various inflammatory disorders, but the mechanisms underlying these actions are incompletely understood. The zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes several proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs by binding to AU-rich elements within their 3′ untranslated regions, targeting them for degradation. Here we report that glucocorticoids induce the synthesis of TTP mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial cells and in rat tissues. Dexamethasone treatment leads to a sustained induction of TTP mRNA expression that is abrogated by RU486. Glucocorticoid induction of TTP mRNA is also blocked by actinomycin D but not by cycloheximide, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism which has been confirmed by transcription run-on experiments. The most widely characterized TTP-regulated gene is the AU-rich tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene. Dexamethasone represses TNF-α mRNA in A549 cells and decreases luciferase expression of a TNF-α 3′ untranslated region reporter plasmid in an orientation-dependent manner. Small interfering RNAs to TTP significantly prevent this effect, and a cell line stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA to TTP conclusively establishes that TTP is critical for dexamethasone inhibition of TNF-α mRNA expression. These studies provide the molecular evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of human TTP and reflect a novel inductive anti-inflammatory signaling pathway for glucocorticoids that acts via posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:16982682

  9. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders. PMID:26984393

  10. Chelation behavior of various flavonols and transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to alanylaspartic dipeptide: A PCM/DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasarawan, Nuttawisit; Thipyapong, Khajadpai; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2016-03-01

    Alanylaspartic dipeptide (AlaAsp) and zinc(II)-flavonol complex could represent a metal-binding site in proteins and a metal-ion releasing agent, respectively. Chelation of zinc(II) by either AlaAsp or flavonol ligands in aqueous solution has been examined using DFT methods with polarizable continuum model (PCM/DFT). Coordination geometry, complexation stoichiometry, coordination bond strength, preferable metal-binding site on ligands and effect of water coordination on the stability of complexes have been addressed. In several cases, the long-range corrected density functional CAM-B3LYP allows the most accurate prediction of both structural and spectroscopic data. The preferential transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to AlaAsp under solvation is attainable through the ligand-exchange reaction. The energy barrier of such reaction is significantly dependent on the degree of hydrogen bonding within the transition state. In summary, either hydroxylation or methoxylation at particular positions on the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone significantly affects the reactivity of flavonol chelates in the metal-ion transfer.

  11. [Local Protein Synthesis in Dendrites and its Regulation Normally and During Plastic Changes].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, E A; Kolosov, P M

    2016-01-01

    Specifics and key regulation mechanisms of compartmentalised protein synthesis in dendrites are reviewed. The up-to-date literature data of the subject are analysed. The results of many molecular, cytological and physiological experiments are presented. Also there is some information about a number of neurological diseases connected with dendritic translation regulation malfunction. PMID:27538281

  12. Regulation of troponin C synthesis in primary culture of chicken cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S B; Bag, J

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac myocyte cell culture from fourteen day old embryonic chicken heart was prepared. This cultured cell system was used to examine the regulation of troponin C (TnC) synthesis in cardiac muscle. To examine the regulation of TnC polypeptide synthesis, cardiac myocyte cells were pulse labelled with 35S-methionine at different days after plating. The synthesis of TnC was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity incorporated into the TnC polypeptide following separation by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. These measurements showed that TnC synthesis was maximum in 36 to 48 h old cultures and reached its lowest level in 4 day old cultures. This was in contrast to the synthesis of actin and tropomyosin. Synthesis of these polypeptides were lowest in 36 to 48 h old cultures and was maximum in 7 day old cultures. To examine whether the synthesis of TnC polypeptide paralleled the levels of TnC mRNA the sequences homologous to quail slow TnC cDNA clone were measured by hybridisation. The results showed that the decrease in the synthesis of troponin C polypeptide cannot be fully explained by the decrease in the steady state level of troponin C mRNA. The possibility of a role of translational control of troponin C mRNA in this process is discussed. PMID:2890096

  13. Antiviral Effect of Methylated Flavonol Isorhamnetin against Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Choi, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Bong; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease with frequent seasonal epidemics that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans, poultry, and animals. Influenza is a serious economic concern due to the costly countermeasures it necessitates. In this study, we compared the antiviral activities of several flavonols and other flavonoids with similar, but distinct, hydroxyl or methyl substitution patterns at the 3, 3′, and 4′ positions of the 15-carbon flavonoid skeleton, and found that the strongest antiviral effect was induced by isorhamnetin. Similar to quercetin and kaempferol, isorhamnetin possesses a hydroxyl group on the C ring, but it has a 3′-methyl group on the B ring that is absent in quercetin and kaempferol. Co-treatment and pre-treatment with isorhamnetin produced a strong antiviral effect against the influenza virus A/PR/08/34(H1N1). However, isorhamnetin showed the most potent antiviral potency when administered after viral exposure (post-treatment method) in vitro. Isorhamnetin treatment reduced virus-induced ROS generation and blocked cytoplasmic lysosome acidification and the lipidation of microtubule associated protein1 light chain 3-B (LC3B). Oral administration of isorhamnetin in mice infected with the influenza A virus significantly decreased lung virus titer by 2 folds, increased the survival rate which ranged from 70–80%, and decreased body weight loss by 25%. In addition, isorhamnetin decreased the virus titer in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of isorhamnetin could explain its strong anti-influenza virus potency; the methyl group located on the B ring of isorhamnetin may contribute to its strong antiviral potency against influenza virus in comparison with other flavonoids. PMID:25806943

  14. Lewis lung carcinoma regulation of mechanical stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Carson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stretch can activate muscle and myotube protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. While it has been established that tumor-derived cachectic factors can induce myotube wasting, the effect of this catabolic environment on myotube mechanical signaling has not been determined. We investigated whether media containing cachectic factors derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) can regulate the stretch induction of myotube protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes preincubated in control or LLC-derived media were chronically stretched. Protein synthesis regulation by anabolic and catabolic signaling was then examined. In the control condition, stretch increased mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis. The LLC treatment decreased basal mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis and attenuated the stretch induction of protein synthesis. LLC media increased STAT3 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in myotubes, independent of stretch. Both stretch and LLC independently increased ERK1/2, p38, and NF-κB phosphorylation. In LLC-treated myotubes, the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 rescued the stretch induction of protein synthesis. Interestingly, either leukemia inhibitory factor or glycoprotein 130 antibody administration caused further inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in stretched myotubes. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition increased basal mTORC1 signaling activity and protein synthesis in LLC-treated myotubes, but did not restore the stretch induction of protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that LLC-derived cachectic factors can dissociate stretch-induced signaling from protein synthesis through ERK1/2 and p38 signaling, and that glycoprotein 130 signaling is associated with the basal stretch response in myotubes. PMID:26491045

  15. Regulation of protein synthesis during early limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Swedes, J S; Dial, M E; McLaughlin, C S

    1979-01-01

    Arsenate, a competitive inhibitor with phosphate in phosphorylation reactions, has been used to lower adenine and guanine nucleotide levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study nucleotide effects on protein synthesis. By measuring polysome levels, we have shown that initiation of protein synthesis is much more sensitive than elongation or termination to inhibition when the ATP/ADP, GTP/GDP ratios are low. When the arsenate-phosphate molar ratio was 0.27, protein synthesis was inhibited by about 85% and the kinetics of polysome decay was similar to that observed with the initiation inhibitor, verrucarin-76, or with the protein synthesis initiation mutant, ts187, at the restrictive temperature. With this level of arsenate, the adenylate energy charge dropped from 0.9 to 0.7 and the ATP/ADP and GTP/GDP ratios dropped from 6 to 2. The observed correlations between nucleotide ratio changes and inhibition of protein synthesis suggest that the former may be a control signal for the latter. The significance of these in vivo correlations will have to be tested with an in vitro protein synthesizing system. Higher arsenate levels resulted in even lower ATP/ADP, GTP/GDP ratios and in a slower decay of polysomes, implying that, eventually, elongation (in addition to initiation) was being inhibited. PMID:374362

  16. SEPARATION OF THE MINOR FLAVONOLS FROM FLOS GOSSYPII BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Yongxin; Gu, Dongyu; Ayupbek, Amatjan; Huang, Yun; Dou, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Tianyou; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2010-01-01

    An effective high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for further separation and purification of four minor flavonols in addition to five major flavonols which were reported by our previous study from extracts of Flos Gossypii. HSCCC was performed with three two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (7.5:15:6:7, v/v), (2.5:15:2:7, v/v) and (0:1:0:1, v/v). The separation was repeated 3 times, and 3.8 mg of 8-methoxyl-kaempferol-7-O-β-D-rhamnoside (HPLC purity 98.27%), 6.7 mg of astragalin (HPLC purity 94.18%), 3.3 mg of 4′-methoxyl-quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (HPLC purity 94.30%) and 8.2 mg of hyperoside (HPLC purity 93.48%) were separated from 150 mg of the crude sample. The chemical structures of the flavonols were confirmed by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the target compound with smaller K value (<0.5) can be separated by increasing column length of HSCCC. And four separation rules of flavonols according to the present study and references were summarized, which can be used as a useful guide for separation of flavonols by HSCCC. PMID:21494318

  17. Light-regulated protein and poly(A)+ mRNA synthesis in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, J A; Hinkelammert, K; Russo, V E

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the effect of illumination upon the patterns of protein synthesis in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa by pulse labelling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Light did not affect overall rates of protein synthesis but did induce the synthesis of six novel polypeptides whose appearance followed a temporally regulated pattern. When translation products of mRNA from illuminated cultures and dark control cultures were compared it was found that the synthesis of five out of six of the polypeptides specific to illuminated cultures could be seen in vitro. We believe that this is consistent with the hypothesis that light regulates the transcription of some genes in N. crassa, although we cannot exclude effects on mRNA stability or the control of precursor splicing. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2868891

  18. Multiple diguanylate cyclase-coordinated regulation of pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yicai; Yuan, Mingjun; Mohanty, Anee; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Liu, Yang; Chua, Song Lin; Nielsen, Thomas E; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Cao, Bin; Yang, Liang

    2015-06-01

    The nucleotide signalling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays an essential role in regulating microbial virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and degraded by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One intrinsic feature of c-di-GMP signalling is the abundance of DGCs and PDEs encoded by many bacterial species. It is unclear whether the different DGCs or PDEs coordinately establish the c-di-GMP regulation or function independently of each other. Here, we provide evidence that multiple DGCs are involved in regulation of c-di-GMP on synthesis of the major iron siderophore pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Constitutive expression of the WspG or YedQ DGC in P. aeruginosa is able to induce its pyoverdine synthesis. Induction of pyoverdine synthesis by high intracellular c-di-GMP depends on the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and another two DGCs, SiaD and SadC. SiaD was found to boost the c-di-GMP synthesis together with constitutively expressing YedQ. The exopolysaccharides and the SiaD DGC were found to modulate the expression of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs. Induction of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs might enhance the pyoverdine synthesis through SadC. Our study sheds light on a novel multiple DGC-coordinated c-di-GMP regulatory mechanism of bacteria. PMID:25683454

  19. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  20. Regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis by guanosine tetraphosphate and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Turnbough, C L

    1983-02-01

    The effects of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates on Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) synthesis were examined. To determine the effect of ppGpp, a stringent (relA+) and relaxed (relA) isogenic pair of E. coli K-12 strains was starved for isoleucine, and the residual rate of synthesis of this enzyme was measured. It was necessary to starve the strains for uracil before the isoleucine limitation to maintain similar, low levels of UTP, the putative pyrimidine effector of ATCase synthesis. The isoleucine starvation of the stringent strain caused an immediate 10-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of ppGpp, which was coincident with the cessation of the synthesis of the enzyme. The elevated level of ppGpp then decayed until it reached an intracellular concentration similar to that found in unstarved cells. Enzyme synthesis resumed at this time. In the relaxed strain, the intracellular concentration of ppGpp did not increase upon isoleucine starvation and synthesis of the enzyme was not repressed. These experiments strongly indicated that ppGpp acts as a negative effector of ATCase synthesis. The repression of ATCase synthesis by ppGpp was demonstrated directly by using a Salmonella typhimurium (relA) in vitro coupled transcription-translation system with a lambda specialized transducing phage carrying the E. coli K-12 operon encoding the subunits of this enzyme (pyrBI) as a source of DNA. This in vitro system was also used to measure the effects of UTP and CTP on ATCase synthesis. Increasing the concentration of UTP in the in vitro reaction mixture resulted in strong repression of this synthesis, whereas increasing the CTP concentration did not affect synthesis significantly. Possible mechanisms for the regulation of pyr gene expression, including attenuation control, are discussed. PMID:6337130

  1. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  2. Regulation of Muscle Protein Synthesis and the Effects of Catabolic States

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Bradley S.; Kelleher, Andrew R.; Kimball, Scot R.

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated processes that act in concert to control the accretion or loss of muscle mass. The present article focuses on the mechanisms involved in the impairment of protein synthesis that are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. The vast majority of mechanisms known to regulate protein synthesis involve modulation of the initiation phase of mRNA translation, which comprises a series of reactions that result in the binding of initiator methionyl-tRNAi and mRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit. The function of the proteins involved in both events has been shown to be repressed under atrophic conditions such as sepsis, cachexia, chronic kidney disease, sarcopenia, and disuse atrophy. The basis for the inhibition of protein synthesis under such conditions is likely to be multifactorial and includes insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, malnutrition, corticosteroids, and/or physical inactivity. The present article provides an overview of the existing literature regarding mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of mRNA translation as they apply to skeletal muscle wasting, as well as the efficacy of potential clinical interventions such as nutrition and exercise in the maintenance of skeletal muscle protein synthesis under atrophic conditions. PMID:23769967

  3. Regulation of muscle protein synthesis and the effects of catabolic states.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bradley S; Kelleher, Andrew R; Kimball, Scot R

    2013-10-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated processes that act in concert to control the accretion or loss of muscle mass. The present article focuses on the mechanisms involved in the impairment of protein synthesis that are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. The vast majority of mechanisms known to regulate protein synthesis involve modulation of the initiation phase of mRNA translation, which comprises a series of reactions that result in the binding of initiator methionyl-tRNAi and mRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit. The function of the proteins involved in both events has been shown to be repressed under atrophic conditions such as sepsis, cachexia, chronic kidney disease, sarcopenia, and disuse atrophy. The basis for the inhibition of protein synthesis under such conditions is likely to be multifactorial and includes insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, malnutrition, corticosteroids, and/or physical inactivity. The present article provides an overview of the existing literature regarding mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of mRNA translation as they apply to skeletal muscle wasting, as well as the efficacy of potential clinical interventions such as nutrition and exercise in the maintenance of skeletal muscle protein synthesis under atrophic conditions. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23769967

  4. Transmembrane receptor DCC associates with protein synthesis machinery and regulates translation

    PubMed Central

    Tcherkezian, Joseph; Brittis, Perry A.; Thomas, Franziska; Roux, Philippe P.; Flanagan, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Extracellular signals regulate protein translation in many cell functions. A key advantage of control at the translational level is the opportunity to regulate protein synthesis within specific cellular subregions. However, little is known about mechanisms that may link extracellular cues to translation with spatial precision. Here we show that a transmembrane receptor, DCC, forms a binding complex containing multiple translation components, including eukaryotic initiation factors, ribosomal large and small subunits, and monosomes. In neuronal axons and dendrites DCC colocalizes in particles with translation machinery, and newly synthesized protein. The extracellular ligand netrin promoted DCC-mediated translation and disassociation of translation components. The functional and physical association of a cell surface receptor with the translation machinery leads to a generalizable model for localization and extracellular regulation of protein synthesis, based on a transmembrane translation regulation complex. PMID:20434207

  5. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  6. Regulation of plant immunity through modulation of phytoalexin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zernova, Olga V; Lygin, Anatoli V; Pawlowski, Michelle L; Hill, Curtis B; Hartman, Glen L; Widholm, Jack M; Lozovaya, Vera V

    2014-01-01

    Soybean hairy roots transformed with the resveratrol synthase and resveratrol oxymethyl transferase genes driven by constitutive Arabidopsis actin and CsVMV promoters were characterized. Transformed hairy roots accumulated glycoside conjugates of the stilbenic compound resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene, which are normally not synthesized by soybean plants. Expression of the non-native stilbenic phytoalexin synthesis in soybean hairy roots increased their resistance to the soybean pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The expression of the AhRS3 gene resulted in 20% to 50% decreased root necrosis compared to that of untransformed hairy roots. The expression of two genes, the AhRS3 and ROMT, required for pterostilbene synthesis in soybean, resulted in significantly lower root necrosis (ranging from 0% to 7%) in transgenic roots than in untransformed hairy roots that had about 84% necrosis. Overexpression of the soybean prenyltransferase (dimethylallyltransferase) G4DT gene in soybean hairy roots increased accumulation of the native phytoalexin glyceollin resulting in decreased root necrosis. PMID:24914895

  7. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  8. Transcriptional regulation of repressor synthesis in mycobacteriophage L5.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, C E; Levin, M E; Donnelly-Wu, M K; Hatfull, G F

    1995-09-01

    Mycobacteriophage L5 is a temperate phage of the mycobacteria that forms stable lysogens in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Lysogeny is maintained by the putative repressor, the gene 71 product, which also mediates immunity to superinfection. We show here that there are three promoters located upstream of gene 71 which are active in an L5 lysogen but which do not require any phage-encoded proteins. In early lytic growth, gene 71 is also transcribed from a promoter, Pleft, located at the right end of the genome and which appears to be a target of gp71 regulation. A model is given for the regulation of L5 life cycles. PMID:8594325

  9. Regulation of Synthesis and Roles of Hyaluronan in Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Timothy; Meran, Soma; Williams, Aled P.; Newbury, Lucy J.; Sauter, Matthias; Sitter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan composed of repeated disaccharide units of alternating D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine residues linked via alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. HA is synthesized in humans by HA synthase (HAS) enzymes 1, 2, and 3, which are encoded by the corresponding HAS genes. Previous in vitro studies have shown characteristic changes in HAS expression and increased HA synthesis in response to wounding and proinflammatory cytokines in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. In addition, in vivo models and human peritoneal biopsy samples have provided evidence of changes in HA metabolism in the fibrosis that at present accompanies peritoneal dialysis treatment. This review discusses these published observations and how they might contribute to improvement in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:26550568

  10. Novel flavonol 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase: affinity purification, characterization, and kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, D; Ibrahim, R K

    2000-10-15

    A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase [EC 1.14.11-] that catalyzes the 6-hydroxylation of partially methylated flavonols has been purified to near homogeneity from Chrysosplenium americanum. Enzyme purification was achieved by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superose 12 and Mono Q columns as well as by affinity chromatography on 2-oxoglutarate-Sepharose and immunoaffinity columns. The specific activity of the 6-hydroxylase eluted from Mono Q (97.1 pkat/mg) was enriched 538-fold, with a 0.63% recovery. Both affinity chromatography steps resulted in the elimination of most contaminating proteins, but not without loss of enzyme activity and stability. The molecular mass of both the native and denatured enzyme was found to be 42 and 45 kDa, respectively, suggesting a monomeric protein. The enzyme exhibits strict specificity for position 6 of partially methylated flavonols possessing a 7-methoxyl group, indicating its involvement in the biosynthesis of polymethylated flavonols in this plant. The cofactor dependence of the enzyme is similar to that of other plant dioxygenases, particularly its dependence on ferrous ions for catalytic activity and reactivation. Internal amino acid sequence information indicated its relatedness to other plant flavonoid dioxygenases. The results of substrate interaction kinetics and product inhibition studies suggest an ordered, sequential reaction mechanism (TerTer), where 2-oxoglutarate is the first substrate to bind, followed by O2 and the flavonol substrate. Product release occurs in the reverse order where the hydroxylated flavonol is the first to be released, followed by CO2 and succinate. To our knowledge, this is the first reported 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the aromatic hydroxylation of a flavonoid compound. PMID:11068865

  11. Flavonol-carbon nanostructure hybrid systems: a DFT study on the interaction mechanism and UV/Vis features.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2016-02-14

    Flavonols are a class of natural compounds with potential biological and pharmacological applications. They are also natural pigments responsible for the diversity of colors in plants. Flavonols offer the possibility of tuning their features through chemical functionalization as well as the presence of an aromatic backbone, which could lead to non-covalent interactions with different nanostructures or aromatic molecules. In this work, a protocol based on ONIOM (QM/QM) calculations to investigate the structural features (binding energies, intermolecular interactions) of flavonols interacting with the surface of several carbon nanostructures (such as graphene, fullerene C60 and carbon nanotubes) is developed. The confinement of flavonols inside carbon nanotubes has also been studied. Three flavonols, galangin, quercetin and myricetin, as well as pristine flavone were selected. Special attention has also been paid to the changes in UV/Vis features of flavonols due to the interaction with carbon nanostructures. Our results point out that π-stacking interactions are the driving force for the adsorption onto carbon nanostructures as well as for the confinement inside carbon nanotubes. Likewise, UV/Vis features of flavonols could be fine-tuned through the interaction with suitable carbon nanostructures. PMID:26800281

  12. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in murine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Leiser, Dominic; Roesselet, Corinne; Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroids with important applications in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Endogenous glucocorticoids are mainly produced by the adrenal glands, although there is increasing evidence for extra-adrenal sources. Recent findings show that intestinal crypt cells produce glucocorticoids, which contribute to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. Intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis is critically regulated by the transcription factor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1). As expression of steroidogenic enzymes and LRH-1 is restricted to the proliferating cells of the crypts, we aimed to investigate the role of the cell cycle in the regulation of LRH-1 activity and intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. We here show that either pharmacological or molecular modulation of cell cycle progression significantly inhibited expression of steroidogenic enzymes and synthesis of glucocorticoids in intestinal epithelial cells. Synchronization of intestinal epithelial cells in the cell cycle revealed that expression of steroidogenic enzymes is preferentially induced at the G(1)/S stage. Differentiation of immature intestinal epithelial cells to mature nonproliferating cells also resulted in reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This cell cycle-related effect on intestinal steroidogenesis was found to be mediated through the regulation of LRH-1 transcriptional activity. This mechanism may restrict intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis to the proliferating cells of the crypts. PMID:18711026

  13. Abscisic Acid Negatively Regulates Elicitor-Induced Synthesis of Capsidiol in Wild Tobacco1[W

    PubMed Central

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Debayle, Delphine; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In the Solanaceae, biotic and abiotic elicitors induce de novo synthesis of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites known as phytoalexins. Because plant hormones play critical roles in the induction of defense-responsive genes, we have explored the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the synthesis of capsidiol, the major wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, using wild-type plants versus nonallelic mutants Npaba2 and Npaba1 that are deficient in ABA synthesis. Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants exhibited a 2-fold higher synthesis of capsidiol than wild-type plants when elicited with either cellulase or arachidonic acid or when infected by Botrytis cinerea. The same trend was observed for the expression of the capsidiol biosynthetic genes 5-epi-aristolochene synthase and 5-epi-aristolochene hydroxylase. Treatment of wild-type plants with fluridone, an inhibitor of the upstream ABA pathway, recapitulated the behavior of Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants, while the application of exogenous ABA reversed the enhanced synthesis of capsidiol in Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants. Concomitant with the production of capsidiol, we observed the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase in elicited plants. In wild-type plants, the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase coincided with a decrease in ABA content and with the accumulation of ABA catabolic products such as phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, suggesting a negative regulation exerted by ABA on capsidiol synthesis. Collectively, our data indicate that ABA is not required per se for the induction of capsidiol synthesis but is essentially implicated in a stress-response checkpoint to fine-tune the amplification of capsidiol synthesis in challenged plants. PMID:19420326

  14. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  15. Regulation of macrophage IL-12 synthesis by Leishmania phosphoglycans.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Proudfoot, L; Nikolaev, A V; Xu, D; Sands, W; Feng, G J; Thomas, E; Brewer, J; Ferguson, M A; Alexander, J; Liew, F Y

    1999-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that IFN-gamma, secreted by Th1 cells, is the most potent cytokine leading to macrophage activation and host resistance against infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania. It is also established that IL-12 is a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation and expansion of Th1 cells. Therefore, the ability of Leishmania parasites to actively suppress IL-12 production by host macrophages may be an important strategy for parasite survival. Here we report that a major parasite cell surface molecule, phosphoglycan (PG), of Leishmania could selectively inhibit the synthesis of IL-12(p40, p70) by activated murine macrophages. Furthermore, synthetic PG (sPG) was able to inhibit IL-12 release in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was dependent on the galactose(beta1-4)mannose(alpha1)-PO4 repeating units and not the glycophosphoinositol lipid anchor of lipophosphoglycan. At the concentration used, sPG had no effect on the release of TNF-alpha or IL-6 in activated macrophages. The inhibition of IL-12(p40) production was at the transcriptional level, but was not mediated through NF kappaB inhibition. These data demonstrate that PG may be an important molecule for the establishment and survival of the parasite in permissive hosts. PMID:9933105

  16. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M; Vroom, Jonathan A; Kao, Camilla M

    2008-08-12

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (M(r) = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  17. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M.; Vroom, Jonathan A.; Kao, Camilla M.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (Mr = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  18. PERK Regulates Working Memory and Protein Synthesis-Dependent Memory Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siying; Henninger, Keely; McGrath, Barbara C; Cavener, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for memory flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression, processes known to be dependent on new protein synthesis. Here we investigated PERK's role in working memory, a cognitive ability that is independent of new protein synthesis, but instead is dependent on cellular Ca2+ dynamics. We found that working memory is impaired in forebrain-specific Perk knockout and pharmacologically PERK-inhibited mice. Moreover, inhibition of PERK in wild-type mice mimics the fear extinction impairment observed in forebrain-specific Perk knockout mice. Our findings reveal a novel role of PERK in cognitive functions and suggest that PERK regulates both Ca2+ -dependent working memory and protein synthesis-dependent memory flexibility. PMID:27627766

  19. Regulation of Brome Mosaic Virus Gene Expression by Restriction of Initiation of Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chroboczek, Jadwiga; Puchkova, Ludmiła; Zagórski, Włodzimierz

    1980-01-01

    The translation of total and individual brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs was examined in a wheat germ cell-free system in the presence of various inhibitors. Inhibitors of the initiation of polypeptide synthesis, e.g., potassium ions, 7-methylguanosine 5′ -monophosphate, and aurintricarboxylic acid, were shown not only to inhibit overall BMV protein synthesis but also to change the ratio of BMV polypeptides synthesized. Under conditions restrictive for initiation, the translation of nonstructural BMV genes was suppressed, but coat protein synthesis proceeded at a high rate. A similar discrimination among BMV messengers was exerted by a regulatory protein kinase isolated from wheat germ. These results suggest that the regulation of the expression of BMV genes is based on a difference in the mechanism of formation of initiation complexes for individual BMV messages. Images PMID:16789194

  20. Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis: immune regulation and aspects on local organ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Talabér, Gergely; Jondal, Mikael; Okret, Sam

    2013-11-01

    Systemic glucocorticoids (GCs) mainly originate from de novo synthesis in the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. However, research during the last 1-2 decades has revealed that additional organs express the necessary enzymes and have the capacity for de novo synthesis of biologically active GCs. This includes the thymus, intestine, skin and the brain. Recent research has also revealed that locally synthesized GCs most likely act in a paracrine or autocrine manner and have significant physiological roles in local homeostasis, cell development and immune cell activation. In this review, we summarize the nature, regulation and known physiological roles of extra-adrenal GC synthesis. We specifically focus on the thymus in which GC production (by both developing thymocytes and epithelial cells) has a role in the maintenance of proper immunological function. PMID:23707789

  1. Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Typas, Athanasios; Banzhaf, Manuel; van den Berg van Saparoea, Bart; Verheul, Jolanda; Biboy, Jacob; Nichols, Robert J.; Zietek, Matylda; Beilharz, Katrin; Kannenberg, Kai; von Rechenberg, Moritz; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Gross, Carol A.; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Growth of the meshlike peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus located between the bacterial inner and outer membranes (OM) is tightly regulated to ensure cellular integrity, maintain cell shape and orchestrate division. Cytoskeletal elements direct placement and activity of PG synthases from inside the cell but precise spatiotemporal control over this process is poorly understood. We demonstrate that PG synthases are also controlled from outside the sacculus. Two OM lipoproteins, LpoA and LpoB, are essential for the function respectively of PBP1A and PBP1B, the major E. coli bifunctional PG synthases. Each Lpo protein binds specifically to its cognate PBP and stimulates its transpeptidase activity, thereby facilitating attachment of new PG to the sacculus. LpoB shows partial septal localization and our data suggest that the LpoB-PBP1B complex contributes to OM constriction during cell division. LpoA/ LpoB and their PBP docking regions are restricted to γ-proteobacteria, providing models for niche-specific regulation of sacculus growth. PMID:21183073

  2. Synthesis of multiple Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides is post-transcriptionally regulated

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Luyan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Shiwei; Anderson, Erin M.; Lam, Joseph S.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Exopolysaccharide is a critical biofilm matrix component, yet little is known about how the synthesis of multiple exopolysaccharides is regulated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce several biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides that include alginate, Psl and Pel. Here we demonstrated that AlgC, a key enzyme that provides sugar precursors for the synthesis of alginate and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is also required for both Psl and Pel production. We showed that forced-synthesis of Psl in alginate-producing mucoid bacteria reduced alginate production but this was not due to transcription of the alginate biosynthesis-operon. Likewise, when either alginate or Psl were overproduced, levels of B-band LPS decreased. Induction of Pel resulted in a reduction of Psl levels. Because the effects of reduced exopolysaccharide synthesis when another is overproduced didn’t appear to be regulated at the transcriptional level, this suggests that the biosynthesis pathways of Psl, Pel, alginate, and LPS compete for common sugar precursors. As AlgC is the only enzyme that provides precursors for each of these exopolysaccharides, we propose that AlgC is a key checkpoint enzyme that coordinates the total amount of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by controlling sugar precursor pool. Our data also provide a plausible strategy that P. aeruginosa utilizes to modulate its biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides. PMID:22513190

  3. Revisiting Human Cholesterol Synthesis and Absorption: The Reciprocity Paradigm and its Key Regulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol homeostasis in the body is governed by the interplay between absorption, synthesis, and excretion or conversion of cholesterol into bile acids. A reciprocal relationship between cholesterol synthesis and absorption is known to regulate circulating cholesterol in response to dietary or therapeutic interventions. However, the degree to which these factors affect synthesis and absorption and the extent to which one vector shifts in response to the other are not thoroughly understood. Also, huge inter-individual variability exists in the manner in which the two systems act in response to any cholesterol-lowering treatment. Various factors are known to account for this variability and in light of recent experimental advances new players such as gene-gene interactions, gene-environmental effects, and gut microbiome hold immense potential in offering an explanation to the complex traits of inter-individual variability in human cholesterol metabolism. In this context, the objective of the present review is to provide an overview on cholesterol metabolism and discuss the role of potential factors such as genetics, epigenetics, epistasis, and gut microbiome, as well as other regulators in modulating cholesterol metabolism, especially emphasizing the reciprocal relationship between cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Furthermore, an evaluation of the implications of this push-pull mechanism on cholesterol-lowering strategies is presented. PMID:26620375

  4. Nuclear-localized CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis required for lipid droplet biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, Adam J.; Arsenault, Daniel J.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2015-01-01

    The reversible association of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) with membranes regulates the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the CDP-choline (Kennedy) pathway. Based on results with insect CCT homologues, translocation of nuclear CCTα onto cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) is proposed to stimulate the synthesis of PC that is required for LD biogenesis and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage. We examined whether this regulatory mechanism applied to LD biogenesis in mammalian cells. During 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, CCTα expression and PC synthesis was induced. In 3T3-L1 cells, CCTα translocated from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope and cytosol but did not associate with LDs. The enzyme also remained in the nucleus during human adipocyte differentiation. RNAi silencing in 3T3-L1 cells showed that CCTα regulated LD size but did not affect TAG storage or adipogenesis. LD biogenesis in nonadipocyte cell lines treated with oleate also promoted CCTα translocation to the nuclear envelope and/or cytoplasm but not LDs. In rat intestinal epithelial cells, CCTα silencing increased LD size, but LD number and TAG deposition were decreased due to oleate-induced cytotoxicity. We conclude that CCTα increases PC synthesis for LD biogenesis by translocation to the nuclear envelope and not cytoplasmic LDs. PMID:26108622

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates spine density via its regulatory role in hippocampal estrogen synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Prange-Kiel, Janine; Jarry, Hubertus; Schoen, Michael; Kohlmann, Patrick; Lohse, Christina; Zhou, Lepu; Rune, Gabriele M.

    2008-01-01

    Spine density in the hippocampus changes during the estrus cycle and is dependent on the activity of local aromatase, the final enzyme in estrogen synthesis. In view of the abundant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) messenger RNA expression in the hippocampus and the direct effect of GnRH on estradiol (E2) synthesis in gonadal cells, we asked whether GnRH serves as a regulator of hippocampal E2 synthesis. In hippocampal cultures, E2 synthesis, spine synapse density, and immunoreactivity of spinophilin, a reliable spine marker, are consistently up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner at low doses of GnRH but decrease at higher doses. GnRH is ineffective in the presence of GnRH antagonists or aromatase inhibitors. Conversely, GnRH-R expression increases after inhibition of hippocampal aromatase. As we found estrus cyclicity of spine density in the hippocampus but not in the neocortex and GnRH-R expression to be fivefold higher in the hippocampus compared with the neocortex, our data strongly suggest that estrus cycle–dependent synaptogenesis in the female hippocampus results from cyclic release of GnRH. PMID:18227283

  6. Regulation of synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) was studied by using quantitative immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against PC purified from Rhodobacter capsulatus and was found to vary 20-fold depending on the growth conditions. The PC content was high in cells grown on pyruvate or on carbon substrates metabolized via pyruvate (lactate, D-malate, glucose, or fructose) and low in cells grown on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates or substrates metabolized without intermediate formation of pyruvate (acetate or glutamate). Under dark aerobic growth conditions with lactate as a carbon source, the PC content was approximately twofold higher than that found under light anaerobic growth conditions. The results of incubation experiments demonstrate that PC synthesis is induced by pyruvate and repressed by TCA cycle intermediates, with negative control dominating over positive control. The content of PC in R. capsulatus cells was also directly related to the growth rate in continuous cultures. The analysis of intracellular levels of pyruvate and TCA cycle intermediates in cells grown under different conditions demonstrated that the content of PC is directly proportional to the ratio between pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. These results suggest that the regulation of PC synthesis by oxygen and its direct correlation with growth rate may reflect effects on the balance of intracellular pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. Thus, this important enzyme is potentially regulated both allosterically and at the level of synthesis. PMID:9045800

  7. Characterization of the Initial Intermediate Formed during Photoinduced Oxygenation of the Ruthenium(II) Bis(bipyridyl)flavonolate Complex.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaozhen; Klausmeyer, Kevin K; Farmer, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    A ruthenium(II) flavonolate complex, [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4], was synthesized to model the reactivity of the flavonol dioxygenases. The treatment of dry CH3CN solutions of [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4] with dioxygen under light leads to the oxidative O-heterocyclic ring opening of the coordinated substrate flavonolate, resulting in the formation of [Ru(II)(bpy)2(carboxylate)][BF4] (carboxylate = O-benzoylsalicylate or benzoate) species, as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moderation of the excitation and temperature allowed isolation and characterization of an intermediate, [Ru(II)(bpy)2bpg][BF4] (bpg = 2-benzoyloxyphenylglyoxylate), generated by the 1,2-addition of dioxygen to the central flavonolate ring. PMID:27437831

  8. The hepatic catabolic stress response. Hormonal regulation of urea synthesis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Heindorff, H A

    1993-04-01

    Following non complicated surgical trauma in man a hepatic condition has been identified that is characterized by lower than normal plasma alpha-amino nitrogen concentration and increased plasma clearance of gluconeogenic and ureagenic amino acids. Amino acids are removed from the blood by the liver, by way of a doubling of the hepatic efficacy fo urea synthesis. At any plasma amino acid concentration twice as much amino-nitrogen is excreted as urea-nitrogen, and thus lost for protein synthesis. This hepatic stress response lasts for one week postoperatively. In rats, hysterectomy elicits a similar response, but the time of the maximum increase in urea synthesis occurs earlier. Combined neuro-hormonal blockade totally prevents the response in cholecystectomized patients. In rats, it is preventable by selective blockades of glucocorticoid action and of prostaglandins synthesis. In isolated livers catecholamines, corticosterone, and glucagon together bring about 40% of the increase in urea synthesis in vivo, but only in livers "conditioned" by hysterectomy three hours earlier. Prostaglandin E2 in itself has no effect on urea synthesis, but accelerates the effect of the hormones. The regulatory system is incompletely elucidated, although several mediators are identified. A hierarchical system is suggested and discussed, and further possible regulators indicated. The role of liver for whole body nitrogen homeostasis during stress is estimated. The increase in hepatic efficacy for urea synthesis in itself accounts for about 50% of the postoperative nitrogen loss. Identification of the pathophysiological changes following surgical trauma is probably decisive for endeavours to improve postoperative morbidity and mortality. Modification of the hepatic contribution to postoperative loss of nitrogen may be necessary. PMID:8495598

  9. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. PMID:26313969

  10. Differential regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids and insulin in peripheral and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high efficiency of protein deposition during the neonatal period is driven by high rates of protein synthesis, which are maximally stimulated after feeding. In the current study, we examined the individual roles of amino acids and insulin in the regulation of protein synthesis in peripheral and ...

  11. Coordinated regulation of synthesis and stability of RNA during the acute TNF-induced proinflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Michelle T.; Veloso, Artur; Prasad, Jayendra; Bedi, Karan; Ljungman, Emily A.; Tsan, Ya-Chun; Chang, Ching-Wei; Tarrier, Brendan; Washburn, Joseph G.; Lyons, Robert; Robinson, Daniel R.; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Wilson, Thomas E.; Ljungman, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state gene expression is a coordination of synthesis and decay of RNA through epigenetic regulation, transcription factors, micro RNAs (miRNAs), and RNA-binding proteins. Here, we present bromouride labeling and sequencing (Bru-Seq) and bromouridine pulse-chase and sequencing (BruChase-Seq) to assess genome-wide changes to RNA synthesis and stability in human fibroblasts at homeostasis and after exposure to the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The inflammatory response in human cells involves rapid and dramatic changes in gene expression, and the Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq techniques revealed a coordinated and complex regulation of gene expression both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The combinatory analysis of both RNA synthesis and stability using Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq allows for a much deeper understanding of mechanisms of gene regulation than afforded by the analysis of steady-state total RNA and should be useful in many biological settings. PMID:23345452

  12. Sedative activity of two flavonol glycosides isolated from the flowers of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz.

    PubMed

    Kang, T H; Jeong, S J; Kim, N Y; Higuchi, R; Kim, Y C

    2000-07-01

    The flowers of Albizzia julibrissin are used as a sedative in oriental traditional medicine. The phytochemical study of this plant allowed the isolation of two flavonol glycosides, quercitrin (1) and isoquercitrin (2). The sedative activity of these compounds was evaluated, and both compounds 1 and 2 increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in dose-dependent manner in mice. These results support the use of the flowers of this plant as a sedative agent. PMID:10904180

  13. Sedative and anticonvulsant activities of goodyerin, a flavonol glycoside from Goodyera schlechtendaliana.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Ning-Yi; Takizawa, Nanako; Guo, Yong-Tian; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2002-05-01

    Goodyerin is a flavonol glycoside isolated from the whole plants of Goodyera schlechtendaliana which has been used as a substitute for the crude drug, Anoectochilus formosanus. The pharmacological properties of goodyerin were assayed for effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, and on anticonvulsant activity against picrotoxin-induced seizures in rodents. Goodyerin exhibited a significant and dose-dependent sedative and anticonvulsant effect. PMID:12164273

  14. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Veitch, Nigel C

    2007-05-01

    Two flavonol tetraglycosides comprising a trisaccharide at C-3 and a monosaccharide at C-7 were isolated from the leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott and characterised as the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosides of quercetin and kaempferol. The 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside of kaempferol, the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranosides of kaempferol and quercetin and the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside of kaempferol were also obtained from this species for the first time. Some or all of these flavonol tetra- and triglycosides were detected in 17 of 18 specimens of S. japonicum examined from living and herbarium material, although the most abundant flavonoid in the leaves was generally quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (rutin). The triglycosides, but not the tetraglycosides, were detected in herbarium specimens of Styphnolobium burseroides M. Sousa, Rudd & Medrano and Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd, but specimens of Styphnolobium affine (Torrey & A. Gray) Walp. contained a different profile of flavonol glycosides. The flavonol tetra- and triglycosides of S. japonicum were also present in leaves of Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd, a representative of a genus placed close to Styphnolobium in current molecular phylogenies. An additional constituent obtained from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum was identified as the maltol derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one 3-O-(4'-O-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:17462679

  15. TORC1 inhibits GSK3-mediated Elo2 phosphorylation to regulate very long chain fatty acid synthesis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Christine; Santos, Aline; Gable, Kenneth; Epstein, Sharon; Gururaj, Charulatha; Chymkowitch, Pierre; Pultz, Dennis; Rødkær, Steven V; Clay, Lorena; Bjørås, Magnar; Barral, Yves; Chang, Amy; Færgeman, Nils J; Dunn, Teresa M; Riezman, Howard; Enserink, Jorrit M

    2013-11-27

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are essential fatty acids with multiple functions, including ceramide synthesis. Although the components of the VLCFA biosynthetic machinery have been elucidated, how their activity is regulated to meet the cell's metabolic demand remains unknown. The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms that regulate the rate of VLCFA synthesis, and we discovered that the fatty acid elongase Elo2 is regulated by phosphorylation. Elo2 phosphorylation is induced upon inhibition of TORC1 and requires GSK3. Expression of nonphosphorylatable Elo2 profoundly alters the ceramide spectrum, reflecting aberrant VLCFA synthesis. Furthermore, VLCFA depletion results in constitutive activation of autophagy, which requires sphingoid base phosphorylation. This constitutive activation of autophagy diminishes cell survival, indicating that VLCFAs serve to dampen the amplitude of autophagy. Together, our data reveal a function for TORC1 and GSK3 in the regulation of VLCFA synthesis that has important implications for autophagy and cell homeostasis. PMID:24239358

  16. Regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth: implications for the early programming of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    McMillen, I C; Edwards, L J; Duffield, J; Muhlhausler, B S

    2006-03-01

    A series of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have shown that there are associations between the fetal and neonatal nutritional environment and the amount and distribution of adipose tissue in adult life. This review considers the evidence for these relationships and discusses the potential impact of the prenatal nutritional experience on the development of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems that regulate energy balance, with a particular emphasis on the role of the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin. In the rodent, leptin derived from the mother may exert an important influence on the development of the appetite regulatory neural network and on the subsequent regulation of leptin synthesis and the risk for obesity in the offspring. In species such as the human and sheep, there is also recent evidence that the synthesis and secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones, such as leptin, are regulated in fetal life. Furthermore, the hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate energy intake and expenditure in adult life are also present within the fetal brain and may be regulated by the prevailing level of maternal and hence fetal nutrient and hormonal signals, including leptin. This work is important in determining those initiating mechanisms within the 'fat-brain' axis in early life that precede the development of adult obesity. PMID:16514185

  17. Keratinocyte-derived Laminin-332 Protein Promotes Melanin Synthesis via Regulation of Tyrosine Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heesung; Jung, Hyejung; Lee, Jung-hyun; Oh, Hye Yun; Kim, Ok Bin; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake. PMID:24951591

  18. Flavonols, alkaloids, and antioxidant capacity of edible wild berberis species from patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Zapata, Moises; Sabando, Constanza; Bustamante, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich; Vergara, Carola; Mardones, Claudia

    2014-12-24

    There are 20 species of the Berberidaceae family described in Chile, whose fruits are edible and show high anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamic acid levels. Berberis microphylla G. Forst, commonly known as calafate, is the most extensively distributed. Flavonols and alkaloids in seed, pulp, skin, and whole calafate berry extracts and other Berberis were studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with fluorescence detector. Berry samples from different locations in Chilean Patagonia, including different phenological stages, were systematically addressed. Results were compared with other organs of the plant and with other Berberis species. Total flavonol concentration in calafate (n = 65) was 1.33 ± 0.54 μmol/g. Glycosyl metabolites of quercetin and isorhamnetin were the most abundant. Similar profiles were observed in calafate from distinct locations, but important differences were observed for the other edible Berberis species. Calafate pulp and skin have higher flavonol concentrations than seeds, and the maturation process reduced its levels. TEACCUPRAC and TEACABTS of whole calafate extracts and fractions are also explored. Finally, only berberine was detected in the fruit (0.001%), mainly in seeds. Results contribute to the promotion of this berry as a superfruit from Patagonia. PMID:25495577

  19. Extraction characteristics of subcritical water depending on the number of hydroxyl group in flavonols.

    PubMed

    Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Yoo, Seo-Yeon; Ko, Min-Jung; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-02-01

    This study compared the efficiencies of using subcritical water, hot water, and organic solvents to extract flavonols from black tea, celery, and ginseng leaf. The effect of key operating conditions was determined by varying the temperature (110-200°C), extraction time (5-15min), and pressure (about 10MPa) and the extracts were analysed quantitatively using HPLC. The yields of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from plants were maximal at extraction temperatures of 170°C, 170°C and 200°C, respectively, and they depend on the number of hydroxyl groups included in the chemical structure of the flavonols, with more of those with fewer hydroxyl (OH) groups attached being extracted at higher temperatures. The results also showed that the yields of flavonols by subcritical water extraction were 2.0- to 22.7- and 1.8- to 23.6-fold higher than those obtained using the ethanol and methanol as traditional extraction methods, respectively. PMID:25172678

