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Sample records for regulates minor process

  1. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  2. Minority Aging and Endogenous Pain Facilitatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W.; Goodin, Burel R.; McNew, Myriah; Gossett, Ethan W.; Bradley, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among age, ethnicity, and endogenous pain facilitation using temporal summation (TS) responses to mechanical and heat stimuli. Design The present study assessed hyperalgesia and pain facilitation to thermal and mechanical stimuli at the knee and distal sites in 98 pain-free men and women. Participants were drawn from two ethnic (African-Americans, AA; and non-Hispanic whites, NHW) and age groups (19-35 and 45-85). Results Significant main effects of ethnicity were demonstrated for both mechanical and heat modalities (all p’s≤0.05), suggesting that AA participants, relative to NHW counterparts, demonstrated enhanced hyperalgesia. Age differences (older > younger) in hyperalgesia were found in mechanical pain ratings only. Results indicated that mechanical pain ratings significantly increased from first to maximal pain as a function of both age group and ethnicity (all p’s≤0.05), and a significant ethnicity by age interaction for TS of mechanical pain was found at the forearm (p<0.05) and trended towards significance at the knee (p=0.071). Post-hoc tests suggested that results were primarily driven by the older AA participants, who demonstrated the greatest mechanical TS. Additionally, evidence of differences in heat TS due to both ethnicity alone (all p’s≤0.05) and minority aging was also found. Conclusions This study provides evidence suggesting that older AAs demonstrate enhanced pain facilitatory processes, which is important because this group may be at increased risk for development of chronic pain. These results underscore the necessity of testing pain modulatory mechanisms when addressing questions related to pain perception and minority aging. PMID:26814250

  3. Minor Planet Center Data Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects.Over 2 million observations are received each month via the internet, and are validated and processed in near real time. The observations come in batches whose formats are checked and whose observations are run through a number of other routine checks such as departure from great circle motion, prior publication, single observations, near duplicates, etc. Some or all of a batch of observations may be returned to its sender if they fail one or more of the checks. After the observations have been validated, they are processed to produce orbits of newly discovered objects or used to update the orbits of known objects.Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges face the MPC. These include the following: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights (possibly at different apparitions) which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; determining and examining the range of possible variant orbits of newly discovered Near-Earth objects with very short observation arcs for cases which indicate an object is potentially on a collision course with Earth; linking observations to known artificial satellites and/or booster stages and other space "junk"; prioritizing newly

  4. Clinical Research Involving Minors in International and Serbian Regulations

    PubMed Central

    PLANOJEVIĆ, Nina; ŽIVOJINOVIĆ, Dragica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be – it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative’s consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors’ position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative’s consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone’s health, including a minor in which those are conducted – this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other’s behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors’ participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model. PMID:24455493

  5. Perturbed GUE Minor Process and Warren's Process with Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Patrik L.; Frings, René

    2013-11-01

    We consider the minor process of (Hermitian) matrix diffusions with constant diagonal drifts. At any given time, this process is determinantal and we provide an explicit expression for its correlation kernel. This is a measure on the Gelfand-Tsetlin pattern that also appears in a generalization of Warren's process (Electron. J. Probab. 12:573-590, 2007), in which Brownian motions have level-dependent drifts. Finally, we show that this process arises in a diffusion scaling limit from an interacting particle system in the anisotropic KPZ class in 2+1 dimensions introduced in Borodin and Ferrari (Commun. Math. Phys., 2008). Our results generalize the known results for the zero drift situation.

  6. A comparative study on the regulation of C(3) and C (4) carboxylation processes in the constitutive crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana and the C(3)-CAM intermediate Clusia minor.

    PubMed

    Borland, A M; Griffiths, H

    1997-03-01

    A comparison of carbon metabolism in the constitutive crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perr. and the C(3)-CAM intermediate Clusia minor L. was undertaken under controlled environmental conditions where plants experience gradual changes in light intensity, temperature and humidity at the start and end of the photoperiod. The magnitude of CAM activity was manipulated by maintaining plants in ambient air or by enclosing leaves overnight in an atmosphere of N(2) to suppress C(4) carboxylation. Measurements of diel changes in carbonisotope discrimination and organic acid content were used to quantify the activities of C(3) and C(4) carboxylases in vivo and to indicate the extent to which the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and decarboxylation processes overlap at the start and end of the photoperiod. These measurements in vivo were compared with measurements in vitro of changes in the diel sensitivity of PEPCase to malate inhibition. The results demonstrate fundamental differences in the down-regulation of PEPCase during the day in the two species. While PEPCase is inactivated within the first 30 min of the photoperiod in K. daigremontiana, the enzyme is active for 4 h at the start and 3 h at the end of the photoperiod in C. minor. Enclosing leaves in N(2) overnight resulted in a two-to threefold increase in PEPCase-mediated CO(2) uptake during Phase II of CAM in both species. However, futile cycling of CO(2) between malate synthesis and decarboxylation does not occur during Phase II in either species. In terms of overall carbon balance, C(4) carboxylation accounted for approximately 20% of net daytime assimilation in both species under control conditions, increasing to 30-34% after a night in N(2). Although N(2)-treated leaves of K. daigremontiana took up 25% more CO(2) than control leaves during the day this was insufficient to compensate for