  20. Cloning and characterization of a flavonol synthase gene from Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, KwangSoo; Kim, Yeji; Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Flavonols are the most abundant of all the flavonoids and play pivotal roles in a variety of plants. We isolated a cDNA clone encoding flavonol synthase from Scutellaria baicalensis (SbFLS). The SbFLS cDNA is 1011 bp long, encodes 336 amino acid residues, and belongs to a family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. The overall structure of SbFLS is very similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanidin synthase (AtANS), with a β jelly-roll fold surrounded by tens of short and long α-helices. SbFLS was constitutively expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, with particularly high expression in the roots and flowers. SbFLS transcript levels in the roots were 376-, 70-, and 2.5-fold higher than in the leaves, stems, and flowers. The myricetin content was significantly higher than that of kaempferol and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that SbFLS mediates flavonol formation in the different organs of S. baicalensis. Our study may contribute to the knowledge of the role of FLS in S. baicalensis. PMID:24672406

  1. Functional Analysis of a Predicted Flavonol Synthase Gene Family in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Daniel K.; Alerding, Anne B.; Crosby, Kevin C.; Bandara, Aloka B.; Westwood, James H.; Winkel, Brenda S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains five sequences with high similarity to FLAVONOL SYNTHASE1 (AtFLS1), a previously characterized flavonol synthase gene that plays a central role in flavonoid metabolism. This apparent redundancy suggests the possibility that Arabidopsis uses multiple isoforms of FLS with different substrate specificities to mediate the production of the flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol, in a tissue-specific and inducible manner. However, biochemical and genetic analysis of the six AtFLS sequences indicates that, although several of the members are expressed, only AtFLS1 encodes a catalytically competent protein. AtFLS1 also appears to be the only member of this group that influences flavonoid levels and the root gravitropic response in seedlings under nonstressed conditions. This study showed that the other expressed AtFLS sequences have tissue- and cell type-specific promoter activities that overlap with those of AtFLS1 and encode proteins that interact with other flavonoid enzymes in yeast two-hybrid assays. Thus, it is possible that these “pseudogenes” have alternative, noncatalytic functions that have not yet been uncovered. PMID:18467451

  2. Oxygen and pH regulation of protein synthesis in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kwast, K E; Hand, S C

    1996-01-01

    To identify factors responsible for the down-regulation of mitochondrial biosynthetic processes during anoxia in encysted Artemia franciscana embryos, the effects of oxygen limitation and pH on protein synthesis were investigated in isolated mitochondria. At the optimal pH of 7.5, exposure of mitochondria to anoxia decreases the protein synthesis rate by 79%. Rates were suppressed by a further 10% at pH 6.8, the intracellular pH (pHi) measured under anoxia in vivo. Matrix pH, measured under identical conditions, was 8.43 +/- 0.01 at an extra-mitochondrial pH of 7.9 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), 8.05 +/- 0.01 at pH 7.5, and 7.10 +/- 0.01 at pH 6.8. The matrix pH did not vary (P > or = 0.20) as a function of oxygen availability during the 1 h assays. Intramitochondrial purine nucleotides varied little as a function of pH. In contrast, after 1 h of protein synthesis under anoxia, ATP levels decreased by up to 40%, whereas AMP, ADP and GDP concentrations increased, and GTP and GMP concentrations remained relatively constant. The addition of 1 mM ATP at the onset of anoxia maintained the ATP/ADP ratio at the aerobic value, but did not stabilized the GTP/GDP ratio or rescue rates of protein synthesis. Thus, at present, we cannot eliminate the possibility that the decrease in the GTP/GDP ratio during anoxia may contribute to the suppression of protein synthesis. The effect of anoxia was reversible; the rate of protein synthesis upon reoxygenation after a 30 min bout of anoxia was comparable (P = 0.14) with the pre-anoxic rate (193 +/- 17 and 174 +/- 6 pmol of leucine per mg of protein respectively, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3). The array of mitochondrial translation products did not differ qualitatively as a function of either oxygen availability or pH. Finally, similar pH profiles for protein synthesis were obtained with either [3H]leucine or [3H]histidine (known to use different transporters). Consequently, it is improbable that the pH-sensitivity of protein synthesis can be

  3. The Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity regulator HrpB induces 3-hydroxy-oxindole synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delaspre, Fabien; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Saurel, Olivier; Kiefer, Patrick; Gras, Emmanuel; Milon, Alain; Boucher, Christian; Genin, Stéphane; Vorholt, Julia A

    2007-10-01

    The transcriptional activator HrpB of the bacterial wilt causing betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum represents a key regulator for pathogenicity. In particular, it drives expression of hrp genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) as well as effector molecules for delivery into the host cytosol to promote disease. However, the HrpB regulon extends beyond this T3SS. We describe here an HrpB-activated operon of six genes that is responsible for the synthesis of a fluorescent isatin derivative of 149 Amu that we named HDF for HrpB-dependent factor and that we purified from culture supernatants. The structure of the labile molecule was solved by using NMR and CD spectroscopy to be (3S)-3-hydroxy-indolin-2-one and confirmed by its chemical synthesis and MS spectrometry. HDF was found to be present at 20 nM in wild-type cultures grown on minimal medium, and its synthesis increased 15-fold upon overproduction of HrpB, confirming that HrpB activates HDF synthesis. The addition of tryptophan significantly stimulated HDF biosynthesis and was shown to represent the precursor molecule for HDF synthesis. A search for the biological function of the molecule revealed that HDF induces acyl-homoserine lactone receptor-mediated reporter activity of the well studied LuxR transcriptional regulator of Vibrio fischeri. Thus, our results provide evidence that the specificity of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) receptors is clearly broader than previously considered. The failure to detect induction by HDF of the described endogenous quorum-sensing circuits of the pathogen points to a role in interfering with cell-cell signaling of rivalling bacteria. PMID:17890323

  4. Regulation of bovine oviductal NO synthesis by follicular steroids and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kageyama, Soichi; Hirayama, Hiroki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulator of sperm motility, oocyte/embryo survival, and waves of contraction/relaxation in mammalian oviducts. As follicles control oviductal functions by two routes at least, (1) a systemic way via blood vessels before ovulation, (2) a direct way by entering of follicular fluid through fimbria at ovulation, we hypothesized that NO synthesis in the bovine oviduct is regulated by follicular steroids and prostaglandins (PGs). Quantification of mRNA expressions in the ampullary tissues showed that inducible NO synthase (NOS2) mRNA expression was highest on the day of ovulation (day 0). By contrast, NOS2 mRNA expression in the isthmus was highest on days 5-6 and lowest on days 19-21. Endothelial NOS (NOS3) mRNA expressions in either the ampulla or the isthmus did not change during the estrous cycle. PGE2 and PGF2α increased NOS2 mRNA expressions in cultured ampullary oviductal epithelial cells after 1-h incubation. These increases were suppressed by an antagonist of E-prostanoid receptor type 2, one of the PGE2 receptor. Estradiol-17β decreased the expression of NOS2 mRNA expression in cultured isthmic epithelial cells 24h after treatment. This effect was suppressed by an antagonist of estrogen receptorα(ESR1). Expression of ESR1 was highest on days 19-21 in the isthmic tissues. The overall findings indicate region-specific difference of NO synthesis in the oviduct. PGs flowed from ruptured follicle may up-regulate NO synthesis in the oviductal epithelium, whereas circulating E2 seems to inhibit NO synthesis via ESR1 in the isthmus at the follicular stage. PMID:26940101

  5. ZmbZIP91 regulates expression of starch synthesis-related genes by binding to ACTCAT elements in their promoters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Yi, Qiang; Cao, Yao; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Xiao, Qianling; Xie, Ying; Gu, Yong; Li, Yangping; Huang, Huanhuan; Wang, Yongbin; Hou, Xianbin; Long, Tiandan; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Yu, Guowu; Huang, Yubi

    2016-03-01

    Starch synthesis is a key process that influences crop yield and quality, though little is known about the regulation of this complex metabolic pathway. Here, we present the identification of ZmbZIP91 as a candidate regulator of starch synthesis via co-expression analysis in maize (Zea mays L.). ZmbZIP91 was strongly associated with the expression of starch synthesis genes. Reverse tanscription-PCR (RT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization indicated that ZmbZIP91 is highly expressed in maize endosperm, with less expression in leaves. Particle bombardment-mediated transient expression in maize endosperm and leaf protoplasts demonstrated that ZmbZIP91 could positively regulate the expression of starch synthesis genes in both leaves and endosperm. Additionally, the Arabidopsis mutant vip1 carried a mutation in a gene (VIP1) that is homologous to ZmbZIP91, displayed altered growth with less starch in leaves, and ZmbZIP91 was able to complement this phenotype, resulting in normal starch synthesis. A yeast one-hybrid experiment and EMSAs showed that ZmbZIP91 could directly bind to ACTCAT elements in the promoters of starch synthesis genes (pAGPS1, pSSI, pSSIIIa, and pISA1). These results demonstrate that ZmbZIP91 acts as a core regulatory factor in starch synthesis by binding to ACTCAT elements in the promoters of starch synthesis genes. PMID:26689855

  6. Akt phosphorylation and regulation of transketolase is a nodal point for amino acid control of purine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arindam; Connelly, Stephen; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhuang, Shunhui; Amador, Deron T; Phan, Tony; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-07-17

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway integrates environmental clues to regulate cell growth and survival. We showed previously that depriving cells of a single essential amino acid rapidly and reversibly arrests purine synthesis. Here we demonstrate that amino acids via mammalian target of rapamycin 2 and IκB kinase regulate Akt activity and Akt association and phosphorylation of transketolase (TKT), a key enzyme of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Akt phosphorylates TKT on Thr382, markedly enhancing enzyme activity and increasing carbon flow through the nonoxidative PPP, thereby increasing purine synthesis. Mice fed a lysine-deficient diet for 2 days show decreased Akt activity, TKT activity, and purine synthesis in multiple organs. These results provide a mechanism whereby Akt coordinates amino acid availability with glucose utilization, purine synthesis, and RNA and DNA synthesis. PMID:24981175

  7. Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis is negatively regulated by TcdC.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, B; Govind, R; Antunes, A; Matamouros, S

    2008-06-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis is growth phase-dependent and is regulated by various environmental signals. The toxin genes tcdA and tcdB are located in a pathogenicity locus, which also includes three accessory genes, tcdR, tcdC and tcdE. TcdR has been shown to act as an alternative sigma factor that mediates positive regulation of both the toxin genes and its own gene. The tcdA, tcdB and tcdR genes are transcribed during the stationary growth phase. The tcdC gene, however, is expressed during exponential phase. This expression pattern suggested that TcdC may act as a negative regulator of toxin gene expression. TcdC is a small acidic protein without any conserved DNA-binding motif. It is able to form dimers and its N-terminal region includes a putative transmembrane domain. Genetic and biochemical evidence showed that TcdC negatively regulates C. difficile toxin synthesis by interfering with the ability of TcdR-containing RNA polymerase to recognize the tcdA and tcdB promoters. In addition, the C. difficile NAP1/027 epidemic strains that produce higher levels of toxins have mutations in tcdC. Interestingly, a frameshift mutation at position 117 of the tcdC coding sequence seems to be, at least in part, responsible for the hypertoxigenicity phenotype of these epidemic strains. PMID:18480323

  8. Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts by ascorbic-induced lipid peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Geesin, J.C. Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products, Inc., Skillman, NJ ); Gordon, J.S. ); Gordon, J.S. ); Berg, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis through the induction of lipid peroxidation which leads to increased transcription of the collagen genes. To test the ability of aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation to mediate this effect, the authors treated cultured fibroblasts with 1-200{mu}M of malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal or hexenal in the presence of lipid peroxidation inducing or noninducing concentrations of ascorbic acid. The treatment process involved either pretreatment of cells for 66hrs with either concentration of ascorbate before a 6hr treatment in the presence of ascorbate and the aldehydes, or 6 or 72hr treatment of the cells in the presence of either concentration of ascorbate plus the aldehydes. No effect of any of these aldehydes was seen on ascorbate-stimulated collagen synthesis. Also, pretreatment of fibroblasts for 24hrs with 100nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which produces down regulation of protein kinase C(PKC), failed to alter the ascorbate-stimulation of collagen synthesis. Additionally, the authors tested the ability of benzamide, a poly ACP ribosylation inhibitor, to inhibit the ascorbate response with no specific effect noted. These results do not support the proposed roles for aldehydes, PKC, or poly ADP ribosylation in the mediation of the lipid peroxidation induced stimulation of collagen synthesis.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigM positively regulates Esx secreted protein and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes and down regulates virulence-associated surface lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sahadevan; Puyang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Young, David C; Moody, D Branch; Husson, Robert N

    2006-12-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 12 alternative sigma factors, several of which regulate stress responses and are required for virulence in animal models of acute infection. In this work we investigated M. tuberculosis SigM, a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of alternative sigma factors. This sigma factor is expressed at low levels in vitro and does not appear to function in stress response regulation. Instead, SigM positively regulates genes required for the synthesis of surface or secreted molecules. Among these are genes encoding two pairs of Esx secreted proteins, a multisubunit nonribosomal peptide synthetase operon, and genes encoding two members of the proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) family of proteins. Genes up regulated in a sigM mutant strain include a different PPE gene, as well as several genes involved in surface lipid synthesis. Among these are genes involved in synthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM), a surface lipid critical for virulence during acute infection, and the kasA-kasB operon, which is required for mycolic acid synthesis. Analysis of surface lipids showed that PDIM synthesis is increased in a sigM-disrupted strain and is undetectable in a sigM overexpression strain. These findings demonstrate that SigM positively and negatively regulates cell surface and secreted molecules that are likely to function in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:17028284

  10. Reassessment of the Genetic Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli: Global Positive Control by the Dual Functional Regulator FadR

    PubMed Central

    My, L.; Ghandour Achkar, N.; Viala, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Escherichia coli, the FadR transcriptional regulator represses the expression of fatty acid degradation (fad) genes. However, FadR is also an activator of the expression of fabA and fabB, two genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, FadR plays an important role in maintaining the balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane. We recently showed that FadR also activates the promoter upstream of the fabH gene (L. My, B. Rekoske, J. J. Lemke, J. P. Viala, R. L. Gourse, and E. Bouveret, J Bacteriol 195:3784–3795, 2013, doi:10.1128/JB.00384-13). Furthermore, recent transcriptomic and proteomic data suggested that FadR activates the majority of fatty acid (FA) synthesis genes. In the present study, we tested the role of FadR in the expression of all genes involved in FA synthesis. We found that FadR activates the transcription of all tested FA synthesis genes, and we identified the FadR binding site for each of these genes. This necessitated the reassessment of the transcription start sites for accA and accB genes described previously, and we provide evidence for the presence of multiple promoters driving the expression of these genes. We showed further that regulation by FadR impacts the amount of FA synthesis enzymes in the cell. Our results show that FadR is a global regulator of FA metabolism in E. coli, acting both as a repressor of catabolism and an activator of anabolism, two directly opposing pathways. IMPORTANCE In most bacteria, a transcriptional regulator tunes the level of FA synthesis enzymes. Oddly, such a global regulator still was missing for E. coli, which nonetheless is one of the prominent model bacteria used for engineering biofuel production using the FA synthesis pathway. Our work identifies the FadR functional dual regulator as a global activator of almost all FA synthesis genes in E. coli. Because FadR also is the repressor of FA degradation, FadR acts both as a repressor and an activator

  11. Tudor-SN Regulates Milk Synthesis and Proliferation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jinxia; Wei, Chengjie; Si, Yu; Luo, Chaochao; Lv, Wei; Lin, Ye; Cui, Yingjun; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein, related to multiple and diverse cell type- and species-specific cellular processes. Studies have shown that Tudor-SN is mainly expressed in secretory cells, however knowledge of its role is limited. In our previous work, we found that the protein level of Tudor-SN was upregulated in the nucleus of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). In this study, we assessed the role of Tudor-SN in milk synthesis and cell proliferation of BMEC. We exploited gene overexpression and silencing methods, and found that Tudor-SN positively regulates milk synthesis and proliferation via Stat5a activation. Both amino acids (methionine) and estrogen triggered NFκB1 to bind to the gene promoters of Tudor-SN and Stat5a, and this enhanced the protein level and nuclear localization of Tudor-SN and p-Stat5a. Taken together, these results suggest the key role of Tudor-SN in the transcriptional regulation of milk synthesis and proliferation of BMEC under the stimulation of amino acids and hormones. PMID:26694361

  12. Cadherin-11 is a novel regulator of extracellular matrix synthesis and tissue mechanics.

    PubMed

    Row, Sindhu; Liu, Yayu; Alimperti, Stella; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2016-08-01

    We discovered that Cadherin-11 (CDH11) regulates collagen and elastin synthesis, both affecting the mechanical properties and contractile function of animal tissues. Using a Cdh11-null mouse model, we observed a significant reduction in the mechanical properties [Youngs' modulus and ultimate tensile strength (UTS)] of Cdh11(-/-) as compared to wild-type (WT) mouse tissues, such as the aorta, bladder and skin. The deterioration of mechanical properties (Youngs' modulus and UTS) was accompanied by reduced collagen and elastin content in Cdh11(-/-) mouse tissues as well as in cells in culture. Similarly, knocking down CDH11 abolished collagen and elastin synthesis in human cells, and consequently reduced their ability to generate force. Conversely, engagement of CDH11 through homophilic interactions, led to swift activation of the TGF-β and ROCK pathways as evidenced by phosphorylation of downstream effectors. Subsequently, activation of the key transcription factors, MRTF-A (also known as MKL1) and MYOCD led to significant upregulation of collagen and elastin genes. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role of adherens junctions in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis with implications for many important biological processes, including maintenance of tissue integrity, wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27311482

  13. Differential regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis in murine intestinal epithelial versus adrenocortical cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias; Atanasov, Atanas; Cima, Igor; Corazza, Nadia; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones with important functions in development, immune regulation, and glucose metabolism. The adrenal glands are the predominant source of glucocorticoids; however, there is increasing evidence for extraadrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in thymus, brain, skin, and vascular endothelium. We recently identified intestinal epithelial cells as an important source of glucocorticoids, which regulate the activation of local intestinal immune cells. The molecular regulation of intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis is currently unexplored. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the steroidogenic enzymes P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 11beta-hydroxylase, and the production of corticosterone in the murine intestinal epithelial cell line mICcl2 and compared it with that in the adrenocortical cell line Y1. Surprisingly, we observed a reciprocal stimulation pattern in these two cell lines. Elevation of intracellular cAMP induced the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in Y1 cells, whereas it inhibited steroidogenesis in mICcl2 cells. In contrast, phorbol ester induced steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells, which was synergistically enhanced upon transfection of cells with the nuclear receptors steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) and liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2). Finally, we observed that basal and liver receptor homolog-1/phorbol ester-induced expression of steroidogenic enzymes in mICcl2 cells was inhibited by the antagonistic nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner. We conclude that the molecular basis of glucocorticoid synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells is distinct from that in adrenal cells, most likely representing an adaptation to the local environment and different requirements. PMID:17170096

  14. Next-generation analysis of gene expression regulation--comparing the roles of synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    McManus, Joel; Cheng, Zhe; Vogel, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances now enable routine measurement of mRNA and protein abundances, and estimates of their rates of synthesis and degradation that inform on their values and the degree of change in response to stimuli. Importantly, more and more data on time-series experiments are emerging, e.g. of cells responding to stress, enabling first insights into a new dimension of gene expression regulation - its dynamics and how it allows for very different response signals across genes. This review discusses recently published methods and datasets, their impact on what we now know about the relationships between concentrations and synthesis rates of mRNAs and proteins in yeast and mammalian cells, their evolution, and new hypotheses on translation regulatory mechanisms generated by approaches that involve ribosome footprinting. PMID:26259698

  15. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jeganathan, Brasathe; Kottawa-Arachchi, J. Dananjaya; Ranatunga, Mahasen A. B.; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; Gunasekare, M. T. Kumudini; Bandara, B. M. Ratnayake

    2016-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides. PMID:27366737

  16. Effects of bavachin and its regulation of melanin synthesis in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JING-HUA; PEI, YUAN-YUAN; XU, HONG-DAN; LI, LI-JING; WANG, YE-QIU; LIU, GUO-LIANG; QU, YAN; ZHANG, NING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bavachin treatment on A375 cells and the regulation of melanin synthesis. The cultured A375 cells in vitro were treated with bavachin; and the effect of bavachin on cell activity, tyrosinase (TYR) activity and melanin synthesis were respectively tested by the MTT assay, L-dopa oxidation assay and the NaOH lysis assay. The expression levels of TYR and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) proteins were tested by western blot analysis. The expression levels of TYR, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2 and JNK2 mRNA were tested by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Simultaneously, the effect of estrogen receptor inhibitor (ICI182780) and ERK pathway inhibitor (U0126) was also tested on A375 cells following bavachin. The safe dose of bavachin significantly inhibited melanin synthesis and TYR activity. Bavachin (10 µmol/l) inhibited the expression of TYR and JNK proteins, and the expression of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2 mRNA in A375 cells. ICI182780 and U0126 could significantly reverse the bavachin treatment on the protein expression levels and the mRNA expression of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2. In conclusion, bavachin inhibited the synthesis of melanin on A375 cells by inhibiting the protein and mRNA expression of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, ERK1, ERK2 and JNK2. PMID:27347410

  17. Regulation of platelet-activating factor synthesis in human neutrophils by MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul R S; Owen, John S; Nixon, Andrew B; Thomas, Leslie N; Wooten, Rhonda; Daniel, Larry W; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Wykle, Robert L

    2002-10-21

    Human neutrophils (PMN) are potentially a major source of platelet-activating factor (PAF) produced during inflammatory responses. The stimulated synthesis of PAF in PMN is carried out by a phospholipid remodeling pathway involving three enzymes: acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (acetyltransferase), type IV phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and CoA-independent transacylase (CoA-IT). However, the coordinated actions and the regulatory mechanisms of these enzymes in PAF synthesis are poorly defined. A23187 has been widely used to activate the remodeling pathway, but it has not been shown how closely its actions mimic those of physiological stimuli. Here we address this important problem and compare responses of the three remodeling enzymes and PAF synthesis by intact cells. In both A23187- and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN, acetyltransferase activation is blocked by SB 203580, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, but not by PD 98059, which blocks activation of the ERKs. In contrast, either agent attenuated cPLA(2) activation. Correlating with these results, SB 203580 decreased stimulated PAF formation by 60%, whereas PD 98059 had little effect. However, the combination of both inhibitors decreased PAF formation to control levels. Although a role for CoA-IT in PAF synthesis is recognized, we did not detect activation of the enzyme in stimulated PMN. CoA-IT thus appears to exhibit full activity in resting as well as stimulated cells. We conclude that the calcium ionophore A23187 and the receptor agonist fMLP both act through common pathways to stimulate PAF synthesis, with p38 MAP kinase regulating acetyltransferase and supplementing ERK activation of cPLA(2). PMID:12379481

  18. Regulation of lipid synthesis by the RNA helicase Mov10 controls Wnt5a production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W; Snyder, N; Worth, A J; Blair, I A; Witze, E S

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the Wnt ligand Wnt5a is frequently elevated in melanoma and is thought to be a critical regulator of cell movement during metastasis. However, the mechanisms regulating its expression are unknown. We find that the level of secreted Wnt5a varies by as much as 10-fold between cell lines and correlates more strongly with invasion than total cellular levels. Our results indicate that the RNA helicase Mov10 plays a role in Wnt5a synthesis and secretion. Inhibition of Mov10 increases secreted Wnt5a levels in melanoma cells by increasing Wnt5a synthesis and acylation. This is achieved by increasing fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression, leading to elevated levels of palmitoleoyl-CoA, required for Wnt ligand lipid modification and secretion. Melanoma tumors exhibit reduced expression of Mov10 compared with benign nevi and Mov10 levels inversely correlate with FASN levels in primary tumors. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role for aberrant lipid metabolism in regulating Wnt5a signaling that may be a critical step in melanoma progression. PMID:26029828

  19. Estrogen Regulates Protein Synthesis and Actin Polymerization in Hippocampal Neurons through Different Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Briz, Victor; Baudry, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen rapidly modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating selective membrane-associated receptors. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated protein synthesis are two major events required for the consolidation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. Estradiol regulates synaptic plasticity by interacting with both processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we used acute rat hippocampal slices to analyze the mechanisms underlying rapid changes in mTOR activity and actin polymerization elicited by estradiol. Estradiol-induced mTOR phosphorylation was preceded by rapid and transient activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) and by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) degradation. These effects were prevented by calpain and ERK inhibitors. Estradiol-induced mTOR stimulation did not require activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER), as specific ERα and ERβ agonists (PPT and DPN, respectively) failed to mimic this effect, and ER antagonists could not block it. Estradiol rapidly activated both RhoA and p21-activated kinase (PAK). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK), H1152, and a potent and specific PAK inhibitor, PF-3758309, blocked estradiol-induced cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization. ER antagonists also blocked these effects of estrogen. Consistently, both PPT and DPN stimulated PAK and cofilin phosphorylation as well as actin polymerization. Finally, the effects of estradiol on actin polymerization were insensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors, but its stimulation of mTOR activity was impaired by latrunculin A, a drug that disrupts actin filaments. Taken together, our results indicate that estradiol regulates local protein synthesis and cytoskeletal reorganization via different molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. PMID:24611062

  20. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

  1. Additional Nitrogen Fertilization at Heading Time of Rice Down-Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Seed Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm. PMID:24905454

  2. Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 μM toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 μM μM(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. PMID:23870862

  3. A new flavonol glycoside from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xue; Zhou, Jianming; Sun, Lin; Zhang, Hongda; Zhao, Yiwu; Song, Yaling; Wang, Xuejing; Ni, Fuyong; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    One new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), together with eight known flavonoids and three known quinochalcones, was isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Their cardioprotective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells were also evaluated; compounds 1, 2, 4-5, 7-10 and 12 provided significant protective effects on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. PMID:26185946

  4. Flavonol dimers from callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis and their in vitro neuraminidase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ridao; Duan, Ruigang; Wei, Yannan; Zou, Jianhua; Li, Junwei; Liu, Xiaoyue; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Ying; Li, Qiuhong; Dai, Jungui

    2015-12-01

    A chemical investigation of callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis led to the isolation of five new flavonol dimers, dysoverines A-E (1-5), together with 12 known compounds (6-17). The structures of new compounds were determined by the extensive spectroscopic data analyses. The biosynthetic pathway of the new compounds was proposed to involve O-methylation, prenylation, and Diels-Alder cycloaddition, which successively occurred in cultured plant cells. Compounds 1-17 exhibited in vitro neuraminidase inhibitory activities with the IC50 values of 31.0-93.9μM. PMID:26481138

  5. New flavonol and diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tong; Guo, Zhi Kai; Jiang, Rong; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ting; Guo, Ye; Song, Yong Chun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

    2013-03-01

    One new flavonol, chlorflavonin A (1), four new diterpenoids, aspergiloids E-H (3, 5-7), together with eight known compounds (2, 4, 8-13) were isolated from solid fermentation of Aspergillus sp. (strain no. YXf3), an endophytic fungus from Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were determined through detailed spectroscopic analysis combined with comparison of NMR spectra data with reported ones. All of them were screened on cytotoxicity against KB, SGC-7901, SW1116, and A549 cell lines; compounds 4, 9-11 exhibited moderate activities with IC50 values ranging from 6.74 to 46.64 µM. PMID:23457022

  6. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules. PMID:27319340

  7. Dipeptides Inhibit Melanin Synthesis in Mel-Ab Cells through Down-Regulation of Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-e; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Sohn, Uy Dong; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proline-serine (PS) and valine-serine (VS) dipeptides on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. Proline-serine and VS significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, though neither dipeptide directly inhibited tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system. Both PS and VS down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. In a follow-up study also described here, the effects of these dipeptides on melanogenesis-related signal transduction were quantified. Specifically, PS and VS induced ERK phosphorylation, though they had no effect on phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). These data suggest that PS and VS inhibit melanogenesis through ERK phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase. Properties of these dipeptides are compatible with application as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22915995

  8. Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Sanger, Thomas J.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod vertebrates possess multiple α- and β-like globin genes that are ontogenetically regulated, such that functionally distinct hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms are synthesized during different stages of development. The α- and β-like globin genes of amphibians, birds and mammals are differentially expressed during embryonic development and postnatal life, but little is known about the developmental regulation of globin gene expression in non-avian reptiles. Here we report an investigation into the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis. We tested two hypotheses derived from comparative genomic studies of the globin gene clusters in tetrapod vertebrates. First, we tested whether the product of the Anolis αD-globin gene is incorporated into embryonic Hb, thereby performing the role that would normally be performed by the embyronic αE-globin gene (which has been deleted from the green anole genome). Second, we tested whether two ‘lizard-specific’ β-globin paralogs have independently evolved a division of labor between an early-expressed embryonic gene and a later-expressed adult gene. Results of a proteomic analysis revealed that α- and β-like globin genes of the anole are differentially expressed during embryonic development. However, the same repertoire of α- and β-chain Hb isoforms was expressed during all stages of development and postnatal life, and the ontogenetic shifts in isoform composition were relatively subtle. In contrast to the pattern that has been documented in other tetrapod vertebrates, it appears that the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard does not involve discrete, stage-specific switches in gene activation and gene silencing. PMID:21270305

  9. [The first steps of chlorophyll synthesis: RNA involvement and regulation]. Progress report, January 1990--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Soell, D.

    1992-12-31

    Glu-tRNA{sup Glu} is synthesized from glutamate and tRNA{sup Glu} by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). Recent work has demonstrated that Glu-tRNA{sup Glu} has dual functions and is a precursor for protein and 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthesis. Current data does not provide compelling evidence for the notion that GluRS is regulated by chlorophyll precursors or in concert with the other enzymes of ALA synthesis. We have redefined the C5-pathway as a two-step route to ALA starting with Glu-tRNA{sup Glu}. Only two enzymes, Glu-tRNA reductase (GluTR) and GSA-2,1-amino-mutase (GSA-AM), are specifically involved in ALA synthesis. We have purified these enzymatic activities from Chlamydomonas and demonstrated that the two purified proteins in the presence of their cofactors NADPH and pyridoxal phosphate are sufficient for the in vitro Glu-tRNA {yields} ALA conversion. We have cloned the genes encoding GluTR. The sequences of the GluTR proteins deduced from these genes share highly conserved regions with those of bacterial origin. We havealso cloned and analyzed the gene encoding GSA-AM from Arabidopsis. As in Salmonella typhimurium, there are indications of the existence of an additional pathway for ALA formation in E. coli. To shed light on the recognition of the single tRNA{sup Glu} by the chloroplast enzymes GluTR, GluRS we characterized a chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Euglena having tRNA{sup Glu} with a point mutation in the T{Psi}C-loop. The altered tRNA supports protein but not ALA synthesis.

  10. Regulation of betaine synthesis by precursor supply and choline monooxygenase expression in Amaranthus tricolor.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Nazmul H; Hamada, Akira; Yamada, Nana; Rai, Vandna; Hibino, Takashi; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2007-01-01

    In plants, betaine is synthesized upon abiotic stress via choline oxidation, in which choline monooxygenase (CMO) is a key enzyme. Although it had been thought that betaine synthesis is well regulated to protect abiotic stress, it is shown here that an exogenous supply of precursors such as choline, serine, and glycine in the betaine-accumulating plant Amaranthus tricolor further enhances the accumulation of betaine under salt stress, but not under normal conditions. Addition of isonicotinic acid hydrazide, an inhibitor of glycine decarboxylase, inhibited the salinity-induced accumulation of betaine. Salt-induced accumulation of A. tricolor CMO (AmCMO) and betaine was much slower in roots than in leaves, and a transient accumulation of proline was observed in the roots. Antisense expression of AmCMO mRNA suppressed the salt-induced accumulation of AmCMO and betaine, but increased the level of choline approximately 2- 3-fold. This indicates that betaine synthesis is highly regulated by AmCMO expression. The genomic DNA, including the upstream region (1.6 kbp), of AmCMO was isolated. Deletion analysis of the AmCMO promoter region revealed that the 410 bp fragment upstream of the translation start codon contains the sequence responsive to salt stress. These data reveal that the promoter sequence of CMO, in addition to precursor supply, is important for the accumulation of betaine in the betaine-accumulating plant A. tricolor. PMID:18182425

  11. Regulation of mannose receptor synthesis and turnover in mouse J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fiani, M L; Beitz, J; Turvy, D; Blum, J S; Stahl, P D

    1998-07-01

    The mannose receptor, present on the plasma membrane of macrophages, promotes the internalization of glycoproteins and glycoconjugates via both endocytic and phagocytic pathways. The expression of this receptor is tightly modulated during monocyte/Mphi differentiation and cellular activation. We isolated clonal populations from murine J774 macrophage tumor cells, which differ in their surface expression of functional mannose receptors. To examine the potential mechanisms regulating receptor function in these cell lines, the interaction of receptor with ligand as well as receptor synthesis and degradation was analyzed. J774 clones with both high and low levels of mannose receptor activity were found to synthesize significant amounts of receptor protein, suggesting that the protein may be regulated at the level of synthesis and degradation. In J774 clones expressing very low receptor activity and protein, the half-life of mannose receptor molecules was substantially decreased. The evolution of multiple mechanisms modulating mannose receptor function may be critical in fine-tuning the role of this receptor in antigen processing and in scavenger and host defense functions. PMID:9665280

  12. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  13. Ethylene-Regulated Floral Volatile Synthesis in Petunia Corollas1[w

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Beverly A.; Tieman, Denise M.; Shibuya, Kenichi; Dexter, Richard J.; Loucas, Holly M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Sims, Charles A.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Klee, Harry J.; Clark, David G.

    2005-01-01

    In many flowering plants, such as petunia (Petunia × hybrida), ethylene produced in floral organs after pollination elicits a series of physiological and biochemical events, ultimately leading to senescence of petals and successful fertilization. Here, we demonstrate, using transgenic ethylene insensitive (44568) and Mitchell Diploid petunias, that multiple components of emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated by ethylene. Expression of benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (PhBSMT1 and 2) mRNA is temporally and spatially down-regulated in floral organs in a manner consistent with current models for postpollination ethylene synthesis in petunia corollas. Emission of methylbenzoate and other VOCs after pollination and exogenous ethylene treatment parallels a reduction in PhBSMT1 and 2 mRNA levels. Under cyclic light conditions (day/night), PhBSMT mRNA levels are rhythmic and precede emission of methylbenzoate by approximately 6 h. When shifted into constant dark or light conditions, PhBSMT mRNA levels and subsequent methylbenzoate emission correspondingly decrease or increase to minimum or maximum levels observed during normal conditions, thus suggesting that light may be a more critical influence on cyclic emission of methylbenzoate than a circadian clock. Transgenic PhBSMT RNAi flowers with reduced PhBSMT mRNA levels show a 75% to 99% decrease in methylbenzoate emission, with minimal changes in other petunia VOCs. These results implicate PhBSMT1 and 2 as genes responsible for synthesis of methylbenzoate in petunia. PMID:15849311

  14. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  15. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. PMID:25924527

  16. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation effect of flavonols antioxidants on DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Soureshjani, E; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Aghaee, Elham

    2015-08-01

    A new electrochemical biosensor was developed to demonstrate the effect of Acridine Orange (AO) on DNA damage. Then, the biosensor was used to check the inhibitors effect of three flavonols antioxidants (myricetin, fisetin and kaempferol) on DNA damage. Acridine Orange (AO) was used as a damaging agent because it shows a high affinity to nucleic acid and stretch of the double helical structure of DNA. Decreasing on the oxidation signals of adenine and guanine (in the DNA) in the presence of AO were used as probes to study the antioxidants power, using DNA-modified screen printed graphene electrode (DNA/SPGE). The results of our study showed that the DNA-biosensor could be suitable biosensor to investigate the inhibitors ability of the flavonols antioxidants on the DNA damage. The linear dependency was detected in the two regions in the ranges of 1.0-15.0 and 15.0-500.0 pmol L(-1). The detection limit was found 0.5 pmol L(-1) and 0.6 pmol L(-1) for guanine and adenine, respectively. To confirm the electrochemical results, Uv-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used too. Finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the structure of DNA in a water box to study any interaction between the antioxidant, AO and DNA. PMID:26320789

  18. Purification and Properties of Flavonol-Ring B Glucosyltransferase from Chrysosplenium americanum1

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, K. L.; de Luca, Vincenzo; Khouri, Henry; Ibrahim, Ragai K.

    1983-01-01

    A novel glucosyltransferase which catalyzed the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to positions 2′ and 5′ of partially methylated flavonols was isolated from the shoots of Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein ex Hooker. It was purified 225-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation and successive chromatography on Sephadex G-100, hydroxyapatite, and polybuffer ion exchanger. This glucosyltransferase appeared to be a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 42,000 daltons, pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.0, and an isoelectric point of 5.1. It had low but similar Km values for the 2′ and 5′ positions of flavonol substrates and the cosubstrate UDP-glucose and was inhibited by both reaction products, the glucosides formed, and UDP. Glucosyltransferase activity was independent of divalent cations, was not inhibited by EDTA, but showed requirement for SH groups. The differential effect on enzyme activity of metal ions, especially cupric ion, and various SH group reagents seemed to indicate the involvement of two active sites in the glucosylation reaction; the site specific for 2′ activity being more susceptible than that of the 5′ activity. The substrate specificity expressed by this glucosyltransferase and the requirement of at least two para-oriented B-ring substituents (at 2′ and 5′) for activity support this view. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16663104

  19. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    PubMed

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 μmol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:23255435

  20. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  1. Effect of flavonols on wine astringency and their interaction with human saliva.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Brás, Natércia F; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; de Freitas, Victor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2016-10-15

    The addition of external phenolic compounds to wines in order to improve their sensory quality is an established winemaking practice. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of quercetin 3-O-glucoside on the astringency and bitterness of wines. Sensory results showed that the addition of this flavonol to wines results in an increase in astringency and bitterness. Additionally, flavonol-human salivary protein interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamic simulations (MD). The apparent Stern-Volmer (KsvApp) and the apparent bimolecular quenching constants (kqApp) were calculated from fluorescence spectra. The KsvApp was 12620±390M(-1), and the apparent biomolecular constant was 3.94×10(12)M(-1)s(-1), which suggests that a complex was formed between the human salivary proteins and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. MD simulations showed that the quercetin 3-O-glucoside molecules have the ability to bind to the IB937 model peptide. PMID:27173574

  2. Identification of antioxidative flavonols and anthocyanins in Sicana odorifera fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Katherine; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Osorio, Coralia

    2011-02-01

    Ten flavonols and three anthocyanins were identified in the fruit peel of melón de olor (Sicana odorifera), and their structures were established by spectrometric and spectroscopic (ESI-MS and NMR) techniques. One of the identified flavonols, quercetin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, has not been reported before in the plant kingdom. Although quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had been reported before in literature and structure elucidation was done by comparison of NMR data with published data, to the best of our knowledge complete 1D and 2D NMR data have not been not delineated so far. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of pure compounds was measured by ABTS assay. It was established that quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6''-malonyl)-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the fruit peel methanolic extract. PMID:21244058

  3. Regulation of Viral RNA Synthesis by the V Protein of Parainfluenza Virus 5

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zengel, James; Sun, Minghao; Sleeman, Katrina; Timani, Khalid Amine; Aligo, Jason; Rota, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. The genome of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a prototypical paramyxovirus, encodes a V protein that inhibits viral RNA synthesis. In this work, the mechanism of inhibition was investigated. Using mutational analysis and a minigenome system, we identified regions in the N and C termini of the V protein that inhibit viral RNA synthesis: one at the very N terminus of V and the second at the C terminus of V. Furthermore, we determined that residues L16 and I17 are critical for the inhibitory function of the N-terminal region of the V protein. Both regions interact with the nucleocapsid protein (NP), an essential component of the viral RNA genome complex (RNP). Mutations at L16 and I17 abolished the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain of V. This suggests that the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain plays a critical role in V inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by the N-terminal domain. Both the N- and C-terminal regions inhibited viral RNA replication. The C terminus inhibited viral RNA transcription, while the N-terminal domain enhanced viral RNA transcription, suggesting that the two domains affect viral RNA through different mechanisms. Interestingly, V also inhibited the synthesis of the RNA of other paramyxoviruses, such as Nipah virus (NiV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3), measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This suggests that a common host factor may be involved in the replication of these paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE We identified two regions of the V protein that interact with NP and determined that one of these regions enhances viral RNA transcription via its interaction with NP. Our data suggest that a common host factor may be involved in the regulation of paramyxovirus replication and could be a target for broad antiviral drug development. Understanding the regulation of paramyxovirus replication will enable the

  4. Regulation of transaminase C synthesis in Escherichia coli: conditional leucine auxotrophy.

    PubMed

    McGilvray, D; Umbarger, H E

    1974-11-01

    The regulation of synthesis of the valine-alanine-alpha-aminobutyrate transaminase (transaminase C) was studied in Escherichia coli mutants lacking the branched-chain amino acid transaminase (transaminase B). An investigation was made of two strains, CU2 and CU2002, each carrying the same transaminase B lesion but exhibiting different growth responses on a medium supplemented with branched-chain amino acids. Both had the absolute isoleucine requirement characteristic of ilvE auxotrophs, but growth of strain CU2 was stimulated by valine, whereas that of strain CU2002 was markedly inhibited by valine. Strain CU2002 behaved like a conditional leucine auxotroph in that the inhibition by valine was reversed by leucine. Results of enzymatic studies showed that synthesis of transaminase C was repressed by valine in strain CU2002 but not in strain CU2. Inhibition by valine in strain CU2002 appears to be the combined effect of repression on transaminase C synthesis and valine-dependent feedback inhibition of alpha-acetohydroxy acid synthase activity, causing alpha-ketoisovalerate (and hence leucine) limitation. The ilvE markers of strains CU2 and CU2002 were each transferred by transduction to a wild-type genetical background. All ilvE recombinants from both crosses resembled strain CU2002 and were inhibited by valine in the presence of isoleucine. Thus, strain CU2 carries an additional lesion that allows it to grow on a medium containing isoleucine plus valine. It is concluded that conditional leucine auxotrophy is characteristic of mutants carrying an ilvE lesion alone. PMID:4616947

  5. Regulation of translesion DNA synthesis: posttranslational modification of lysine residues in key proteins

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Justyna; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins often controls various aspects of their cellular function. Indeed, over the past decade or so, it has been discovered that posttranslational modification of lysine residues plays a major role in regulating translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and perhaps the most appreciated lysine modification is that of ubiquitination. Much of the recent interest in ubiquitination stems from the fact that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was previously shown to be specifically ubiquitinated at K164 and that such ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating TLS. In addition, TLS polymerases themselves are now known to be ubiquitinated. In the case of human polymerase η, ubiquitination at four lysine residues in its C-terminus appears to regulate its ability to interact with PCNA and modulate TLS. Within the past few years, advances in global proteomic research has revealed that many proteins involved in TLS are, in fact, subject to a previously underappreciated number of lysine modifications. In this review, we will summarize the known lysine modifications of several key proteins involved in TLS; PCNA and Y-family polymerases η, ι, κ and Rev1 and we will discuss the potential regulatory effects of such modification in controlling TLS in vivo. PMID:25743599

  6. Second messenger-dependent protein kinases and protein synthesis regulate endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ghadessy, Roxana S; Kelly, Eamonn

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of second messenger-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in the regulation of endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness in NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma×rat glioma hybrid cells. In whole cell cyclic AMP accumulation studies, activation of PKC either by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by purinoceptor stimulation using uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) decreased secretin receptor responsiveness. PKC activation also inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation but did not affect cyclic AMP responses mediated by the prostanoid-IP receptor agonist iloprost, or the A2 adenosine receptor agonist 5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA). In additivity experiments, saturating concentrations of secretin and iloprost were found to be additive in terms of cyclic AMP accumulation, whereas saturating concentrations of NECA and iloprost together were not. This suggests compartmentalization of Gs-coupling components in NG108-15 cells and possible heterologous regulation of secretin receptor responsiveness at the level of adenylyl cyclase activation. Cells exposed to the PKA inhibitor H-89, exhibited a time-dependent increase in secretin receptor responsiveness compared to control cells. This effect was selective since cyclic AMP responses to forskolin, iloprost and NECA were not affected by H-89 treatment. Furthermore, treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide produced a time-dependent increase in secretin receptor responsiveness. Together these results indicate that endogenous secretin receptor responsiveness is regulated by PKC, PKA and protein neosynthesis in NG108-15 cells. PMID:11959806

  7. Heme-dependent Metabolite Switching Regulates H2S Synthesis in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Omer; Yadav, Vinita; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-08-01

    Substrate ambiguity and relaxed reaction specificity underlie the diversity of reactions catalyzed by the transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and γ-cystathionase (CSE). These enzymes either commit sulfur metabolism to cysteine synthesis from homocysteine or utilize cysteine and/or homocysteine for synthesis of H2S, a signaling molecule. We demonstrate that a kinetically controlled heme-dependent metabolite switch in CBS regulates these competing reactions where by cystathionine, the product of CBS, inhibits H2S synthesis by the second enzyme, CSE. Under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, induction of CSE and up-regulation of the CBS inhibitor, CO, a product of heme oxygenase-1, flip the operating preference of CSE from cystathionine to cysteine, transiently stimulating H2S production. In contrast, genetic deficiency of CBS leads to chronic stimulation of H2S production. This metabolite switch from cystathionine to cysteine and/or homocysteine renders H2S synthesis by CSE responsive to the known modulators of CBS: S-adenosylmethionine, NO, and CO. Used acutely, it regulates H2S synthesis; used chronically, it might contribute to disease pathology. PMID:27365395

  8. Regulation of sphingolipid synthesis in renal cells from normal subjects and familial hypercholesterolemic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S.; Clarke, K.S.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of lipoproteins on sphingolipid metabolism in proximal renal tubular cells from normal subjects and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-negative homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) subjects (TB,BA,DD,VH) employing (/sup 3/H)serine and (/sup 3/H)glucose. The results were: normal cells - 1) LDL (25 ..mu..g/ml) decreased the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glucose and (/sup 3/H)serine into ceramide and LacCer about 2-3 fold; 2) the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)serine into sphingomyelin was also reduced 2 fold by LDL; 3) LDL modified by reductive methylation of lysine residues (which is not recognized by the LDL receptor) did not decrease the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glucose and (/sup 3/H)serine into sphingolipids; FH cells - In contrast to normal cells, LDL (100 ..mu..g/ml) stimulated both the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glucose into LacCer and of (/sup 3/H)serine into ceramide, LacCer and sphingomyelin 2-3 fold in cells lacking LDL receptors. The authors conclude that the endogenous synthesis of sphingolipids in normal renal cells may be regulated by the LDL receptor. Lack of LDL receptor, as in FH cells, results in increased sphingolipid synthesis and storage of LacCer.

  9. Increased synthesis of folate transporters regulates folate transport in conditions of ethanol exposure and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shilpa; More, Deepti; Rahat, Beenish; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and dietary folate inadequacy are the main contributors leading to folate deficiency (FD). The present study was planned to study regulation of folate transport in conditions of FD and ethanol exposure in human embryonic kidney cell line. Also, the reversible nature of effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD was determined by folate repletion and ethanol removal. For ethanol treatment, HEK293 cells were grown in medium containing 100 mM ethanol, and after treatment, one group of cells was shifted on medium that was free from ethanol. For FD treatment, cells were grown in folate-deficient medium followed by shifting of one group of cells on folate containing medium. FD as well as ethanol exposure resulted in an increase in folate uptake which was due to an increase in expression of folate transporters, i.e., reduced folate carrier, proton-coupled folate transporter, and folate receptor, both at the mRNA and protein level. The effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD were reversible on removal of treatment. Promoter region methylation of folate transporters remained unaffected after FD and ethanol exposure. As far as transcription rate of folate transporters is concerned, an increase in rate of synthesis was observed in both ethanol exposure and FD conditions. Additionally, mRNA life of folate transporters was observed to be reduced by FD. An increased expression of folate transporters under ethanol exposure and FD conditions can be attributed to enhanced rate of synthesis of folate transporters. PMID:26433955

  10. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Christer; Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Boren, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expression could be effectively induced by exogenous sucrose. Turanose, a sucrose isomer that cannot be metabolized by plants, mimicked the effect of sucrose, demonstrating that downstream metabolism of sucrose was not necessary for signal transmission. Also glucose and glucose-1-P induced SBE expression. Interestingly, induction by sucrose, turanose and glucose but not glucose-1-P sustained an overt semidian (12-h) oscillation in SBE expression and was sensitive to the hexokinase (HXK) inhibitor glucosamine. These results suggest a pivotal regulatory role for HXK during starch synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) was another potent inducer of SBE expression. Induction by ABA was similar to that of glucose-1-P in that it bypassed the semidian oscillator. Both the sugar and ABA signaling cascades were disrupted by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Based on these findings, we propose a model for sugar signaling in regulation of starch synthesis in the cassava storage root.

  11. Regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) synthesis investigated by using mutants of Chl. sorokiniana partially NR deficient

    SciTech Connect

    Knobloch, O.; Tischner, R.

    1986-04-01

    After X-ray irradiation 13 NR and 8 nitrite reductase (NiR) deficient mutants of Chl.sorokiniana were obtained. In order to assure best experimental conditions for the characterization of the NR mutants, for which NO/sub 3//sup -/-containing medium in fact is a N-medium, they transferred wild type cells from NH/sub 4//sup +/ to NO/sub 3//sup -/ or N-medium, respectively. It turned out, that NO/sub 3//sup -/ is not necessary for starting de-novo-synthesis of NR. Therefore NR in Chlorella is a derepressible enzyme rather than an inducible one. Maximum amount of NR is present 80 min. after transfer of cells. Derepression experiments with the mutant strains characterized 3 of them as defect in Mo-co subunit of NR with best cytochrome c reductase (CCR)-activity, although xanthine oxidase (XO) was inducible. One other mutant is CCR-defect but contains intact Mo-co. The latter strain produced 4-6 times more Mo-co than the wild type, giving some evidence for an unbalanced self-regulation of NR-synthesis. Another strain lacked XO-activity, indicating a common cofactor among XO and NR as reported for other organisms.

  12. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms. PMID:25149558

  13. Thrombopoietin/TGF-β1 Loop Regulates Megakaryocyte Extracellular Matrix Component Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian A; Gruppi, Cristian; Malara, Alessandro; Gianelli, Umberto; Celesti, Giuseppe; Anselmo, Achille; Laghi, Luigi; Vercellino, Marco; Visai, Livia; Iurlo, Alessandra; Moratti, Remigio; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components initiate crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for bone marrow homeostasis. In our research, we prove that a peri-cellular matrix composed primarily of type III and type IV collagens, and fibronectin surrounds human megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. The data we collected support the hypothesis that bone marrow megakaryocytes possess a complete mechanism to synthesize the ECM components, and that thrombopoietin is a pivotal regulator of this new function inducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) release and consequent activation of the downstream pathways, both in vitro and in vivo. This activation results in a dose dependent increase of ECM component synthesis by megakaryocytes, which is reverted upon incubation with JAK and TGF-β1 receptor specific inhibitors. These data are pivotal for understanding the central role of megakaryocytes in creating their own regulatory niche within the bone marrow environment. Stem Cells 2016;34:1123-1133. PMID:26748484

  14. Translational regulation of protein synthesis, in response to light, at a critical stage of Volvox development

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M.M.; Kirk, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    In Volvox cultures synchronized by a light-dark cycle, juveniles containing presumptive somatic and reproductive cells are produced during the dark, but their cells do not differentiate until after the lights come on. The pattern of protein synthesis changes rapidly after the lights come on. Action spectra and effects of photosynthesis inhibitors indicate that this protein synthetic change is not simply a consequence of renewed flow of energy from illuminated chloroplasts. Actinomycin, at a level adequate to block the response to heat shock, has virtually no effect on the response of the same cells to light; furthermore, RNAs isolated from unilluminated and illuminated juveniles yield indistinguishable in vitro translation products. The authors conclude, therefore, that this effect of light is exerted almost exclusively at the translational level, generating one of the most striking examples of translational regulation yet described.

  15. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. PMID:24845645

  16. Loss of nuclear receptor SHP impairs but does not eliminate negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Thomas A; Saeki, Shigeru; Schneider, Manfred; Schaefer, Karen; Berdy, Sara; Redder, Thadd; Shan, Bei; Russell, David W; Schwarz, Margrit

    2002-06-01

    The in vivo role of the nuclear receptor SHP in feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis was examined. Loss of SHP in mice caused abnormal accumulation and increased synthesis of bile acids due to derepression of rate-limiting CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 hydroxylase enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Dietary bile acids induced liver damage and restored feedback regulation. A synthetic agonist of the nuclear receptor FXR was not hepatotoxic and had no regulatory effects. Reduction of the bile acid pool with cholestyramine enhanced CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. We conclude that input from three negative regulatory pathways controls bile acid synthesis. One is mediated by SHP, and two are SHP independent and invoked by liver damage and changes in bile acid pool size. PMID:12062084

  17. Calyx diversity of flavonols and fatty acids in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for use as a potential nutraceutical crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols and fatty acids in plants has potential to be used as an antioxidant, lowering of cholesterol, and for cancer prevention. Roselle is a photoperiod and frost-sensitive species requiring greenhouse production in the Griffin, GA environment. Six accessions of roselle calyces were evaluated fo...

  18. A general approach to quantification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides by UV spectrophotometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general method was developed for the quantification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavones, flavonols, and their glycosides based on the UV molar relative response factors (MRRF) of the standards. Each of these phenolic compounds contains a cinnamoyl structure and has a maximum absorban...

  19. Flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid composition variability in seeds of Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus accessions with nutraceutical potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus are both underutilized legume species. Teramnus labialis is used as food in India while T. uncinatus has potential use in pasture mixes. Photoperiod-sensitive Teramnus accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil...

  20. A Pleiotropic Regulator, Frp, Affects Exopolysaccharide Synthesis, Biofilm Formation, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2006-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, and competence are important physiologic functions and virulence factors for Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we report the role of Frp, a transcriptional regulator, on the regulation of these traits crucial to pathogenesis. An Frp-deficient mutant showed decreased transcription of several genes important in virulence, including those encoding fructosyltransferase (Ftf), glucosyltransferase B (GtfB), and GtfC, by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of Ftf was decreased in the frp mutant, as assessed by Western blotting as well as by the activity assays. Frp deficiency also inhibited the production of GtfB in the presence of glucose and sucrose as well as the production of GtfC in the presence of glucose. As a consequence of the effects on GtfB and -C, sucrose-induced biofilm formation was decreased in the frp mutant. The expression of competence mediated by the competence-signaling peptide (CSP) system, as assessed by comC gene transcription, was attenuated in the frp mutant. As a result, the transformation efficiency was decreased in the frp mutant but was partially restored by adding synthetic CSP. Transcription of the frp gene was significantly increased in the frp mutant under all conditions tested, indicating that frp transcription is autoregulated. Furthermore, complementation of the frp gene in the frp mutant restored transcription of the affected genes to levels similar to those in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that Frp is a novel pleiotropic effector of multiple cellular functions and is involved in the modulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis, sucrose-dependent biofilm formation, and competence development. PMID:16861645

  1. Anthocyanidins and Flavonols, Major nod Gene Inducers from Seeds of a Black-Seeded Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hungria, Mariangela; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven compounds released from germinating seeds of a black-seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv PI165426CS) induce transcription of nod genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Aglycones from 10 of those compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet/visible, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy), and their biological activities were demonstrated by induction of β-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum strains containing nodA-lacZ or nodC-lacZ fusions controlled by R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli nodD genes. By making comparisons with authentic standards, the chemical structures for aglycones from the 10 molecules were confirmed as being anthocyanidins (delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin) and flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol). All anthocyanidins and flavonols had 3-O-glycosylation and free hydroxyl groups at the 4′, 5, and 7 positions. Hydrolysis experiments showed that the mean concentration required for half-maximum nod gene induction (I50) by the 10 glycosides was about half that of the corresponding aglycones. The mean I50 value for the three anthocyanidins (360 nanomolar) was less (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the three flavonol aglycones (980 nanomolar). Each seed released approximately 2500 nanomoles of anthocyanidin and 450 nanomoles of flavonol nod gene inducers in conjugated forms during the first 6 hours of imbibition. Based on amounts and activities of the compounds released, anthocyanins contributed approximately 10-fold more total nod-inducing activity than flavonol glycosides. These anthocyanidins from bean seeds represent the first nod-inducing compounds identified from that group of flavonoids. PMID:16668462

  2. Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Mullin, C A

    1999-03-01

    Adult Diabroticites including western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, consume pollen of corn, squash, sunflower, and other species. Short-chain neutral amino acids in methanol-water extracts of pollen have been previously identified in our laboratory as strong phagostimulants for Diabrotica. Bioassay-driven fractionation was used to characterize the interacting lipid and midpolarity phagostimulants for adult WCR in Giant Gray Stripe sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., pollen. Lipids rich in omega3-linolenic acid including triglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and phosphatidylcholines were highly phagostimulatory. Other important phagostimulatory components included a hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine amide, N(1),N(5),N(10)-tri[(E)-p-coumaroyl]spermidine, and a flavonol, quercetin beta-3-O-glucoside. The structural characteristics of these phagoactive compounds and their role in the pollinivory specialization of rootworm beetles are discussed. PMID:10552441

  3. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  4. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 1 (FLS1) -overexpression plants in response to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Hoai; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Wonje; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2016-06-01

    Flavonoids are an important group of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant growth and contribute to human health. Many studies have focused on the biosynthesis pathway, biochemical characters, and biological functions of flavonoids. In this report, we showed that overexpression of FLS1 (FLS1-OX) not only altered seed coat color (resulting in a light brown color), but also affected flavonoid accumulation. Whereas fls1-3 mutants accumulated higher anthocyanin levels, FLS1-OX seedlings had lower levels than those of the wild-type. Besides, shoot tissues of FLS1-OX plants exhibited lower flavonol levels than those of the wild-type. However, growth performance and abiotic stress tolerance of FLS1-OX, fls1-3, and wild-type plants were not significantly different. Taken together, FLS1 can be manipulated (i.e., silenced or overexpressed) to redirect the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway toward anthocyanin production without negative effects on plant growth and development. PMID:26990404

  5. Stability of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives, Flavonol Glycosides, and Anthocyanins in Black Currant Juice.

    PubMed

    Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Laaksonen, Oskar; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-01

    The stability of phenolic compounds was followed in black currant juice at ambient temperatures (in light and in dark conditions) and at +4 °C for a year. Analyses were based on high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (or tandem mass spectrometry) and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods supported by nuclear magnetic resonance after selective high-performance liquid chromatography isolation. Altogether, 43 metabolites were identified, of which 2-(Z)-p-coumaroyloxymethylene-4-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2-(Z)-butenenitrile, 2-(E)-caffeoyloxymethylene-4-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2-(Z)-butenenitrile, 1-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranose, (Z)-p-coumaric acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (Z)-p-coumaric acid were novel findings in black currant juice. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives degraded 20-40% at room temperature during one year of storage, releasing free hydroxycinnamic acids. O-Glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds were the most stable, followed by O-acylquinic acids, acyloxymethyleneglucosyloxybutenenitriles, and O-acylglucoses. Light induced the isomerization of (E)-coumaric acid compounds into corresponding Z-isomers. Flavonol glycosides stayed fairly stable. Flavonol aglycones were derived mainly from malonylglucosides. Over 90% of anthocyanins were lost at room temperature in a year, practically independent of light. Storage at low temperatures, preferably excluding light, is necessary to retain the original composition of phenolic compounds. PMID:27147482

  6. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate) on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes. PMID:22594765

  7. ESCRT-II controls retinal axon growth by regulating DCC receptor levels and local protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Konopacki, Filip A.; Dwivedy, Asha; Bellon, Anaïs; Blower, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis and local protein synthesis (LPS) act coordinately to mediate the chemotropic responses of axons, but the link between these two processes is poorly understood. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a key regulator of cargo sorting in the endocytic pathway, and here we have investigated the role of ESCRT-II, a critical ESCRT component, in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. We show that ESCRT-II is present in RGC axonal growth cones (GCs) where it co-localizes with endocytic vesicle GTPases and, unexpectedly, with the Netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). ESCRT-II knockdown (KD) decreases endocytosis and, strikingly, reduces DCC in GCs and leads to axon growth and guidance defects. ESCRT-II-depleted axons fail to turn in response to a Netrin-1 gradient in vitro and many axons fail to exit the eye in vivo. These defects, similar to Netrin-1/DCC loss-of-function phenotypes, can be rescued in whole (in vitro) or in part (in vivo) by expressing DCC. In addition, ESCRT-II KD impairs LPS in GCs and live imaging reveals that ESCRT-II transports mRNAs in axons. Collectively, our results show that the ESCRT-II-mediated endocytic pathway regulates both DCC and LPS in the axonal compartment and suggest that ESCRT-II aids gradient sensing in GCs by coupling endocytosis to LPS. PMID:27248654

  8. GAD67-mediated GABA Synthesis and Signaling Regulate Inhibitory Synaptic Innervation in the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Di Cristo, Graziella; Wu, Cai Zhi; Knott, Graham; Kuhlman, Sandra; Fu, Yu; Palmiter, Richard D.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2007-01-01

    The development of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is shaped by neural activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. we demonstrate a novel function of GABA in regulating GABAergic innervation in the adolescent brain, when GABA is mainly known as an inhibitory transmitter. Conditional knockdown of the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme GAD67 in basket interneurons in adolescent visual cortex resulted in cell autonomous deficits in axon branching, perisomatic synapse formation around pyramidal neurons, and complexity of the innervation fields; the same manipulation had little influence on the subsequent maintenance of perisomatic synapses. These effects of GABA deficiency were rescued by suppressing GABA re-uptake and by GABA receptor agonists. Germ-line knockdown of GAD67 but not GAD65 showed similar deficits, suggesting a specific role of GAD67 in the maturation of perisomatic innervation. Since intracellular GABA levels are modulated by neuronal activity, our results implicate GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis in activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory innervation patterns. PMID:17582330

  9. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  10. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  11. Enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride on flavonoid synthesis of soybean seedlings under enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Caixia; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    In order to probe into the enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, the effects of LaCl₃ (20 and 60 mg l(-1)) on the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and chalcone synthase (CHS) in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) were investigated. Enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) caused the increase in the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of 20 mg l(-1) LaCl₃ also efficiently increased these indices, which promoted the flavonoid synthesis and provided protective effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. On the contrary, the treatment of 60 mg l(-1) LaCl₃ decreased the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings except increasing the activity of PAL, which were not beneficial to the flavonoid synthesis and provided negative effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation caused the increase in the flavonoid synthesis by promoting the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of LaCl₃ could change flavonoid synthesis in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation by regulating the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS, which is an enzymological mechanism for the regulation of LaCl₃ on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced UV-B radiation. PMID:24710726

  12. Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Huang, Shifeng; Su, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to assess the association and derive a more precise estimation. Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify articles published through January 2016 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Twelve studies involving 4593 patients and 519,378 controls were included. Results: The summary odds ratios (ORs) of EC, GC and the two combined were respectively 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73–1.08), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70–0.91) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92) for the highest category of dietary flavonols intake compared with the lowest. No significant heterogeneities were observed in these studies. Further analysis showed that the pooled ORs of EC and GC for cohort, population-based case-control and hospital-based case-control studies were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.61–1.34), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.72–1.18), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.65–1.06), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45–1.59), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.88). The subgroup analyses revealed a significant association of flavonol intake with a reduced risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Moreover, significant inverse associations of flavonol intake with GC risk were observed in women but not in men, in smokers but not in nonsmokers, in European populations but not in American populations. Similarly, a significant inverse association of flavonols intake with EC risk was also observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Conclusion: High intake of dietary flavonols is significantly related to a reduced risk of GC, especially in women and smokers. PMID:26891324

  13. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biotransformation of both endo- and xenobiotics. This well-recognized functional role notwithstanding, heme also regulates P450 protein synthesis, assembly, repair and disposal. These less well-appreciated aspects are reviewed herein. PMID:20860521

  14. RpoS synthesis is growth rate regulated in Salmonella typhimurium, but its turnover is not dependent on acetyl phosphate synthesis or PTS function.

    PubMed

    Cunning, C; Elliott, T

    1999-08-01

    The RpoS sigma factor of enteric bacteria is either required for or augments the expression of a number of genes that are induced during nutrient limitation, growth into stationary phase, or in response to stresses, including high osmolarity. RpoS is regulated at multiple levels, including posttranscriptional control of its synthesis, protein turnover, and mechanisms that affect its activity directly. Here, the control of RpoS stability was investigated in Salmonella typhimurium by the isolation of a number of mutants specifically defective in RpoS turnover. These included 20 mutants defective in mviA, the ortholog of Escherichia coli rssB/sprE, and 13 mutants defective in either clpP or clpX which encode the protease active on RpoS. An hns mutant was also defective in RpoS turnover, thus confirming that S. typhimurium and E. coli have identical genetic requirements for this process. Some current models predict the existence of a kinase to phosphorylate the response regulator MviA, but no mutants affecting a kinase were recovered. An mviA mutant carrying the D58N substitution altering the predicted phosphorylation site is substantially defective, suggesting that phosphorylation of MviA on D58 is important for its function. No evidence was obtained to support models in which acetyl phosphate or the PTS system contributes to MviA phosphorylation. However, we did find a significant (fivefold) elevation of RpoS during exponential growth on acetate as the carbon and energy source. This behavior is due to growth rate-dependent regulation which increases RpoS synthesis at slower growth rates. Growth rate regulation operates at the level of RpoS synthesis and is mainly posttranscriptional but, surprisingly, is independent of hfq function. PMID:10438755

  15. Relaxin regulates hyaluronan synthesis and aquaporins in the cervix of late pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Soh, Yu May; Tiwari, Anjana; Mahendroo, Mala; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    Cervical ripening is associated with loss of structural integrity and tensile strength, thus enabling the cervix to dilate at term. It is characterized by changes in glycosaminoglycan composition, increased water content, and a progressive reorganization of the collagen network. The peptide hormone relaxin via interaction with its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), promotes tissue hydration and increases cervical hyaluronan (HA) concentrations, but the mechanisms that regulate these effects are not known. This study in relaxin mutant (Rln(-/-)) mice tested the hypothesis that relaxin regulates HA synthase and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the cervix. We also assessed expression of the RXFP1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Pregnant Rln(-/-) mice had lower Has2 and Aqp3 expression on d 18.5 of pregnancy and decreased cervical HA compared with wild-type Rln(+/+) mice. Chronic infusion of relaxin for 4 or 6 d in pregnant Rln(-/-) mice reversed these phenotypes and increased Has2 and Aqp3 compared with placebo controls. Relaxin-treated mice also had lower Has1 and Aqp5. Changes in gene expression were paralleled by increases in cervical HA and variations in AQP3 and AQP5 protein localization in epithelial cells of Rln(-/-) cervices. Our findings demonstrate that relaxin alters AQP expression in the cervix and initiates changes in glycosaminoglycan composition through increased HA synthesis. These effects are likely mediated through RXFP1 localized to subepithelial stromal cells and epithelial cells. We suggest these actions of relaxin collectively promote water recruitment into the extracellular matrix to loosen the dense collagen fiber network. PMID:23087172

  16. Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate synthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Chen; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Monoterpenes have wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and medicine industries and have recently received increased attention as advanced biofuels. However, compared with sesquiterpenes, monoterpene production is still lagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, geraniol, a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol, was synthesized in S. cerevisiae. We evaluated three geraniol synthases in S. cerevisiae, and the geraniol synthase Valeriana officinalis (tVoGES), which lacked a plastid-targeting peptide, yielded the highest geraniol production. To improve geraniol production, synthesis of the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was regulated by comparing three specific GPP synthase genes derived from different plants and the endogenous farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene variants ERG20 (G) (ERG20 (K197G) ) and ERG20 (WW) (ERG20 (F96W-N127W) ), and controlling endogenous ERG20 expression, coupled with increasing the expression of the mevalonate pathway by co-overexpressing IDI1, tHMG1, and UPC2-1. The results showed that overexpressing ERG20 (WW) and strengthening the mevalonate pathway significantly improved geraniol production, while expressing heterologous GPP synthase genes or down-regulating endogenous ERG20 expression did not show positive effect. In addition, we constructed an Erg20p(F96W-N127W)-tVoGES fusion protein, and geraniol production reached 66.2 mg/L after optimizing the amino acid linker and the order of the proteins. The best strain yielded 293 mg/L geraniol in a fed-batch cultivation, a sevenfold improvement over the highest titer previously reported in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. Finally, we showed that the toxicity of geraniol limited its production. The platform developed here can be readily used to synthesize other monoterpenes. PMID:26883346

  17. UAP56 is a novel interacting partner of Bcr in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey D.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 is an important regulator of DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 binds to Bcr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between Bcr and UAP56 is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis. -- Abstract: Bcr is a serine/threonine kinase that is a critical regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that Bcr acts in part via phosphorylation and inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. We have identified the RNA helicase UAP56 as another substrate of Bcr. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 blocks Bcr induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We also found that over expression of Bcr increased the expression of cyclin E and decreased the expression of p27. Knockdown of UAP56 reversed the effect of Bcr on cyclin E and p27 expression. Furthermore, we found that Bcr binds to UAP56 and demonstrate that binding of UAP56 to Bcr is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis in VSMC. Our data identify UAP56 as an important binding partner of Bcr and a novel target for inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

  18. HOPS: a novel cAMP-dependent shuttling protein involved in protein synthesis regulation.

    PubMed

    Della Fazia, Maria Agnese; Castelli, Marilena; Bartoli, Daniela; Pieroni, Stefania; Pettirossi, Valentina; Piobbico, Danilo; Viola-Magni, Mariapia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2005-07-15

    The liver has the ability to autonomously regulate growth and mass. Following partial hepatectomy, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and their coupled signal transduction pathways have been implicated in hepatocyte proliferation. To understand the mechanisms responsible for the proliferative response, we studied liver regeneration by characterization of novel genes that are activated in residual hepatocytes. A regenerating liver cDNA library screening was performed with cDNA-subtracted probes derived from regenerating and normal liver. Here, we describe the biology of Hops (for hepatocyte odd protein shuttling). HOPS is a novel shuttling protein that contains an ubiquitin-like domain, a putative NES and a proline-rich region. HOPS is rapidly exported from the nucleus and is overexpressed during liver regeneration. Evidence shows that cAMP governs HOPS export in hepatocytes of normal and regenerating liver and is mediated via CRM-1. We demonstrate that HOPS binds to elongation factor eEF-1A and interferes in protein synthesis. HOPS overexpression in H-35-hepatoma and 3T3-NIH cells strongly reduces proliferation. PMID:16014383

  19. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  20. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Fat-soluble Vitamins A and D*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel R.; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bookout, Angie L.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acids are required for proper absorption of dietary lipids, including fat-soluble vitamins. Here, we show that the dietary vitamins A and D inhibit bile acid synthesis by repressing hepatic expression of the rate-limiting enzyme CYP7A1. Receptors for vitamin A and D induced expression of Fgf15, an intestine-derived hormone that acts on liver to inhibit Cyp7a1. These effects were mediated through distinct cis-acting response elements in the promoter and intron of Fgf15. Interestingly, transactivation of both response elements appears to be required to maintain basal Fgf15 expression levels in vivo. Furthermore, whereas induction of Fgf15 by vitamin D is mediated through its receptor, the induction of Fgf15 by vitamin A is mediated through the retinoid X receptor/farnesoid X receptor heterodimer and is independent of bile acids, suggesting that this heterodimer functions as a distinct dietary vitamin A sensor. Notably, vitamin A treatment reversed the effects of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine on Fgf15, Shp, and Cyp7a1 expression, suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit of vitamin A under conditions of bile acid malabsorption. These results reveal an unexpected link between the intake of fat-soluble vitamins A and D and bile acid metabolism, which may have evolved as a means for these dietary vitamins to regulate their own absorption. PMID:20233723

  1. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO(•) is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  2. Change of supercooling capability in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators by flavonol glycosides from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in trees.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Kasuga, Jun; Wang, Donghui; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Koyama, Toshie; Inada, Takaaki; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2011-12-01

    Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree contain flavonol glycosides with high supercooling-facilitating capability in solutions containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, which is thought to have an important role in deep supercooling of XPCs. The present study, in order to further clarify the roles of these flavonol glycosides in deep supercooling of XPCs, the effects of these supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleating) flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (K3Glc), kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (K7Glc) and quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q3Glc), in buffered Milli-Q water (BMQW) containing different kinds of ice nucleators, including INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol, were examined by a droplet freezing assay. The results showed that all of the flavonol glycosides promoted supercooling in all solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators, although the magnitudes of supercooling capability of each flavonol glycoside changed in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. On the other hand, these flavonol glycosides exhibited complicated nucleating reactions in BMQW, which did not contain identified ice nucleators but contained only unidentified airborne impurities. Q3Glc exhibited both supercooling-facilitating and ice nucleating capabilities depending on the concentrations in such water. Both K3Glc and K7Glc exhibited only ice nucleation capability in such water. It was also shown by an emulsion freezing assay in BMQW that K3Glc and Q3Glc had no effect on homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, whereas K7Glc increased ice nucleation temperature. The results indicated that each flavonol glycoside affected ice nucleation by very complicated and varied reactions. More studies are necessary to determine the exact roles of these flavonol glycosides in deep supercooling of XPCs in which unidentified heterogeneous ice nucleators may exist. PMID

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and saponins from common beans have been widely studied due to their bioactivity. This research evaluated the effect of germination of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines of saponins and flavonoids extracted from seed coats, cotyledons and sprouts. Principal component analysis was performed to achieve punctual associations between the black bean saponins and flavonoids concentrations to the antioxidant capacity and the antiproliferative activities. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of extracts were higher when obtained from seed coats, mainly from the 3rd germination day. The extracts obtained from seed coats after 3 and 5 germination days inhibited all cancer cell lines proliferation with no cytotoxicity against control cells. Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers. Non-glycosilated flavonols were related with antioxidant capacity. PMID:23790944

  4. Characterization of a recently evolved flavonol-phenylacyltransferase gene provides signatures of natural light selection in Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tohge, Takayuki; Wendenburg, Regina; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Sulpice, Ronan; Hoefgen, Rainer; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of natural light stress renders it important to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which plants protect themselves from harmful effects of UV-B irradiation, as this is critical for fitness of land plant species. Here we describe natural variation of a class of phenylacylated-flavonols (saiginols), which accumulate to high levels in floral tissues of Arabidopsis. They were identified in a subset of accessions, especially those deriving from latitudes between 16° and 43° North. Investigation of introgression line populations using metabolic and transcript profiling, combined with genomic sequence analysis, allowed the identification of flavonol-phenylacyltransferase 2 (FPT2) that is responsible for the production of saiginols and conferring greater UV light tolerance in planta. Furthermore, analysis of polymorphism within the FPT duplicated region provides an evolutionary framework of the natural history of this locus in the Brassicaceae. PMID:27545969

  5. Characterization of a recently evolved flavonol-phenylacyltransferase gene provides signatures of natural light selection in Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Tohge, Takayuki; Wendenburg, Regina; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Sulpice, Ronan; Hoefgen, Rainer; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of natural light stress renders it important to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which plants protect themselves from harmful effects of UV-B irradiation, as this is critical for fitness of land plant species. Here we describe natural variation of a class of phenylacylated-flavonols (saiginols), which accumulate to high levels in floral tissues of Arabidopsis. They were identified in a subset of accessions, especially those deriving from latitudes between 16° and 43° North. Investigation of introgression line populations using metabolic and transcript profiling, combined with genomic sequence analysis, allowed the identification of flavonol-phenylacyltransferase 2 (FPT2) that is responsible for the production of saiginols and conferring greater UV light tolerance in planta. Furthermore, analysis of polymorphism within the FPT duplicated region provides an evolutionary framework of the natural history of this locus in the Brassicaceae. PMID:27545969

  6. Multi-substrate flavonol O-glucosyltransferases from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) achene and receptacle

    PubMed Central

    Griesser, Markus; Vitzthum, Florian; Fink, Barbara; Bellido, Mari Luz; Raasch, Constanze; Munoz-Blanco, Juan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to characterize fruit ripening-related genes functionally, two glucosyltransferases, FaGT6 and FaGT7, were cloned from a strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) cDNA library and the full-length open reading frames were amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. FaGT6 and FaGT7 were expressed heterologously as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and target protein was purified using affinity chromatography. Both recombinant enzymes exhibited a broad substrate tolerance in vitro, accepting numerous flavonoids, hydroxycoumarins, and naphthols. FaGT6 formed 3-O-glucosides and minor amounts of 7-O-, 4′-O-, and 3′-O-monoglucosides and one diglucoside from flavonols such as quercetin. FaGT7 converted quercetin to the 3-O-glucoside and 4′-O-glucoside and minor levels of the 7- and 3′-isomers but formed no diglucoside. Gene expression studies showed that both genes are strongly expressed in achenes of small-sized green fruits, while the expression levels were generally lower in the receptacle. Significant levels of quercetin 3-O-, 7-O-, and 4′-O-glucosides, kaempferol 3-O- and 7-O-glucosides, as well as isorhamnetin 7-O-glucoside, were identified in achenes and the receptacle. In the receptacle, the expression of both genes is negatively controlled by auxin which correlates with the ripening-related gene expression in this tissue. Salicylic acid, a known signal molecule in plant defence, induces the expression of both genes. Thus, it appears that FaGT6 and FaGT7 are involved in the glucosylation of flavonols and may also participate in xenobiotic metabolism. The latter function is supported by the proven ability of strawberries to glucosylate selected unnatural substrates injected in ripe fruits. This report presents the first biochemical characterization of enzymes mainly expressed in strawberry achenes and provides the foundation of flavonoid metabolism in the seeds. PMID:18487633

  7. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux☆

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Robert D.; Needs, Paul W.; Williamson, Gary; Kroon, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    MK571 is a multidrug resistance protein-2 (ABCC2, Mrp2) inhibitor and has been widely used to demonstrate the role of Mrp2 in the cellular efflux of drugs, xenobiotics and their conjugates. Numerous reports have described modulation of Caco-2 cellular efflux and transport of flavonoids in the presence of MK571. Since flavonoids are efficiently conjugated by Caco-2/TC7 cells, we investigated the effects of MK571 on the efflux of flavonoid conjugates. The flavonol aglycones kaempferol, quercetin and galangin were efficiently taken up, conjugated and effluxed by Caco-2/TC7 cells. Apically-applied MK571 caused significant reductions in both the apical and basolateral efflux of flavonol conjugates from Caco-2/TC7 monolayers. MK571 did not significantly alter the apical:basolateral efflux ratio for flavonol conjugates, however, which is not consistent with MK571 specifically inhibiting only apical Mrp2. Since MK571 decreased the total amounts of conjugates formed, and increased cellular flavonol aglycone concentrations, we explored the possibility that MK571 also inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols. MK571 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular biosynthesis of all flavonol glucuronides and sulphates by Caco-2 cells. MK571 significantly inhibited phase-2 conjugation of kaempferol by cell-free extracts of Caco-2, and production of kaempferol-4′-O-glucuronide was competitively inhibited. These data show that MK571, in addition to inhibiting MRP2, is a potential inhibitor of enterocyte phase-2 conjugation. PMID:25801004

  8. Flavonol glycosides in berries of two major subspecies of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) and influence of growth sites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueying; Laaksonen, Oskar; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Wei; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-01

    Flavonol glycosides of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries from China and cultivated berries (H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) from Finland and Canada were identified and quantified. Twenty-six flavonol glycosides were found with isorhamnetin and quercetin as the major aglycones. The contents of flavonol glycosides ranged 23-250 mg/100 g fresh berries and were significantly higher in the berries of ssp. sinensis than in those of ssp. mongolica. Among the cultivars of ssp. mongolica, the berries of 'Oranzhevaya' had the lowest (23 mg/100 g) content, and those of 'Prevoshodnaya' the highest content of flavonol glycosides (80 mg/100 g). Within the ssp. mongolica, the samples from Kittilä (Northern Finland) had higher levels of most flavonol glycosides than those from Turku (Southern Finland) and Québec. Among the ssp. sinensis berries of different growth sites, increasing trends were detected in the contents of most of the compounds as the altitude increased and as the latitude decreased. The wild berries (ssp. sinensis) from Sichuan had remarkably high contents and unique profiles of flavonol glycosides. PMID:26830578

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase Responsible for Anthocyanins and Flavonols Biosynthesis in Freesia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Liang, Lingjie; Meng, Xiangyu; Li, Yueqing; Gao, Fengzhan; Liu, Xingxue; Wang, Shucai; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The glycosylation of flavonoids increases their solubility and stability in plants. Flowers accumulate anthocyanidin and flavonol glycosides which are synthesized by UDP-sugar flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGTs). In our previous study, a cDNA clone (Fh3GT1) encoding UFGT was isolated from Freesia hybrida, which was preliminarily proved to be invovled in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside biosynthesis. Here, a variety of anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides were detected in flowers and other tissues of F. hybrida, implying the versatile roles of Fh3GT1 in flavonoids biosynthesis. To further unravel its multi-functional roles, integrative analysis between gene expression and metabolites was investigated. The results showed expression of Fh3GT1 was positively related to the accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides, suggesting its potential roles in the biosynthesis of both flavonoid glycosides. Subsequently, biochemical analysis results revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates including flavonoid not naturally occurred in F. hybrida could be recognized by the recombinant Fh3GT1. Both UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose could be used as sugar donors by recombinant Fh3GT1, although UDP-galactose was transferred with relatively low activity. Furthermore, regiospecificity analysis demonstrated that Fh3GT1 was able to glycosylate delphinidin at the 3-, 4-′, and 7- positions in a sugar-dependent manner. And the introduction of Fh3GT1 into Arabidopsis UGT78D2 mutant successfully restored the anthocyanins and flavonols phenotypes caused by lost-of-function of the 3GT, indicating that Fh3GT1 functions as a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase in vivo. In summary, these results demonstrate that Fh3GT1 is a flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase using UDP-glucose as the preferred sugar donor and may involve in flavonoid glycosylation in F. hybrida. PMID:27064818

  10. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis in fetal rat type II alveolar epithelial cells by microRNA-26a.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qin; Liang, Hong-Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a unique developmentally regulated, phospholipid-rich lipoprotein, is synthesized by the type II epithelial cells (AECII) of the pulmonary alveolus, where it is stored in organelles termed lamellar bodies. The synthesis of pulmonary surfactant is under multifactorial control and is regulated by a number of hormones and factors, including glucocorticoids, prolactin, insulin, growth factors, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines acting through beta-adrenergic receptors, and cAMP. While there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and physiological process, the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis remains unknown. miRNA-26a (miR-26a) has been predicted to target SMAD1, one of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins that plays a key role in differentiation of lung epithelial cells during lung development. In this study, we explored the regulation role of miR-26a in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. An adenoviral miR-26a overexpression vector was constructed and introduced into primary cultured fetal AECII. GFP fluorescence was observed to determinate the transfection efficiency and miR-26a levels were measured by RT-PCR. MTT was performed to analyze AECII viability. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of SMAD1 and surfactant-associated proteins. The results showed that miR-26a in fetal AECII was overexpressed after the transfection, and that the overexpression of miR-26a inhibited pulmonary surfactant synthesis in AECII. There was no significant change in cell proliferation. Our results further showed that overexpression of miR-26a reduced the SMAD1 expression both in mRNA and protein level in fetal AECII. These findings indicate that miR-26a regulates surfactant synthesis in fetal AECII through SMAD1. PMID:24395810

  11. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The “target of rapamycin” (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens. PMID:27043527

  12. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens. PMID:27043527

  13. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae-Sung; Anderson, Garrett B.; Dooley, Matthew S.; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass contributes substantially to health and to issues associated with the quality of life. It has been well recognized that skeletal muscle mass is regulated by mechanically induced changes in protein synthesis, and that signaling by mTOR is necessary for an increase in protein synthesis and the hypertrophy that occurs in response to increased mechanical loading. However, the role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during decreased mechanical loading remains largely undefined. In order to define the role of mTOR signaling, we employed a mouse model of hindlimb immobilization along with pharmacological, mechanical and genetic means to modulate mTOR signaling. The results first showed that immobilization induced a decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis and muscle mass. Interestingly, immobilization also induced an increase in mTOR signaling, eIF4F complex formation and cap-dependent translation. Blocking mTOR signaling during immobilization with rapamycin not only impaired the increase in eIF4F complex formation, but also augmented the decreases in global protein synthesis and muscle mass. On the other hand, stimulating immobilized muscles with isometric contractions enhanced mTOR signaling and rescued the immobilization-induced decrease in global protein synthesis through a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism that was independent of ribosome biogenesis. Unexpectedly, the effects of isometric contractions were also independent of eIF4F complex formation. Similar to isometric contractions, overexpression of Rheb in immobilized muscles enhanced mTOR signaling, cap-dependent translation and global protein synthesis, and prevented the reduction in fiber size. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of mTOR signaling is both necessary and sufficient to alleviate the decreases in protein synthesis and muscle mass that occur during immobilization. Furthermore, these results indicate

  14. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Anderson, Garrett B; Dooley, Matthew S; Hornberger, Troy A

    2015-09-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass contributes substantially to health and to issues associated with the quality of life. It has been well recognized that skeletal muscle mass is regulated by mechanically induced changes in protein synthesis, and that signaling by mTOR is necessary for an increase in protein synthesis and the hypertrophy that occurs in response to increased mechanical loading. However, the role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during decreased mechanical loading remains largely undefined. In order to define the role of mTOR signaling, we employed a mouse model of hindlimb immobilization along with pharmacological, mechanical and genetic means to modulate mTOR signaling. The results first showed that immobilization induced a decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis and muscle mass. Interestingly, immobilization also induced an increase in mTOR signaling, eIF4F complex formation and cap-dependent translation. Blocking mTOR signaling during immobilization with rapamycin not only impaired the increase in eIF4F complex formation, but also augmented the decreases in global protein synthesis and muscle mass. On the other hand, stimulating immobilized muscles with isometric contractions enhanced mTOR signaling and rescued the immobilization-induced decrease in global protein synthesis through a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism that was independent of ribosome biogenesis. Unexpectedly, the effects of isometric contractions were also independent of eIF4F complex formation. Similar to isometric contractions, overexpression of Rheb in immobilized muscles enhanced mTOR signaling, cap-dependent translation and global protein synthesis, and prevented the reduction in fiber size. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of mTOR signaling is both necessary and sufficient to alleviate the decreases in protein synthesis and muscle mass that occur during immobilization. Furthermore, these results indicate that the

  15. Analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols in petals of 10 Rhododendron species from the Sygera Mountains in Southeast Tibet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Liang-Ying; Wang, Shu-Li; Niu, Xin-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Flower color is one of the major ornamental characteristics of the genus Rhododendron, but few studies on flower color in alpine Rhododendron have been reported. In our study, the flower colors and the pigment constituents of petals from 10 Rhododendron species sampled in the Sygera Mountains of Southeast Tibet were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2)). The color analysis showed that the 10 Rhododendron species could be divided into five color groupings: yellow, red, red-purple, purple-violet, and purple. A total of 5 anthocyanin compounds and 23 flavonol compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. There were obvious differences in the composition of anthocyanin and flavonol among the petals of the 10 Rhododendron species. The color parameter L* decreased as the TA (total anthocyanin) content increased in the red-purple group. However, there was no obvious correlation between the L* value and the TA content in the other sampled Rhododendron species. In this study, the TA values of most of the Rhododendron species were quite low, but the TF (total flavonol) content was high. These results indicate the existence of copigmentation effects in these 10 Rhododendron species. PMID:27058775

  16. Differentiation of flavonol glucoside and galactoside isomers combining chemical isopropylidenation with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Scoparo, Camila T; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L

    2016-05-20

    Flavonol glycosides are important components of leaves from vascular plants. A lot of isomers of these compounds are produced by plants, making their analysis very difficult and causing many structural misinterpretations. Galactosides and glucosides as mono- or oligosaccharides yield many diastereoisomers, hindering the analysis by mass spectrometry. In order to enable the mass spectrometric distinctions of these isomers, in this work we combine an isopropylidene based chemical derivatization with liquid chromatography with multiple-stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) analysis. The isomers of flavonol triglycosides, after the reaction, yielded products with different molecular weight, therefore, they were no longer isomers, allowing their identification by MS(1) analysis. However, to the 4 isomers of flavonol diglycosides, only one yielded, after isopropylidenation, a product with different molecular weight. To the other 3 species, the incorporation of 2 isopropylidene groups retained them in the isomeric form. For such species, chromatographic separation and MS(n) detection targeting the lithium adducts of 3,4-O-isopropylidene-galactosyl or 4,6-O-isopropylidene-glucosyl residues (m/z 209.099) provided specific MS profile. PMID:27109198

  17. Flavonol-rich fractions of yaupon holly leaves (Ilex vomitoria, Aquifoliaceae) induce microRNA-146a and have anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects in intestinal myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Kim, Youngmok; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2011-06-01

    Polyphenolics extracted from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria, Aquifoliaceae) (YH) leaves were investigated in human colon cells for their chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities. An activity-guided fractionation allowed the selection of YH flavonol-rich fraction due to its preferential inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer viability over the normal CCD-18Co colon cells. Quercetin and kaempferol 3-rutinosides, main components identified in this fraction, protected CCD-18Co cells against reactive oxidative species (ROS) in part due to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, up-regulation of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) known as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activation was the underlying molecular mechanism that protected CCD-18Co from inflammation. PMID:21262328

  18. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  19. New Flavonol Glucuronides from the Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Su; Lee, Chan Kyu; Sezirahiga, Jurdas; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-04-20

    Repeated chromatography of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the 70% EtOH extract of the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) led to the isolation and characterization of four new flavonol glucuronides, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (1), rhamnazin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (2), rhamnazin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (3), and rhamnocitrin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (4), together with 15 flavonoids (5-19) having previously known chemical structures. The structures of the new compounds 1-4 were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR studies. Six flavonoids (6, 7, 9, 14, 18, and 19) were isolated from the flower buds of S. aromaticum for the first time in this study. The flavonoids were examined for their cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) using MTT assays. Among the isolates, pachypodol (19) showed the most potent cytotoxicity on A2780 cells with an IC50 value of 8.02 μM. PMID:27045836

  20. A new flavonol glycoside and activity of compounds from the flower of Nymphaea candida.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-N; Wang, W; Ding, Y; Xie, W-D; Ma, C; Du, L-J

    2007-01-01

    A new compound, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside) (1), was isolated from the white flower of Nymphaea candida, together with nine known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 3-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylglucopyranoside) (6), quercetin (7), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), myricetin (9), myricetin 3'-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (10). The structure of 1 was established on the basis of the analysis of its 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to significant antioxidant activities, which were evaluated by measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9 exhibited promising neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury model of cultured rat cortical neurons treated with sodium dithionite in glucose-free medium. Furthermore, compounds 1, 5, and 9 had distinct cytotoxicity to adrenal gland pheochromocytoma, PC12 cells, being treated by the same way. PMID:17613618

  1. Application of Differential Colorimetry To Evaluate Anthocyanin-Flavonol-Flavanol Ternary Copigmentation Interactions in Model Solutions.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of anthocyanin-flavanol-flavonol ternary interactions on the colorimetric and chemical stability of malvidin-3-glucoside has been studied. Model solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/(+)-catechin ratio (MC) and variable quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside concentration (MC+Q) and solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside ratio (MQ) and variable (+)-catechin concentration (MQ+C) were tested at levels closer to those existing in wines. Color variations during storage were evaluated by differential colorimetry. Changes in the anthocyanin concentration were monitored by HPLC-DAD. CIELAB color-difference formulas were demonstrated to be of practical interest to assess the stronger and more stable interaction of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside with MC binary mixture than (+)-catechin with MQ mixture. The results imply that MC+Q ternary solutions kept their intensity and bluish tonalities for a longer time in comparison to MQ+C solutions. The stability of malvidin-3-glucoside improves when the concentration of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside increases in MC+Q mixtures, whereas the addition of (+)-catechin in MQ+C mixtures resulted in an opposite effect. PMID:25817598

  2. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  3. Crystal structure of a human cyclin-dependent kinase 6 complexwith a flavonol inhibitor, Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Heshu; Chang, Debbie J.; Baratte, Blandine; Meijer, Laurent; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula

    2005-01-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and neuronal functions. They are important targets for the design of drugs with anti-mitotic and/or anti-neurodegenerative effects. CDK4 and CDK6 form a subfamily among the CDKs in mammalian cells, as defined by sequence similarities. Compared to CDK2 and CDK5, structural information on CDK4 and CDK6 is sparse. We describe here the crystal structure of human CDK6 in complex with a viral cyclin and a flavonol inhibitor, fisetin. Fisetin binds to the active form of CDK6, forming hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues in the binding pocket that undergo large conformational changes during CDK activation by cyclin binding. The 4-keto group and the 3-hydroxyl group of fisetin are hydrogen bonded with the backbone in the hinge region between the N-terminal and C-terminal kinase domain, as has been observed for many CDK inhibitors. However, CDK2 and HCK kinase in complex with other flavone inhibitors such as quercetin and flavopiridol showed a different binding mode with the inhibitor rotated by about 180. The structural information of the CDK6-fisetin complex is correlated with the binding affinities of different flavone inhibitors for CDK6. This complex structure is the first description of an inhibitor complex with a kinase from the CDK4/6 subfamily and can provide a basis for selecting and designing inhibitor compounds with higher affinity and specificity.