  7. Minor differences in the molecular machinery mediating regulated membrane fusion has major impact on metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Daraio, Teresa; Brismar, Kerstin; Hökfelt, Tomas; Bark, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The exocytosis of signaling molecules from neuronal, neuroendocrine and endocrine cells is regulated by membrane fusion involving SNAP-25 and associated SNARE proteins. The importance of this process for metabolic control recently became evident by studies of mouse mutants genetically engineered to only express one of 2 closely related, alternatively-spliced variants of SNAP-25. The results showed that even minor differences in the function of proteins regulating exocytosis are sufficient to provoke metabolic disease, including hyperglycaemia, liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy and obesity. Thus, an imbalance in the dynamics of hormonal and/or neurotransmitter release can cause obesity and type 2 diabetes. This recent discovery highlights the fact that metabolic health requires a perfectly operating interplay between the SNARE protein machinery in excitable cells and the organs responding to these messengers. PMID:27617177

  8. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  9. Mass Media and Minority Socialization: Conceptualizing the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    The contents of this concept paper examining the roll of the mass media in the socialization of minority groups in America include an examination of the major literature dealing with the socialization of minority groups, a discussion of subculture orientation to minority socialization, consideration of the theories of ethnocentrism and their…

  10. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed. PMID:19748884

  11. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  12. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  13. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...The Department of the Treasury (the Department) is proposing to amend the Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation (DTAR) to include a contract clause on minority and women inclusion, as required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the Dodd-Frank...

  14. Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

  15. Minorities and Constitutional Due Process under Collective Bargaining Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    Chapter 19 of a book on school law examines how racial minority faculty members at colleges where collective bargaining agreements are in operation are likely to be affected under new rules by the U.S. Supreme Court. A few examples are given of court decisions showing, in general, that arbitration of a dispute by the collective bargaining process…

  16. Involvement and Empowerment of Minorities and Women in the Accrediting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Louis W.; And Others

    The involvement of women and minorities in the accrediting process was studied nationally. The experiences of women and minorities who participated in the accrediting process were surveyed, including perceived or actual empowerment derived from participation. Views of accrediting agencies and member institutions were also assessed. Respondents…

  17. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? 361.1 Section 361.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE....1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  18. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? 361.1 Section 361.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE....1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  19. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers' emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  20. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers’ emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  1. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  2. Online Gambling Advertising Regulations in Spain. A Study on the Protection of Minors.

    PubMed

    Buil, Pilar; Solé Moratilla, Maria José; García Ruiz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the online gambling advertising regulations in Spain currently in effect to assess the actual protection of underage youth. In recent years, online gambling among youth has increased. Through advertising, online gambling companies incite and encourage an involvement that can be harmful for vulnerable audiences. Some studies have demonstrated that advertising influences youths' assessment of gambling by increasing its appeal. We demonstrate that the shortcomings of the legal framework in force results in effective vulnerability of minors. We claim that society should seek to implement a regulatory framework to protect children from the risk of developing an addiction. PMID:26437313

  3. Musical chords and emotion: major and minor triads are processed for emotion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, David Radford; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-03-01

    Musical chords are arguably the smallest building blocks of music that retain emotional information. Major chords are generally perceived as positive- and minor chords as negative-sounding, but there has been debate concerning how early these emotional connotations may be processed. To investigate this, emotional facial stimuli and musical chord stimuli were simultaneously presented to participants, and facilitation of processing was measured via event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes. Decreased amplitudes of the P1 and N2 ERP components have been found to index the facilitation of early processing. If simultaneously presented musical chords and facial stimuli are perceived at early stages as belonging to the same emotional category, then early processing should be facilitated for these congruent pairs, and ERP amplitudes should therefore be decreased as compared to the incongruent pairs. ERPs were recorded from 30 musically naive participants as they viewed happy, sad, and neutral faces presented simultaneously with a major or minor chord. When faces and chords were presented that contained congruent emotional information (happy-major or sad-minor), processing was facilitated, as indexed by decreased N2 ERP amplitudes. This suggests that musical chords do possess emotional connotations that can be processed as early as 200 ms in naive listeners. The early stages of processing that are involved suggest that major and minor chords have deeply connected emotional meanings, rather than superficially attributed ones, indicating that minor triads possess negative emotional connotations and major triads possess positive emotional connotations. PMID:24957406

  4. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K.; Mode, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k = 1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.38). When less dispersed with k = 2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. PMID:22079419

  5. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. PMID:27033974

  6. Immigrant and Minority Workers in the Organization of the Labor Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen-Koob, Saskia

    1980-01-01

    Examines how the organization of the labor process generates the need for low wage powerless labor and shows how this is achieved through the use of immigrant and minority workers. Utilizes examples from large urban centers in the northern and northeastern United States. (Author/GC)

  7. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT. PMID:23784718

  8. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  9. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  10. Experimental Studies of the Distribution of Minor Constituents and Dynamic Processes in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jindra

    1999-01-01

    Minor constituents play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and serve as tracers in transport and mixing studies in tropospheric-stratospheric exchange processes. Measurements of trace gases are essential to an understanding of the mechanisms by which minor constituents originating in the troposphere, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, reach the stratosphere. Many of these gases are sources of species directly involved in the chemistry of ozone depletion in the stratosphere and ozone generation in the troposphere. Some contribute to the warming of the atmosphere. Data on tracer distributions are important in the development of models for predicting photochemical effects in the stratosphere and troposphere. Data on atmospheric dynamics are important for the development of models for predicting the transport of photochemical species and for characterizing the nature of stratospheric motions.