  4. Upregulation of capacity for glutathione synthesis in response to amino acid deprivation: regulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase subunits.

    PubMed

    Sikalidis, Angelos K; Mazor, Kevin M; Lee, Jeong-In; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    Using HepG2/C3A cells and MEFs, we investigated whether induction of GSH synthesis in response to sulfur amino acid deficiency is mediated by the decrease in cysteine levels or whether it requires a decrease in GSH levels per se. Both the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNA levels were upregulated in response to a lack of cysteine or other essential amino acids, independent of GSH levels. This upregulation did not occur in MEFs lacking GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2, also known as eIF2α kinase 4) or in cells expressing mutant eIF2α lacking the eIF2α kinase Ser(51) phosphorylation site, indicating that expression of both GCLC and GCLM was mediated by the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway. Only the increase in GCLM mRNA level, however, was accompanied by a parallel increase in protein expression, suggesting that the enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis depended largely on increased association of GCLC with its regulatory subunit. Upregulation of both GCLC and GLCM mRNA levels in response to cysteine deprivation was dependent on new protein synthesis, which is consistent with expression of GCLC and GCLM being mediated by proteins whose synthesis depends on activation of the GCN2/ATF4 pathway. Our data suggest that the regulation of GCLC expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of transcriptional regulators, whereas the regulation of GCLM expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of mRNA stabilizing or destabilizing proteins. Upregulation of GCLM levels in response to low cysteine levels may serve to protect the cell in the face of a future stress requiring GSH as an antioxidant or conjugating/detoxifying agent. PMID:24557597

  5. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective. PMID:25055961

  6. Upregulation of capacity for glutathione synthesis in response to amino acid deprivation: regulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sikalidis, Angelos K.; Mazor, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-In; Roman, Heather B.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2014-01-01

    Using HepG2/C3A cells and MEFs, we investigated whether induction of GSH synthesis in response to sulfur amino acid deficiency is mediated by the decrease in cysteine levels or whether it requires a decrease in GSH levels per se. Both the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNA levels were upregulated in response to a lack of cysteine or other essential amino acids, independent of GSH levels. This upregulation did not occur in MEFs lacking GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2, also known as eIF2α kinase 4) or in cells expressing mutant eIF2α lacking the eIF2α kinase Ser51 phosphorylation site, indicating that expression of both GCLC and GCLM was mediated by the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway. Only the increase in GCLM mRNA level, however, was accompanied by a parallel increase in protein expression, suggesting that the enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis depended largely on increased association of GCLC with its regulatory subunit. Upregulation of both GCLC and GLCM mRNA levels in response to cysteine deprivation was dependent on new protein synthesis, which is consistent with expression of GCLC and GCLM being mediated by proteins whose synthesis depends on activation of the GCN2/ATF4 pathway. Our data suggest that the regulation of GCLC expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of transcriptional regulators, whereas the regulation of GCLM expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of mRNA stabilizing or destabilizing proteins. Upregulation of GCLM levels in response to low cysteine levels may serve to protect the cell in the face of a future stress requiring GSH as an antioxidant or conjugating/detoxifying agent. PMID:24557597

  7. Regulation of fructose metabolism and polymer synthesis by Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953.

    PubMed Central

    Robrish, S A; Thompson, J

    1990-01-01

    Energy for the anaerobic growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 can be derived from the fermentation of sugar (fructose) or amino acid (glutamate). During growth on fructose, the cells formed large intracellular granules which after extraction yielded glucose by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The endogenous polymer was subsequently metabolized, and after overnight incubation of the cells in buffer, the glucan granules were no longer detectable by electron microscopy. Anaerobically, washed cells grown previously on fructose fermented this sugar to a mixture of lactic, acetic, and butyric acids, and little intracellular glucan was formed. Aerobically, the cells slowly metabolized fructose to acetate. Provision of glutamic acid as an additional energy (ATP) source elicited rapid synthesis of polymer by glycolyzing cells. Intracellular granules were not present in glutamate-grown cells, and under anaerobic conditions, the resting cells failed to metabolize [14C] fructose. However, the addition of glutamic acid to the suspension resulted in the rapid accumulation of sugar by the cells. Approximately 15% of the 14C-labeled material was extractable with boiling water, and by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, this phosphorylated derivative was identified as [14C]fructose-1-phosphate. The nonextractable material represented [14C]glucan polymer. Fructose-1-phosphate kinase activity in fructose-grown cells was fivefold greater than that in glutamate-grown cells. We suggest that the activity of fructose-1-phosphate kinase and the availability of ATP regulate the flow of fructose into either the glycolytic or polymer-synthesizing pathway in F. nucleatum. Images PMID:2211506

  8. Mechanisms underlying the protein-kinase mediated regulation of the HERG potassium channel synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Yamini; Li, Yan; Zheng, Renjian; Kanda, Vikram; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    The HERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) potassium channel aids in repolarization of the cardiomyocyte membrane at the end of each action potential. We have previously shown that sustained protein kinase A or C (PKA and PKC) activity specifically enhances channel synthesis over the course of hours to days in heterologous expression and cardiac myocytes. The kinase-mediated augmentation of the channel is post-transcriptional and occurs near or at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report our further investigations into the mechanisms of kinase-mediated augmentation of HERG channel protein. We show that HERG channel phosphorylation alone is not sufficient for the PKA-dependent increase to occur. In vitro translation studies indicate that an additional factor is required for the process. Pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that the channel augmentation is not due to kinase-mediated alteration in proteasome or lysosome activity. PKA activation had no effect on stability of HERG mRNA and polyribosomal profiling showed that kinase activity did not elevate translation from low to high rates. Transcriptional inhibition results suggest that the additional cellular factor is a PKA-regulated protein. Together, these findings suggest that PKA-mediated augmentation of HERG abundance is more complex than previously appreciated involving enhancement of already active translation rates, phosphorylation of the channel protein and at least one other cAMP/PKA-responsive protein. Further exploration of molecular components of this regulatory pathway will be necessary to determine exact mechanism and the biomedical impact of this process in vivo. PMID:22613764

  9. Regulation of eumelanin / pheomelanin synthesis and visible pigmentation in melanocytes by ligands of the melanocortin 1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Le Pape, Elodie; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    The production of melanin in the hair and skin is tightly regulated by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose activation is controlled by 2 secreted ligands, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP). Since melanin is extremely stable, lasting years in biological tissues, the mechanism underlying the relatively rapid decrease in visible pigmentation elicited by ASP is of obvious interest. In this study, the effects of ASP and αMSH on the regulation of melanin synthesis and on visible pigmentation were assessed in normal murine melanocytes and were compared with the quick depigmenting effect of the tyrosinase inhibitor, phenylthiourea (PTU). αMSH increased pheomelanin levels prior to increasing eumelanin content over 4 days of treatment. Conversely, ASP switched off the pigment synthesis pathway, reducing eu- and pheo- melanin synthesis within 1 day of treatment that was proportional to the decrease in tyrosinase protein level and activity. These results demonstrate that the visible depigmentation of melanocytes induced by ASP does not require the degradation of existing melanin but rather is due to the dilution of existing melanin by melanocyte turnover, which emphasizes the importance of pigment distribution to visible color. PMID:18627531

  10. Interleukin-6 as a Potential Indicator for Prevention of High Risk Adenoma Recurrence by Dietary Flavonols in the Polyp Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bobe, Gerd; Albert, Paul S.; Sansbury, Leah B.; Lanza, Elaine; Schatzkin, Arthur; Colburn, Nancy H.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum interleukin (IL)-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is considered an indicator of inflammation and may be an indicator of colorectal carcinogenesis given that inflammation can promote carcinogenesis. Flavonols, which can be found in fruits and vegetables, may inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis partly by inhibiting inflammation. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine whether serum IL-6 was associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence and flavonol intake and, thus may serve as a risk indicator and as a response indicator to dietary flavonols. Serum IL-6 concentrations at baseline, year 1 and 3 were measured in 872 participants from the intervention arm of the Polyp Prevention Trial, a 4-year trial that examined the effectiveness of a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit and vegetable diet on adenoma recurrence. Intake of flavonols, especially of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, was inversely associated with serum IL-6 concentrations (highest vs. lowest flavonol intake quartile, 1.80 vs. 2.20 pg/mL) and high risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.26–0.98) and advanced adenoma recurrence (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06–0.50). A decrease in IL-6 concentration during the trial was inversely associated with high risk (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.23–0.84) and advanced adenoma recurrence (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.19–1.18). Individuals with above median flavonol intake and equal or below median IL-6 change after baseline had the lowest risk of recurrence of high risk and advanced adenoma. Our results suggest that serum IL-6 may serve as a risk indicator and as a response indicator to dietary flavonols for colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:20484173

  11. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  12. Could thiamine pyrophosphate be a regulator of the nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelial cell of diabetic patients?

    PubMed

    Alcázar-Leyva, Susana; Alvarado-Vásquez, Noé

    2011-05-01

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is considered an essential micronutrient for humans; its deficient intake brings about the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (encephalopathy and psychosis) or beriberi (a neurological and cardiovascular disease). Once thiamine enters the cells it is phosphorylated by thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPPK), and converted into the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of thiamine. TPP is a relevant cofactor for transketolase (TK), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKDH), and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), all these enzymes are fundamental for glucose metabolism. Diabetes mellitus (DM), however, is considered both a deficient thiamine and deficient energy state, as a consequence of the limited TPP synthesis. Recent evidences have shown that the administration of thiamine or lipid-soluble derivatives, such as benfotiamine (developed to improve the bioavailability of thiamine), has positive effects in the diabetic patient (after thiamine is transformed into TPP). For this reason, administration of supplements with TPP in the diabetic patients is recommended to avoid complications, like neuropathy and nephropathy. It has been suggested that these beneficial effects are a consequence of the activation of TK (pentose pathway) or the PDH complex in mitochondria. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by the endothelial cell and is also an important element for the viability and functionality of this cell type. However, in the DM patient, a deficient synthesis of NO has been reported. It is relevant to mention that recent evidences have led to propose mitochondrial activity as an important regulator of nitric oxide synthesis (ON). We consider that the exogenous administration of TPP facilitates the utilization of this molecule, regulating some metabolic processes such as phosphorylation of thiamine by TPPK, energy consumption (ATP), as well as mitochondrial activity, inducing eventually NO synthesis. If this is confirmed, the administration of TPP to the

  13. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haohan; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Rongping; Li, Liang; Wangding, Mincheng; Wang, Jiwen

    2016-03-01

    As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27007909

  14. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haohan; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Rongping; Li, Liang; Wangding, Mincheng; Wang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27007909

  15. Down-regulation of hepatic urea synthesis by oxypurines: xanthine and uric acid inhibit N-acetylglutamate synthase.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Nissim, Ilana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Caldovic, Ljubica; Barcelona, Belen; Cervera, Javier; Tuchman, Mendel; Yudkoff, Marc

    2011-06-24

    We previously reported that isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), a derivative of oxypurine, inhibits citrulline synthesis by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that IBMX and other oxypurines containing a 2,6-dione group interfere with the binding of glutamate to the active site of N-acetylglutamate synthetase (NAGS), thereby decreasing synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, the obligatory activator of carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS1). The result is reduction of citrulline and urea synthesis. Experiments were performed with (15)N-labeled substrates, purified hepatic CPS1, and recombinant mouse NAGS as well as isolated mitochondria. We also used isolated hepatocytes to examine the action of various oxypurines on ureagenesis and to assess the ameliorating affect of N-carbamylglutamate and/or l-arginine on NAGS inhibition. Among various oxypurines tested, only IBMX, xanthine, or uric acid significantly increased the apparent K(m) for glutamate and decreased velocity of NAGS, with little effect on CPS1. The inhibition of NAGS is time- and dose-dependent and leads to decreased formation of the CPS1-N-acetylglutamate complex and consequent inhibition of citrulline and urea synthesis. However, such inhibition was reversed by supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate. The data demonstrate that xanthine and uric acid, both physiologically occurring oxypurines, inhibit the hepatic synthesis of N-acetylglutamate. An important and novel concept emerging from this study is that xanthine and/or uric acid may have a role in the regulation of ureagenesis and, thus, nitrogen homeostasis in normal and disease states. PMID:21540182

  16. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  17. Antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase potential and flavonol glycosides of Biscutella raphanifolia (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Boudouda, Houria Berhail; Zeghib, Assia; Karioti, Anastazia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Öztürk, Mehmet; Aouni, Mahjoub; Kabouche, Ahmed; Kabouche, Zahia

    2015-01-01

    Different extracts of the aerial parts of Biscutella raphanifolia (Brassicaceae), which has not been the subject of any study, were screened for the phytochemical content, anti-microbial, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities. We used four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS(•+), DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating methods. Since there is a relationship between antioxidants and cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors, we used two methods to determine the in vitro anti-cholinesterase activity by the use of the basic enzymes that occur in causing Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The extracts were also tested in vitro antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The phytochemical study of B. raphanifolia afforded four flavonol glycosides; namely, quercetin-3-O-β-D-g1ucoside, quercetin-3-O-[β-D-glucosyl(1→2)-O-β-D-glucoside], quercetin-3-O-[β-D-glucosyl(1→3)-O-β-D-glucoside] and kaempferol-3-O-[β-D-glucosyl(1→2)-[(6'''p-coumaroyl)- β-D-glucoside], being isolated here for the first time from Biscutella raphanifolia and the genus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity in ABTS(•+), DPPH• and CUPRAC assays, while the petroleum ether extract demonstrated optimum efficiency metal chelating activity. The dicloromethane and petroleum ether extracts showed a mild inhibition against AChE and BChE. However, the petroleum ether extract showed a good antibacterial activity against the pathovars Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Enterococcus feacalis, whereas the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain was more sensitive to dichloromethane and n-butanol extracts. PMID:25553679

  18. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  19. The regulation of triglyceride synthesis and fatty acid synthesis in rat epididymal adipose tissue. Effects of altered dietary and hormonal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saggerson, E. D.; Greenbaum, A. L.

    1970-01-01

    pyruvate utilization and to be related to the rate of endogenous lipolysis. 8. It is suggested that pyruvate utilization by the tissue may be regulated by the metabolism of fatty acids within the tissue. The significance of this in directing glucose utilization away from fatty acid synthesis and into glyceride-glycerol synthesis is discussed. PMID:4249859

  20. Live attenuated Salmonella vaccines displaying regulated delayed lysis and delayed antigen synthesis to confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E

    2012-02-01

    Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopE(Nt80)-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpC(SS)-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A(294)) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of β-lactamase (Bla(SS)-Ag85A(294)-Bla(CT)) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from P(trc) into isogenic Asd(+)/MurA(+) pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopE(Nt80)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpC(SS)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV χ11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV χ11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd(+)/MurA(+) lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis

  1. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses. PMID:24580101

  2. FLOURY ENDOSPERM7 encodes a regulator of starch synthesis and amyloplast development essential for peripheral endosperm development in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Ren, Yulong; Lu, Bingyue; Yang, Chunyan; Feng, Zhiming; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Jun; Ma, Weiwei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenwei; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Fuqing; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Bao, Yiqun; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    In cereal crops, starch synthesis and storage depend mainly on a specialized class of plastids, termed amyloplasts. Despite the importance of starch, the molecular machinery regulating starch synthesis and amyloplast development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa) floury endosperm7 (flo7) mutant, which develops a floury-white endosperm only in the periphery and not in the inner portion. Consistent with the phenotypic alternation in flo7 endosperm, the flo7 mutant had reduced amylose content and seriously disrupted amylopectin structure only in the peripheral endosperm. Notably, flo7 peripheral endosperm cells showed obvious defects in compound starch grain development. Map-based cloning of FLO7 revealed that it encodes a protein of unknown function. FLO7 harbors an N-terminal transit peptide capable of targeting functional FLO7 fused to green fluorescent protein to amyloplast stroma in developing endosperm cells, and a domain of unknown function 1338 (DUF1338) that is highly conserved in green plants. Furthermore, our combined β-glucuronidase activity and RNA in situ hybridization assays showed that the FLO7 gene was expressed ubiquitously but exhibited a specific expression in the endosperm periphery. Moreover, a set of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the missing 32 aa in the flo7 mutant protein are essential for the stable accumulation of FLO7 in the endosperm. Together, our findings identify FLO7 as a unique plant regulator required for starch synthesis and amyloplast development within the peripheral endosperm and provide new insights into the spatial regulation of endosperm development in rice. PMID:26608643

  3. FLOURY ENDOSPERM7 encodes a regulator of starch synthesis and amyloplast development essential for peripheral endosperm development in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Ren, Yulong; Lu, Bingyue; Yang, Chunyan; Feng, Zhiming; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Jun; Ma, Weiwei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenwei; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Fuqing; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Bao, Yiqun; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    In cereal crops, starch synthesis and storage depend mainly on a specialized class of plastids, termed amyloplasts. Despite the importance of starch, the molecular machinery regulating starch synthesis and amyloplast development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa) floury endosperm7 (flo7) mutant, which develops a floury-white endosperm only in the periphery and not in the inner portion. Consistent with the phenotypic alternation in flo7 endosperm, the flo7 mutant had reduced amylose content and seriously disrupted amylopectin structure only in the peripheral endosperm. Notably, flo7 peripheral endosperm cells showed obvious defects in compound starch grain development. Map-based cloning of FLO7 revealed that it encodes a protein of unknown function. FLO7 harbors an N-terminal transit peptide capable of targeting functional FLO7 fused to green fluorescent protein to amyloplast stroma in developing endosperm cells, and a domain of unknown function 1338 (DUF1338) that is highly conserved in green plants. Furthermore, our combined β-glucuronidase activity and RNA in situ hybridization assays showed that the FLO7 gene was expressed ubiquitously but exhibited a specific expression in the endosperm periphery. Moreover, a set of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the missing 32 aa in the flo7 mutant protein are essential for the stable accumulation of FLO7 in the endosperm. Together, our findings identify FLO7 as a unique plant regulator required for starch synthesis and amyloplast development within the peripheral endosperm and provide new insights into the spatial regulation of endosperm development in rice. PMID:26608643

  4. Insulin regulates milk protein synthesis at multiple levels in the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Karensa K; Lefèvre, Christophe; Macmillan, Keith L; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-05-01

    The role of insulin in milk protein synthesis is unresolved in the bovine mammary gland. This study examined the potential role of insulin in the presence of two lactogenic hormones, hydrocortisone and prolactin, in milk protein synthesis. Insulin was shown to stimulate milk protein gene expression, casein synthesis and (14)C-lysine uptake in mammary explants from late pregnant cows. A global assessment of changes in gene expression in mammary explants in response to insulin was undertaken using Affymetrix microarray. The resulting data provided insight into the molecular mechanisms stimulated by insulin and showed that the hormone stimulated the expression of 28 genes directly involved in protein synthesis. These genes included the milk protein transcription factor, ELF5, translation factors, the folate metabolism genes, FOLR1 and MTHFR, as well as several genes encoding enzymes involved in catabolism of essential amino acids and biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids. These data show that insulin is not only essential for milk protein gene expression, but stimulates milk protein synthesis at multiple levels within bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:19107532

  5. Higher dietary anthocyanin and flavonol intakes are associated with anti-inflammatory effects in a population of US adults1

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Lin, Honghuang; Jacques, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although growing evidence from trials and population-based studies has supported a protective role for flavonoids in relation to risk of certain chronic diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several previous studies focused on individual inflammatory biomarkers, but because of the limited specificity of any individual marker, an assessment of a combination of biomarkers may be more informative. Objective: We used an inflammation score (IS) that integrated 12 individual inflammatory biomarkers for the examination of associations with intakes of different flavonoid classes. Design: The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 2375 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants. Intakes of total flavonoids and their classes (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, polymers, and flavones) were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires. Individual inflammatory biomarkers were ranked, standardized, and summed to derive an overall IS and subgroup scores of functionally related biomarkers. Results: In multivariate analyses, an inverse association between higher anthocyanin and flavonol intakes and IS was observed with a mean ± SE difference between quintile categories 5 and 1 of −1.48 ± 0.32 (P-trend ≤ 0.001) and −0.72 ± 0.33 (P-trend = 0.01), respectively. Results remained significant after additional adjustment for physical activity and vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intakes. Higher anthocyanin intake was inversely associated with all biomarker subgroups, whereas higher flavonol intake was associated only with lower cytokine and oxidative stress biomarker concentrations. In food-based analyses, higher intakes of apples and pears, red wine, and strawberries were associated with a lower IS with differences between quintiles 5 and 1 of −1.02 ± 0.43 (P = 0.006), −1.73 ± 0.39 (P < 0.001), and −0.44 ± 0.88 (P = 0.02), respectively. Although intakes of other classes were not associated with a reduction

  6. ChIP-seq reveals the global regulator AlgR mediating cyclic di-GMP synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weina; Zhao, Jingru; Kang, Huaping; Zhu, Miao; Zhou, Tianhong; Deng, Xin; Liang, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    AlgR is a key transcriptional regulator required for the expression of multiple virulence factors, including type IV pili and alginate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the regulon and molecular regulatory mechanism of AlgR have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, among 157 loci that were identified by a ChIP-seq assay, we characterized a gene, mucR, which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). A ΔalgR strain produced lesser biofilm than did the wild-type strain, which is consistent with a phenotype controlled by c-di-GMP. AlgR positively regulates mucR via direct binding to its promoter. A ΔalgRΔmucR double mutant produced lesser biofilm than did the single ΔalgR mutant, demonstrating that c-di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation. AlgR controls the levels of c-di-GMP synthesis via direct regulation of mucR. In addition, the cognate sensor of AlgR, FimS/AlgZ, also plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the AlgR regulon and reveals the involvement of c-di-GMP in the mechanism underlying AlgR regulation. PMID:26206672

  7. Acute and chronic regulation of leptin synthesis, storage, and secretion by insulin and dexamethasone in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Wang, Yanxin; Ricci, Matthew R; Sullivan, Sean; Russell, Colleen D; Fried, Susan K

    2007-03-01

    Serum leptin levels are upregulated in proportion to body fat and also increase over the short term in response to meals or insulin. To understand the mechanisms involved, we assessed leptin synthesis and secretion in samples of adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Tissue leptin content and relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, as determined by metabolic labeling, were highly correlated with each other and with BMI and fat cell size. To understand mechanisms regulating leptin synthesis in obesity, we used biosynthetic labeling to directly assess the effects of insulin and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) on leptin synthesis and secretion in human adipose tissue. Chronic treatment (1-2 days in organ culture) with insulin increased relative rates of leptin biosynthesis without affecting leptin mRNA levels. In contrast, dexamethasone increased leptin mRNA and biosynthesis in parallel. Acute treatment with insulin or dexamethasone (added during 1-h preincubation and 45-min pulse labeling) did not affect relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, but pulse-chase studies showed that addition of insulin nearly doubled the release of [35S]leptin after a 1-h chase. We conclude that the higher leptin stores in adipose tissue of obese humans are maintained by chronic effects of insulin and glucocorticoids acting at pre- and posttranslational levels and that the ability of insulin to increase the release of preformed leptin may contribute to short-term variations in circulating leptin levels. PMID:17122089

  8. BDNF-mediated regulation of ethanol consumption requires the activation of the MAP kinase pathway and protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeanblanc, Jerome; Logrip, Marian L.; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is part of a homeostatic pathway that gates ethanol self-administration [Jeanblanc et al. (2009). J Neurosci, 29, 13494–13502)]. Specifically, we showed that moderate levels (10%) of ethanol consumption increase BDNF expression within the DLS, and that direct infusion of BDNF into the DLS decreases operant self-administration of a 10% ethanol solution. BDNF binding to its receptor, TrkB, activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Thus, here, we set out to identify which of these intracellular pathway(s) plays a role in the regulation of ethanol consumption by BDNF. We found that inhibition of the MAPK, but not PLC-γ or PI3K, activity blocks the BDNF-mediated reduction of ethanol consumption. As activation of the MAPK pathway leads to the initiation of transcription and/or translation events, we tested whether the BDNF-mediated reduction of ethanol self-administration requires de novo protein synthesis. We found that the inhibitory effect of BDNF on ethanol intake is blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Together, our results show that BDNF attenuates ethanol drinking via activation of the MAPK pathway in a protein synthesis-dependent manner within the DLS. PMID:23189980

  9. Transferrin synthesis by small cell lung cancer cells acts as an autocrine regulator of cellular proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Vostrejs, M; Moran, P L; Seligman, P A

    1988-01-01

    Since transferrin is required for cellular proliferation, we investigated transferrin synthesis by a small cell lung cancer line (NCI-H510) that survives in serum-free media without added transferrin. Immunoassays for human transferrin demonstrated that these cells contained immunoreactive human transferrin. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the protein is expressed on the surface of cells, presumably bound to transferrin receptor. Media conditioned by NCI-H510 cells support proliferation of human leukemic cells that would not survive in media lacking transferrin. [35S]Methionine incorporation documented transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells as well as three other small cell lines. Transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells increased more than 10-fold when cells entered active phases of the cell cycle, and this increase was seen before large increases in transferrin-receptor expression. Further experiments examining the effects of agents that affect iron metabolism show that the addition of transferrin-iron or hemin to the media is associated with a more rapid initial rate of proliferation and lower rates of transferrin synthesis than control cells. Gallium salts, which inhibit iron uptake, inhibited proliferation of these cells. If the cells recovered from this effect, transferrin synthesis remained greatly increased compared to control. We conclude that transferrin synthesis by these malignant cells is ultimately related to an iron requirement for cellular proliferation. It appears that this synthesized transferrin acts as part of an important autocrine mechanism permitting proliferation of these cells, and perhaps permitting tumor cell growth in vivo in areas not well vascularized. Images PMID:2839550

  10. Regulation of tubulin and actin synthesis and accumulation during Blastocladiella emersonii development.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A M; Juliani, M H

    1988-06-01

    Actin and alpha and beta-tubulin have been identified in Blastocladiella emersonii by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The kinetics of synthesis of these proteins were compared by pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine and with the accumulation of their corresponding mRNAs, translated in a cell-free system. Large increases occur in the rates of actin and alpha- and beta-tubulin biosynthesis during sporulation and there is an accumulation of the corresponding mRNAs. In parallel to the increased synthesis, these cytoskeletal proteins accumulate during the late stage of sporulation. PMID:3409324

  11. A new flavonol triglycoside derived from Anoectochilus elwesii on stimulating glucose uptake in insulin-induced human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinyan; Zhao, Lin; Zhu, En

    2015-01-01

    A novel flavonol triglycoside (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, named elwesoside A, together with six known flavonols (1-3, 5-7) was isolated from Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex Hook. f.) King et Pantl. and its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with the literature data. All compounds were first reported in this plant and two of them (4 and 5) were the first examples of flavonol triglycosides isolated from Anoectochilus genus. The effects of 1-7 were evaluated on insulin-treated human HepG2 cells under high glucose conditions for stimulating glucose uptake activities. The novel compound (4) displayed highly potent dose-dependent effect on the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-resistant human HepG2 cells. PMID:25610945

  12. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-20

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HRin vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792895

  13. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-01-01

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792895

  14. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  15. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Levin, J C; Wessels, M R

    1998-10-01

    The hyaluronic acid capsule of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an important virulence factor, but little is known about mechanisms that regulate capsule expression. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis of the poorly encapsulated M-type 3 GAS strain DLS003 produced a transconjugant that exhibited a mucoid colony morphology, reflecting increased hyaluronic acid capsule production. Analysis of chromosomal DNA sequence immediately downstream of the transposon insertion identified two open reading frames, designated csrR and csrS, which exhibited sequence similarity to bacterial two-component regulatory systems. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutation within csrR, which encodes the putative response component. Replacement of the native csrR gene in the DLS003 chromosome with the mutant allele resulted in a sixfold increase in capsule production and a corresponding increase in transcription of the has operon, which contains the essential genes for hyaluronic acid synthesis. Increased capsule production by the csrR mutant strain was associated with enhanced resistance to complement-mediated opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and with a 500-fold increase in virulence in mice. These results establish CsrR as a negative regulator of hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis and suggest that it is part of a two-component regulatory system that influences capsule expression and virulence. PMID:9786197

  16. Purinergic regulation of glucose and glutamine synthesis in isolated rabbit kidney-cortex tubules.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, Adam K; Wohner, Dagmara; Lietz, Tadeusz; Jarzyna, Robert; Derlacz, Rafał A; Winiarska, Katarzyna; Bryła, Jadwiga

    2002-08-15

    The effects of extracellular purinergic agonists and their breakdown products on glucose and glutamine synthesis in rabbit kidney-cortex tubules incubated with aspartate + glycerol or alanine + glycerol + octanoate were investigated. A rapid extracellular degradation of ATP was accompanied by an accumulation of AMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. Extracellular ATP and its breakdown products accelerated glucose synthesis in renal tubules, while ammonium released from adenine-containing compounds enhanced glutamine synthesis and diminished the degree of gluconeogenesis stimulation. In contrast to AMP and inosine, ATP evoked calcium signals, while both ATP and inosine decreased intracellular cAMP content and accelerated the flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase as concluded from changes in gluconeogenic intermediates. Since (i) the activity of partially purified renal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was increased upon protein phosphatase-1 treatment and decreased following treatment of previously dephosphorylated enzyme with protein kinase A catalytic subunit and (ii) both 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-(4-chlorophenyltio)-cAMP inhibited renal glucose synthesis, it seems likely that in rabbit renal tubules ATP and inosine stimulate gluconeogenesis via cAMP decrease, which favors the appearance of a more active, dephosphorylated form of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme. PMID:12147256

  17. The Riia Gene of Bacteriophage T4. II. Regulation of Its Messenger RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Daegelen, P.; Brody, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the rII genes are first introduced into cells which had been previously infected by T4 phage deleted for these genes, the kinetics of synthesis of rIIA and rIIB RNA are rapid and identical. We show that this rapid synthesis depends on a functional motA gene for rIIB, but not for rIIA, RNA synthesis. By primer-extension mapping of T4 messenger RNA, we find three promoters close to the rIIA gene. One of them is an early promoter just before the rIIA.1 gene; it is used under all conditions tested. Another is in the coding portion of the rIIA.1 gene; it is weak, primarily because of a 19-bp spacing between the -10 and -35 elements, and its use is stimulated by T4 functions. The third is a motA-dependent (middle) promoter which has an unusual CCCGCTT box at -33. We present results which suggest that none of these promoters is likely to be the site at which the motB and motC gene products exercise their major influence on rIIA RNA synthesis. PMID:2379818

  18. Development of a Fur-dependent and tightly regulated expression system in Escherichia coli for toxic protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a continuous demanding for tightly regulated prokaryotic expression systems, which allow functional synthesis of toxic proteins in Escherichia coli for bioscience or biotechnology application. However, most of the current promoter options either are tightly repressed only with low protein production levels, or produce substantial protein but lacking of the necessary repression to avoid mutations initiated by leaky expression in the absence of inducer. The aim of this study was to develop a tightly regulated, relatively high-efficient expression vector in E. coli based on the principle of iron uptake system. Results By using GFP as reporter, PfhuA with the highest relative fluorescence units, but leaky expression, was screened from 23 iron-regulated promoter candidates. PfhuA was repressed by ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-Fe2+ complex binding to Fur box locating at the promoter sequence. Otherwise, PfhuA was activated without Fur-Fe2+ binding in the absence of iron. In order to improve the tightness of PfhuA regulation for toxic gene expression, Fur box in promoter sequence and fur expression were refined through five different approaches. Eventually, through substituting E. coli consensus Fur box for original one of PfhuA, the induction ratio of modified PfhuA (named PfhuA1) was improved from 3 to 101. Under the control of PfhuA1, strong toxic gene E was successfully expressed in high, middle, low copy-number vectors, and other two toxic proteins, Gef and MazF were functionally synthesized without E. coli death before induction. Conclusions The features of easy control, tight regulation and relatively high efficiency were combined in the newly engineered PfhuA1. Under this promoter, the toxic genes E, gef and mazF were functionally expressed in E. coli induced by iron chelator in a tightly controllable way. This study provides a tightly regulated expression system that might enable the stable cloning, and functional synthesis of toxic proteins

  19. Regulation of cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes by vasoactive hormones.

    PubMed

    Lewko, B; Gołos, M; Latawiec, E; Angielski, S; Stepinski, J

    2006-12-01

    The podocytes are highly differentiated cells playing a key role in glomerular filtration. Vasoactive factors including angiotensin II (Ang II) and cyclic guanosine 5' monophosphate (cGMP) are synthesized by these cells upon stimulation as well as in the basal state. In this study we have tested whether angiotensin II affects the total synthesis of cGMP in primary culture of rat podocytes. The cells were stimulated with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and/or a nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), in the absence or presence of Ang II. The cGMP synthesis was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). ANP or SNAP alone increased the cGMP synthesis in podocytes although the effects were not additive unless Ang II was present in the medium. Ang II suppressed the ANP-dependent cGMP synthesis whereas SNAP-dependent cGMP production remained unaffected. These effects were prevented by a non-specific antagonist of Ang II receptors (AT), saralasin. Adversely, PD123319, a specific inhibitor of AT2 receptors, augmented inhibition of ANP-dependent and enhanced the NO-dependent cGMP production. Probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP extrusion from the cells, suppressed the cGMP generation by both ANP and SNAP. We conclude that cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes is modulated by angiotensin II and that two adversely acting receptors, AT1 and AT2 are involved in this effect. Additionally, production of cGMP might be intrinsically inhibited by cGMP accumulating inside the cells. PMID:17229984

  20. Glucocorticoids regulate surfactant protein synthesis in a pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, M.A.; Gazdar, A.F.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.J.; Wert, S.E.; Hull, W.M.; Whitsett, J.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C was demonstrated in a cell line derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the lung. The cells contained numerous lamellar inclusion bodies and formed organized groups of cells containing well-developed junctional complexes and apical microvillous membranes. Synthesis of SP-A was detected in the cells by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and by immunoprecipitation of (35S)methionine-labeled protein. SP-A was identified as an Mr 31,000-36,000 polypeptide containing asparagine-linked carbohydrate. Northern blot analysis detected SP-A mRNA of 2.2 kb. Dexamethasone (1-10 nM) enhanced the relative abundance of SP-A mRNA. Despite stimulation of SP-A mRNA, intracellular SP-A content was unaltered or inhibited by dexamethasone. SP-B and SP-C mRNAs and synthesis of the SP-B and SP-C precursors were markedly induced by dexamethasone. ProSP-B was synthesized and secreted primarily as an Mr 42,000-46,000 polypeptide. Proteolysis of the proSP-B resulted in the generation of endoglycosidase F-sensitive Mr = 19,000-21,000 and 25,000-27,000 peptides, which were detected both intra- and extracellularly. SP-C proprotein of Mr = 22,000 and smaller SP-C fragments were detected intracellularly but were not detected in the media. Mature forms of SP-B (Mr = 8,000) and SP-C (Mr = 4,000) were not detected. Glucocorticoids directly enhance the relative synthesis and mRNA of the surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Discrepancies among SP-A mRNA, its de novo synthesis, and cell content suggest that glucocorticoid may alter both pre- and posttranslational factors modulating SP-A expression.

  1. Regulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis and biofilm formation by the transcriptional regulator LrhA of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Caroline; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Lehnen, Daniela; Heintz, Margit; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Nagy, Gábor; Michaelis, Kai; Emödy, Levente; Polen, Tino; Rachel, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F; Unden, Gottfried

    2005-10-01

    Type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli facilitate attachment to the host mucosa and promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The transcriptional regulator LrhA, which is known as a repressor of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes, regulates biofilm formation and expression of type 1 fimbriae. Whole-genome expression profiling revealed that inactivation of lrhA results in an increased expression of structural components of type 1 fimbriae. In vitro, LrhA bound to the promoter regions of the two fim recombinases (FimB and FimE) that catalyse the inversion of the fimA promoter, and to the invertible element itself. Translational lacZ fusions with these genes and quantification of fimE transcript levels by real-time PCR showed that LrhA influences type 1 fimbrial phase variation, primarily via activation of FimE, which is required for the ON-to-OFF transition of the fim switch. Enhanced type 1 fimbrial expression as a result of lrhA disruption was confirmed by mannose-sensitive agglutination of yeast cells. Biofilm formation was stimulated by lrhA inactivation and completely suppressed upon LrhA overproduction. The effects of LrhA on biofilm formation were exerted via the changed levels of surface molecules, most probably both flagella and type 1 fimbriae. Together, the data show a role for LrhA as a repressor of type 1 fimbrial expression, and thus as a regulator of the initial stages of biofilm development and, presumably, bacterial adherence to epithelial host cells also. PMID:16207912

  2. Route of administration determines the anxiolytic activity of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin--are they prodrugs?

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Cica; Nieber, Karen; Kelber, Olaf; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-07-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed that flavonols are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to their corresponding hydroxyphenylacetic acids. In this article, a comparison of the anxiolytic activity of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin in the elevated plus maze after oral (po) and intraperitoneal (ip) administration to mice in a dose range of 0.1 to 2.0 mg/kg is presented. In addition, their corresponding metabolites p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPAA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were tested after intraperitoneal administration. Anxiolytic activity was detected for kaempferol and quercetin only after oral administration. No anxiolytic effects were observed when kaempferol and quercetin were given via the intraperitoneal administration route. The corresponding hydroxyphenylacetic metabolites p-HPAA and DOPAC showed anxiolytic effects after intraperitoneal application. In order to further test the hypothesis that flavonoids are possible prodrugs which require activation by intestinal bacteria, gut sterilization was performed using pretreatment with the antibiotic enrofloxacin (7.5 mg/day, po, for 4 days). After antibiotic treatment, the anxiolytic effect of kaempferol and quercetin disappeared, whereas it was still present for the positive control diazepam. Our results support the hypothesis that flavonoids act as prodrugs which are transformed into their active hydroxyphenylacetic acid metabolites by intestinal microflora. PMID:21840194

  3. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  4. Flavonol content and biometrical traits as a tool for the characterization of "Cipolla di Giarratana": a traditional Sicilian onion landrace.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-10-15

    "Cipolla di Giarratana", a locally cultivated white onion landrace, is listed as an item in the 'List of Traditional Agro-food Products' of the Italian Department for Agriculture and itemised as 'slow food presidium' by the Slow Food Foundation. Ten local accessions were investigated for their biomorphological and biochemical characteristics in five experimental locations. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electron spray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS) was used to identify the phenolic profile and quantify phenolic content in bulbs: quercetin, quercetin 3,4' di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside were detected as major components. The 'Cipolla di Giarratana' landrace is characterised by a high bulb weight (436g) and high diameter (11cm). The total flavonols content ranged between 68 and 408mgkg(-1) bulb fresh weight in nine of the 10 collected accessions. The opportunity of considering flavonol patterns as chemotaxonomic descriptors in order to characterise onion germplasm is also discussed. PMID:23692770

  5. Negative Regulation of Anthocynanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by a miR156-Targeted SPL Transcription Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, J.Y.; Liu, C.; Felippes, F. F.; Weigel, D.; Wang, J.-W.

    2011-04-01

    Flavonoids are synthesized through an important metabolic pathway that leads to the production of diverse secondary metabolites, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, and proanthocyanidins. Anthocyanins and flavonols are derived from Phe and share common precursors, dihydroflavonols, which are substrates for both flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. In the stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, anthocyanins accumulate in an acropetal manner, with the highest level at the junction between rosette and stem. We show here that this accumulation pattern is under the regulation of miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes, which are deeply conserved and known to have important roles in regulating phase change and flowering. Increased miR156 activity promotes accumulation of anthocyanins, whereas reduced miR156 activity results in high levels of flavonols. We further provide evidence that at least one of the miR156 targets, SPL9, negatively regulates anthocyanin accumulation by directly preventing expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes through destabilization of a MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcriptional activation complex. Our results reveal a direct link between the transition to flowering and secondary metabolism and provide a potential target for manipulation of anthocyanin and flavonol content in plants.

  6. cAMP dependent and independent regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis by two clones of the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-07-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied using two independent clones of the OVNIS 6H cell line. Insulin, hydrocortisone and TSH were able to stimulate thyroglobulin synthesis, whereas transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine were without effect. Insulin stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis without affecting cAMP production. Hydrocortisone, when combined with insulin was a stimulator too; this stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in cAMP. TSH alone was unable to stimulate either cAMP or thyroglobulin synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TSH on thyroglobulin synthesis took place only when combined with insulin or insulin plus hydrocortisone, and was mediated by cAMP. Consequently, insulin and hydrocortisone stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis by cAMP-independent mechanisms, whereas TSH acted via the cAMP system. Forskolin mimicked TSH effects on cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis. Calf serum inhibited cAMP and thyroglobulin production. Optimal cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis as well as TSH responsiveness were obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH. PMID:3040495

  7. Base J glucosyltransferase does not regulate the sequence specificity of J synthesis in trypanosomatid telomeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Whitney; Cliffe, Laura; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng; Sabatini, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Telomeric DNA of trypanosomatids possesses a modified thymine base, called base J, that is synthesized in a two-step process; the base is hydroxylated by a thymidine hydroxylase forming hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) and a glucose moiety is then attached by the J-associated glucosyltransferase (JGT). To examine the importance of JGT in modifiying specific thymine in DNA, we used a Leishmania episome system to demonstrate that the telomeric repeat (GGGTTA) stimulates J synthesis in vivo while mutant telomeric sequences (GGGTTT, GGGATT, and GGGAAA) do not. Utilizing an in vitro GT assay we find that JGT can glycosylate hmU within any sequence with no significant change in Km or kcat, even mutant telomeric sequences that are unable to be J-modified in vivo. The data suggests that JGT possesses no DNA sequence specificity in vitro, lending support to the hypothesis that the specificity of base J synthesis is not at the level of the JGT reaction. PMID:26815240

  8. Mechanisms regulating the marked seasonal variation in melatonin synthesis in the European hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Garidou, Marie-Laure; Vivien-Roels, Berthe; Pevet, Paul; Miguez, Jesus; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2003-04-01

    Like many wild species, the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) adapts to the marked seasonal changes in its environment, namely by hibernation and inhibition of sexual activity in winter. These annual functions are driven by the variation in the environmental factors (light, temperature) that are transmitted to the body through large variations in the duration and amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin rhythm. Here we report that the seasonal variation in melatonin synthesis is mainly driven by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcription and enzyme activation. This, however, does not exclude participation of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, which may relay environmental temperature information. The in vivo experiments show that norepinephrine stimulates melatonin synthesis, this effect being gated at night. The possibility that the variation in pineal metabolism depends on a seasonal change in the suprachiasmatic nuclei clock circadian activity that is transmitted by norepinephrine is discussed. PMID:12626365

  9. [Synthesis of phenylpropanes during pollen development].

    PubMed

    Wiermann, R

    1970-06-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of several phenylpropanes in the anther content (pollen+tapetum fraction) during microsporogenesis has been investigated by chromatographic techniques in Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Lilium candidum, and in the Darwin tulip "Apeldoorn".In these species, the pigmentation process is initiated by the synthesis of several cinnamic acid derivates (mainly derivates of ferulic acid) during meiosis II. In Narcissus, and intense synthesis of kaempferol glycosides takes place during the separation of the tetrad which follows immediately upon its formation. In Tulipa and Lilium, however, chalcones are synthesized in an intermediate phase before flavonols and anthocyanins (in Tulipa) are produced in significant amounts.In Tulipa, the investigations revealed the following sequence in the pigmentation process: cinnamic acid derivatives-chalcone-flavonols-anthocyanins. The sequence is discussed in relation to flavonoid biosynthesis. Because of biogenetic considerations a special emphasis is laid on the "chalcone stage". Chromatographic and spectroscopic data show that the isomerization product of the chalcone is eriodictyol. Accordingly, this chalcone must be 2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone. Other chalcones could not be identified.During anthesis the following aglycones are accumulated in the pollen of Tulipa cv. "Apeldoorn": ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, delphinidin, and small traces of the pentahydroxy-chalcone, which is the main pigment in the intermediate stages of microsporogenesis.On the basis of histochemical findings, it is suggested that at least the final steps of synthesis leading to flavonol and anthocyanidin glycosides take place on the pollen wall in the loculus of the anthers, that is, in the extracellular space. PMID:24497063

  10. The light stress-induced protein ELIP2 is a regulator of chlorophyll synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkova-Chevolleau, Tzvetelina; Franck, Fabrice; Alawady, Ali E; Dall'Osto, Luca; Carrière, Frédéric; Bassi, Roberto; Grimm, Bernhard; Nussaume, Laurent; Havaux, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The early light-induced proteins (ELIPs) belong to the multigenic family of pigment-binding light-harvesting complexes. ELIPs accumulate transiently and are believed to play a protective role in plants exposed to high levels of light. Constitutive expression of the ELIP2 gene in Arabidopsis resulted in a marked reduction of the pigment content of the chloroplasts, both in mature leaves and during greening of etiolated seedlings. The chlorophyll loss was associated with a decrease in the number of photosystems in the thylakoid membranes, but the photosystems present were fully assembled and functional. A detailed analysis of the chlorophyll-synthesizing pathway indicated that ELIP2 accumulation downregulated the level and activity of two important regulatory steps: 5-aminolevulinate synthesis and Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) chelatase activity. The contents of glutamyl tRNA reductase and Mg chelatase subunits CHLH and CHLI were lowered in response to ELIP2 accumulation. In contrast, ferrochelatase activity was not affected and the inhibition of Heme synthesis was null or very moderate. As a result of reduced metabolic flow from 5-aminolevulinic acid, the steady state levels of various chlorophyll precursors (from protoporphyrin IX to protochlorophyllide) were strongly reduced in the ELIP2 overexpressors. Taken together, our results indicate that the physiological function of ELIPs could be related to the regulation of chlorophyll concentration in thylakoids. This seems to occur through an inhibition of the entire chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway from the initial precursor of tetrapyrroles, 5-aminolevulinic acid. We suggest that ELIPs work as chlorophyll sensors that modulate chlorophyll synthesis to prevent accumulation of free chlorophyll, and hence prevent photooxidative stress. PMID:17553115

  11. Synthesis and succinylation of subtilin-like lantibiotics are strongly influenced by glucose and transition state regulator AbrB.

    PubMed

    Bochmann, Sophie M; Spieß, Tobias; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Subtilin and the closely related entianin are class I lantibiotics produced by different subspecies of Bacillus subtilis. Both molecules are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics with unusual ring structures. Subtilin-like lantibiotics develop strong antibiotic activities against various Gram-positive organisms with an efficiency similar to that of nisin from Lactococcus lactis. In contrast to nisin, subtilin-like lantibiotics partially undergo an additional posttranslational modification, where the N-terminal tryptophan residue becomes succinylated, resulting in drastically reduced antibiotic activities. A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based quantification method enabled us to determine entianin and succinylated entianin (S-entianin) concentrations in the supernatant during growth. We show that entianin synthesis and the degree of succinylation drastically change with culture conditions. In particular, increasing glucose concentrations resulted in higher entianin amounts and lower proportions of S-entianin in Landy-based media. In contrast, no succinylation was observed in medium A with 10% glucose. Interestingly, glucose retarded the expression of entianin biosynthesis genes. Furthermore, deletion of the transition state regulator AbrB resulted in a 6-fold increased entianin production in medium A with 10% glucose. This shows that entianin biosynthesis in B. subtilis is strongly influenced by glucose, in addition to its regulation by the transition state regulator AbrB. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying the succinylation of subtilin-like lantibiotics is enzymatically catalyzed and occurs in the extracellular space or at the cellular membrane. PMID:25381239

  12. Synthesis and Succinylation of Subtilin-Like Lantibiotics Are Strongly Influenced by Glucose and Transition State Regulator AbrB

    PubMed Central

    Bochmann, Sophie M.; Spieß, Tobias; Kötter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Subtilin and the closely related entianin are class I lantibiotics produced by different subspecies of Bacillus subtilis. Both molecules are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics with unusual ring structures. Subtilin-like lantibiotics develop strong antibiotic activities against various Gram-positive organisms with an efficiency similar to that of nisin from Lactococcus lactis. In contrast to nisin, subtilin-like lantibiotics partially undergo an additional posttranslational modification, where the N-terminal tryptophan residue becomes succinylated, resulting in drastically reduced antibiotic activities. A highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based quantification method enabled us to determine entianin and succinylated entianin (S-entianin) concentrations in the supernatant during growth. We show that entianin synthesis and the degree of succinylation drastically change with culture conditions. In particular, increasing glucose concentrations resulted in higher entianin amounts and lower proportions of S-entianin in Landy-based media. In contrast, no succinylation was observed in medium A with 10% glucose. Interestingly, glucose retarded the expression of entianin biosynthesis genes. Furthermore, deletion of the transition state regulator AbrB resulted in a 6-fold increased entianin production in medium A with 10% glucose. This shows that entianin biosynthesis in B. subtilis is strongly influenced by glucose, in addition to its regulation by the transition state regulator AbrB. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying the succinylation of subtilin-like lantibiotics is enzymatically catalyzed and occurs in the extracellular space or at the cellular membrane. PMID:25381239

  13. The regulation of glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lily; Jiang, Li; Ding, Xiang-dong; Liu, Jian-feng; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-11

    Glucose as one of the nutrition factors plays a vital role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a vital proteolytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells through timely marking, recognizing and degrading the poly-ubiquitinated protein substrates. Previous studies indicated that UPS plays a considerable role in controlling the triglyceride (TG) synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to confirm the link between high-glucose and UPS and its regulation mechanism on milk fat synthesis in BMEC (bovine mammary epithelial cells). We incubated BMEC with normal (17.5 mm/L) and high-glucose (25 mm/L) with and without proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin and found that, compared with the control (normal glucose and without proteasome inhibitor), both high-glucose concentration and proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin could increase the accumulation of TG and poly-ubiquitinated proteins, and reduce significantly three proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like). In addition, high-glucose concentration combined with proteasome inhibitor further enhanced the increase of the poly-ubiquitinated protein level and the decrease of proteasome activities. Our results suggest that the regulation of high-glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by UPS in BMEC, and high-glucose exposure could lead to a hypersensitization of BMEC to UPS inhibition which in turn results in increased milk fat synthesis. PMID:26231798

  14. Functional effects of a pathogenic mutation in Cereblon (CRBN) on the regulation of protein synthesis via the AMPK-mTOR cascade.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Min; Yang, Seung-Joo; Choi, Ja-Hyun; Park, Chul-Seung

    2014-08-22

    Initially identified as a protein implicated in human mental deficit, cereblon (CRBN) was recently recognized as a negative regulator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. Here, we present results showing that CRBN can effectively regulate new protein synthesis through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, a downstream target of AMPK. Whereas deficiency of Crbn repressed protein translation via activation of the AMPK-mTOR cascade in Crbn-knock-out mice, ectopic expression of the wild-type CRBN increased protein synthesis by inhibiting endogenous AMPK. Unlike the wild-type CRBN, a mutant CRBN found in human patients, which lacks the last 24 amino acids, failed to rescue mTOR-dependent repression of protein synthesis in Crbn-deficient mouse fibroblasts. These results provide the first evidence that Crbn can activate the protein synthesis machinery through the mTOR signaling pathway by inhibiting AMPK. In light of the fact that protein synthesis regulated by mTOR is essential for various forms of synaptic plasticity that underlie the cognitive functions of the brain, the results of this study suggest a plausible mechanism for CRBN involvement in higher brain function in humans, and they may help explain how a specific mutation in CRBN can affect the cognitive ability of patients. PMID:24993823

  15. Dhurrin Synthesis in Sorghum Is Regulated at the Transcriptional Level and Induced by Nitrogen Fertilization in Older Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2002-01-01

    The content of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varies depending on plant age and growth conditions. The cyanide potential is highest shortly after onset of germination. At this stage, nitrogen application has no effect on dhurrin content, whereas in older plants, nitrogen application induces an increase. At all stages, the content of dhurrin correlates well with the activity of the two biosynthetic enzymes, CYP79A1 and CYP71E1, and with the protein and mRNA level for the two enzymes. During development, the activity of CYP79A1 is lower than the activity of CYP71E1, suggesting that CYP79A1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dhurrin synthesis as has previously been shown using etiolated seedlings. The site of dhurrin synthesis shifts from leaves to stem during plant development. In combination, the results demonstrate that dhurrin content in sorghum is largely determined by transcriptional regulation of the biosynthetic enzymes CYP79A1 and CYP71E1. PMID:12114576

  16. The synthesis, regulation, and functions of sterols in Candida albicans: Well-known but still lots to learn.

    PubMed

    Lv, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2016-08-17

    Sterols are the basal components of the membranes of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these membranes determine the susceptibility of C. albicans cells to a variety of stresses, such as ionic, osmotic and oxidative pressures, and treatment with antifungal drugs. The common antifungal azoles in clinical use are targeted to the biosynthesis of ergosterol. In the past years, the synthesis, storage and metabolism of ergosterol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been characterized in some detail; however, these processes has not been as well investigated in the human opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. In this review, we summarize the genes involved in ergosterol synthesis and regulation in C. albicans. As well, genes in S. cerevisiae implicated in ergosterol storage and conversions with other lipids are noted, as these provide us clues and directions for the study of the homologous genes in C. albicans. In this report we have particularly focused on the essential roles of ergosterol in the dynamic process of cell biology and its fundamental status in the biological membrane system that includes lipid rafts, lipid droplets, vacuoles and mitochondria. We believe that a thorough understanding of this classic and essential pathway will give us new ideas about drug resistance and morphological switching in C. albicans. PMID:27221657

  17. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn analysis of anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in red mustard green (Brassica juncea (L) Coss variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the polyphenols in red mustard greens and identified 209 phenolic compounds: 67 anthocyanin, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned ...

  18. Determination of Ginkgolides and Flavonols in Ginkgo Biloba Products and NIST Ginkgo Reference Standard by LC/UV/MS (Experimental Biology, April, 2007, Washington, D.C.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba has purported value for improving mental capacities in Alzheimer’s patients. The flavonols and the terpene lactones are considered to be the two main active components that influence human health. Almost all the clinical studies regarding Ginkgo biloba used either...

  19. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  20. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives. PMID:25765921

  1. Bubble-Regulated Silicon Nanowire Synthesis on Micro-Structured Surfaces by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-10

    In this work, we study silicon nanowire synthesis via one-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) on microstructured silicon surfaces with periodic pillar/cavity array. It is found that hydrogen gas produced from the initial anodic reaction can be trapped inside cavities and between pillars, which serves as a mask to prevent local etching, and leads to the formation of patterned vertically aligned nanowire array. A simple model is presented to demonstrate that such bubble entrapment is due to the significant adhesion energy barrier, which is a function of pillar/cavity geometry, contact angle, and nanowire length to be etched. The bubble entrapment can be efficiently removed when extra energy is introduced by sonication to overcome this energy barrier, resulting in nanowire growth in all exposed surfaces. This bubble-regulated MACE process on microstructured surfaces can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with desired morphologies. PMID:26411775

  2. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report, August 1995--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1997-06-17

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focused on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The research focused on the isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  3. Myelin basic protein synthesis is regulated by small non-coding RNA 715.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nina M; Moos, Christina; van Horssen, Jack; Witte, Maarten; van der Valk, Paul; Altenhein, Benjamin; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2012-09-01

    Oligodendroglial Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) synthesis is essential for myelin formation in the central nervous system. During oligodendrocyte differentiation, MBP mRNA is kept in a translationally silenced state while intracellularly transported, until neuron-derived signals initiate localized MBP translation. Here we identify the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as an inhibitor of MBP translation. SncRNA715 localizes to cytoplasmic granular structures and associates with MBP mRNA transport granule components. We also detect increased levels of sncRNA715 in demyelinated chronic human multiple sclerosis lesions, which contain MBP mRNA but lack MBP protein. PMID:22744314

  4. Myelin Basic Protein synthesis is regulated by small non-coding RNA 715

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nina M; Moos, Christina; van Horssen, Jack; Witte, Maarten; van der Valk, Paul; Altenhein, Benjamin; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendroglial Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) synthesis is essential for myelin formation in the central nervous system. During oligodendrocyte differentiation, MBP mRNA is kept in a translationally silenced state while intracellularly transported, until neuron-derived signals initiate localized MBP translation. Here we identify the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as an inhibitor of MBP translation. SncRNA715 localizes to cytoplasmic granular structures and associates with MBP mRNA transport granule components. We also detect increased levels of sncRNA715 in demyelinated chronic human multiple sclerosis lesions, which contain MBP mRNA but lack MBP protein. PMID:22744314

  5. Phospholipase C inhibitors and prostaglandins differentially regulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat renal papilla. Evidence of compartmental regulation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tomé, María del Carmen; Speziale, Emir H S; Sterin-Speziale, Norma B

    2002-07-11

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in mammalian cell membranes. Several lines of evidence support that PC homeostasis is preserved by the equilibrium between PC biosynthetic enzymes and phospholipases catabolic activities. We have previously shown that papillary synthesis of PC depends on prostaglandins (PGs) that modulate biosynthetic enzymes. In papillary tissue, under bradikynin stimulus, arachidonic acid (AA) mobilization (the substrate for PG synthesis) requires a previous phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Thus, in the present work, we study the possible involvement of PLC in PC biosynthesis and its relationship with PG biosynthetic pathway on the maintenance of phospholipid renewal in papillary membranes; we also evaluated the relevance of CDP-choline pathway enzymes compartmentalization. To this end, neomycin, U-73122 and dibutiryl cyclic AMP, reported as PLC inhibitors, were used to study PC synthesis in rat renal papilla. All the PLC inhibitors assayed impaired PC synthesis. PG synthesis was also blocked by PLC inhibitors without affecting cyclooxygenase activity, indicating a metabolic connection between both pathways. However, we found that PC biosynthesis decrease in the presence of PLC inhibitors was not a consequence of PG decreased synthesis, suggesting that basal PLC activity and PGs exert their effect on different targets of PC biosynthetic pathway. The study of PC biosynthetic enzymes showed that PLC inhibitors affect CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) activity while PGD(2) operates on CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (CPT), both activities associated to papillary enriched-nuclei fraction. The present results suggest that renal papillary PC synthesis is a highly regulated process under basal conditions. Such regulation might occur at least at two different levels of the CDP-choline pathway: on the one hand, PLC operates on CCT activity; on the other, while PGs regulate CPT activity. PMID

  6. Regulation of Mammalian Autophagy by Class II and III PI 3-Kinases through PI3P Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, Kelly; Ogasawara, Yuta; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; De Camilli, Pietro; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) by Vps34, a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is critical for the initial steps of autophagosome (AP) biogenesis. Although Vps34 is the sole source of PI3P in budding yeast, mammalian cells can produce PI3P through alternate pathways, including direct synthesis by the class II PI3Ks; however, the physiological relevance of these alternate pathways in the context of autophagy is unknown. Here we generated Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and using a higher affinity 4x-FYVE finger PI3P-binding probe found a Vps34-independent pool of PI3P accounting for ~35% of the total amount of this lipid species by biochemical analysis. Importantly, WIPI-1, an autophagy-relevant PI3P probe, still formed some puncta upon starvation-induced autophagy in Vps34 knockout MEFs. Additional characterization of autophagy by electron microscopy as well as protein degradation assays showed that while Vps34 is important for starvation-induced autophagy there is a significant component of functional autophagy occurring in the absence of Vps34. Given these findings, class II PI3Ks (α and β isoforms) were examined as potential positive regulators of autophagy. Depletion of class II PI3Ks reduced recruitment of WIPI-1 and LC3 to AP nucleation sites and caused an accumulation of the autophagy substrate, p62, which was exacerbated upon the concomitant ablation of Vps34. Our studies indicate that while Vps34 is the main PI3P source during autophagy, class II PI3Ks also significantly contribute to PI3P generation and regulate AP biogenesis. PMID:24098492

  7. Regulation of protein synthesis during photomorphogenesis of gametophytes of the fern Onoclea sensibilis

    SciTech Connect

    Chansa-Ngavej, K.; Raghavan, V. )

    1989-08-01

    Gametophytes of the fern Onoclea sensibilis grow as filaments in the dark and in red light and become planar in blue light. Pulse-labeling 4-day-old gametophytes with ({sup 35}S)methionine at different times after transfer to dark, red, and blue light environments revealed higher rates of amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in blue light than in red light or in the dark. Characterization of the extant and newly synthesized soluble proteins by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the patterns of protein accumulation and synthesis in gametophytes exposed to short periods of red or blue light were qualitatively indistinguishable from those of gametophytes maintained in the dark. However, some striking increases and decreases in the levels of certain polypeptides were noted and these changes were accentuated during continued growth of gametophytes in the different environments. The results show that photomorphogenesis of gametophytes of O. sensibilis is associated with quantitative rather than qualitative changes in the population of mRNAs available for translation.

  8. Regulation of Lipid Synthesis in Soybeans by Two Benzoic Acid Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Muslih, Raad K.; Linscott, Dean L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of 3-nitro-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (dinoben) and 3-amino-2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid (chloramben) on lipid formation and on the incorporation of various substrates into lipids by intact seeds and subcellular fractions of germinating soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. `Amsoy') were studied. Dinoben (20 μg/ml) inhibited synthesis of total lipids 67%, neutral lipids 73%, glycolipids 51%, and phospholipids 39% in germinating seeds. When polar lipids were analyzed further, inhibition of individual lipid classes was also observed. Chloramben (20 μg/ml) stimulated total lipid synthesis 25%. With the exception of the mitochondrial fraction where malonate thiokinase was absent, dinoben inhibited up to 99% the incorporation of acetate and malonate into lipids, but did not inhibit acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA incorporation. Chloramben stimulated the incorporation of all substrates tested into lipids by all fractions except the mitochondrial fraction when malonate was the substrate. When dinoben and chloramben were used in combinations, chloramben did not reverse the inhibitory effect of dinoben. It is concluded that the dinoben inhibitory effect is specific and is associated with the acetate and malonate thiokinase systems. The chloramben effect is stimulatory to either acetyl-CoA carboxylase or fatty acid synthetase or both. PMID:16660173

  9. Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Daniel F.; Majumdar, Sachin K.; Kumashiro, Naoki; Petersen, Max C.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Gattu, Arijeet K.; Bears, Mitchell; Camporez, João-Paulo G.; Cline, Gary W.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain this have focused on finding a branch point in insulin signaling where hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism diverge, we hypothesized that hepatic triglyceride synthesis could be driven by substrate, independent of changes in hepatic insulin signaling. We tested this hypothesis in rats by infusing [U-13C] palmitate to measure rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride while varying plasma fatty acid and insulin concentrations independently. These experiments were performed in normal rats, high fat-fed insulin-resistant rats, and insulin receptor 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats. Rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride were found to be dependent on plasma fatty acid infusion rates, independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations and independent of hepatocellular insulin signaling. Taken together, these results obviate a paradox of selective insulin resistance, because the major source of hepatic lipid synthesis, esterification of preformed fatty acids, is primarily dependent on substrate delivery and largely independent of hepatic insulin action. PMID:25564660

  10. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis. PMID:19702622

  11. [Full-length cDNA cloning of flavonol synthase genes of Carthamus tinctorius and construction plant expression vector].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-ting; Liu, Xiu-ming; Wan, Qiu; Yao, Na; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Xue-meng; Jiao, Zhong-da; Li, Hai-yan; Li, Xiao-kun

    2015-02-01

    Flavonol synthase (FLS) is one of the key enzymes in flavonoids metabolic pathways. In this study, middle sequence was obtained from Carthamus tinctorius transcriptome sequencing results. Full-length cDNAs of FLS was cloned from petals of C. tinctorius to FLS by using RT-PCR and RACE technology. Its full-length cDNA was 1,201 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp and 336 encoded amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that, FLS gene encoded amino acids in C. tinctorius were highly homologous with amino acids in congeneric Compositae species, especially Rudbeckia laciniata. The pBASTA-FLS plant expression vector was successfully built by the molecular biology method, which lays a foundation for further studying biology functions of the gene and biosynthesis mechanism of flavonoids. PMID:26137682

  12. Synthesis of a new conjugated polymer for DNA alkylation and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chenyao; Zhu, Chunlei; Feng, Liheng; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2013-06-12

    A new polyfluorene derivative containing pendent alkylating chlorambucil (PFP-Cbl) was synthesized and characterized. Under direct incubation with DNA in vitro, PFP-Cbl could undergo an efficient DNA alkylating reaction and induce DNA cross-linking. In vitro transcription and translation experiment exhibited that the PFP-Cbl significantly down-regulated the gene expression of luciferase reporter plasmid. The down-regulation of gene expression was also verified through the transfection experiment of p-EGFP plasmid, which showed decreased green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells. Meanwhile, the self-luminous property of PFP-Cbl could make it able to trace the internalized PFP-Cbl and plasmid complexes resulted from cross-linking in cells by fluorescent microscopy. Combining the features of alkylating function, multivalent binding sites, and fluorescent characteristics, PFP-Cbl provides a new insight in the area of gene regulation and extends the new applications of conjugated polymers (CPs). PMID:23548104

  13. Regulation of ceramide generation during macrophage apoptosis by ASMase and de novo synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih Wei; Hojabrpour, Payman; Zhang, Peng; Kolesnick, Richard N; Steinbrecher, Urs P; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Duronio, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    The survival of macrophages depends on the presence of specific cytokines that activate survival signaling events, as well as suppressing formation of apoptosis-inducing pathways. We have previously shown that macrophages deprived of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) produce ceramide that contributes to apoptosis of these cells, a pathway that is suppressed by exposure to oxidized LDL. In this study we have examined macrophages derived from mice lacking acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) to ask whether these events are altered due to the impaired ability of these cells to break down sphingomyelin and produce ceramide. We found that these cells do survive better than cells from wild type mice, but they still undergo cell death and some ceramide is formed. We show that the ceramide is being produced by a de novo synthetic pathway. Therefore, ceramide production in M-CSF-deprived macrophages arises from a combination of ASMase activity and de novo synthesis. PMID:26253821

  14. Trivalent nickel. The quinone oximate family: synthesis and redox regulation of isomerism and ligand redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.; Chakravorty, A.

    1988-09-21

    The synthesis of the tris chelates Ni/sup III/(RQ)/sub 3/ by electrooxidation of Ni/sup II/(RQ)/sub 3/- (HRQ = quinone monoximes) is reported. These complexes have afforded a unique opportunity for voltammetric and spectroscopic examination of geometric isomerism and isomer preferences of the two oxidation states of nickel in a N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ environment. A redox-driven ligand redistribution reaction that furnishes Ni(RQ)/sub 3/ following electrooxidation of Ni/sup II/(RQ)/sub 3/(N,N) to Ni/sup III/(RQ)/sub 2/(N,N)/sup +/, where N,N represents amine coordination is reported. The effects of geometric structure, substituents, and ligands on the Ni(III)-Ni(II) reduction potential in Ni(RQ)/sub 3/ and Ni(RQ)/sub 2/(N,N)/sup +/ are noted. 29 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  16. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  17. Integrin adhesion and force coupling are independently regulated by localized PtdIns(4,5)2 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Legate, Kyle R; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Bonakdar, Navid; Fabry, Ben; Boettiger, David; Zent, Roy; Fässler, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The 90-kDa isoform of the lipid kinase PIP kinase Type I γ (PIPKIγ) localizes to focal adhesions (FAs), where it provides a local source of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Although PtdIns(4,5)P2 regulates the function of several FA-associated molecules, the role of the FA-specific pool of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is not known. We report that the genetic ablation of PIPKIγ specifically from FAs results in defective integrin-mediated adhesion and force coupling. Adhesion defects in cells deficient in FA-PtdIns(4,5)P2 synthesis are corrected within minutes while integrin–actin force coupling remains defective over a longer period. Talin and vinculin, but not kindlin, are less efficiently recruited to new adhesions in these cells. These data demonstrate that the specific depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 from FAs temporally separates integrin–ligand binding from integrin–actin force coupling by regulating talin and vinculin recruitment. Furthermore, it suggests that force coupling relies heavily on locally generated PtdIns(4,5)P2 rather than bulk membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2. PMID:21926969

  18. Signal transduction and regulation of melatonin synthesis in bovine pinealocytes: impact of adrenergic, peptidergic and cholinergic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Christof; Laedtke, Elke; Olcese, James; Weller, Joan L; Klein, David C; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2002-09-01

    Limited studies of the regulation of pineal melatonin biosynthesis in ungulates indicate that it differs considerably from that in rodents. Here we have investigated several signal transduction cascades and their impact on melatonin synthesis in bovine pinealocytes. Norepinephrine increased the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) via alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. Activation of beta-adrenergic receptors enhanced cAMP accumulation and rapidly elevated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity and melatonin secretion. The beta-adrenergically evoked increases in AANAT activity were potentiated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation, but this was not seen with cAMP or melatonin production. PACAP treatment caused small increases in cAMP, AANAT activity and melatonin biosynthesis, apparently in a subpopulation of cells. VIP and glutamate did not influence any of these parameters. Activation of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increased [Ca2+]i, but did not alter cAMP levels, AANAT activity or melatonin production. Our study reveals that discrete differences in pineal signal transduction exist between the cow and rodent, and emphasizes the potential importance that the analysis of ungulate pinealocytes may play in understanding regulation of pineal melatonin biosynthesis in primates and man, whose melatonin-generating system appears to be more similar to that in ungulates than to that in rodents. PMID:12195298

  19. The kinase c-Src and the phosphatase TC45 coordinately regulate c-Fos tyrosine phosphorylation and c-Fos phospholipid synthesis activation capacity.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, G O; Velazquez, F N; Caputto, B L

    2012-07-12

    Our previous work showed that in T98G cells, a human glioblastoma multiforme-derived cell line, the association of c-Fos to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consequently, the capacity of c-Fos to activate phospholipid synthesis, is regulated by the phosphorylation state of tyrosine (tyr) residues #10 and #30 of c-Fos. The small amount of c-Fos present in quiescent cells is tyr-phosphorylated, is dissociated from the ER membranes and does not activate phospholipid synthesis. However, on induction of the cell to re-enter growth, c-Fos expression is rapidly induced, it is found dephosphorylated, associated to ER membranes and activating phospholipid synthesis (Portal et al., 2007). Herein, using in vivo and in vitro experimental strategies, we show that the kinase c-Src is capable of phosphorylating tyr residues of c-Fos whereas the phosphatase TC45 T-cell protein-tyr phosphatase (TC-PTP) dephosphorylates them, thus enabling c-Fos/ER association and activation of phospholipid synthesis. Results also suggest that the regulation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle of c-Fos occurs at the TC-PTP level: induction of cells to re-enter growth promotes the translocation of TC45 from a nuclear to a cytoplasmic location concomitant with its activation. Activated TC45 in its turn promotes dephosphorylation of pre-formed c-Fos, enabling cells to rapidly activate phospholipid synthesis to respond to its growth demands. PMID:22105363

  20. Synthesis and regulation of chlorogenic acid in potato: Rerouting phenylpropanoid flux in HQT silenced lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the major phenolic sink in potato tubers and can constitute over 90% of total phenylpropanoids. The regulation of CGA biosynthesis in potato and the role of the CGA biosynthetic gene hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) was characterized. A sucros...

  1. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Final progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    This research focused on unusual post-translational modifications occuring in a arginine decarboxylase cDNA clone in oats. A novel regulatory mechanism for polyamines was explored and an attempt was made to characterize it. A plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA was identified in Arabidopsis. Further work remains on the mechanisms of polyamine regulation and function in plants.

  2. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear. Results We first investigated the effects of loss of SREBP function in non-transformed cells. Combined ablation of SREBP1 and SREBP2 by siRNA-mediated gene silencing or chemical inhibition of SREBP activation induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and engaged the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, specifically under lipoprotein-deplete conditions in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Induction of ER-stress led to inhibition of protein synthesis through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. This demonstrates for the first time the importance of SREBP in the coordination of lipid and protein biosynthesis, two processes that are essential for cell growth and proliferation. SREBP ablation caused major changes in lipid composition characterized by a loss of mono- and poly-unsaturated lipids and induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Alterations in lipid composition and increased ROS levels, rather than overall changes to lipid synthesis rate, were required for ER-stress induction. Next, we analyzed the effect of SREBP ablation in a panel of cancer cell lines. Importantly, induction of apoptosis following SREBP depletion was restricted to lipoprotein-deplete conditions. U87 glioblastoma cells were highly susceptible to silencing of either SREBP isoform, and apoptosis induced by SREBP1 depletion in these cells was rescued by antioxidants or by restoring the levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, silencing of SREBP1

  3. Sucrose Synthesis in the Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Is Controlled by the Two-Component Response Regulator OrrA

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shogo; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 accumulates sucrose as a compatible solute against salt stress. Sucrose-phosphate synthase activity, which is responsible for the sucrose synthesis, is increased by salt stress, but the mechanism underlying the regulation of sucrose synthesis remains unknown. In the present study, a response regulator, OrrA, was shown to control sucrose synthesis. Expression of spsA, which encodes a sucrose-phosphate synthase, and susA and susB, which encode sucrose synthases, was induced by salt stress. In the orrA disruptant, salt induction of these genes was completely abolished. The cellular sucrose level of the orrA disruptant was reduced to 40% of that in the wild type under salt stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression of orrA resulted in enhanced expression of spsA, susA, and susB, followed by accumulation of sucrose, without the addition of NaCl. We also found that SigB2, a group 2 sigma factor of RNA polymerase, regulated the early response to salt stress under the control of OrrA. It is concluded that OrrA controls sucrose synthesis in collaboration with SigB2. PMID:25002430

  4. Growth-regulated synthesis and secretion of biologically active nerve growth factor by human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, E; Marchisio, P C; Bondanza, S; Franzi, A T; Cancedda, R; De Luca, M

    1991-11-15

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) transcripts were identified in normal human keratinocytes in primary and secondary culture. The expression of the NGF mRNA was strongly down-regulated by corticosteroids and was maximal when keratinocytes were in the exponential phase of growth. Immunofluorescence studies on growing keratinocytes colonies and on elutriated keratinocytes obtained from growing colonies and mature stratified epithelium showed specific staining of the Golgi apparatus only in basal keratinocytes in the exponential phase of growth. The keratinocyte-derived NGF was secreted in a biologically active form as assessed by neurite induction in sensory neurons obtained from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia. Based on these data we suggest that the basal keratinocyte is the cell synthesizing and secreting NGF in the human adult epidermis. The paracrine secretion of NGF by keratinocytes might have a major role in regulating innervation, lymphocyte function, and melanocyte growth and differentiation in epidermal morphogenesis as well as during wound healing. PMID:1718982

  5. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Annual progress report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    After isolation of a cDNA clone for the plant ARGdc, this research focused on unusual post-translational modifications occuring in a arginine decarboxylase cDNA clone in oats. A novel regulatory mechanism for polyamines was explored and an attempt was made to characterize it. A plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA was identified in Arabidopsis. Further work remains on the mechanisms of polyamine regulation and function in plants.

  6. Genetic regulation of catecholamine synthesis, storage and secretion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Jirout, M.L.; Friese, R.S.; Mahapatra, N.R.; Mahata, M.; Taupenot, L.; Mahata, S.K.; Křen, V.; Zídek, V.; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Ziegler, M.G.; Pravenec, M.; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T.J.; Schork, N.J.; O'Connor, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding catecholamine metabolism is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of hereditary hypertension. Here we integrated transcriptional and biochemical profiling with physiologic quantitative trait locus (eQTL and pQTL) mapping in adrenal glands of the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains, derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and normotensive Brown Norway (BN.Lx). We found simultaneous down-regulation of five heritable transcripts in the catecholaminergic pathway in young (6 weeks) SHRs. We identified cis-acting eQTLs for Dbh, Pnmt (catecholamine biosynthesis) and Vamp1 (catecholamine secretion); enzymatic activities of Dbh and Pnmt paralleled transcripts, with pQTLs for activities mirroring eQTLs. We also detected trans-regulated expression of Vmat1 and Chga (both involved in catecholamine storage), with co-localization of these trans-eQTLs to the Pnmt locus. Pnmt re-sequencing revealed promoter polymorphisms that result in decreased response of the transfected SHR promoter to glucocorticoid, compared with BN.Lx. Of physiological pertinence, Dbh activity negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in RI strains, whereas Pnmt activity was negatively correlated with heart rate. The finding of such cis- and trans-QTLs at an age before the onset of frank hypertension suggests that these heritable changes in biosynthetic enzyme expression represent primary genetic mechanisms for regulation of catecholamine action and blood pressure control in this widely studied model of hypertension. PMID:20378607

  7. In Pichia pastoris, growth rate regulates protein synthesis and secretion, mating and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-01-01

    Protein production in yeasts is related to the specific growth rate μ. To elucidate on this correlation, we studied the transcriptome of Pichia pastoris at different specific growth rates by cultivating a strain secreting human serum albumin at μ = 0.015 to 0.15 h–1 in glucose-limited chemostats. Genome-wide regulation revealed that translation-related as well as mitochondrial genes were upregulated with increasing μ, while autophagy and other proteolytic processes, carbon source-responsive genes and other targets of the TOR pathway as well as many transcriptional regulators were downregulated at higher μ. Mating and sporulation genes were most active at intermediate μ of 0.05 and 0.075 h–1. At very slow growth (μ = 0.015 h–1) gene regulation differs significantly, affecting many transporters and glucose sensing. Analysis of a subset of genes related to protein folding and secretion reveals that unfolded protein response targets such as translocation, endoplasmic reticulum genes, and cytosolic chaperones are upregulated with increasing growth rate while proteolytic degradation of secretory proteins is downregulated. We conclude that a high μ positively affects specific protein secretion rates by acting on multiple cellular processes. PMID:24323948

  8. Genetic regulation of catecholamine synthesis, storage and secretion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Jirout, M L; Friese, R S; Mahapatra, N R; Mahata, M; Taupenot, L; Mahata, S K; Kren, V; Zídek, V; Fischer, J; Maatz, H; Ziegler, M G; Pravenec, M; Hubner, N; Aitman, T J; Schork, N J; O'Connor, D T

    2010-07-01

    Understanding catecholamine metabolism is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of hereditary hypertension. Here we integrated transcriptional and biochemical profiling with physiologic quantitative trait locus (eQTL and pQTL) mapping in adrenal glands of the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains, derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and normotensive Brown Norway (BN.Lx). We found simultaneous down-regulation of five heritable transcripts in the catecholaminergic pathway in young (6 weeks) SHRs. We identified cis-acting eQTLs for Dbh, Pnmt (catecholamine biosynthesis) and Vamp1 (catecholamine secretion); enzymatic activities of Dbh and Pnmt paralleled transcripts, with pQTLs for activities mirroring eQTLs. We also detected trans-regulated expression of Vmat1 and Chga (both involved in catecholamine storage), with co-localization of these trans-eQTLs to the Pnmt locus. Pnmt re-sequencing revealed promoter polymorphisms that result in decreased response of the transfected SHR promoter to glucocorticoid, compared with BN.Lx. Of physiological pertinence, Dbh activity negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in RI strains, whereas Pnmt activity was negatively correlated with heart rate. The finding of such cis- and trans-QTLs at an age before the onset of frank hypertension suggests that these heritable changes in biosynthetic enzyme expression represent primary genetic mechanisms for regulation of catecholamine action and blood pressure control in this widely studied model of hypertension. PMID:20378607

  9. Protein synthesis and degradation are essential to regulate germline stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Lan, Xiang; Chen, Xia; Yu, Chao; Xu, Yiwen; Liu, Yujuan; Xu, Lingna; Fan, Heng-Yu; Tong, Chao

    2016-08-15

    The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in the protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumors consisting of overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are crucial to GSC self-renewal: pic/DDB1, a CRL4 linker protein, is not only required for GSC self-renewal in flies but also for maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in mice. PMID:27471256

  10. Fluoride exposure regulates the elongation phase of protein synthesis in cultured Bergmann glia cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Méndez, Marco; Ramírez, Diana; Alamillo, Nely; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; Del Razo, Luz María; Ortega, Arturo

    2014-08-17

    Fluoride is an environmental pollutant present in dental products, food, pesticides and water. The latter, is the greatest source of exposure to this contaminant. Structural and functional damages to the central nervous system are present in exposed population. An established consequence of the neuronal is the release of a substantial amount of glutamate to the extracellular space, leading to an excitotoxic insult. Glutamate exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors and transporters present in neurons and in glia cells and it is the over-activation of glutamate receptors and transporters, the biochemical hallmark of neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell death. In this context, taking into consideration that fluoride leads to degeneration of cerebellar cells, we took the advantage of the well-established model of cerebellar Bergmann glia cultures to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms inherent to fluoride neurotoxicity that might be triggered in glia cells. We could establish that fluoride decreases [(35)S]-methionine incorporation into newly synthesized polypeptides, in a time-dependent manner, and that this halt in protein synthesis is the result of a decrease in the elongation phase of translation, mediated by an augmentation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation. These results favor the notion of glial cells as targets of fluoride toxicity and strengthen the idea of a critical involvement of glia cells in the function and dysfunction of the brain. PMID:24954634

  11. Regulation by nitrate of protein synthesis and translation of RNA in maize roots

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, P.R.; Bouthyette, P.Y.

    1986-04-01

    Roots of maize seedlings were exposed to /sup 35/S-methionine in the presence or absence of nitrate. Using SDS-PAGE, nitrate-induced changes in labeled polypeptides were noted in the soluble (at 92, 63 and 21kD) and organellar(at 14kD) fractions, as well as in a membrane fraction of putative tonoplast origin (at 31kD). No nitrate-induced changes were noted in a plasmamembrane-enriched fraction or in a membrane fraction of mixed origin. Total RNA from nitrate-treated and control roots was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte system. Five translation products (94, 63, 41, 39 and 21kD) were identified as nitrate-inducible by comparative gel electrophoresis. Changes in protein synthesis and translation of mRNA were apparent within 2-3 h after introduction of nitrate. Within 4-6 h after removal of nitrate, the level of nitrate-inducible translation products diminished to that of control roots. In contrast, the 31kD tonoplast polypeptide was still labeled 26 h after removal of external nitrate and /sup 35/S-methionine. The results will be discussed in relation to the nitrate induction of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the nitrate uptake system.

  12. Synthesis of octadecyl esters of histidine-containing tripeptides as potential regulators of plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ogrel, A.A.; Zvonkova, E.N.; Gafurov, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Octadecyl esters of dipeptides and tripeptides of the type Phe-His, Val-His, Phe-Val-His and Val-Phe-His were synthesized using different methods. The minimum energy conformations of these peptides were calculated with computer minimization programs and compared with those of paclobutrazol, a well-known regulator of plant growth. It was demonstrated that the elongation of the peptide chain leads to a higher topochemical correspondence between paclobutrazol and the peptide derivatives than between paclobutrazol and amino acid derivatives. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Adrenal androgens and androgen precursors: definition, synthesis, regulation and physiologic actions

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina; Smith, Joshua M.; Auchus, Richard; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    The human adrenal produces more 19 carbon (C19) steroids, by mass, than either glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids. However, the mechanisms regulating adrenal C19 steroid biosynthesis continue to represent one of the most intriguing mysteries of endocrine physiology. This review will discuss the C19 steroids produced in the human adrenal and the features within the adrenal that allow production of these steroids. Finally, we consider the effects of these steroids in normal physiology and disorders of adrenal C19 steroid excess. PMID:25428847

  14. Design and synthesis of benzoylphenylureas with fluorinated substituents on the aniline ring as insect growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Yuxiu; Zhang, Yonglin; Xiong, Lixia; Wang, Qingmin

    2011-03-23

    Enormous numbers of synthetic fluorine-containing compounds have been widely used in a variety of fields, especially in drug and pesticide design. To find novel insect growth regulators, a series of benzoylphenylureas with fluorinated substituents were designed and synthesized. The results of larvicidal activities of those novel fluoro-substituted benzoylphenylureas against oriental armyworm and mosquito revealed that most compounds exhibited excellent activities. It is worth mentioning that compounds 3 and 6 exhibited higher activities against oriental armyworm and mosquito than commercial Hexaflumuron. It can be further seen that the insecticidal activities would increase significantly by introducing fluorinated substituents into the structure of the designed benzoylphenylureas. PMID:21366291

  15. Regulation of DNA synthesis at the first cell cycle in the sea urchin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kisielewska, Jolanta; Whitaker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using fluorescent and non-fluorescent recombinant proteins has proved to be a very successful technique for following postfertilization events, in both male and female pronuclei during the first cell cycle of sea urchin in vivo. Proteins and dyes are introduced by microinjection into the unfertilized egg, and their function can be monitored by fluorescence or confocal/two-photon (2P) and transmitted light microscopy after insemination. Here, we describe expression and purification of GFP/RFP-tagged proteins involved in regulation of DNA replication. We also explain the techniques used to introduce recombinant proteins and fluorescent tubulin into sea urchin eggs and embryos. PMID:24567218

  16. Regulation of histamine synthesis and tryptase expression through transcription factors, growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1) and Gfi1b, in murine cultured mast cells.

    PubMed

    Taura, Azusa; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kawabata, Kenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are involved in various immunological responses, although it remains unknown how their terminal differentiation is regulated. We previously established a culture model that mimics the process of mast cell maturation in the cutaneous tissue and found that growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1) was up-regulated whereas its paralogue Gfi1b down-regulated. Here we investigated the roles of Gfi1 and Gfi1b in the process of mast cell maturation using a murine mast cell line, MC9. Gfi1 and Gfi1b cDNAs were stably expressed in MC9 cells using the recombinant lentivirus. Histamine synthesis was significantly induced by stem cell factor (SCF) alone, whereas tryptase expression was significantly augmented in the presence of both SCF and Swiss 3T3 cells. Since exogenously expressed Gfi1 and Gfi1b might affect their expression levels in MC9 cells, we investigated the relationship between the expression profiles of Gfi1/Gfi1b proteins and maturation indices, such as histamine synthesis and tryptase expression. The comparison suggested that histamine synthesis during the co-culture period was positively regulated by Gfi1b while augmented expression of tryptase was abolished by one-sided expression of Gfi1/Gfi1b. Our findings indicated the involvement of Gfi1 and Gfi1b in the process of murine mast cell maturation. PMID:24389484

  17. Regulation of NO Synthesis, Local Inflammation, and Innate Immunity to Pathogens by BET Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wienerroither, Sebastian; Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Jamieson, Amanda M.; Bradner, James; Muhar, Matthias; Zuber, Johannes; Müller, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of the Nos2 gene, encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), during infection or inflammation requires coordinate assembly of an initiation complex by the transcription factors NF-κB and type I interferon-activated ISGF3. Here we show that infection of macrophages with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes caused binding of the BET proteins Brd2, Brd3, and, most prominently, Brd4 to the Nos2 promoter and that a profound reduction of Nos2 expression occurred in the presence of the BET inhibitor JQ1. RNA polymerase activity at the Nos2 gene was regulated through Brd-mediated C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation at serine 5. Underscoring the critical importance of Brd for the regulation of immune responses, application of JQ1 reduced NO production in mice infected with L. monocytogenes, as well as innate resistance to L. monocytogenes and influenza virus. In a murine model of inflammatory disease, JQ1 treatment increased the colitogenic activity of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The data presented in our study suggest that BET protein inhibition in a clinical setting poses the risk of altering the innate immune response to infectious or inflammatory challenge. PMID:24248598

  18. Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Król, P; Igielski, R; Pollmann, S; Kępczyńska, E

    2015-05-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Isolated from Solanum lycopersicon L. seeds, cv. Beta fungus was identified as F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. MeJA applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. Soaking of tomato seeds in MeJA solution at 0.1 mM for 1 h significantly enhanced the resistance level against the tested fungus in tomato seedlings 4 weeks after inoculation. The extracts from leaves of 15-day-old seedlings obtained from previously MeJA soaked seeds had the ability to inhibit in vitro spore germination of tested fungus. In these seedlings a significant increase in the levels phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid (SA), kaempferol and quercetin was observed. Up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL5) and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) genes and down-regulation of the isochorysmate synthase (ICS) gene in response to exogenous MeJA application indicate that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), not the isochorismate (IC) pathway, is the primary route for SA production in tomato. Moreover, the increased accumulation of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol appears closely related to the increase of PAL5, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase-like (FLS) genes. Elevated levels of salicylic acid in seedlings raised from MeJA-soaked seeds were simultaneously accompanied by a decrease of jasmonic acid, the precursor of MeJA, and an increase of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), the precursor of jasmonic acid. The present results indicate that the priming of tomato seeds with 0.1mM MeJA before sowing enables the seedlings grown from these seeds to reduce the attack of the soil-borne fungal pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  19. Regulation of the synthesis of barley aleurone. cap alpha. -amylase by gibberellic acid and calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Carbonell, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and calcium ions on the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase and acid phosphatase by isolated aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) were studied. Aleurone layers not previously exposed to GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ show qualitative and quantitative changes in hydrolase production following incubation in either GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ or both. In cubation in H/sub 2/O or CA/sup 2 +/ results in the production of low levels of ..cap alpha..-amylase or acid phosphatase. The addition of GA/sub 3/ to the incubation medium causes 10- to 20-fold increase in the amounts of these enzymes released from the tissue, and addition of CA/sup 2 +/ at 10 millimolar causes a further 8- to 9-fold increase in ..cap alpha..-amylase release and a 75% increase in phosphatase release. Production of ..cap alpha..-amylase isoenzymes is also modified by the levels of GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. ..cap alpha..-amylase 2 is produced under all conditions of incubation, while ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 appears only when layers are incubated in GA/sub 3/ or GA/sub 3/ plus CA/sup 2 +/. The synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylases 3 and 4 requires the presence of both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis shows that two distinct groups of ..cap alpha..-amylase antigens are present in incubation media of aleurone layers incubated with both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/, while only one group of antigens is found in media of layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. Strontium ions can be substituted for CA/sup 2 +/ in increasing hydrolase production, although higher concentrations of Sr/sup 2 +/ are requried for maximal response. We conclude that GA/sub 3/ is required for the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 and that both GA/sub 3/ and either CA/sup 2 +/ or Sr/sup 2 +/ are required for the production of isoenzymes 3 and 4 of barley aleurone ..cap alpha..-amylase. 22 references, 8

  20. The Regulation of Essential Amino Acid Synthesis and Accumulation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Galili, Gad; Amir, Rachel; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-04-29

    Although amino acids are critical for all forms of life, only proteogenic amino acids that humans and animals cannot synthesize de novo and therefore must acquire in their diets are classified as essential. Nine amino acids-lysine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and histidine-fit this definition. Despite their nutritional importance, several of these amino acids are present in limiting quantities in many of the world's major crops. In recent years, a combination of reverse genetic and biochemical approaches has been used to define the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for synthesizing, degrading, and regulating these amino acids. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the metabolism of the essential amino acids, discuss approaches for enhancing their levels in plants, and appraise efforts toward their biofortification in crop plants. PMID:26735064

  1. Escherichia coli pfs transcription: regulation and proposed roles in autoinducer-2 synthesis and purine excretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngbae; Lew, Chih M; Gralla, Jay D

    2006-11-01

    Pfs expression is required for several metabolic pathways and limits the production of autoinducer-2, a molecule proposed to play a central role in interspecies quorum sensing. The present study reveals physiological conditions and promoter DNA elements that regulate Escherichia coli pfs transcription. Pfs transcription is shown to rely on both sigma 70 and sigma 38 (rpoS), and the latter is subject to induction that increases pfs expression. Transcription is maximal as the cells approach stationary phase, and this level can be increased by salt stress through induction of sigma 38-dependent expression. The pfs promoter is shown to contain both positive and negative elements, which can be used by both forms of RNA polymerase. The negative element is contained within the overlapping dgt promoter, which is involved in purine metabolism. Consideration of the physiological roles of sigma 38 and dgt leads to a model for how autoinducer production is controlled under changing physiological conditions. PMID:16950920

  2. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    SciTech Connect

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  3. Mechanism of arginine regulation of acetylglutamate synthase, the first enzyme of arginine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Fernández-Murga, María L; Rubio, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase (NAGS), the first enzyme of arginine biosynthesis in bacteria/plants and an essential urea cycle activator in animals, is, respectively, arginine-inhibited and activated. Arginine binds to the hexameric ring-forming amino acid kinase (AAK) domain of NAGS. We show that arginine inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa NAGS by altering the functions of the distant, substrate binding/catalytic GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain, increasing K(m)(Glu), decreasing V(max) and triggering substrate inhibition by AcCoA. These effects involve centrally the interdomain linker, since we show that linker elongation or two-residue linker shortening hampers and mimics, respectively, arginine inhibition. We propose a regulatory mechanism in which arginine triggers the expansion of the hexameric NAGS ring, altering AAK-GNAT domain interactions, and the modulation by these interactions of GNAT domain functions, explaining arginine regulation. PMID:19084009

  4. Loss of Regulators of Vacuolar ATPase Function and Ceramide Synthesis Results in Multidrug Sensitivity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Keren; Toone, W. Mark; Jones, Nic; Wilkinson, Caroline R. M.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook a screen to isolate determinants of drug resistance in fission yeast and identified two genes that, when mutated, result in sensitivity to a range of structurally unrelated compounds, some of them commonly used in the clinic. One gene, rav1, encodes the homologue of a budding yeast protein which regulates the assembly of the vacuolar ATPase. The second gene, lac1, encodes a homologue of genes that are required for ceramide synthesis. Both mutants are sensitive to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin, and using the naturally fluorescent properties of this compound, we found that both rav1 and lac1 mutations result in an increased accumulation of the drug in cells. The multidrug-sensitive phenotype of rav1 mutants can be rescued by up-regulation of the lag1 gene which encodes a homologue of lac1, whereas overexpression of either lac1 or lag1 confers multidrug resistance on wild-type cells. These data suggest that changing the amount of ceramide synthase activity in cells can influence innate drug resistance. The function of Rav1 appears to be conserved, as we show that SpRav1 is part of a RAVE-like complex in fission yeast and that loss of rav1 results in defects in vacuolar (H+)-ATPase activity. Thus, we conclude that loss of normal V-ATPase function results in an increased sensitivity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells to drugs. The rav1 and lac1 genes are conserved in both higher eukaryotes and various pathogenic fungi. Thus, our data could provide the basis for strategies to sensitize tumor cells or drug-resistant pathogenic fungi to drugs. PMID:18441123

  5. MicroRNA-26a/b and their host genes synergistically regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by targeting the INSIG1 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Tianying; Tian, Huibin; Ma, Yue; Xu, Huifen; Yao, Dawei; Loor, Juan J

    2016-05-01

    The microRNA-26 (miR-26) family is known to control adipogenesis in non-ruminants. The genomic loci of miR-26a and miR-26b have been localized in the introns of genes encoding for the proteins of the C-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family. Insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) encodes a protein with a key role in the regulation of lipogenesis in rodent liver. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic function of the miR-26 family and their host genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Downregulation of miR-26a/b and their host genes in GMEC decreased the expression of genes relate to fatty acid synthesis (PPARG, LXRA, SREBF1, FASN, ACACA, GPAM, LPIN1, DGAT1 and SCD1), triacylglycerol accumulation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed INSIG1 as a direct target of miR-26a/b. Furthermore, inhibition of the CTDSP family also downregulated the expression of INSIG1. Taken together, our findings highlight a functional association of miR-26a/b, their host genes and INSIG1, and provide new insights into the regulatory network controlling milk fat synthesis in GMEC. The data indicate that targeting this network via nutrition might be important for regulating milk fat synthesis in ruminants. PMID:27002347

  6. Synthesis of sigma 29, an RNA polymerase specificity determinant, is a developmentally regulated event in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Trempy, J E; Morrison-Plummer, J; Haldenwang, W G

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunological probe, we have determined that the synthesis of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase promoter specificity determinant sigma 29 is a developmentally regulated event. sigma 29 is absent from vegetatively growing cells but is abundant in sporulating cells for a restricted (2-h) period during differentiation (hour 2 to hour 4 into the sporeforming process). The narrowness of this period suggests that sigma 29 is a regulatory factor that directs the transcription of a subpopulation of genes at a precise, intermediate stage of spore formation. This view predicts that sigma 29 should be dispensable for early sporulation events. We verified this prediction by an analysis of sigma 29 accumulation in mutants that are blocked at different stages of sporulation in which we show that cells can advance to at least an intermediate point in development (stage III) in the absence of detectable sigma 29. Lastly, our anti-sigma 29 antibody probe detected a second, previously unrecognized protein in Bacillus cell extracts that may be a precursor to sigma 29. This protein, P31 (molecular weight, 31,000) is synthesized earlier in sporulation than is sigma 29. It has a peptide profile that is similar to sigma 29 and is present in all Bacillus subtilis Spo- mutants that were tested and found to still be able to accumulate sigma 29. Images PMID:3918005

  7. Nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in maternal plasma decrease during parturition: possible transient down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nanno, H; Sagawa, N; Itoh, H; Matsumoto, T; Terakawa, K; Mori, T; Itoh, H; Nakao, K

    1998-06-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in parturition, we measured the maternal plasma concentrations of the NO metabolites, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate (cGMP) in pregnant women at various gestational ages including those at vaginal and elective Caesarean deliveries. The plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations at vaginal delivery were significantly lower than those of the pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. These concentrations remained low until 4 h after delivery but returned 24 h after delivery to values similar to those of the non-pregnant women. Such suppressions of plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations were not observed in the women who underwent elective Caesarean section before the onset of labour. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations at the time of vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, except that a slight but significant elevation of the plasma ANP concentration was observed 1 h after Caesarean delivery. In conclusion, the plasma concentrations of cGMP and NO metabolites significantly decreased at vaginal delivery but not at Caesarean delivery. These changes were independent of the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, suggesting the possible down-regulation of maternal NO synthesis during parturition. PMID:9665345

  8. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F; Mori Sequeiros García, M Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M; Orlando, Ulises D; Mele, Pablo G; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the "classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  9. Two-Component Systems Are Involved in the Regulation of Botulinum Neurotoxin Synthesis in Clostridium botulinum Type A Strain Hall

    PubMed Central

    Connan, Chloé; Brueggemann, Holger; Mazuet, Christelle; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Cayet, Nadège; Popoff, Michel R.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum synthesizes a potent neurotoxin (BoNT) which associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes. The bont and antp genes are clustered in two operons. In C. botulinum type A, bont/A and antp genes are expressed during the end of the exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase under the control of an alternative sigma factor encoded by botR/A, which is located between the two operons. In the genome of C. botulinum type A strain Hall, 30 gene pairs predicted to encode two-component systems (TCSs) and 9 orphan regulatory genes have been identified. Therefore, 34 Hall isogenic antisense strains on predicted regulatory genes (29 TCSs and 5 orphan regulatory genes) have been obtained by a mRNA antisense procedure. Two TCS isogenic antisense strains showed more rapid growth kinetics and reduced BoNT/A production than the control strain, as well as increased bacterial lysis and impairment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Three other TCS isogenic antisense strains induced a low level of BoNT/A and ANTP production. Interestingly, reduced expression of bont/A and antp genes was shown to be independent of botR/A. These results indicate that BoNT/A synthesis is under the control of a complex network of regulation including directly at least three TCSs. PMID:22848632

  10. [Quorum sensing systems of regulation, synthesis of phenazine antibiotics, and antifungal (corrected) activity in rhizospheric bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449].

    PubMed

    Veselova, M a; Klein, Sh; Bass, I A; Lipasova, V A; Metlitskaia, A Z; Ovadis, M I; Chernin, L S; Khmel', I A

    2008-12-01

    Strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449, an antagonist of a broad spectrum of phytopathogenic microorganisms isolated from the maize rhizosphere, was shown to produce three phenazine antibiotics: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), 2-hydroxylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA), and 2-hydroxylphenazine (2-OH-PHZ). Two Quorum Sensing (QS) systems of regulation were identified: PhzIR and CsaI/R. Genes phzI and csaI were cloned and sequenced. Cells of strain 449 synthesize at least three types of AHL: N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-AHL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-AHL), and N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (30C6-AHL). Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutants of strain 449 deficient in synthesis of phenazines, which carried inactivated phzA and phzB genes of the phenazine operon and gene phzO. Mutations phzA- and phzB-caused a drastic reduction in the antagonistic activity of bacteria toward phytopathogenic fungi. Both mutants lost the ability to protect cucumber and leguminous plants against phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These results suggest a significant role of phenazines in the antagonistic activity of P. chlororaphis 449. PMID:19178080

  11. The leukodystrophy protein FAM126A (hyccin) regulates PtdIns(4)P synthesis at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Jeremy M; Wu, Xudong; Christiano, Romain; Oh, Michael S; Schauder, Curtis M; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Messa, Mirko; Baldassari, Simona; Assereto, Stefania; Biancheri, Roberta; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo; Raimondi, Andrea; Simons, Mikael; Walther, Tobias C; Reinisch, Karin M; De Camilli, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Genetic defects in myelin formation and maintenance cause leukodystrophies, a group of white matter diseases whose mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC), one of these disorders, is caused by mutations in FAM126A, a gene of unknown function. We show that FAM126A, also known as hyccin, regulates the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), a determinant of plasma membrane identity. HCC patient fibroblasts exhibit reduced PtdIns(4)P levels. FAM126A is an intrinsic component of the plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase complex that comprises PI4KIIIα and its adaptors TTC7 and EFR3 (refs 5,7). A FAM126A-TTC7 co-crystal structure reveals an all-α-helical heterodimer with a large protein-protein interface and a conserved surface that may mediate binding to PI4KIIIα. Absence of FAM126A, the predominant FAM126 isoform in oligodendrocytes, destabilizes the PI4KIIIα complex in mouse brain and patient fibroblasts. We propose that HCC pathogenesis involves defects in PtdIns(4)P production in oligodendrocytes, whose specialized function requires massive plasma membrane expansion and thus generation of PtdIns(4)P and downstream phosphoinositides. Our results point to a role for FAM126A in supporting myelination, an important process in development and also following acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26571211

  12. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tsung-Pao; Pan, Yun-Ru; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You

    2010-10-15

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  13. Regulation of mevalonate synthesis in rat mammary glands by dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    El-Sohemy, A; Archer, M C

    1997-09-01

    It is well established that dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU-FAs) enhance rat mammary tumor development whereas n-3 PUFAs inhibit it, yet the mechanisms are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate a mechanism by which n-3 and n-6 PUFAs could modulate mammary carcinogenesis. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing either menhaden (n-3) or safflower oil (n-6) in a 7% fat diet for 1 week. In comparison to the n-6 diet, the n-3 diet significantly reduced the activity and levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase in mammary glands, thereby suppressing the formation of mevalonate. In addition to being essential for cholesterol biosynthesis, mevalonate is also required for DNA synthesis and may be involved in malignant transformation. Serum cholesterol was lower in the n-3 group than in the n-6 group (1.91 +/- 0.18 versus 2.61 +/- 0.37 mM; P < 0.01). Extrahepatic tissues meet most of their cholesterol requirements from circulating cholesterol, and the internalized cholesterol down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase. Thus, the concomitant decrease in serum cholesterol and mammary gland HMG-CoA reductase levels suggests that changes in circulating cholesterol levels do not solely determine the activity of extrahepatic reductase. We conclude that the mevalonate pathway may be a mechanism through which different types of dietary fat modulate breast cancer development. PMID:9288773

  14. Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: effects of the rpoD800 sigma mutation, glucose, and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A D; Ullmann, A; Burgess, R R; Gross, C A

    1984-01-01

    An immediate 12-fold inhibition in the rate of beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs in Escherichia coli cells containing the mutant sigma allele rpoD800 after a shift to 42 degrees C. In the present study we characterize the nature of the inhibition. The severe inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis was partly relieved by cyclic AMP (cAMP). We inferred that the inhibition might be mediated by a decreased intracellular concentration of cAMP. Consistent with this inference, the rate of cAMP accumulation in mutant cells after a temperature upshift was depressed relative to that in wild-type cells. Glucose and chloramphenicol, two agents known to inhibit differentially beta-galactosidase mRNA synthesis, caused a similar inhibition in the rate of cAMP accumulation. Thus, three diverse stimuli, glucose, chloramphenicol, and a temperature-sensitive sigma mutation, appear to affect beta-galactosidase synthesis by regulating the synthesis of cAMP. PMID:6325382

  15. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  16. Absorption and excretion of conjugated flavonols, including quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside by human volunteers after the consumption of onions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, A A; Edwards, C A; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    1998-09-01

    Flavonols are polyphenols found ubiquitously in plants and plant-products. Flavonols, particularly quercetin, are potent antioxidants in vitro and their intake has been associated inversely with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation in plasma and excretion in urine of flavonol glucosides following ingestion of lightly fried onions. Five healthy volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 3 days. On day 4, after an overnight fast, subjects were given 300 g of lightly fried yellow onions which contain conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin, including quercetin-3,4 '-diO-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Blood collection was carried out at 0 min, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24h after the supplement. In addition, subjects collected all their urine for 24h following the onion supplement. Isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4 '-O-beta-glucoside accumulated in plasma with maximum levels, defined as proportion of intake, of 10.7+/-2.6% and 0.13+/-0.03% respectively. The time of the quercetin-4'glucoside peak plasma concentration was 1.3+/-0.2 h after the ingestion of onions while a value of 1.8+/-0.7 h was obtained for isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside. Excretion in urine, as a proportion of intake, was 17.4+/-8.3% for isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and 0.2+/-0.1% for quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Possible reasons for the accumulation and excretion of isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside in proportionally much higher amounts than quercetin-4'-glucoside are discussed. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbed into the bloodstream as glucosides and minor structural differences affect markedly both the level of accumulation and the extent to which the conjugates are excreted. PMID:9802557

  17. A flavonoid 3-O-glucoside:2″-O-glucosyltransferase responsible for terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Sugawara, Satoko; Tohge, Takayuki; Ito, Takuya; Koyanagi, Misuzu; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Flavonol 3-O-diglucosides with a 1→2 inter-glycosidic linkage are representative pollen-specific flavonols that are widely distributed in plants, but their biosynthetic genes and physiological roles are not well understood. Flavonoid analysis of four Arabidopsis floral organs (pistils, stamens, petals and calyxes) and flowers of wild-type and male sterility 1 (ms1) mutants, which are defective in normal development of pollen and tapetum, showed that kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosides accumulated in Arabidopsis pollen. Microarray data using wild-type and ms1 mutants, gene expression patterns in various organs, and phylogenetic analysis of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) suggest that UGT79B6 (At5g54010) is a key modification enzyme for determining pollen-specific flavonol structure. Kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucosides were absent from two independent ugt79b6 knockout mutants. Transgenic ugt79b6 mutant lines transformed with the genomic UGT79B6 gene had the same flavonoid profile as wild-type plants. Recombinant UGT79B6 protein converted kaempferol 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucoside. UGT79B6 recognized 3-O-glucosylated/galactosylated anthocyanins/flavonols but not 3,5- or 3,7-diglycosylated flavonoids, and prefers UDP-glucose, indicating that UGT79B6 encodes flavonoid 3-O-glucoside:2″-O-glucosyltransferase. A UGT79B6-GUS fusion showed that UGT79B6 was localized in tapetum cells and microspores of developing anthers. PMID:24916675

  18. Ginkgo biloba extract and its flavonol and terpenelactone fractions do not affect beta-secretase mRNA and enzyme activity levels in cultured neurons and in mice.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Sabine; Huebbe, Patricia; Matzner, Nicole; Augustin, Kay; Schliebs, Reinhard; Cermak, Rainer; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in the prevention and therapy of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although neuroprotective properties of EGb761 have been consistently reported, the molecular mechanisms of EGb761 and the specific role of its major constituents, the flavonols and terpenlactones, are largely unknown. One major hallmark of AD is the deposition of amyloid-beta (A beta) as amyloid plaques in the brain. A beta is a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Certain proteases, called beta-secretases (BACE), are crucial in the formation of A beta. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction to modulate BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. Neither EGb761 nor its fractions affected BACE-1 activity in vitro. Furthermore, also in Neuro-2a cells and wild-type as well as transgenic (Tg2576) laboratory mice, no significant effect of EGb761 on BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels were observed. Current findings suggest that BACE-1 may not be a major molecular target of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction. PMID:18186016

  19. Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonol Glycosides in Ginkgo Leaves and ShuXueNing Injections by a Single Marker.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Cao, Bang-Jing; Xu, Xi-Ke; Shan, Lei; Su, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and their preparations is essential to evaluate their quality. However, the scarcity and high cost of chemical reference standards are common obstacles for quantitative analysis, especially for determining multicomponents. In this study, an effective and sensitive qualitative method to identify flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves (Ginkgo Folium), and their preparations have been developed. Meanwhile, a simple, convenient and reproducible method for the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single marker (QAMS) has been established to simultaneously determine the major flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves and their preparations. Among the 15 favonol glycosides that were found, 7 major flavonol glycosides with high contents were simultaneously determined by the QAMS and traditional external standard method (TES). Rutin was selected as the single marker, and the quantitative analysis was performed on a TSK gel ODS-100V C18 column using a gradient system of acetonitrile and water, with a variable wavelength detector (265 nm) within 50 min. The method validation was conducted, and the linearity was excellent (r(2) > 0.9993) with accuracy and precision within the required limits. The F-test (P> 0.05) indicated that the QAMS and TES method have no statistically significant difference. PMID:27068933

  20. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants. PMID:26679081

  1. Thiamine synthesis regulates the fermentation mechanisms in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Motoyuki; Masuo, Shunsuke; Itoh, Eriko; Zhou, Shengmin; Kato, Masashi; Takaya, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a critical cofactor and its biosynthesis is under the control of TPP availability. Here we disrupted a predicted thiA gene of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans and demonstrated that it is essential for synthesizing cellular thiamine. The thiamine riboswitch is a post-transcriptional mechanism for TPP to repress gene expression and it is located on A. nidulans thiA pre-messenger RNA. The thiA riboswitch was not fully derepressed under thiamine-limited conditions, and fully derepressed under environmental stressors. Upon exposure to hypoxic stress, the fungus accumulated more ThiA and NmtA proteins, and more thiamine than under aerobic conditions. The thiA gene was required for the fungus to upregulate hypoxic branched-chain amino acids and ethanol fermentation that involve enzymes containing TPP. These findings indicate that hypoxia modulates thiA expression through the thiamine riboswitch, and alters cellular fermentation mechanisms by regulating the activity of the TPP enzymes. PMID:26967817

  2. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, Peter; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Sonda, Sabrina; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  3. Heme Synthesis by Plastid Ferrochelatase I Regulates Nuclear Gene Expression in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Perez-Ruiz, Juan M.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chloroplast signals regulate hundreds of nuclear genes during development and in response to stress, but little is known of the signals or signal transduction mechanisms of plastid-to-nucleus (retrograde) signaling [1, 2]. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genetic studies using norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis, have identified five GUN (genomes uncoupled) genes, implicating the tetrapyrrole pathway as a source of a retrograde signal. Loss of function of any of these GUN genes leads to increased expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) when chloroplast development has been blocked by NF [3, 4]. Here we present a new Arabidopsis gain-of-function mutant, gun6-1D, with a similar phenotype. The gun6-1Dmutant overexpresses the conserved plastid ferrochelatase 1 (FC1, heme synthase). Genetic and biochemical experiments demonstrate that increased flux through the heme branch of the plastid tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway increases PhANG expression. The second conserved plant ferrochelatase, FC2, colocalizes with FC1, but FC2 activity is unable to increase PhANG expression in undeveloped plastids. These data suggest a model in which heme, specifically produced by FC1, may be used as a retrograde signal to coordinate PhANG expression with chloroplast development. PMID:21565502

  4. Colorectal cancer desmoplastic reaction up-regulates collagen synthesis and restricts cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Gesteira, Tarsis F; de Paula, Cláudia A A; Mader, Ana M; Waisberg, Jaques; Pinhal, Maria A; Friedl, Andreas; Toma, Leny; Nader, Helena B

    2011-11-01

    During cancer cell growth many tumors exhibit various grades of desmoplasia, unorganized production of fibrous or connective tissue, composed mainly of collagen fibers and myofibroblasts. The accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding tumors directly affects cancer cell proliferation, migration and spread; therefore the study of desmoplasia is of vital importance. Stromal fibroblasts surrounding tumors are activated to myofibroblasts and become the primary producers of ECM during desmoplasia. The composition, density and organization of this ECM accumulation play a major role on the influence desmoplasia has upon tumor cells. In this study, we analyzed desmoplasia in vivo in human colorectal carcinoma tissue, detecting an up-regulation of collagen I, collagen IV and collagen V in human colorectal cancer desmoplastic reaction. These components were then analyzed in vitro co-cultivating colorectal cancer cells (Caco-2 and HCT116) and fibroblasts utilizing various co-culture techniques. Our findings demonstrate that direct cell-cell contact between fibroblasts and colorectal cancer cells evokes an increase in ECM density, composed of unorganized collagens (I, III, IV and V) and proteoglycans (biglycan, fibromodulin, perlecan and versican). The desmoplastic collagen fibers were thick, with an altered orientation, as well as deposited as bundles. This increased ECM density inhibited the migration and invasion of the colorectal tumor cells in both 2D and 3D co-culture systems. Therefore this study sheds light on a possible restricting role desmoplasia could play in colorectal cancer invasion. PMID:21987222

  5. SLIRP Regulates the Rate of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis and Protects LRPPRC from Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lagouge, Marie; Mourier, Arnaud; Lee, Hyun Ju; Spåhr, Henrik; Wai, Timothy; Kukat, Christian; Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Motori, Elisa; Busch, Jakob D; Siira, Stefan; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the in vivo role of SLIRP in regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene expression and show here that it stabilizes its interacting partner protein LRPPRC by protecting it from degradation. Although SLIRP is completely dependent on LRPPRC for its stability, reduced levels of LRPPRC persist in the absence of SLIRP in vivo. Surprisingly, Slirp knockout mice are apparently healthy and only display a minor weight loss, despite a 50-70% reduction in the steady-state levels of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. In contrast to LRPPRC, SLIRP is dispensable for polyadenylation of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. Instead, deep RNA sequencing (RNAseq) of mitochondrial ribosomal fractions and additional molecular analyses show that SLIRP is required for proper association of mRNAs to the mitochondrial ribosome and efficient translation. Our findings thus establish distinct functions for SLIRP and LRPPRC within the LRPPRC-SLIRP complex, with a novel role for SLIRP in mitochondrial translation. Very surprisingly, our results also demonstrate that mammalian mitochondria have a great excess of transcripts under basal physiological conditions in vivo. PMID:26247782

  6. SLIRP Regulates the Rate of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis and Protects LRPPRC from Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lagouge, Marie; Mourier, Arnaud; Lee, Hyun Ju; Spåhr, Henrik; Wai, Timothy; Kukat, Christian; Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Motori, Elisa; Busch, Jakob D.; Siira, Stefan; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the in vivo role of SLIRP in regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene expression and show here that it stabilizes its interacting partner protein LRPPRC by protecting it from degradation. Although SLIRP is completely dependent on LRPPRC for its stability, reduced levels of LRPPRC persist in the absence of SLIRP in vivo. Surprisingly, Slirp knockout mice are apparently healthy and only display a minor weight loss, despite a 50–70% reduction in the steady-state levels of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. In contrast to LRPPRC, SLIRP is dispensable for polyadenylation of mtDNA-encoded mRNAs. Instead, deep RNA sequencing (RNAseq) of mitochondrial ribosomal fractions and additional molecular analyses show that SLIRP is required for proper association of mRNAs to the mitochondrial ribosome and efficient translation. Our findings thus establish distinct functions for SLIRP and LRPPRC within the LRPPRC-SLIRP complex, with a novel role for SLIRP in mitochondrial translation. Very surprisingly, our results also demonstrate that mammalian mitochondria have a great excess of transcripts under basal physiological conditions in vivo. PMID:26247782

  7. Sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine Regulate type 1 Fimbriae Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Ian C

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 fimbriae of E. coli, a chaperon-usher bacterial adhesin, are synthesized by the majority of strains of the bacterium. Although frequently produced by commensal strains, the adhesin is nevertheless a virulence factor in Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). The role of the adhesin in pathogenesis is best understood in Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Host attachment and invasion by type 1 fimbriate bacteria activates inflammatory pathways, with TLR4 signaling playing a predominant role. In a mouse model of cystitis, type 1 fimbriation not only enhances UPEC adherence to the surface of superficial umbrella cells of the bladder urothelium, but is both necessary and sufficient for their invasion. Moreover the adhesin plays a role in the formation of transient intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) within the cytoplasm of urothelial cells as part of UPEC cycles of invasion. The expression of type 1 fimbriation is controlled by phase variation at the transcriptional level, a mode of gene regulation in which bacteria switch reversibly between fimbriate and afimbriate phases. Phase variation has been widely considered to be a mechanism enabling immune evasion. Notwithstanding the apparently random nature of phase variation, switching of type 1 fimbrial expression is nevertheless controlled by a range of environmental signals that include the amino sugars sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Sialic acid plays a pivotal role in innate immunity, including signaling by the toll-like receptors. Here how sialic acid and GlcNAc control type 1 fimbriation is described and the potential significance of this regulatory response is discussed. PMID:26185091

  8. A new flavonol C-glycoside and a rare bioactive lignanamide from Piper wallichii Miq. Hand.-Mazz.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Xia, Wen; Han, En-Ji; Xiang, Lan

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. and evaluate their biological activity. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical characteristics and spectral data. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of the compounds were evaluated. Five compounds were obtained and identified as 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosylkaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 1, 2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N(1), N(2)-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (2), goniothalactam (3), aristololactam A IIIa (4) and piperlonguminine (5). Compound 1 was a new flavonol C-glycoside, 2 was a rare lignanamide, which was isolated from the family Piperaceae for the first time, and compound 3 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Among them, 2 showed potent DPPH-scavenging activity, with IC50 of 31.38 ± 0.97 μmol·L(-1); Compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed AChE inhibitory activity at 100 μmol·L(-1), with inhibition rates of 28.57% ± 1.47%, 18.48% ± 2.41% and 17.4% ± 3.03%, respectively. PMID:24856762

  9. Flavonol Activation Defines an Unanticipated Ligand-Binding Site in the Kinase-RNase Domain of IRE1

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, R. Luke; Zhang, Yuhong; Lee, Kenneth P.K.; Harding, Heather P.; Haynes, Cole M.; Price, Joshua; Sicheri, Frank; Ron, David

    2010-08-18

    Signaling in the most conserved branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) is initiated by sequence-specific cleavage of the HAC1/XBP1 mRNA by the ER stress-induced kinase-endonuclease IRE1. We have discovered that the flavonol quercetin activates yeast IRE1's RNase and potentiates activation by ADP, a natural activating ligand that engages the IRE1 nucleotide-binding cleft. Enzyme kinetics and the structure of a cocrystal of IRE1 complexed with ADP and quercetin reveal engagement by quercetin of an unanticipated ligand-binding pocket at the dimer interface of IRE1's kinase extension nuclease (KEN) domain. Analytical ultracentrifugation and crosslinking studies support the preeminence of enhanced dimer formation in quercetin's mechanism of action. These findings hint at the existence of endogenous cytoplasmic ligands that may function alongside stress signals from the ER lumen to modulate IRE1 activity and at the potential for the development of drugs that modify UPR signaling from this unanticipated site.

  10. Two new flavonol glycosides and a metabolite profile of Bryophyllum pinnatum, a phytotherapeutic used in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Fürer, Karin; Raith, Melanie; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Mennet, Monica; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; von Mandach, Ursula; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum is a succulent perennial plant native to Madagascar which is used in anthroposophical medicine to treat psychiatric disorders and as a tocolytic agent to prevent premature labour. We performed a metabolite profiling study in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the constituents in B. pinnatum leaves and to identify chromatographic markers for quality control and safety assessment of medicinal preparations. Preliminary HPLC-PDA-ESIMS analyses revealed that flavonoid glycosides were the main UV-absorbing constituents in the MeOH extract of B. pinnatum. Two phenolic glucosides, syringic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cis-p-coumaric acid (2), as well as nine flavonoids (3-11) including kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, acacetin, and diosmetin glycosides were unambiguously identified by 1H and 2D NMR analysis after isolation from a MeOH extract. The flavonol glycosides quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and myricetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4) were new natural products. With the aid of HPLC-PDA-APCIMS and authentic references isolated from the related species B. daigremontianum, the presence of four bufadienolides, bersaldegenin-1-acetate (12), bryophyllin A (13), bersaldegenin-3-acetate (14), and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (15) was detected in B. pinnatum. PMID:24072500

  11. Stability of ferric complexes with 3-hydroxyflavone (flavonol), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin), and 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Mark D; Hutcheson, Ryan; Cheng, I Francis

    2005-04-20

    The acid dissociation and ferric stability constants for complexation by the flavonoids 3-hydroxyflavone (flavonol), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin), and 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone in 50:50 (v/v) ethanol/water are determined by pH potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations and the linear least-squares curve-fitting program Hyperquad. Over the entire range of pH and reagent concentrations spanning the titration experiments, the stoichiometry for iron-flavonoid complex formation was 1:1 for all three flavonoids examined. The three flavonoids were chosen for their hydroxy substitution pattern, with each possessing one of the three most commonly suggested sites for metal binding by the flavonoids. On the basis of the calculated stability constants, the intraflavonoid-binding site competition is illustrated as a function of pH via speciation curves. The curves indicate that the binding site comprised of the 3',4'-hydroxy substitutions, the catecholic site, is most influential for ferric complexation at the physiological pH of 7.4. The possibility for antioxidant activity by flavonoid chelation of ferric iron in the presence of other competitive physiological complexing agents is demonstrated through additional speciation calculations. PMID:15826045

  12. Differential regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs by leucine through an mTORC1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Almonaci, Rosemarie D; Davis, Teresa A

    2012-02-28

    Neonatal growth is characterized by a high protein synthesis rate that is largely due to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in insulin and amino acids, especially leucine. The mechanism of leucine's action in vivo is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of leucine infusion on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs. To evaluate the mode of action of leucine, we used rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 (mTORC1). Overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin for 1 hour and then infused with leucine (400 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) for 1 hour. Leucine infusion increased the rate of protein synthesis, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation in gastrocnemius and masseter muscles (P < 0.05), but not in the liver. The leucine-induced stimulation of protein synthesis and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation were completely blocked by rapamycin, suggesting that leucine action is by an mTORC1-dependent mechanism. Neither leucine nor rapamycin had any effect on the activation of the upstream mTORC1 regulators, AMP-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B, in skeletal muscle or liver. The activation of eIF2α and elongation factor 2 was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, indicating that these two pathways are not limiting steps of leucine-induced protein synthesis. These results suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by inducing the activation of mTORC1 and its downstream pathway leading to mRNA translation. PMID:22675606

  13. Prostaglandin E2 is a potent regulator of interleukin-12- and interleukin-18-induced natural killer cell interferon-γ synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William; Rotondo, Dino

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of interferon (IFN)-γ by natural killer (NK) cells is an important pro-inflammatory event with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 playing major inductive roles. However, other temporal events are likely to regulate such processes and as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is ubiquitous during inflammation this study tested the hypothesis that PGE2 was capable of directly modulating cytokine-induced NK cell IFN-γ synthesis in the absence of other immune cells. Using homogenous NK cell lines to establish direct effects, PGE2 (0·1–1 µm) was found to suppress NK cell IFN-γ synthesis and antagonized the potent synergistic IFN-γ-inducing effects of IL-12 and IL-18. The actions of PGE2 were mimicked by synthetic PGE2 analogues including misoprostol and butaprost. The selective EP2 receptor agonist butaprost, but not the EP1/EP3 agonist sulprostone, suppressed IFN-γ synthesis and exclusively competed with PGE2 for receptor binding on NK cells. Further analysis showed that PGE2 did not modulate IL-12 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of PGE2 could be mimicked by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-iosobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The absence of demonstrable receptor modulation coupled with the observed suppression of IFN-γ synthesis by both EP2 receptor-selective agonists and IBMX suggest that PGE2 acts directly on NK cells via EP2 receptors with its downstream effects on cAMP metabolism. This conclusion is further supported by findings that PGE2 and its analogues consistently elevated levels of cAMP in NK cells. The ability of PGE2 to antagonize the potent inductive signal provided by the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 supports the concept that PGE2 may play an important role in limiting innate inflammatory processes in vivo through direct suppression of NK cell IFN-γ synthesis. PMID:15009430

  14. Ribonucleic Acid Regulation in Permeabilized Cells of Escherichia coli Capable of Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Alan G.

    1974-01-01

    A cell permeabilization procedure is described that reduces viability less than 10% and does not significantly reduce the rates of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis when appropriately supplemented. Permeabilization abolishes the normal stringent coupling of protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis. PMID:4364330

  15. Gene regulation of UDP-galactose synthesis and transport: Potential rate limiting processes in initiation of milk production in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose synthesis is believed to be rate-limiting for milk production. However, understanding the molecular events controlling lactose synthesis in humans is still rudimentary. We have utilized our established model of the RNA isolated from breast milk fat globule from 7 healthy exclusively breastfe...

  16. Developmental changes in insulin- and amino acid-induced mTOR signalling regulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enhanced efficiency, with which dietary protein is used for growth in the neonate, is due to the ability of neonatal muscle to markedly increase protein synthesis in response to feeding (Davis "et al.", 1996). The stimulation of protein synthesis by feeding in neonatal muscle is independently m...

  17. REGULATION OF CARDIAC AND SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY INDIVIDUAL BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS IN NEONATAL PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle grows at a very rapid rate in the neonatal pig, due in part to an enhanced sensitivity of protein synthesis to the postprandial rise in amino acids. An increase in leucine alone stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonatal pig; however, the effect of isoleucine and...

  18. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  19. Polyamines in chemiosmosis in vivo: A cunning mechanism for the regulation of ATP synthesis during growth and stress.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight amines that occur in every living organism. The three main PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are involved in several important biochemical processes covered in recent reviews. As rule of thumb, increase of the cellular titer of PAs in plants is related to cell growth and cell tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. In the present contribution, we describe recent findings from plant bioenergetics that bring to light a previously unrecognized dynamic behavior of the PA pool. Traditionally, PAs are described by many authors as organic polycations, when in fact they are bases that can be found in a charged or uncharged form. Although uncharged forms represent less than 0.1% of the total pool, we propose that their physiological role could be crucial in chemiosmosis. This process describes the formation of a PA gradient across membranes within seconds and is difficult to be tested in vivo in plants due to the relatively small molecular weight of PAs and the speed of the process. We tested the hypothesis that PAs act as permeable buffers in intact leaves by using recent advances in vivo probing. We found that an increase of PAs increases the electric component (Δψ) and decreases the ΔpH component of the proton motive force. These findings reveal an important modulation of the energy production process and photoprotection of the chloroplast by PAs. We explain in detail the theory behind PA pumping and ion trapping in acidic compartments (such as the lumen in chloroplasts) and how this regulatory process could improve either the photochemical efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus and increase the synthesis of ATP or fine tune antenna regulation and make the plant more tolerant to stress. PMID:24592272

  20. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F.; Mori Sequeiros García, M. Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M.; Orlando, Ulises D.; Mele, Pablo G.; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the “classical” protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  1. Regulation of simultaneous synthesis of floral scent terpenoids by the 1,8-cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Susanna; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Effmert, Uta; Piechulla, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    The white flowers of N. suaveolens emit a complex bouquet of fragrance volatiles. The dominant compounds are benzenoids (e.g. methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate), monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, limonene, sabinene, E-beta-ocimene, beta-beta-myrcene, alpha- and beta-pinene and alpha-terpineole) and sesquiterpenes (e.g. caryophyllene), which are all emitted at higher levels during the night. Here, we show that the simultaneous nocturnal emission of most monoterpenes is realized by a single floral-specific multi-product enzyme (1,8-cineole synthase, CIN), which synthesizes the monoterpenes of the "cineole cassette". Interestingly, N. suaveolens is the only known taxon of the Suaveolentes section to have a flower emitting "cineole cassette of monoterpenes" which is otherwise typical for the Alatae section. Gene sequence analysis of CIN has revealed the highest similarities to other angiosperm monoterpene synthases from Vitis vinifera, Quercus ilex, Citrus unshiu and C. limon, which cluster in the same branch of the terpene synthase B subfamily. However, based on its synthesized products, N. suaveolens CIN shares similarity with enzymes of the Arabidopsis thaliana root and Salvia officinalis leaf. The N. suaveolens CIN gene is only expressed in the stigma/style tissue and petals. Thin sections of petals present the enzyme primarily in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis; this facilitates the comprehensive emission of volatiles in all spacial directions. The oscillation of monoterpene emission is a consequence of the regulation of the CIN gene by the circadian clock, with oscillations occurring at the level of transcript and protein accumulations and of enzyme activity. Light/dark or dark/light transition signals synchronize the slow-running endogenous clock. Two strategies for synchronized scent emission have been established in N. suaveolens flowers: (i) the synthesis of volatile organic compounds by a multi-product enzyme and (ii) the

  2. The Homeodomain Protein Ladybird Late Regulates Synthesis of Milk Proteins during Pregnancy in the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans)

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Patrick, Kevin R.; Krause, Tyler B.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1) by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl) as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This system is critical

  3. Prostaglandin E2 Via Steroidogenic Factor-1 Coordinately Regulates Transcription of Steroidogenic Genes Necessary for Estrogen Synthesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Erkut; Tokunaga, Hideki; Imir, Gonca; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Redwine, David; Putman, Michael; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Rukset; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hales, Dale B.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Products of at least five specific steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which facilitates the entry of cytosolic cholesterol into the mitochondrion, side chain cleavage P450 enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, and aromatase, which catalyzes the final step, are necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to estrogen. Expression and biological activity of StAR and aromatase were previously demonstrated in endometriosis but not in normal endometrium. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces aromatase expression via the transcriptional factor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) in endometriosis, which is opposed by chicken-ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor (COUP-TF) and Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) in endometrium. Objective: The aim of the study was to demonstrate a complete steroidogenic pathway leading to estrogen biosynthesis in endometriotic cells and the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate basal and PGE2-stimulated estrogen production in endometriotic cells and endometrium. Results: Compared with normal endometrial tissues, mRNA levels of StAR, side chain cleavage P450, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, aromatase, and SF1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues. PGE2 induced the expression of all steroidogenic genes; production of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol; and StAR promoter activity in endometriotic cells. Overexpression of SF1 induced, whereas COUP-TFII or WT1 suppressed, StAR promoter activity. PGE2 induced coordinate binding of SF1 to StAR and aromatase promoters but decreased COUP-TFII binding in endometriotic cells. COUP-TFII or WT1 binding to both promoters was significantly higher in endometrial compared with endometriotic cells. Conclusion: Endometriotic cells contain the full complement of steroidogenic genes for de novo synthesis of estradiol from cholesterol, which is stimulated by PGE2 via enhanced binding of SF1 to promoters

  4. Hepatic urea synthesis and pH regulation. Role of CO2, HCO3-, pH and the activity of carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, D; Gerok, W

    1985-10-15

    H dependent regulation of urea synthesis is predominantly due to mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase-catalyzed HCO3- supply for carbamoyl phosphate synthesis, whereas there is no control of urea synthesis by pH at the level of the five enzymes of the urea cycle. Because HCO3- provision for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase increases with increasing portal CO2 concentrations even in the absence of carbonic anhydrase activity, susceptibility of ureogenesis to pH decreases with increasing portal CO2 concentrations. This may explain the different response of urea synthesis to chronic metabolic and chronic respiratory acidosis in vivo. PMID:3932068

  5. p38 MAPKs regulate the expression of genes in the dopamine synthesis pathway through phosphorylation of NR4A nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Takagahara, Shuichi; Hatanaka, Ryo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Oguchi, Haruka; Noguchi, Takuya; Naguro, Isao; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Tsunoda, Makoto; Funatsu, Takashi; Nomura, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Matsuki, Norio; Kuranaga, Erina; Miura, Masayuki; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2011-09-01

    In Drosophila, the melanization reaction is an important defense mechanism against injury and invasion of microorganisms. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, also known as Pale) and dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), key enzymes in the dopamine synthesis pathway, underlie the melanin synthesis by providing the melanin precursors dopa and dopamine, respectively. It has been shown that expression of Drosophila TH and Ddc is induced in various physiological and pathological conditions, including bacterial challenge; however, the mechanism involved has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that ectopic activation of p38 MAPK induces TH and Ddc expression, leading to upregulation of melanization in the Drosophila cuticle. This p38-dependent melanization was attenuated by knockdown of TH and Ddc, as well as by that of Drosophila HR38, a member of the NR4A family of nuclear receptors. In mammalian cells, p38 phosphorylated mammalian NR4As and Drosophila HR38 and potentiated these NR4As to transactivate a promoter containing NR4A-binding elements, with this transactivation being, at least in part, dependent on the phosphorylation. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role for p38 MAPKs in the regulation of NR4As. Thus, p38-regulated gene induction through NR4As appears to function in the dopamine synthesis pathway and may be involved in immune and stress responses. PMID:21878507

  6. Regulation of 5-oxo-ETE synthesis by nitric oxide in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes upon their interaction with zymosan and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Viryasova, Galina M.; Galkina, Svetlana I.; Gaponova, Tatjana V.; Romanova, Julia M.; Sud’ina, Galina F.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we have presented data on the regulation of LT (leukotriene) and 5-oxo-ETE (5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) syntheses in human neutrophils upon interaction with OZ (opsonized zymosan) or Salmonella typhimurium. Priming of neutrophils with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) elicits 5-oxo-ETE formation in neutrophils exposed to OZ, and the addition of AA (arachidonic acid) significantly increases 5-oxo-ETE synthesis. We found that NO (nitric oxide)-releasing compounds induce 5-oxo-ETE synthesis in neutrophils treated with OZ or S. typhimurium. Exposure of neutrophils to zymosan or bacteria in the presence of the NO donor DEA NONOate (1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-hydrazine sodium) considerably increased the conversion of endogenously formed 5-HETE (5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) to 5-oxo-ETE. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that NO is a potent regulator of 5-oxo-ETE synthesis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes exposed to Salmonella typhimurium and zymosan. PMID:24712762

  7. Evidence for a role of the (alpha)-tubulin C terminus in the regulation of cyclin B synthesis in developing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Vée, S; Lafanechère, L; Fisher, D; Wehland, J; Job, D; Picard, A

    2001-03-01

    Microinjected mAb YL1/2, an (alpha)-tubulin antibody specific for the tyrosinated form of the protein, blocks the cell cycle in developing oocytes. Here, we have investigated the mechanism involved in the mAb effect. Both developing starfish and Xenopus oocytes were injected with two different (alpha)-tubulin C terminus antibodies. The injected antibodies blocked cell entry into mitosis through specific inhibition of cyclin B synthesis. The antibody effect was independent of the presence or absence of polymerized microtubules and was mimicked by injected synthetic peptides corresponding to the tyrosinated (alpha)-tubulin C terminus, whereas peptides lacking the terminal tyrosine were ineffective. These results indicate that tyrosinated (alpha)-tubulin, or another protein sharing the same C-terminal epitope, is involved in specific regulation of cyclin B synthesis in developing oocytes. PMID:11181172

  8. Tea is the major source of flavan-3-ol and flavonol in the U.S. diet.

    PubMed

    Song, Won O; Chun, Ock K

    2008-08-01

    Flavonoid intake is inversely associated with the incidence of chronic diseases, but the sources of flavonoid intake in free-living U.S. adults have not yet been reported. We tested hypotheses that tea is the major dietary source of flavonoids in U.S. adults; tea consumers differ from those of tea nonconsumers in sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, and dietary and beverage sources of flavonoid intake. We matched the flavonoid contents of the USDA Flavonoid Databases with dietary intake data of adults (n = 8809) included in NHANES of 1999-2002. Only 21.3% of U.S. adults reported drinking tea daily. Daily total flavonoid intake of tea consumers was over 20 times that of tea nonconsumers (697.9 vs. 32.6 mg/d); per capita flavonoid intake from tea was 157 mg/d. Tea consumers are more likely to be older, female, white, and to have higher income than tea nonconsumers (P < 0.001); to have lower nonleisure-time physical activity level (P < 0.01); and to take dietary supplements (P < 0.001) than tea nonconsumers. Intake of flavonols and flavan-3-ols, the major tea flavonoids, differed between the 2 groups (P < 0.01). Other dietary flavonoid sources after tea were citrus juice, wine, and citrus fruits for both tea consumer and nonconsumer groups. For tea nonconsumers, flavonoid intake from wine, fruitades, and fruit drinks was higher than that in tea consumers. Flavonoid intake differs among subgroups, mainly because of the percentage of tea consumers and the prevalence of tea consumption within each subgroup. PMID:18641204

  9. A DFT investigation on the structural and antioxidant properties of new isolated interglycosidic O-(1 → 3) linkage flavonols.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gabriel L C; de Oliveira, Leonardo M F; Vicari, Rafael G; Brown, Alex

    2016-04-01

    We present a computational study on two flavonols that were recently isolated from Loranthaceae family plant extracts: kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside. Their structures and energetics have been investigated at the density functional level of theory, up to B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p), incorporating solvent effects with polarizable continuum models. In addition, their potential antioxidant activities were probed through the computation of the (i) bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs), which are related to the hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism (HAT), and (ii) ionization potentials (IPs), which are related to the single-electron transfer mechanism (SET). The BDEs were determined in water to be 83.23 kcal/mol for kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside and 77.49 kcal/mol for quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside. The corresponding IPs were obtained for both compounds as 133.38 and 130.99 kcal/mol, respectively. The BDEs and IPs are comparable to those probed for their parental molecules kaempferol and quercetin; this is in marked contrast to previous studies where glycosylation at the 3-position increases the corresponding BDEs, and, hence, decreases subsequent antioxidant activity. The BDEs and IPs obtained suggest both compounds are promising for antioxidant activity and thus further experimental tests are encouraged. PMID:27037824

  10. Quantification of anthocyanins and flavonols in milk-based food products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Bertholet, Raymond; Steiling, Heike; Kussmann, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The present article describes the development and validation of an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the comprehensive quantification of anthocyanin and flavonol constituents of milk-based food products. Protein precipitation by acidified methanol and ultrafiltration was utilized as sample preparation to preserve overall polyphenol composition but to eliminate milk proteins in order to comply with UPLC. Reversed-phase chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of 27 analytes in 10 min in order to reduce suppression effects, achieve a wide dynamic range, and most importantly, to resolve isomeric compounds. Positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometric detection and fragmentation of analytes was optimized, final transitions were selected for maximized selectivity, reliable quantification, and reduction of false positives. The quantitative performance of the method was validated, the main features include (1) range of lower limits of detection 0.3-30 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 10-300 ng/mL for aglycones, (2) lower limits of quantification 1-100 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 30-1,000 ng/mL for aglycones, (3) averaged intraday precision 9%, (4) calibrated range 2-180,000 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 60-600,000 ng/mL for aglycones, and (5) averaged accuracy 101%. Applications for yogurt and ice cream products are given. The presented data suggest that this method will help to better characterize the polyphenol composition of milk-based food products for quality control, for assessment of dietary intake, and for polyphenol bioavailability/bioefficacy studies. PMID:20337399

  11. Flavonol and imidazole derivatives block HPV16 E6 activities and reactivate apoptotic pathways in HPV⁺ cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C-H; Filippova, M; Krstenansky, J L; Duerksen-Hughes, P J

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) cause nearly all cases of cervical cancer, as well as approximately 30% of head and neck cancers. HPV 16 E6, one of two major viral oncogenes, protects cells from apoptosis by binding to and accelerating the degradation of several proteins important in apoptotic signaling, including caspase 8 and p53. We proposed that blocking the interactions between HPV E6 and its partners using small molecules had the potential to re-sensitize HPV(+) cells to apoptosis. To test this idea, we screened libraries of small molecules for candidates that could block E6/caspase 8 binding and identified several candidates from different chemical classes. We tested hits for dose-dependency and specificity in vitro and for toxicity in a cell-based assay and then used this information to select the two best candidates for further testing: myricetin, a flavonol, and spinacine, an imidazole amino-acid derivative of histidine. Both compounds clearly inhibited the ability of E6 to bind in vitro to both caspase 8 and E6AP, the protein that mediates p53 degradation. In addition, both compounds were able to increase the level of caspase 8 and p53 in SiHa cervical cancer cells, resulting in an increase of caspase 3/7 activity. Finally, both myricetin and spinacine sensitized HPV(+) cervical and oral cancer cells, but not HPV(-) cervical and oral cancer cells, to apoptosis induced by the cancer-specific ligand TRAIL, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. New therapies based on this work may improve treatment for HPV(+) cancer patients. PMID:26794656

  12. Tomato LeTHIC is an Fe-requiring HMP-P synthase involved in thiamine synthesis and regulated by multiple factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weina; Cheng, Xudong; Huang, Zongan; Fan, Huajie; Wu, Huilan; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine is a key primary metabolite which is necessary for the viability of all organisms. It is a dietary requirement for mammals because only prokaryotes, fungi and plants are thiamine prototrophs. In contrast to the well documented biosynthetic mechanism in bacteria, much remains to be deciphered in plants. In this work, a tomato thiamine-auxotrophic (thiamineless, tl) mutant was characterized. The tl mutant occurs due to inactivation of LeTHIC transcription as a result of insertion of a large unknown DNA fragment in its 5'-untranslated region. Expression of wild-type LeTHIC in tl plants was able to complement the mutant to wild type. LeTHIC possessed the same function as E.cTHIC [an Escherichia coli 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P) synthase involved in synthesis of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine] because expression of LeTHIC rescued THIC-deficient strains of E. coli under culture conditions without thiamine supplementation, suggesting that plants employ a bacteria-like route of pyrimidine moiety synthesis. LeTHIC is an Fe-S cluster protein localized in chloroplasts, and Fe is required for maintenance of its enzyme activity because Fe deficiency resulted in a significant reduction of thiamine content in tomato leaves. Further, we also showed that the expression of LeTHIC is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level by multiple factors, such as light, Fe status and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-riboswitch. The results clearly demonstrated that a feedback regulation mechanism is involved in synthesis of the pyrimidine moiety for controlling thiamine synthesis in tomato. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the molecular mechanism of thiamine biosynthesis in plants. PMID:21511719

  13. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, D.L.; Plumley, F.G.; Ikeuchi, M.; Michaels, A.S.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle.

  14. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Herrin, D L; Plumley, F G; Ikeuchi, M; Michaels, A S; Schmidt, G W

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle. PMID:3555343

  15. Desumoylation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane VAP Family Protein Scs2 by Ulp1 and SUMO Regulation of the Inositol Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Felberbaum, Rachael; Wilson, Nicole R.; Cheng, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational protein modification by the ubiquitin-like SUMO protein is critical to eukaryotic cell regulation, but much remains unknown regarding its operation and substrates. Here we report that specific mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ulp1 SUMO protease, including its coiled-coil (CC) domain, lead to the accumulation of distinct sumoylated proteins in vivo. A prominent ∼50-kDa sumoylated protein accumulates in a Ulp1 CC mutant. The protein was identified as Scs2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that regulates phosphatidylinositol synthesis and lipid trafficking. Mutation of lysine 180 of Scs2 abolishes its sumoylation. Notably, impairment of either cellular sumoylation or cellular desumoylation mechanisms inhibits cell growth in the absence of inositol and exacerbates the inositol auxotrophy caused by deletion of SCS2. Mutants lacking the Ulp2 SUMO protease are the most severely affected, and this defect was traced to the mutants' impaired ability to induce transcription of INO1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of inositol biosynthesis. Conversely, inositol starvation induces a striking change in the profiles of total cellular SUMO conjugates. These results provide the first evidence of cross-regulation between the SUMO and inositol pathways, including the sumoylation of an ER membrane protein central to phospholipid synthesis and phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:22025676

  16. Leucine and histidine independently regulate milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells via mTOR signaling pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-na; Hu, Han; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of leucine (Leu) and histidine (His) on the expression of both the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway-related proteins and caseins in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells (CMEC-H), using a single supplement through Western blotting. The Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS) was set as the control group and other treatment groups, based on the EBSS, were added with different concentrations of Leu or His, respectively. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the expression of caseins and the phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2481), Raptor (Ser792), eIF4E (Ser209), and eEF2 (Thr56) increased with the Leu concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 10.80 mmol/L (P<0.01). The P-4EBP1 (Thr37) at 10.80 mmol/L Leu, and P-RPS6 (Ser235/236) at 5.40 to 10.80 mmol/L Leu all decreased. Similarly, the His supplementation from 0.15 to 9.60 mmol/L increased the expression of αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, P-mTOR (Ser2481), P-Raptor (Ser792), P-S6K1 (Thr389), P-4EBP1 (Thr37), P-eIF4E (Ser209), and P-eEF2 (Thr56) (P<0.01) in CMEC-H, whereas the αs1-casein expression was only reduced at 9.60 mmol/L His, G protein β subunit-like protein (GβL) at 0.15 and 9.60 mmol/L His, and P-RPS6 at 4.80 to 9.60 mmol/L His. Our linear regression model assay suggested that the αs1-casein expression was positively correlated with P-mTOR (P<0.01), P-S6K1 (P<0.01), and P-eEF2 (P<0.01) for the addition of Leu, while the expressions of β-casein (P<0.01) and κ-casein (P<0.01) were positively correlated with P-eEF2 for the addition of His. In conclusion, the milk protein synthesis was up-regulated through activation of the mTOR pathway with the addition of Leu and His in CMEC-H. PMID:26055918

  17. Development of a model describing regulation of casein synthesis by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in response to insulin, amino acids, and acetate.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Arriola Apelo, S I; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Hanigan, M D

    2016-08-01

    To improve dietary protein use efficiency in lactating cows, mammary protein synthesis responses to AA, energy substrates, and hormones must be better understood. These entities exert their effects through stimulation of mRNA translation via control of initiation and elongation rates at the cellular level. A central protein kinase of this phenomenon is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which transfers the nutritional and hormonal stimuli onto a series of proteins downstream through a cascade of phosphorylation reactions that ultimately affect protein synthesis. The objective of this work was to further develop an existing mechanistic model of mTOR phosphorylation responses to insulin and total essential AA to include the effects of specific essential AA and acetate mediated by signaling proteins including protein kinase B (Akt), adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR and to add a representation of milk protein synthesis. Data from 6 experiments in MAC-T cells and mammary tissue slices previously conducted in our laboratory were assembled and used to parameterize the dynamic system of differential equations representing Akt, AMPK, and mTOR in their phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states and the resulting regulation of milk protein synthesis. The model predicted phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, AMPK, and casein synthesis rates with root mean square prediction errors of 16.8, 28.4, 33.0, and 54.9%, respectively. All other dependent variables were free of mean and slope bias, indicating an adequate representation of the data. Whereas mTOR was not very sensitive to changes in insulin or acetate levels, it was highly sensitive to leucine and isoleucine, and this signal appeared to be effectively transduced to casein synthesis. Although prior work had observed a relationship with additional essential AA, and data supporting those conclusions were present in the data set, we were unable to derive significant relationships with any essential

  18. The HD-GYP Domain Protein RpfG of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Regulates Synthesis of Extracellular Polysaccharides that Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanbao; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Wang, Lei; Li, Churui; Wang, Yunyue; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is one of the most important diseases in rice. However, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms of Xoc. Here we have investigated the function of three HD-GYP domain regulatory proteins in biofilm formation, the synthesis of virulence factors and virulence of Xoc. Deletion of rpfG resulted in altered production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), abolished virulence on rice and enhanced biofilm formation, but had little effect on the secretion of proteases and motility. In contrast, mutational analysis showed that the other two HD-GYP domain proteins had no effect on virulence factor synthesis and tested phenotypes. Mutation of rpfG led to up-regulation of the type III secretion system and altered expression of three putative glycosyltransferase genes gumD, pgaC and xagB, which are part of operons directing the synthesis of different extracellular polysaccharides. The pgaABCD and xagABCD operons were greatly up-regulated in the Xoc ΔrpfG mutant, whereas the expression of the gum genes was unaltered or slightly enhanced. The elevated biofilm formation of the Xoc ΔrpfG mutant was dramatically reduced upon deletion of gumD, xagA and xagB, but not when pgaA and pgaC were deleted. Interestingly, only the ΔgumD mutant, among these single gene mutants, exhibits multiple phenotype alterations including reduced biofilm and EPS production and attenuated virulence on rice. These data indicate that RpfG is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, EPS production and bacterial virulence in Xoc and that both gumD- and xagB-dependent EPS contribute to biofilm formation under different conditions. PMID:23544067

  19. Enhancing Integrin α1 Inserted (I) Domain Affinity to Ligand Potentiates Integrin α1β1-mediated Down-regulation of Collagen Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Mingjian; Pedchenko, Vadim; Greer, Briana H.; Van Horn, Wade D.; Santoro, Samuel A.; Sanders, Charles R.; Hudson, Billy G.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2012-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 binding to collagen IV, which is mediated by the α1-inserted (I) domain, down-regulates collagen synthesis. When unligated, a salt bridge between Arg287 and Glu317 is thought to keep this domain in a low affinity conformation. Ligand binding opens the salt bridge leading to a high-affinity conformation. How modulating integrin α1β1 affinity alters collagen homeostasis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized a thermolysin-derived product of the α1α2α1 network of collagen IV (α1α2α1(IV) truncated protomer) that selectively binds integrin α1β1. We show that an E317A substitution enhanced binding to the truncated protomer, consistent with a previous finding that this substitution eliminates the salt bridge. Surprisingly, we show that an R287A substitution did not alter binding, whereas R287E/E317R substitutions enhanced binding to the truncated protomer. NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggested that eliminating the Glu317 negative charge is sufficient to induce a conformational change toward the open state. Thus, the role played by Glu317 is largely independent of the salt bridge. We further show that cells expressing E317A or R287E/E317R substitutions have enhanced down-regulation of collagen IV synthesis, which is mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that modulating the affinity of the extracellular α1 I domain to collagen IV enhances outside-in signaling by potentiating ERK activation and enhancing the down-regulation of collagen synthesis. PMID:22888006

  20. Regulated delayed synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen of Salmonella Typhimurium enhances immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy against heterologous Salmonella challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun; Liu, Qing; Luo, Yali; Li, Pei; Liu, Qiong; Kong, Qingke

    2016-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are two major polysaccharide structures on the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous studies have demonstrated that regulated truncation of LPS enhances the cross-reaction against conserved outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from enteric bacteria. We speculate that the regulation of both O-antigen and ECA may enhance the induction of immune responses against conserved OMPs from enteric bacteria. In this work we targeted rfbB and rffG genes which encode dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratases and share the same function in regulating O-antigen and ECA synthesis. We constructed a mutant, S496 (ΔrfbB6 ΔrffG7 ΔpagL73::TT araC PBADrfbB-3), in which rfbB gene expression was dependent on exogenously supplied arabinose during in vitro growth and achieved the simultaneous tight regulation of both LPS and ECA synthesis, as demonstrated by the LPS profile and Western blotting using antisera against LPS and ECA. When administered orally, S. Typhimurium S496 was completely attenuated for virulence but still retained the capacity to colonize and disseminate in mice. In addition, we found that oral immunization with S496 resulted in increased immune responses against OMPs from enteric bacteria and enhanced survival compared with immunization with S492 possessing ΔrfbB6 ΔrffG8 mutations when challenged with lethal doses of Salmonella Choleraesuis or Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that S. Typhimurium arabinose-regulated rfbB strain S496 is a good vaccine candidate, conferring cross-protection against lethal challenge with heterologous Salmonella. PMID:27423383

  1. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein R regulates arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase synthesis via internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation in a circadian manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Rim; Kim, Tae-Don; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Youngseob; Lee, Dohyun; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Do-Yeon; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2015-11-01

    Rhythmic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) synthesis is a prominent circadian-controlled response that occurs in most mammals. AANAT is the core enzyme in melatonin production; because melatonin participates in many physiological processes, the regulation of AANAT is an important research topic. In this study, we focused on the role of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R) in the translation of AANAT. A novel RNA-binding protein hnRNP R widely interacted with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of AANAT mRNA and contributed to translation through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Fine-tuning of AANAT protein synthesis occurred in response to knockdown and overexpression of hnRNP R. Nocturnal elevation of AANAT protein was dependent on the rhythmic changes of hnRNP R, whose levels are elevated in the pineal gland during nighttime. Increases in hnRNP R additionally improved AANAT production in rat pinealocytes under norepinephrine (NE) treatment. These results suggest that cap-independent translation of AANAT mRNA plays a role in the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin through the recruitment of translational machinery to hnRNP R-bound AANAT mRNA. PMID:26444903

  2. Stress-Induced Cytokinin Synthesis Increases Drought Tolerance through the Coordinated Regulation of Carbon and Nitrogen Assimilation in Rice1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Maria; Peleg, Zvi; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M.; Tumimbang, Ellen B.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The effects of water deficit on carbon and nitrogen metabolism were investigated in flag leaves of wild-type and transgenic rice (Oryza sativa japonica ‘Kitaake’) plants expressing ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASE (IPT; encoding the enzyme that mediates the rate-limiting step in cytokinin synthesis) under the control of PSARK, a maturation- and stress-induced promoter. While the wild-type plants displayed inhibition of photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation during water stress, neither carbon nor nitrogen assimilation was affected by stress in the transgenic PSARK::IPT plants. In the transgenic plants, photosynthesis was maintained at control levels during stress and the flag leaf showed increased sucrose (Suc) phosphate synthase activity and reduced Suc synthase and invertase activities, leading to increased Suc contents. The sustained carbon assimilation in the transgenic PSARK::IPT plants was well correlated with enhanced nitrate content, higher nitrate reductase activity, and sustained ammonium contents, indicating that the stress-induced cytokinin synthesis in the transgenic plants played a role in maintaining nitrate acquisition. Protein contents decreased and free amino acids increased in wild-type plants during stress, while protein content was preserved in the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that the stress-induced cytokinin synthesis in the transgenic plants promoted sink strengthening through a cytokinin-dependent coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism that facilitates an enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to water deficit. PMID:24101772

  3. Ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 induced by protein synthesis inhibitors regulates TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Hirotsugu; Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Igarashi, Masayuki; Nagai, Kazuo; Kataoka, Takao

    2008-04-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) plays a major role in the inducible resistance to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. It has been established that the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) sensitizes many types of cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, mainly due to its ability to block de novo synthesis of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). Nevertheless, we have surprisingly found that CHX, as well as its structural analogue acetoxycycloheximide (Ac-CHX), prevents TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8 in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Both CHX and Ac-CHX reduced the expression of cell surface TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in a dose-dependent manner, while Ac-CHX was approximately 100-fold more effective than CHX. Consistent with this observation, Ac-CHX induced the proteolytic cleavage of TNF-R1 and its release into the culture medium. CHX and Ac-CHX profoundly decreased constitutive and inducible expression of c-FLIP, whereas these compounds potentiated TNF-{alpha}-induced caspase-8 activation only when metalloprotease inhibitors were present. Thus, our results indicate that ectodomain shedding of TNF-R1 induced by protein synthesis inhibitors regulates TNF-{alpha}-mediated activation of NF-{kappa}B and caspase-8.

  4. Regulation of Maltodextrin Phosphorylase Synthesis in Escherichia coli by Cyclic Adenosine 3′, 5′-Monophosphate and Glucose1

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Julie; Weathersbee, Carolyn J.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (AMP) stimulates maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis in Escherichia coli cells induced with maltose. A maximal effect occurs at 2 to 3 mM cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP is specific, inasmuch as adenosine triphosphate, 3′-AMP, 5′-AMP, adenosine, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP are inactive. Glucose, α-methyl glucoside, 2-deoxyglucose, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate repress maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis. This repression is reversed by cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP appears to be at the transcriptional level, since cyclic AMP fails to stimulate phosphorylase production in induced cells in which messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis has been arrested by rifampin or by inducer removal. The two other enzymes involved in the metabolism of maltose, amylomaltase and maltose permease, are also induced in this strain of E. coli and affected by glucose and cyclic AMP in a manner similar to phosphorylase. PMID:4358043

  5. Regulation of fibrinogen synthesis by plasmin-derived fragments of fibrinogen and fibrin: an indirect feedback pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, D G; Levy, B A; Adams, M A; Fuller, G M

    1982-01-01

    The effect of plasmin-derived fibrinogen fragments on the biosynthesis of fibrinogen was investigated in cultured monolayers of rat hepatocytes. Incubating the cells with several concentrations of either fibrinogen or fibrin fragment D or E had no effect on the synthesis and secretion of fibrinogen by these cells. However, if the fragments were incubated with isolated peripheral blood leukocytes, they caused these cells to secrete a factor that when added to the hepatocytes caused an increase in fibrinogen synthesis 4- to 6-fold over controls. Moreover, the hepatocyte-stimulating factor also affected the production of several other proteins produced by the hepatocyte. These results demonstrate that both fragments D and E can stimulate hepatic fibrinogen synthesis via an indirect leukocyte-mediated pathway. Images PMID:6461860

  6. Guanosine tetraphosphate as a global regulator of bacterial RNA synthesis: a model involving RNA polymerase pausing and queuing.

    PubMed

    Bremer, H; Ehrenberg, M

    1995-05-17

    A recently reported comparison of stable RNA (rRNA, tRNA) and mRNA synthesis rates in ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient (delta relA delta spoT) bacteria has suggested that ppGpp inhibits transcription initiation from stable RNA promoters, as well as synthesis of (bulk) mRNA. Inhibition of stable RNA synthesis occurs mainly during slow growth of bacteria when cytoplasmic levels of ppGpp are high. In contrast, inhibition of mRNA occurs mainly during fast growth when ppGpp levels are low, and it is associated with a partial inactivation of RNA polymerase. To explain these observations it has been proposed that ppGpp causes transcriptional pausing and queuing during the synthesis of mRNA. Polymerase queuing requires high rates of transcription initiation in addition to polymerase pausing, and therefore high concentrations of free RNA polymerase. These conditions are found in fast growing bacteria. Furthermore, the RNA polymerase queues lead to a promoter blocking when RNA polymerase molecules stack up from the pause site back to the (mRNA) promoter. This occurs most frequently at pause sites close to the promoter. Blocking of mRNA promoters diverts RNA polymerase to stable RNA promoters. In this manner ppGpp could indirectly stimulate synthesis of stable RNA at high growth rates. In the present work a mathematical analysis, based on the theory of queuing, is presented and applied to the global control of transcription in bacteria. This model predicts the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase over stable RNA and mRNA genes for both ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient bacteria in response to different environmental conditions. It also shows how small changes in basal ppGpp concentrations can produce large changes in the rate of stable RNA synthesis. PMID:7539631

  7. Phytochemical constituents, nutritional values, phenolics, flavonols, flavonoids, antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The edible fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl are widely used in traditional medicine in Indonesia. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as - cancer, diabetes mellitus, allergies, liver and heart diseases, kidney failure, blood diseases, high blood pressure, stroke, various skin diseases, itching, aches, and flu. Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the biochemical and cytotoxic properties of the fruit extracts. Methods The methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of P. macrocarpa fruits were examined for phytochemicals, physicochemicals, flavonols, flavonoids and phenol content. Its nutritional value (A.O.A.C method), antioxidant properties (DPPH assay) and cytotoxicity (MTT cell proliferation assay) were also determined. Results A preliminary phyotochemical screening of the different crude extracts from the fruits of P. macrocarpa showed the presence secondary metabolites such as of flavonoids, phenols, saponin glycosides and tannins. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts displayed high antioxidant acitivity (IC50 value of 8.15±0.02 ug/mL) in the DPPH assay comparable to that of the standard gallic acid (IC50 value of 10.8±0.02 ug/mL). Evaluation of cytotoxic activity showed that the crude methanol extract possessed excellent anti-proliferative activity against SKOV-3 (IC50 7.75±2.56 μg/mL) after 72 hours of treatment whilst the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts displayed good cytotoxic effect against both SKOV-3 and MDA-MB231 cell lines. The chloroform extract however, showed selective inhibitory activity in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 (IC50 7.80±1.57 μg/mL) after 48 hours of treatment. There was no cytotoxic effect observed in the Ca Ski cell line and the two normal cell lines (MRC-5 and WRL-68). Conclusion The methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of P. macrocarpa fruits exhibited good nutritional values, good antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, and merits

  8. Changes in NMDA receptor-induced cyclic nucleotide synthesis regulate the age-dependent increase in PDE4A expression in primary cortical cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hajjhussein, Hassan; Suvarna, Neesha U.; Gremillion, Carmen; Judson Chandler, L.; O’Donnell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    NMDA receptor-induced cAMP and cGMP are selectively hydrolyzed by PDE4 and PDE2, respectively, in rat primary cerebral cortical and hippocampal cultures. Because cAMP levels regulate the expression of PDE4 in rat primary cortical cultures, we examined the manner in which NMDA receptor activity regulates the age-dependent increase in the expression of PDE4A observed in vivo and in vitro. Inhibiting the activity of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil blocked NMDA receptor-induced cGMP synthesis and increased NMDA receptor-induced cAMP levels in a manner that reduced PDE4 activity. Therefore, NR1/NR2B receptor-induced cGMP signaling is involved in an acute cross-talk regulation of NR1/NR2A receptor-induced cAMP levels, mediated by PDE4. Chronic inhibition of NMDA receptor activity with MK-801 reduced PDE4A1 and PDE4A5 expression and activity in a time-dependent manner; this effect was reversed by adding the PKA activator dbr-cAMP. Inhibiting GABA receptors with bicuculline increased NMDA receptor-induced cAMP synthesis and PDE4A expression in cultures treated between DIV 16 and DIV 21 but not in cultures treated between DIV 8 and DIV 13. This effect was due to a high tone of NMDA receptor-induced cGMP in younger cultures, which negatively regulated the expression of PDE4A by a PKG-mediated process. The present results are consistent with behavioral data showing that both PDE4 and PDE2 are involved in NMDA receptor-mediated memory processes. PMID:17407767

  9. WISP3 (CCN6) Regulates Milk Protein Synthesis and Cell Growth Through mTOR Signaling in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Yu; Yu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Lijun; Liu, Chaonan; Gao, Xueli; Zheng, Shimin

    2015-08-01

    The mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway is the primary regulator of milk protein synthesis. While mTOR is known to be regulated at the translational level by amino acids, the mechanism by which mTOR accepts the amino acid signal is not yet clear. In this study, we describe the discovery of WISP3 as a potentially novel signaling factor that connects mTOR and amino acids. Treatment of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells with amino acids (lysine or methionine) increased both cell growth and the expression of β-casein (CSN2), WISP3, mTOR, and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR). Notably, overexpressing WISP3 in these cells also increased both cell growth and the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR and decreased the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), while repressing WISP3 had the opposite effect. The increase of the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR mediated by amino acid could be inhibited by repressing WISP3. The increase of the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR mediated by WISP3 overexpression could be inhibited by overexpressing GSK3β, and vice versa. Taken together, these results reveal that through its amino acid-mediated regulation of the mTOR pathway, WISP3 is an important regulatory factor involved in the amino acid-mediated regulation of milk protein synthesis and cell growth. PMID:26061139

  10. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K.

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  11. Environmental stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kochert, G.; Key, J.L.

    1984-05-01

    This report focuses on the development of thermotolerance in soybeans under varying heat shock (hs) regimes, and specifically addresses the isolation of genomic clones to hsp's 70 and 84 kd, the purification of hsp's for use in antibody preparation and chloroplast protein synthesis during hs. 4 references.

  12. Biginkgosides A-I, Unexpected Minor Dimeric Flavonol Diglycosidic Truxinate and Truxillate Esters from Ginkgo biloba Leaves and Their Antineuroinflammatory and Neuroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang-Lei; Xiong, Juan; Yang, Guo-Xun; Pan, Li-Long; Hu, Chang-Ling; Wang, Wei; Fan, Hui; Zhao, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-05-27

    Nine unexpected new flavonol glycoside cyclodimers in the truxinate (1-7, biginkgosides A-G, respectively) or truxillate [biginkgosides H (8) and I (9)] forms were isolated as minor components from the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The new dimers possess an unusual cyclobutane ring formed by a [2+2]-cycloaddition between two symmetric (for compounds 1-5 and 7-9) or nonsymmetric (for 6) flavonol coumaroyl glucorhamnosides. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for these new compounds based on the frontier molecular orbital theory of cycloaddition reactions is briefly discussed. An antineuroinflammatory screening revealed that biginkgosides E (5) and H (8) inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 2.91 and 17.23 μM, respectively. Additionally, biginkgoside F (6) showed a significant neuroprotective effect (34.3% increase in cell viability at 1 μM) against Aβ25-35-induced cell viability decrease in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:27140807

  13. Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    PubMed

    Neugart, Susanne; Fiol, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Zrenner, Rita; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Kale has a high number of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study we investigated the interaction of moderate UV-B radiation and temperature on these compounds. Kale plants were grown at daily mean temperatures of 5 or 15 °C and were exposed to five subsequent daily doses (each 0.25 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of moderate UV-B radiation at 1 d intervals. Of 20 phenolic compounds, 11 were influenced by an interaction of UV-B radiation and temperature, e.g., monoacylated quercetin glycosides. Concomitantly, enhanced mRNA expression of flavonol 3'- hydroxylase showed an interaction of UV-B and temperature, highest at 0.75 kJ m(-2) and 15 °C. Kaempferol glycosides responded diversely and dependent on, e.g., the hydroxycinnamic acid residue. Compounds containing a catechol structure seem to be favored in the response to UV-B. Taken together, subsequent exposure to moderate UV-B radiation is a successful tool for enhancing the flavonoid profile of plants, and temperature should be considered. PMID:24655223

  14. Transfer and Mass Balance of Ellagitannins, Anthocyanins, Flavan-3-ols, and Flavonols during the Processing of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) to Juice.

    PubMed

    Sójka, Michał; Macierzyński, Jakub; Zaweracz, Wojciech; Buczek, Maria

    2016-07-13

    The putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. Their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics in raspberries and the products of their processing (that is, juice and press cake, including its seed and seedless fractions). The study also examined the relationship between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. The average percentage contributions of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols to total polyphenolics in the fruits were 64.2%, 17.1%, 16.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. Analysis of raspberry products showed that the dominant compounds in juice were anthocyanins, with 65.1% contribution to total polyphenolics, while in raspberry press cake, they were tannins (98.0%, mainly ellagitannin including lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6). As shown by our mass-balance calculations, on average, 68.1% of ellagitannins and 87.7% of flavanols were retained in press cake, especially in its seedless fraction. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. An increase in molecular mass from 1568 to 2805 Da resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in ellagitannin transfer. PMID:27292440

  15. Effect of bioactive compounds from Sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on the in vitro larval migration of Haemonchus contortus: role of tannins and flavonol glycosides.

    PubMed

    Barrau, E; Fabre, N; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2005-10-01

    Anthelmintic bioactivity against gastrointestinal nematodes has been associated with leguminous forages supporting the hypothesis of a role of condensed tannins. However, the possibility that other compounds might also been involved has received less consideration. Using bio-guided fractionation, the current study aimed at characterizing the biochemical nature of the active compounds present in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia ), previously identified as an anthelmintic leguminous forage. The effects of sainfoin extracts were evaluated on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus by using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Comparison of extracts obtained with several solvent systems showed that the bioactivity was associated with the 70ratio30 acetone/water extract. Further fractionation of the later allowed the separation of phenolic compounds. By use of a dialysis method, compounds were separated with a molecular weight cut-off of 2000 Da. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of the fraction with condensed tannins was confirmed. In the fraction containing molecules of MW <2000 Da, 3 flavonol glycosides were identified as rutin, nicotiflorin and narcissin. At 1200 mug/ml, each inhibited significantly the migration of larvae. Addition of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPP) to both fractions before incubation restored larval migration. These results confirmed the role of both tannins and flavonol glycosides in the anthelmintic properties of sainfoin. PMID:16174418

  16. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn Analysis of Anthocyanins, Flavonol Glycosides, and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Red Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea Coss Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Harnly, James

    2013-01-01

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens (Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of the parent flavonoid glycosides with reference compounds. The putative identifications were obtained from tandem mass data analysis and confirmed by the retention time, elution order, and UV–vis and high-resolution mass spectra. Further identifications were made by comparing the UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn data with those of reference compounds in the polyphenol database and in the literature. Twenty-seven acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 24 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5- glucosides, 3 acylated cyanidin triglucoside-5-glucosides, 37 flavonol glycosides, and 10 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected for the first time in brassica vegetables. At least 50 of them are reported for the first time in any plant materials. PMID:21970730

  17. Ground and excited state proton transfer of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin in a protein environment: spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Biswa Pathik; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K

    2015-02-12

    We performed spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies to explore the interaction of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin (3,7,3',4',5'-OH flavone), with the carrier protein human serum albumin (HSA). Multiparametric fluorescence sensing, exploiting the intrinsic "two color" fluorescence of robinetin (comprising excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and charge transfer (CT) emissions) reveals that binding to HSA significantly affects the emission and excitation profiles, with strongly blue-shifted (∼29 nm) normal fluorescence and remarkable increase in the ESIPT fluorescence anisotropy (r) and lifetime (τ). Flavonol-induced HSA (tryptophan) fluorescence quenching data yield the dynamic quenching constant (KD) as 5.42 × 10(3) M(-1) and the association constant (Ks) as 5.59 × 10(4) M(-1). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay studies show dramatic (∼170 times) increase in the rotational correlation time (τ(rot)), reflecting greatly enhanced restrictions in motion of robinetin in the protein matrix. Furthermore, prominent induced circular dichroism (ICD) bands appear, indicating that the chiral environment of HSA strongly perturbs the electronic transitions of the intrinsically achiral robinetin molecule. Molecular docking calculations suggest that robinetin binds in subdomain IIA of HSA, where specific interactions with basic residues promote ground state proton abstraction and stabilize an anionic species, which is consistent with spectroscopic observations. PMID:25313717

  18. Flavonols drive plant microevolution.

    PubMed

    Grotewold, Erich

    2016-02-01

    The idea that pollinators are in large part responsible for the diversity of flowering plants dates back more than 150 years to Darwin's work, but even modern scientists have struggled to identify specific 'speciation genes' and determine how they influenced flower-pollinator interactions. A new study proposes that a series of mutations in a single gene controlling floral chemicals influenced pollinator preferences, likely resulting in speciation, bringing us closer to finding a speciation gene. PMID:26813762

  19. Mathematical model of the Tat-Rev regulation of HIV-1 replication in an activated cell predicts the existence of oscillatory dynamics in the synthesis of viral components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) makes possible the realization of regulatory strategies that can lead to complex dynamical behavior of the system. We analyze the strategy which is based on two feedback mechanisms, one mediating a positive regulation of the virus replication by Tat protein via the antitermination of the genomic RNAs transcription on TAR (transactivation responsive) element of the proviral DNA and the second mechanism providing a negative regulation of the splicing of the full-length (9 kb) RNAs and incompletely spliced (4 kb) RNAs via their transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Although the existence of these two regulatory feedback loops has been considered in other mathematical models, none of them examined the conditions for the emergence of complex oscillatory patterns in the intracellular dynamics of viral components. Results We developed a mechanistic mathematical model for the Tat-Rev mediated regulation of HIV-1 replication, which considers the activation of proviral DNA transcription, the Tat-specific antitermination of transcription on TAR-element, resulting in the synthesis of the full-length 9 kb RNA, the splicing of the 9 kb RNA down to the 4 kb RNA and the 4 kb RNA to 2 kb RNA, the transport of 2 kb mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the intracellular mechanisms, the multiple binding of the Rev protein to RRE (Rev Response Element) sites on 9 kb and 4 kb RNA resulting in their export to the cytoplasm and the synthesis of Tat and Rev proteins in the cytoplasm followed by their transport into the nucleus. The degradation of all viral proteins and RNAs both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus is described. The model parameters values were derived from the published literature data. The model was used to examine the dynamics of the synthesis of the viral proteins Tat and Rev, the mRNAs under the intracellular conditions specific for activated HIV-1 infected macrophages. In addition, we

  20. Chondroitin 6-sulphate synthesis is up-regulated in injured CNS, induced by injury-related cytokines and enhanced in axon-growth inhibitory glia.

    PubMed

    Properzi, Francesca; Carulli, Daniela; Asher, Richard A; Muir, Elizabeth; Camargo, Luiz M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Furukawa, Yoko; Mikami, Tadishima; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Toida, Toshihiko; Geller, Herbert M; Fawcett, James W

    2005-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the CNS after injury and inhibit axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) chains. We have analysed the mRNA levels of the CS-GAG synthesizing enzymes and measured the CS-GAG disaccharide composition by chromatography and immunocytochemistry. Chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase 1 (C6ST1) is up-regulated in most glial types around cortical injuries, and its sulphated product CS-C is also selectively up-regulated. Treatment with TGFalpha and TGFbeta, which are released after brain injury, promotes the expression of C6ST1 and the synthesis of 6-sulphated CS-GAGs in primary astrocytes. Oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursors and meningeal cells are all inhibitory to axon regeneration, and all express high levels of CS-GAG, including high levels of 6-sulphated GAG. In axon growth-inhibitory Neu7 astrocytes C6ST1 and 6-sulphated GAGs are expressed at high levels, whereas in permissive A7 astrocytes they are not detectable. These results suggest that the up-regulation of CSPG after CNS injury is associated with a specific sulphation pattern on CS-GAGs, mediating the inhibitory properties of proteoglycans on axonal regeneration. PMID:15673437

  1. The Flavonoid Pathway Regulates the Petal Colors of Cotton Flower

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development. PMID:23951318

  2. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Gandhi, Sumit G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3′ monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  3. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3' monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  4. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: Effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bonam, D.; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G.P.; Ludden, P.W.

    1989-06-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of (/sup 35/S)methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase.

  5. pp32 and APRIL are host cell-derived regulators of influenza virus RNA synthesis from cRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Replication of influenza viral genomic RNA (vRNA) is catalyzed by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRP). Complementary RNA (cRNA) is first copied from vRNA, and progeny vRNAs are then amplified from the cRNA. Although vRdRP and viral RNA are minimal requirements, efficient cell-free replication could not be reproduced using only these viral factors. Using a biochemical complementation assay system, we found a novel activity in the nuclear extracts of uninfected cells, designated IREF-2, that allows robust unprimed vRNA synthesis from a cRNA template. IREF-2 was shown to consist of host-derived proteins, pp32 and APRIL. IREF-2 interacts with a free form of vRdRP and preferentially upregulates vRNA synthesis rather than cRNA synthesis. Knockdown experiments indicated that IREF-2 is involved in in vivo viral replication. On the basis of these results and those of previous studies, a plausible role(s) for IREF-2 during the initiation processes of vRNA replication is discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08939.001 PMID:26512887

  6. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  7. Network synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion, with numerous examples, on the application of state variable methods to network analysis and synthesis is reported. The state variable point of view is useful in the design of control circuits for regulators because, unlike frequency domain methods, it is applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. The reported are intended as an introduction to this theory.

  8. Computer-aided method for identification of major flavone/flavonol glycosides by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Lin, Longze; Harnly, James M; Harrington, Peter de B; Chen, Pei

    2014-11-01

    A new computational tool is proposed here for tentatively identifying major (UV quantifiable) flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks of high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) profiles based on a MATLAB-based script implementing an in-house algorithm. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiles of red onion, Chinese lettuce, carrot leaf, and celery seed extracts were analyzed by the proposed computer-aided screening method for identifying possible flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks from the HPLC-UV and MS total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The number of identified flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks of the HPLC-UV chromatograms is four, four, six, and nine for red onion, Chinese lettuce, carrot leaf, and celery seed, respectively. These results have been validated by human(s) experts. For the batch processing of nine HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiles of celery seed extract, the entire script execution time was within 15 s while manual calculation of only one HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profile by a flavonoid expert could take hours. Therefore, this MATLAB-based screening method is able to facilitate the HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of flavone/flavonol glycosides in plants to a large extent. PMID:25270867

  9. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582.

    PubMed

    Augimeri, Richard V; Strap, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature. PMID:26733991

  10. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582

    PubMed Central

    Augimeri, Richard V.; Strap, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature. PMID:26733991

  11. Characterization of melatonin synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): distribution, relation with serotonin, daily rhythms and photoperiod regulation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Pérez, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Gesto, Manuel; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in peripheral locations of vertebrates, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In teleost, information regarding this topic is scarce. Here we studied the presence and synthesis of melatonin at the rainbow trout GIT. Different sections of trout GIT (from esophagus to hindgut) were dissected out and assayed for contents of melatonin, serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, as well as for aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance. A trout group was pinealectomized to evaluate changes in plasma and gut melatonin content. Finally, the daily profile of melatonin and 5-HT content, and aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance were analyzed in gut of trout kept under normal lighting, and then under constant darkness. Melatonin was detected in all GIT regions with higher concentrations in the muscular wall than in the mucosa, a similar trend to that of 5-HT. In contrast, transcripts of melatonin synthesis enzymes were more abundant in the mucosa. Pinealectomy did not affect melatonin levels in midgut and hindgut either at day or at night. Additionally, no daily rhythms could be defined for melatonin content in gut tissues but increases during late light phase and at midnight occurred. However, aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance showed clear daily rhythms with peaks at night. These rhythms remained with a 3-h phase advanced peak in fish exposed to constant darkness. Our results provide clear evidence for a local synthesis of melatonin in trout GIT that might be influenced by the content of 5-HT in the tissue. The process is affected by environmental light cycle and is likely to be under circadian regulation. PMID:26873742

  12. Synthesis of fusogenic lipids through activation of phospholipase D1 by GTPases and the kinase RSK2 is required for calcium-regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Nicolas

    2010-02-01

    Exocytosis of hormones occurs through the fusion of large dense-core secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. This highly regulated process involves key proteins such as SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptors) and also specific lipids at the site of membrane fusion. Among the different lipids required for exocytosis, our recent observations have highlighted the crucial role of PA (phosphatidic acid) in the late stages of membrane fusion in various exocytotic events. An RNAi (RNA interference) strategy coupled with the detection of PA in living cells has pointed to plasma membrane-associated PLD1 (phospholipase D(1)) as the main producer of PA in response to secretagogue stimulation. We have identified several GTPases which regulate the activation level of PLD(1) in neuroendocrine cells. Finally, RSK2 (ribosomal S6 kinase 2) appears to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of PLD(1) in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether our results have unravelled a complex set of regulatory pathways controlling the synthesis of fusogenic lipids at the secretory granule fusion site by PLD(1). PMID:20074053

  13. Apoptosis induction by glycoprotein isolated from Laminaria japonica is associated with down-regulation of telomerase activity and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Glycoprotein isolated from Laminaria japonica (LJGP) is known to exhibit significant cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of its cytoxicity are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated further possible mechanisms by which LJGP exerts its anti-cancer action in cultured human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. LJGP treatment of AGS cells resulted in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and IAP family members, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. LJGP treatment markedly down-regulated the activity of telomerase and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a main determinant of telomerase enzymatic activity, with inhibition of Sp1 and c-Myc expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, LJGP treatment also caused a progressive decrease in the expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. These results provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of LJGP. PMID:21132266

  14. TCA cycle activity in Staphylococcus aureus is essential for iron-regulated synthesis of staphyloferrin A, but not staphyloferrin B: the benefit of a second citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Jessica R; Marolda, Cristina L; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus elaborates two citrate-containing siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB), that enhance growth under iron-restriction, yet, paradoxically, expression of the TCA cycle citrate synthase, CitZ, is downregulated during iron starvation. Iron starvation does, however, result in expression of SbnG, recently identified as a novel citrate synthase that is encoded from within the iron-regulated SB biosynthetic locus, suggesting an important role for SbnG in staphyloferrin production. We demonstrate that during growth of S. aureus in iron-restricted media containing glucose, SB is produced but, in contrast, SA production is severely repressed; accordingly, SB-deficient mutants grow poorly in these media. Hypothesizing that reduced TCA cycle activity hinders SA production, we show that a citZ mutant is capable of SB synthesis, but not SA synthesis, providing evidence that SbnG does not generate citrate for incorporation into SA. A citZ sbnG mutant synthesizes neither staphyloferrin, is severely compromised for growth in iron-restricted media, and is significantly more impaired for virulence than either of the single-deletion mutants. We propose that SB is the more important of the two siderophores for S. aureus insofar as it is synthesized, and supports iron-restricted growth, without need of TCA cycle activity. PMID:24666349

  15. The Nucleus-Encoded trans-Acting Factor MCA1 Plays a Critical Role in the Regulation of Cytochrome f Synthesis in Chlamydomonas Chloroplasts[W

    PubMed Central

    Boulouis, Alix; Raynaud, Cécile; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Aznar, Aude; Wollman, Francis-André; Choquet, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Organelle gene expression is characterized by nucleus-encoded trans-acting factors that control posttranscriptional steps in a gene-specific manner. As a typical example, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of the chloroplast petA gene encoding cytochrome f, a major subunit of the cytochrome b6f complex, depends on MCA1 and TCA1, required for the accumulation and translation of the petA mRNA. Here, we show that these two proteins associate in high molecular mass complexes that also contain the petA mRNA. We demonstrate that MCA1 is degraded upon interaction with unassembled cytochrome f that transiently accumulates during the biogenesis of the cytochrome b6f complex. Strikingly, this interaction relies on the very same residues that form the repressor motif involved in the Control by Epistasy of cytochrome f Synthesis (CES), a negative feedback mechanism that downregulates cytochrome f synthesis when its assembly within the cytochrome b6f complex is compromised. Based on these new findings, we present a revised picture for the CES regulation of petA mRNA translation that involves proteolysis of the translation enhancer MCA1, triggered by its interaction with unassembled cytochrome f. PMID:21216944

  16. Regulation of the phenolic profile of berries can increase their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Jozef; Kochanová, Radka; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Chlebo, Peter; Hanácková, Eva; Slamka, Pavol

    2009-03-11

    The changes of the antioxidant activities (AOA), antiradical activities (ARA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic acids, and hydroxycinnamic acids in black currant and black chokeberry, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG), were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and selected flavonol contents was analyzed by RP-HPLC. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in black chokeberry, 1.71-fold after treatment with KF(1) and 1.74-fold after treatment with CCHG. In black currant IP was elevated after CCHG application only in lower dose (CCHG(1) 63.36% vs control 53.23%). In black chokeberry the total phenolics content was elevated 1.49-fold after KF(1) application and 1.31-fold after CCHG(2) application. The regulators had the lower effect on the phenolic accumulation in black currant. There was a strong relationship between the total phenolics in the both crops and anthocyanins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and hydroxycinnamic acids contents, respectively. Both regulators significantly changed the ratio of conjugated (rutin) to free (quercetin) flavonol mainly in black chokeberry. The antioxidant activities compared using LDL in vitro oxidation assay were increased more expressively after treatment with KF(2) in both crops. PMID:19209908

  17. Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2 Coordinates Hepatic Regulation of Bile Acid and FGF15/19 Signaling to Repress Bile Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangwei; Hsu, Diane D.F.; Li, Bing; Luo, Xiaolin; Alderson, Nazilla; Qiao, Liping; Ma, Lina; Zhu, Helen H.; He, Zhao; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Ji, Kaihong; Li, Jiefu; Shao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Eric; Li, Tiangang; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bile acid (BA) biosynthesis is tightly controlled by intrahepatic negative feedback signaling elicited by BA binding to farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and also by enterohepatic communication involving ileal BA reabsorption and FGF15/19 secretion. However, how these pathways are coordinated is poorly understood. We show here that non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 is a critical player that couples and regulates the intrahepatic and enterohepatic signals for repression of BA synthesis. Ablating Shp2 in hepatocytes suppressed signal relay from FGFR4, receptor for FGF15/19, and attenuated BA activation of FXR signaling, resulting in elevation of systemic BA levels and chronic hepatobiliary disorders in mice. Acting immediately downstream of FGFR4, Shp2 associates with FRS2α and promotes the receptor activation and signal relay to several pathways. These results elucidate a molecular mechanism for the control of BA homeostasis by Shp2 through orchestration of multiple signals in hepatocytes. PMID:24981838

  18. SYNTHESIS OF HAPTENS AND POTENTIAL RADIOLIGANDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBODIES TO INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS DIFLUBENZURON AND BAY SIR 8514

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of synthetic approaches were undertaken, leading to potential haptens and radioligands for the benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and BAY SIR 8514. One successful approach involved derivatization of the aniline nitrogen by ethyl 4-bromobutyrate fol...

  19. Investigation of triterpene synthesis and regulation in oats reveals a role for β-amyrin in determining root epidermal cell patterning.

    PubMed

    Kemen, Ariane C; Honkanen, Suvi; Melton, Rachel E; Findlay, Kim C; Mugford, Sam T; Hayashi, Keiko; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Rosser, Susan J; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-06-10

    Sterols have important functions in membranes and signaling. Plant sterols are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway by cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to cycloartenol. Plants also convert 2,3-oxidosqualene to other sterol-like cyclization products, including the simple triterpene β-amyrin. The function of β-amyrin per se is unknown, but this molecule can serve as an intermediate in the synthesis of more complex triterpene glycosides associated with plant defense. β-Amyrin is present at low levels in the roots of diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Oat roots also synthesize the β-amyrin-derived triterpene glycoside avenacin A-1, which provides protection against soil-borne diseases. The genes for the early steps in avenacin A-1 synthesis [saponin-deficient 1 and 2 (Sad1 and Sad2)] have been recruited from the sterol pathway by gene duplication and neofunctionalization. Here we show that Sad1 and Sad2 are regulated by an ancient root developmental process that is conserved across diverse species. Sad1 promoter activity is dependent on an L1 box motif, implicating sterol/lipid-binding class IV homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factors as potential regulators. The metabolism of β-amyrin is blocked in sad2 mutants, which therefore accumulate abnormally high levels of this triterpene. The accumulation of elevated levels of β-amyrin in these mutants triggers a "superhairy" root phenotype. Importantly, this effect is manifested very early in the establishment of the root epidermis, causing a greater proportion of epidermal cells to be specified as root hair cells rather than nonhair cells. Together these findings suggest that simple triterpenes may have widespread and as yet largely unrecognized functions in plant growth and development. PMID:24912185

  20. Investigation of triterpene synthesis and regulation in oats reveals a role for β-amyrin in determining root epidermal cell patterning

    PubMed Central

    Kemen, Ariane C.; Honkanen, Suvi; Melton, Rachel E.; Findlay, Kim C.; Mugford, Sam T.; Hayashi, Keiko; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Rosser, Susan J.; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Sterols have important functions in membranes and signaling. Plant sterols are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway by cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to cycloartenol. Plants also convert 2,3-oxidosqualene to other sterol-like cyclization products, including the simple triterpene β-amyrin. The function of β-amyrin per se is unknown, but this molecule can serve as an intermediate in the synthesis of more complex triterpene glycosides associated with plant defense. β-Amyrin is present at low levels in the roots of diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Oat roots also synthesize the β-amyrin–derived triterpene glycoside avenacin A-1, which provides protection against soil-borne diseases. The genes for the early steps in avenacin A-1 synthesis [saponin-deficient 1 and 2 (Sad1 and Sad2)] have been recruited from the sterol pathway by gene duplication and neofunctionalization. Here we show that Sad1 and Sad2 are regulated by an ancient root developmental process that is conserved across diverse species. Sad1 promoter activity is dependent on an L1 box motif, implicating sterol/lipid-binding class IV homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factors as potential regulators. The metabolism of β-amyrin is blocked in sad2 mutants, which therefore accumulate abnormally high levels of this triterpene. The accumulation of elevated levels of β-amyrin in these mutants triggers a “superhairy” root phenotype. Importantly, this effect is manifested very early in the establishment of the root epidermis, causing a greater proportion of epidermal cells to be specified as root hair cells rather than nonhair cells. Together these findings suggest that simple triterpenes may have widespread and as yet largely unrecognized functions in plant growth and development. PMID:24912185

  1. Inhibitors of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylases regulate nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2 and YAP/TAZ involved in CTGF synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Felix; Giehl, Klaudia; Rehm, Margot; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs) has been shown to preserve renal structure and function in various models of kidney disease. Since transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) is one of the major mediators of kidney injury, we investigated if inhibition of PHDs with subsequent stabilization of hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) might interfere with TGFβ-1 signaling with special emphasis on its target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Overnight incubation of human renal tubular cells, primary cells and cell lines, with the PDH inhibitor DMOG increased Smad3 expression, but barely affected Smad2. Both Smads were translocated into the nucleus upon activation of the cells with TGFβ-1. Interestingly, Smad3 nuclear localization was enhanced upon pretreatment of the cells with DMOG for several hours, whereas nuclear Smad2 was reduced. This differential localization was independent of Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Reduced nuclear Smad2 correlated with impaired CTGF secretion in DMOG-treated cells and transient downregulation of Smad2 interfered with TGFβ-1-induced CTGF synthesis. Furthermore, YAP was confirmed as indispensable transcription factor involved in CTGF synthesis. Nuclear localization of YAP and TAZ was reduced in DMOG-treated cells. Our data thus provide evidence for DMOG-mediated reduction of CTGF expression by regulating the nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2, YAP and TAZ. Prolonged inhibition of PHDs was necessary to achieve alterations in cellular localization suggesting an indirect HIF-mediated effect. This mechanism might be extended to other transcription factors and target genes, and may thus represent a novel mechanism of negative regulation of gene expression by PHD inhibition. PMID:27155083

  2. Transcriptional regulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase synthesis by oxygen in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and evidence for developmental control of the hemB gene.

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, S; O'Brian, M R

    1997-01-01

    An increased demand for cytochromes is associated with symbiotic development and microaerobic metabolism in the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and evidence suggests that hemB, rather than hemA, is the first essential bacterial heme synthesis gene in symbiosis with soybean. Steady-state levels of mRNA and protein encoded by hemB were strongly and rapidly induced by O2 deprivation as determined by RNase protection and immunoblot analyses, but hemH message was not induced. Oxygen limitation resulted in a greater-than-10-fold increase in the rate of hemB mRNA synthesis as determined by transcriptional runoff experiments, whereas hemH transcription was unaffected by the O2 status. Thus, hemB is a regulated gene in B. japonicum and is transcriptionally controlled by O2. Unlike the expression in parent strain I110, hemB expression was not affected by O2 in the fixJ strain 7360, and O2-limited cultures of the mutant contained quantities of hemB mRNA and protein that were comparable to uninduced levels found in aerobic cells. In addition, spectroscopic analysis of cell extracts showed that increases in b- and c-type cytochromes and the disappearance of cytochrome aa3 in response to microaerobic growth in wild-type cells were not observed in the fixJ mutant. FixJ is a key transcriptional regulator that mediates O2-dependent differentiation in rhizobia, and therefore hemB expression is under developmental control. Furthermore, the data suggest a global control of cytochrome expression and heme biosynthesis in response to the cellular O2 status. PMID:9171420

  3. CelR, an Ortholog of the Diguanylate Cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E.; Banta, Lois M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division. PMID:24038703

  4. The Redox Regulator Fnr Is Required for Fermentative Growth and Enterotoxin Synthesis in Bacillus cereus F4430/73▿

    PubMed Central

    Zigha, Assia; Rosenfeld, Eric; Schmitt, Philippe; Duport, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-grown cells of Bacillus cereus respond to anaerobiosis and low extracellular oxidoreduction potentials (ORP), notably by enhancing enterotoxin production. This response involves the ResDE two-component system. We searched the B. cereus genome for other redox response regulators potentially involved in this adaptive process, and we identified one gene encoding a protein predicted to have an amino acid sequence 58% identical (80% similar) to that of the Bacillus subtilis Fnr redox regulator. The fnr gene of the food-borne pathogen B. cereus F4430/73 has been cloned and partially characterized. We showed that fnr was up-regulated during anaerobic fermentation, especially when fermentation occurred at low ORP (under highly reducing conditions). The expression of fnr was down-regulated in the presence of O2 and nitrate which, unlike fumarate, stimulated the respiratory pathways. The inactivation of B. cereus fnr abolished fermentative growth but only moderately affected aerobic and anaerobic nitrate respiratory growth. Analyses of glucose by-products and the transcription profiles of key catabolic genes confirmed the strong regulatory impact of Fnr on B. cereus fermentative pathways. More importantly, the fnr mutation strongly decreased the expression of PlcR-dependent hbl and nhe genes, leading to the absence of hemolysin BL (Hbl) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) secretion by the mutant. These data indicate that fnr is essential for both fermentation and toxinogenesis. The results also suggest that both Fnr and the ResDE two-component system belong to a redox regulatory pathway that functions at least partially independently of the pleiotropic virulence gene regulator PlcR to regulate enterotoxin gene expression. PMID:17259311

  5. A theoretical model of slow wave regulation using voltage-dependent synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Smith, David W; van Helden, Dirk F

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative mathematical model is presented that examines membrane potential feedback on synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and its role in generation and modulation of slow waves. Previous experimental studies indicate that slow waves show voltage dependence, and this is likely to result through membrane potential modulation of IP(3). It is proposed that the observed response of the tissue to current pulse, pulse train, and maintained current injection can be explained by changes in IP(3), modulated through a voltage-IP(3) feedback loop. Differences underlying the tissue responses to current injections of opposite polarities are shown to be due to the sequence of events following such currents. Results from this model are consistent with experimental findings and provide further understanding of these experimental observations. Specifically, we find that membrane potential can induce, abolish, and modulate slow wave frequency by altering the excitability of the tissue through the voltage-IP(3) feedback loop. PMID:12324409

  6. XND1, a member of the NAC domain family in Arabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose synthesis and programmed cell death in xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; U. Avci; E. Grant; C.H. Haigler; E.P. Beers

    2007-10-23

    Members of the large Arabidopsis NAC domain transcription factor family are regulators of meristem development, organ elongation and separation, and deposition of patterned secondary cell walls. XYLEM NAC DOMAIN 1 (XND1) is highly expressed in xylem. Changes observed for XND1 knockout plants compared with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana included a reduction in both plant height and tracheary element length and an increase in metaxylem relative to protoxylem in roots of plants treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Overexpression of XND1 resulted in extreme dwarfism associated with the absence of xylem vessels and little or no expression of tracheary element marker genes. In contrast, phloem marker-gene expression was not altered and phloem-type cells still formed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that parenchyma-like cells in the incipient xylem zone in hypocotyls of XND1 overexpressors lacked secondary wall thickenings and retained their cytoplasmic content. Considered together, these findings suggest that XND1 affects tracheary element growth through regulation of secondary wall synthesis and programmed cell death.

  7. GacS-dependent regulation of enzymic and antifungal activities and synthesis of N-acylhomoserine lactones in rhizospheric strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449.

    PubMed

    Veselova, M; Lipasova, V; Protsenko, M A; Buza, N; Khmel, I A

    2009-09-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 449 isolated from the rhizosphere of maize suppresses numerous plant pathogens in vitro. The strain produces phenazine antibiotics and synthesizes at least three types of quorum sensing signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones. Here we have shown that the rhizospheric P. chlororaphis strains 449, well known strain 30-84 as well as two other P. chlororaphis strains exhibit polygalacturonase activity. Using mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, four independent mutants of strain P. chlororaphis 449 with insertion of mini-Tn5 Km2 in gene gacS of two-component GacA-GacS system of global regulation were selected. All these mutant strains were deficient in production of extracellular proteinase(s), phenazines, N-acylhomoserine lactones synthesis, and did not inhibit the growth of G(+) bacteria in comparison with the wild type strain. The P. chlororaphis 449-06 gacS (-) mutant studied in greater detail was deficient in polygalacturonase, pectin methylesterase activities, swarming motility and antifungal activity. It is the first time the involvement of GacA-GacS system in the regulation of enzymes of pectin metabolism, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, was demonstrated in fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:19937212

  8. NAD(+)- dependent deacetylase SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial protein synthesis by deacetylation of the ribosomal protein MRPL10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent deacetylases, SIRT3, is located in mammalian mitochondria and is important for regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, cell survival, and longevity. In this study, MRPL10 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10) was identified as the major acetylated ...

  9. Regulation of glycoprotein D synthesis: does alpha 4, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1, regulate late genes both positively and negatively?

    PubMed Central

    Arsenakis, M; Campadelli-Fiume, G; Roizman, B

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have described the alpha 4/c113 baby hamster kidney cell line which constitutively expresses the alpha 4 protein, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Introduction of the HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) gene, regulated as a gamma 1 gene, into these cells yielded a cell line which constitutively expressed both the alpha 4 and gamma 1 gB genes. The expression of the gB gene was dependent on the presence of functional alpha 4 protein. In this article we report that we introduced into the alpha 4/c113 and into the parental BHK cells, the HSV-1 BamHI J fragment, which encodes the domains of four genes, including those of glycoproteins D, G, and I (gD, gG, and gI), and most of the coding sequences of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. In contrast to the earlier studies, we obtained significant constitutive expression of gD (also a gamma 1 gene) in a cell line (BJ) derived from parental BHK cells, but not in a cell line (alpha 4/BJ) which expresses functional alpha 4 protein. RNA homologous to the gD gene was present in significant amounts in the BJ cell line; smaller amounts of this RNA were detected in the alpha 4/BJ cell line. RNA homologous to gE, presumed to be polyadenylated from signals in the vector sequences, was present in the BJ cells but not in the alpha 4/BJ cells. The expression of the HSV-1 gD and gE genes was readily induced in the alpha 4/BJ cells by superinfection with HSV-2. The BJ cell line was, in contrast, resistant to expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genes. The BamHI J DNA fragment copy number was approximately 1 per BJ cell genome equivalent and 30 to 50 per alpha 4/BJ cell genome equivalent. We conclude that (i) the genes specifying gD and gB belong to different viral regulatory gene subsets, (ii) the gD gene is subject to both positive and negative regulation, (iii) both gD and gE mRNAs are subject to translational controls although they may be different, and (iv) the absence of expression of gD in the alpha 4/BJ

  10. Insights into the Regulation of DMSP Synthesis in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana through APR Activity, Proteomics and Gene Expression Analyses on Cells Acclimating to Changes in Salinity, Light and Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kettles, Nicola Louise; Kopriva, Stanislav; Malin, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in the global sulphur cycle and climate regulation, the biological pathways underpinning its synthesis in marine phytoplankton remain poorly understood. The intracellular concentration of DMSP increases with increased salinity, increased light intensity and nitrogen starvation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. We used these conditions to investigate DMSP synthesis at the cellular level via analysis of enzyme activity, gene expression and proteome comparison. The activity of the key sulphur assimilatory enzyme, adenosine 5′-phosphosulphate reductase was not coordinated with increasing intracellular DMSP concentration. Under all three treatments coordination in the expression of sulphur assimilation genes was limited to increases in sulphite reductase transcripts. Similarly, proteomic 2D gel analysis only revealed an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase following increases in DMSP concentration. Our findings suggest that increased sulphur assimilation might not be required for increased DMSP synthesis, instead the availability of carbon and nitrogen substrates may be important in the regulation of this pathway. This contrasts with the regulation of sulphur metabolism in higher plants, which generally involves up-regulation of several sulphur assimilatory enzymes. In T. pseudonana changes relating to sulphur metabolism were specific to the individual treatments and, given that little coordination was seen in transcript and protein responses across the three growth conditions, different patterns of regulation might be responsible for the increase in DMSP concentration seen under each treatment. PMID:24733415

  11. IscR Regulates Synthesis of Colonization Factor Antigen I Fimbriae in Response to Iron Starvation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Arnaud-Barbe, Nadège; Poncet, David; Reverchon, Sylvie; Wawrzyniak, Julien; Nasser, William

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron availability functions as an environmental cue for enteropathogenic bacteria, signaling arrival within the human host. As enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of human diarrhea, the effect of iron on ETEC virulence factors was evaluated here. ETEC pathogenicity is directly linked to production of fimbrial colonization factors and secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Efficient colonization of the small intestine further requires at least the flagellin binding adhesin EtpA. Under iron starvation, production of the CFA/I fimbriae was increased in the ETEC H10407 prototype strain. In contrast, LT secretion was inhibited. Furthermore, under iron starvation, gene expression of the cfa (CFA/I) and etp (EtpBAC) operons was induced, whereas transcription of toxin genes was either unchanged or repressed. Transcriptional reporter fusion experiments focusing on the cfa operon further showed that iron starvation stimulated cfaA promoter activity in ETEC, indicating that the impact of iron on CFA/I production was mediated by transcriptional regulation. Evaluation of cfaA promoter activity in heterologous E. coli single mutant knockout strains identified IscR as the regulator responsible for inducing cfa fimbrial gene expression in response to iron starvation, and this was confirmed in an ETEC ΔiscR strain. The global iron response regulator, Fur, was not implicated. IscR binding sites were identified in silico within the cfaA promoter and fixation confirmed by DNase I footprinting, indicating that IscR directly binds the promoter region to induce CFA/I. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic enterobacteria modulate expression of virulence genes in response to iron availability. Although the Fur transcription factor represents the global regulator of iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli, we show that several ETEC virulence factors are modulated by iron, with expression of the major fimbriae under the control of the iron

  12. Gene Expression and Metabolite Profiling of Developing Highbush Blueberry Fruit Indicates Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Metabolism and Activation of Abscisic Acid Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Zaharia, L. Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P.; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Kennedy, James A.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3′5′-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation

  13. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  14. Fam57b (family with sequence similarity 57, member B), a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ target gene that regulates adipogenesis through ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-02-15

    This report identifies a novel gene encoding Fam57b (family with sequence similarity 57, member B) as a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-responsive transmembrane gene that is related to obesity. The gene was identified based on an integrated bioinformatics analysis of the following three expression profiling data sets: adipocyte differentiation of mouse stromal cells (ST2 cells), adipose tissues from obesity mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pparγ using ST2 cells. Fam57b consists of three variants expressed from different promoters and contains a Tram-Lag1-CLN8 domain that is related to ceramide synthase. Reporter and ChIP assays showed that Fam57b variant 2 is a bona fide PPARγ target gene in ST2 cells. Fam57b was up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that FAM57B is involved in this process. Surprisingly, FAM57B overexpression inhibited adipogenesis, and siRNA-mediated knockdown promoted adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of the ceramide content by lipid assay found that ceramides were in fact augmented in FAM57B-overexpressing ST2 cells. We also confirmed that ceramide inhibits adipogenesis. Therefore, the aforementioned results of FAM57B overexpression and siRNA experiments are reconciled by ceramide synthesis. In summary, we present in vitro evidence showing that PPARγ regulates Fam57b transcription during the adipogenesis of ST2 cells. In addition, our results suggest that PPARγ activation contributes to the regulation of ceramide metabolism during adipogenesis via FAM57B. PMID:23275342

  15. A RelA-dependent two-tiered regulated proteolysis cascade controls synthesis of a contact-dependent intercellular signal in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, Anna; Löbach, Stephanie; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2012-04-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of precursor proteins to generate intercellular signals is a common mechanism in all cells. In Myxococcus xanthus the contact-dependent intercellular C-signal is a 17 kDa protein (p17) generated by proteolytic cleavage of the 25 kDa csgA protein (p25), and is essential for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. p25 accumulates in the outer membrane and PopC, the protease that cleaves p25, in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells. PopC is secreted in response to starvation, therefore, restricting p25 cleavage to starving cells. We focused on identifying proteins critical for PopC secretion in response to starvation. PopC secretion depends on the (p)ppGpp synthase RelA and the stringent response, and is regulated post-translationally. PopD, which is encoded in an operon with PopC, forms a soluble complex with PopC and inhibits PopC secretion whereas the integral membrane AAA+ protease FtsH(D) is required for PopC secretion. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggest that in response to starvation, RelA is activated and induces the degradation of PopD thereby releasing pre-formed PopC for secretion and that FtsH(D) is important for PopD degradation. Hence, regulated PopC secretion depends on regulated proteolysis. Accordingly, p17 synthesis depends on a proteolytic cascade including FtsH(D) -dependent degradation of PopD and PopC-dependent cleavage of p25. PMID:22404381

  16. Hypoxic regulation of glutamine metabolism through HIF1 and SIAH2 supports lipid synthesis that is necessary for tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ramon C; Denko, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    Recent reports have identified a phenomenon by which hypoxia shifts glutamine metabolism from oxidation to reductive carboxylation. We now identify the mechanism by which HIF-1 activation results in a dramatic reduction in the activity of the key mitochondrial enzyme complex α ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH). HIF-1 activation promotes SIAH2 targeted ubiquitination and proteolysis of the 48 kDa splice variant of the E1 subunit of the αKGDH complex (OGDH2). Knockdown of SIAH2 or mutation of the ubiquitinated lysine residue on OGDH2 (336KA) reverses the hypoxic drop in αKGDH activity, stimulates glutamine oxidation, and reduces glutamine-dependent lipid synthesis. 336KA OGDH2-expressing cells require exogenous lipids or citrate for growth in hypoxia in vitro and fail to grow as model tumors in immunodeficient mice. Reversal of hypoxic mitochondrial function may provide a target for the development of next-generation anticancer agents targeting tumor metabolism. PMID:24506869

  17. Shell Extracts from the Marine Bivalve Pecten maximus Regulate the Synthesis of Extracellular Matrix in Primary Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the −112/−61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  18. Shell extracts from the marine bivalve Pecten maximus regulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in primary cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the -112/-61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  19. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization of an Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Exhibiting Acid-Responsive Regulation of Charge Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahk, Ian

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism essential to the robustness of the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants. Energy flow within the low-light adapted reaction centers is dynamically optimized to match the continuously fluctuating light conditions found in nature. Activated by compartmentalized decreases in pH resulting from photosynthetic activity during periods of elevated photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy that would otherwise overwhelm the apparatus's ability to consume it. Consequently, the frequency of charge separation decreases and the formation of potentially deleterious, high-energy intermediates slows, thereby reducing the threat of photodamage by disallowing their accumulation. Herein is described the synthesis and photophysical analysis of a molecular triad that mimics the effects of NPQ on charge separation within the photosynthetic reaction centers. Steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies were used to demonstrate reversible quenching of the first singlet excited state affecting the quantum yield of charge separation by approximately one order of magnitude. As in the natural system, the populations of unquenched and quenched states and, therefore, the overall yields of charge separation were found to be dependent upon acid concentration.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII coordinately represses the synthesis of virulence factors and the transcription regulator Rot by an antisense mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Boisset, Sandrine; Geissmann, Thomas; Huntzinger, Eric; Fechter, Pierre; Bendridi, Nadia; Possedko, Maria; Chevalier, Clément; Helfer, Anne Catherine; Benito, Yvonne; Jacquier, Alain; Gaspin, Christine; Vandenesch, François; Romby, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum-sensing system in Staphylococcus aureus. It is one of the largest regulatory RNAs (514 nucleotides long) that are known to control the expression of a large number of virulence genes. Here, we show that the 3′ domain of RNAIII coordinately represses at the post-transcriptional level, the expression of mRNAs that encode a class of virulence factors that act early in the infection process. We demonstrate that the 3′ domain acts primarily as an antisense RNA and rapidly anneals to these mRNAs, forming long RNA duplexes. The interaction between RNAIII and the mRNAs results in repression of translation initiation and triggers endoribonuclease III hydrolysis. These processes are followed by rapid depletion of the mRNA pool. In addition, we show that RNAIII and its 3′ domain mediate translational repression of rot mRNA through a limited number of base pairings involving two loop–loop interactions. Since Rot is a transcriptional regulatory protein, we proposed that RNAIII indirectly acts on many downstream genes, resulting in the activation of the synthesis of several exoproteins. These data emphasize the multitude of regulatory steps affected by RNAIII and its 3′ domain in establishing a network of S. aureus virulence factors. PMID:17545468

  1. AGEs-Induced IL-6 Synthesis Precedes RAGE Up-Regulation in HEK 293 Cells: An Alternative Inflammatory Mechanism?

    PubMed

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) upon exposure to 200 μg/mL bovine serum albumine (BSA) or AGEs-BSA for 12, 24 and 48 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AGEs receptor (RAGE) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27, 60 and 70, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression levels of eight cytokines were analysed. Cell damage via oxidative mechanisms was evaluated by glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The data revealed two different time scale responses. First, the up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), HSP 27 and high catalase activity were detected as early as 12 h after exposure to AGEs-BSA, while the second response, after 24 h, consisted of NF-κB p65, RAGE, HSP 70 and inflammatory cytokine up-regulation, glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde increase and the activation of antioxidant enzymes. IL-6 might be important in the early ignition of inflammatory responses, while the cellular redox imbalance, RAGE activation and NF-κB p65 increased expression further enhance inflammatory signals in HEK 293 cells. PMID:26307981

  2. AGEs-Induced IL-6 Synthesis Precedes RAGE Up-Regulation in HEK 293 Cells: An Alternative Inflammatory Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) upon exposure to 200 μg/mL bovine serum albumine (BSA) or AGEs–BSA for 12, 24 and 48 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AGEs receptor (RAGE) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27, 60 and 70, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression levels of eight cytokines were analysed. Cell damage via oxidative mechanisms was evaluated by glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The data revealed two different time scale responses. First, the up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), HSP 27 and high catalase activity were detected as early as 12 h after exposure to AGEs–BSA, while the second response, after 24 h, consisted of NF-κB p65, RAGE, HSP 70 and inflammatory cytokine up-regulation, glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde increase and the activation of antioxidant enzymes. IL-6 might be important in the early ignition of inflammatory responses, while the cellular redox imbalance, RAGE activation and NF-κB p65 increased expression further enhance inflammatory signals in HEK 293 cells. PMID:26307981

  3. Up-Regulation of TREK-2 Potassium Channels in Cultured Astrocytes Requires De Novo Protein Synthesis: Relevance to Localization of TREK-2 Channels in Astrocytes after Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Pagán, Aixa F.; Rivera-Aponte, David E.; Melnik-Martínez, Katya V.; Zayas-Santiago, Astrid; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.; Martins, Antonio H.; Cubano, Luis A.; Skatchkov, Serguei N.; Eaton, Misty J.

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity due to glutamate receptor over-activation is one of the key mediators of neuronal death after an ischemic insult. Therefore, a major function of astrocytes is to maintain low extracellular levels of glutamate. The ability of astrocytic glutamate transporters to regulate the extracellular glutamate concentration depends upon the hyperpolarized membrane potential of astrocytes conferred by the presence of K+ channels in their membranes. We have previously shown that TREK-2 potassium channels in cultured astrocytes are up-regulated by ischemia and may support glutamate clearance by astrocytes during ischemia. Thus, herein we determine the mechanism leading to this up-regulation and assess the localization of TREK-2 channels in astrocytes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. By using a cell surface biotinylation assay we confirmed that functional TREK-2 protein is up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane after ischemic conditions. Using real time RT-PCR, we determined that the levels of TREK-2 mRNA were not increased in response to ischemic conditions. By using Western blot and a variety of protein synthesis inhibitors, we demonstrated that the increase of TREK-2 protein expression requires De novo protein synthesis, while protein degradation pathways do not contribute to TREK-2 up-regulation after ischemic conditions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed TREK-2 localization in astrocytes together with increased expression of the selective glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, in brain 24 hours after transient middle cerebral occlusion. Our data indicate that functional TREK-2 channels are up-regulated in the astrocytic membrane during ischemia through a mechanism requiring De novo protein synthesis. This study provides important information about the mechanisms underlying TREK-2 regulation, which has profound implications in neurological diseases such as ischemia where astrocytes play an important role. PMID:25886567

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase depletes tryptophan, activates general control non-derepressible 2 kinase and down-regulates key enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in primary human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and exerts immunosuppressive effects on CD4(+) T cells. One mechanism is through the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. Another prerequisite for T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells is increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis. The effect of IDO on enzymes involved in FA synthesis was evaluated in primary human cells both in mixed lymphocyte reactions in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor 1-dl-methyl-tryptophan, and in stimulated CD4(+) T cells in the presence or not of the general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase activator tryptophanol (TRP). IDO or TRP inhibited cell proliferation. By assessing the level of GCN2 kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 substrates along with a kynurenine free system we showed that IDO exerts its effect mainly through activation of GCN2 kinase. IDO or TRP down-regulated ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, key enzymes involved in FA synthesis. Also, IDO or TRP altered the expression of enzymes that control the availability of carbon atoms for FA synthesis, such as lactate dehydrogenase-A, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutaminase 1 and glutaminase 2, in a way that inhibits FA synthesis. In conclusion, IDO through GCN2 kinase activation inhibits CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and down-regulates key enzymes that directly or indirectly promote FA synthesis, a prerequisite for CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cell lineages. PMID:26147366

  5. Two MYB transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shiwei; Meng, Geng; Song, Linyan; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. However, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. In this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related MYB transcription factors (TFs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. Among these MYB-like genes, the specific functions of two novel MYB TFs, designated as PbMYB10b and PbMYB9, were further verified by both overexpression and RNAi transient assays. PbMYB10b, a PAP-type MYB TF with atypical motifs in its conserved region, regulated the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways by inducing the expression of PbDFR, but its function could be complemented by other MYB TFs. PbMYB9, a TT2-type MYB, not only acted as the specific activator of the proanthocyanidin pathway by activating the PbANR promoter, but also induced the synthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols by binding the PbUFGT1 promoter in pear fruits. The MYBCORE-like element has been identified in both the PbUFGT1 promoter and ANR promoters in most species, but it was not found in UFGT promoters isolated from other species. This finding was also supported by a yeast one-hybrid assay and thus enhanced the likelihood of the interaction between PbMYB9 and the PbUFGT1 promoter. PMID:26687179

  6. The C. elegans Homolog of RBBP6 (RBPL-1) regulates fertility through controlling cell proliferation in the germline and nutrient synthesis in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Ma, Xuan; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long

    2013-01-01

    RBBP6 (retinoblastoma binding protein 6, also known as PACT or P2P-R in humans) is a multi-domain protein that functions in multiple processes, such as mitosis, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. RBBP6 is evolutionarily conserved and is present in unicellular organisms to mammals. Studies of RBBP6 have mostly focused on its RB- and p53-binding domains, which are found exclusively in mammals. Here, we investigated the C. elegans homolog of RBBP6 to explore the functional roles of its other domains. We found that RBPL-1, the homolog of RBBP6 in C. elegans, is indispensable for worm development. RNAi silencing of rbpl-1 led to embryonic lethality, as well as defects in oocyte production and intestine development. rbpl-1 RNAi worms showed defects in germ cell proliferation, suggesting that RBPL-1 regulates mitosis. Moreover, RNAi silencing of rbpl-1 inhibited nutrient synthesis in the worm intestine. RBPL-1, as a nucleolus protein, was found to be expressed in diverse tissues and necessary for both germline and soma development. Using microarray analysis, we identified ≈700 genes whose expression levels were changed at least 10-fold in rbpl-1 worms. We propose that RBPL-1, like its yeast homolog, may regulate gene expression as an mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor. Taken together, the findings from this study reveal that RBPL-1 plays a pivotal role in C. elegans germline and soma development, suggesting that the functions of RBBP6 are conserved in diverse eukaryotic species. PMID:23536819

  7. Sympathetic outflow activates the venom gland of the snake Bothrops jararaca by regulating the activation of transcription factors and the synthesis of venom gland proteins.

    PubMed

    Luna, Milene S A; Hortencio, Thiago M A; Ferreira, Zulma S; Yamanouye, Norma

    2009-05-01

    The venom gland of viperid snakes has a central lumen where the venom produced by secretory cells is stored. When the venom is lost from the gland, the secretory cells are activated and new venom is produced. The production of new venom is triggered by the action of noradrenaline on both alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptors in the venom gland. In this study, we show that venom removal leads to the activation of transcription factors NFkappaB and AP-1 in the venom gland. In dispersed secretory cells, noradrenaline activated both NFkappaB and AP-1. Activation of NFkappaB and AP-1 depended on phospholipase C and protein kinase A. Activation of NFkappaB also depended on protein kinase C. Isoprenaline activated both NFkappaB and AP-1, and phenylephrine activated NFkappaB and later AP-1. We also show that the protein composition of the venom gland changes during the venom production cycle. Striking changes occurred 4 and 7 days after venom removal in female and male snakes, respectively. Reserpine blocks this change, and the administration of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists to reserpine-treated snakes largely restores the protein composition of the venom gland. However, the protein composition of the venom from reserpinized snakes treated with alpha(1)- or beta-adrenoceptor agonists appears normal, judging from SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. A sexual dimorphism in activating transcription factors and activating venom gland was observed. Our data suggest that the release of noradrenaline after biting is necessary to activate the venom gland by regulating the activation of transcription factors and consequently regulating the synthesis of proteins in the venom gland for venom production. PMID:19411547

  8. Consequences of nocturnal water loss: a synthesis of regulating factors and implications for capacitance, embolism and use in models.

    PubMed

    Zeppel, M J B; Lewis, J D; Phillips, N G; Tissue, D T

    2014-10-01

    Total daily water use is a key factor influencing the growth of many terrestrial plants, and reflects both day-time and nocturnal water fluxes. However, while nocturnal sap flow (En) and stomatal conductance (gs,n) have been reported across a range of species, ecosystems and microclimatic conditions, the regulation of these fluxes remains poorly understood. Here, we present a framework describing the role of abiotic and biotic factors in regulating En and gs,n highlighting recent developments in this field. Across ecosystems, En and gs,n generally increased with increasing soil water content and vapor pressure deficit, but the interactive effects of these factors and the potential roles of wind speed and other abiotic factors remain unclear. On average, gs,n and En are higher in broad-leaved compared with needle-leaved plants, in C3 compared with C4 plants, and in tropical compared with temperate species. We discuss the impacts of leaf age, elevated [CO2] and refilling of capacitance on night-time water loss, and how nocturnal gs,n may be included in vegetation models. Younger leaves may have higher gs,n than older leaves. Embolism refilling and recharge of capacitance may affect sap flow such that total plant water loss at night may be less than estimated solely from En measurements. Our estimates of gs,n for typical plant functional types, based on the published literature, suggest that nocturnal water loss may be a significant fraction (10-25%) of total daily water loss. Counter-intuitively, elevated [CO2] may increase nocturnal water loss. Assumptions in process-based ecophysiological models and dynamic global vegetation models that gs is zero when solar radiation is zero are likely to be incorrect. Consequently, failure to adequately consider nocturnal water loss may lead to substantial under-estimation of total plant water use and inaccurate estimation of ecosystem level water balance. PMID:25413023

  9. Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Down-Regulates Melanin Synthesis in UVB-Induced Guinea Pigs Epidermal Skin Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Seo, Jae Ok; Do, Moon Ho; Ji, Eunhee; Baek, So-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic compounds that are used in the clinic to regulate skin hyperpigmentation, such as arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, are only moderately effective. But, their use is limited by side effects. As part of an effort to overcome the limitations, we developed resveratrol-enriched rice (RR) using genetic engineering technique. Each of resveratrol and rice has been reported to produce anti-melanogenic effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that RR would show more anti-melanogenic effects than those of resveratrol or rice alone. Anti-melanogenic effect of RR was done by using melan-a mouse melanocytes. The depigmenting efficacy was then observed following topical application of the RR to UVB-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of guinea pigs. Treatment with RR extract resulted a 21.4 ± 0.7% decrease in tyrosinase expression at melan-a cells. Colorimetric analysis showed a significantly lower depigmenting value by day 9 following treatment with RR in UVB-irradiated guinea pigs the dorsal skin (p<0.01), indicating that RR produced a depigmentation effect. By staining with Fontana-Masson stain, we found that the RR-treated group had more effect histopathologically in epidermal melanin production than resveratrol or rice alone-treated group. RR was associated with reduction in the levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and downregulation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-2) expression, leading to inhibit epidermal melanin production by western blot analysis. This study suggests that the resveratrol-enriched rice may be a promising candidate in regulating skin pigmentation with UVB exposure. PMID:25414774

  10. Noncoordinate regulation of de novo synthesis of cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and cytochrome P-450 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase in mouse Leydig cell cultures: relation to steroid production

    SciTech Connect

    Anakwe, O.O.; Payne, A.H. )

    1987-09-01

    The role of cAMP in the regulation of the amount and synthesis of cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P-450scc) and cytochrome P-450 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase P-450(17 alpha) was investigated in mouse Leydig cell cultures. In the absence of cAMP, the amount of immunoreactive P-450(17 alpha) decreased to less than 5% by day 4 and was undetectable between days 7 and 11. In contrast, the amount of immunoreactive P-450scc remained relatively constant throughout the same period. Treatment of Leydig cell cultures for 4 days with 0.05 mM 8-bromo-cAMP initiated on day 7 increased the amount of P-450(17 alpha) with relatively little effect on the amount of P-450scc. The rate of de novo synthesis of each of the P-450 enzymes was studied by determining (35S)methionine incorporation into newly synthesized protein. In the absence of cAMP, de novo synthesis of P-450(17 alpha) ceased while the rate of de novo synthesis of P-450scc increased with time in culture between days 2 and 11. Treatment with cAMP initiated on day 7 of culture caused a time-dependent increase in the rate of de novo synthesis of P-450(17 alpha) on days 9 and 11 equivalent to 40% and 60%, respectively, of that observed in freshly isolated Leydig cells. The rate of de novo synthesis of P-450scc was increased 2-fold relative to untreated cultures on days 9 and 11. De novo synthesis of P-450(17 alpha) ceased when cAMP was removed on day 11 and restored when cAMP was added again on day 13 of culture.

  11. Murine interferon system regulation: isolation and characterization of a mutant 3T6 cell engaged in the semiconstitutive synthesis of interferon.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, A P; Colby, C

    1978-06-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a virus-resistant mutant of murine 3T6 cells. The mutant, designated 3T6-VrB2, displays a high degree of resistance to infection by members of the toga-, rhabdo- and picornavirus classes. The level of this resistance to infection is similar to the parent 3T6 pretreated with approximately 100 lU/ml of interferon. Upon co-cultivation of 3T6-VrB2 cells with interferon-sensitive mouse cells, an antiviral state is induced in the latter cells as measured by a reduction of virus yield following infection. The nature of the induction is defined by a series of experiments using anti-mouse interferon antiserum. In the presence of this antiserum, the ability of the mutant to induce an antiviral state in interferon-sensitive mouse cells upon co-cultivation is eliminated. Additionally, growth of the mutant cells in the presence of this antiserum causes a reversal of the virus-resistant phenotype. Our results indicate that 3T6-VrB2 contains a mutation affecting the regulation of the murine interferon system such that the cell is engaged in the semiconstitutive synthesis of interferon. PMID:208779

  12. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F is a novel component of oligodendroglial RNA transport granules contributing to regulation of myelin basic protein (MBP) synthesis.

    PubMed

    White, Robin; Gonsior, Constantin; Bauer, Nina M; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Luhmann, Heiko J; Trotter, Jacqueline

    2012-01-13

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. The absence of MBP results in the loss of almost all compact myelin in the CNS. MBP mRNA is sorted into RNA granules that are transported to the periphery of oligodendrocytes in a translationally inactive state. A central mediator of this transport process is the trans-acting factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 that binds to the cis-acting A2-response element in the 3'UTR of MBP mRNA. Recently, we found that activation of the Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Fyn in oligodendrocytes leads to phosphorylation of hnRNP A2 and to increased translation of MBP mRNA. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein hnRNP F as a novel component of MBP mRNA transport granules. It is associated with hnRNP A2 and MBP mRNA in cytoplasmic granular structures and is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of MBP expression. Fyn kinase activity results in phosphorylation of hnRNP F in the cytoplasm and its release from MBP mRNA and RNA granules. Our results define hnRNP F as a regulatory element of MBP expression in oligodendrocytes and imply an important function of hnRNP F in the control of myelin synthesis. PMID:22128153

  13. Role of Hydroxytyrosol-dependent Regulation of HO-1 Expression in Promoting Wound Healing of Vascular Endothelial Cells via Nrf2 De Novo Synthesis and Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zrelli, Houda; Kusunoki, Miki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT), an olive plant (Olea europaea L.) polyphenol, has proven atheroprotective effects. We previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in the HT dependent prevention of dysfunction induced by oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Here, we further investigated the signaling pathway of HT-dependent HO-1 expression in VECs. HT dose- and time-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels through the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D inhibited both increases, suggesting that HT-triggered HO-1 induction is transcriptionally regulated and that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for this HT effect. HT stimulated nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This Nrf2 accumulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide whereas HT in combination with the 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 enhanced the accumulation. HT also extended the half-life of Nrf2 proteins by decelerating its turnover. Moreover, HO-1 inhibitor, ZnppIX and CO scavenger, hemoglobin impaired HT-dependent wound healing while CORM-2, a CO generator, accelerated wound closure. Together, these data demonstrate that HT upregulates HO-1 expression by stimulating the nuclear accumulation and stabilization of Nrf2, leading to the wound repair of VECs crucial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:25870947

  14. Mulberry anthocyanin extract regulates glucose metabolism by promotion of glycogen synthesis and reduction of gluconeogenesis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fujie; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Lingxia; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry has been demonstrated to possess important biological activities such as antioxidation and antiinflammation. However, rese