  11. Feedback regulation of microscopes by image processing.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Yuki; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Computational microscope systems are becoming a major part of imaging biological phenomena, and the development of such systems requires the design of automated regulation of microscopes. An important aspect of automated regulation is feedback regulation, which is the focus of this review. As modern microscope systems become more complex, often with many independent components that must work together, computer control is inevitable since the exact orchestration of parameters and timings for these multiple components is critical to acquire proper images. A number of techniques have been developed for biological imaging to accomplish this. Here, we summarize the basics of computational microscopy for the purpose of building automatically regulated microscopes focus on feedback regulation by image processing. These techniques allow high throughput data acquisition while monitoring both short- and long-term dynamic phenomena, which cannot be achieved without an automated system. PMID:23594233

  12. Regulation of the aging process by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Autophagy is involved in cellular protein and organelle degradation, which is mediated by the lysosomal pathway. Autophagocytosis has a key role in cellular housekeeping by removing damaged organelles. During aging, the efficiency of autophagic degradation declines and intracellular waste products accumulate. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is clear evidence that lifespan is linked to the capacity to regulate autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that the same signaling factors regulate both aging and autophagocytosis, thus highlighting the role of autophagy in the regulation of aging and age-related degenerative diseases. Here, we examine in detail the interactions of the signaling network involving longevity factors SIRT1, mTOR, FoxO3, NF-kappaB and p53 in the regulation of autophagy. We discuss the possibility that these well-known stress resistance and longevity factors regulate the aging process via autophagy. PMID:19380253

  13. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  14. Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K

    2015-07-01

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:24626458

  15. 76 FR 55849 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Constitutionality of Federal Contracting Programs for Minority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE..., 15, 19, 22, 26, 52, and 53 RIN 9000-AM05 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Constitutionality of Federal...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD, GSA, and NASA are proposing to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  16. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  17. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  18. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  19. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  20. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  1. Aging and Self-Regulated Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adult developmental model of self-regulated language processing (SRLP), in which the allocation policy with which a reader engages text is driven by declines in processing capacity, growth in knowledge-based processes, and age-related shifts in reading goals. Evidence is presented to show that the individual reader’s allocation policy is consistent across time and across different types of text, can serve a compensatory function in relation to abilities, and is predictive of subsequent memory performance. As such, it is an important facet of language understanding and learning from text through the adult life span. PMID:16822168

  2. Language in the Process of Cultural Assimilation and Structural Incorporation of Linguistic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    Semilingualism is discussed as a sociolinguistic concept and is viewed as a mediating variable when the society reproduces the class structure and vocational structure of suppressed minorities. A Finnish group of immigrant children in Sweden is the minority considered. It was found that the longer the Finnish children were educated in Finnish, the…

  3. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  4. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Nitrogen Nutrition in the Duckweed Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Brunold, Christian; Suter, Marianne

    1984-01-01

    The effect of nitrate and ammonium on the extractable activity of two enzymes of assimilatory sulfate reduction, ATP sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4) and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase (APSSTase), was examined in Lemna minor L. cultivated under steady state conditions. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) was measured for comparison. Low nitrate concentrations (0.2 and 0.04 millimolar) caused a decrease in the specific activity of all three enzymes measured. Twenty-four hours after transfer to medium without a nitrogen source, the specific activity of APSSTase and nitrate reductase was at less than 30% of the original level, whereas ATP sulfurylase was still at about 80%. NH4+ added to the nutrient solution caused a 50 to 100% increase in the specific activity of APSSTase within 24 hours, followed by a slow decrease. After 72 hours with NH4+, the specific activity was still 25% higher than originally. During the same period, the extractable protein increased by 30% on a fresh weight basis, and total protein by 55 to 60%. Nitrate reductase activity decreased to less than 5%. After omission of NH4+ from the nutrient solution extractable APSSTase activity rapidly decreased to the level of cultures with NO3− as a nitrogen source. Using [35S]SO42− as a sulfur source, an increased incorporation of label into the protein fraction could be detected when NH4+ was added to the nutrient solution. This indicated that more sulfate was assimilated and used for protein synthesis. The higher extractable activity of APSSTase with NH4+ may be a regulatory mechanism involved in the formation of sufficient sulfur amino acids during a period of increased protein synthesis. PMID:16663886

  5. Operation Pathfinder: Oceanography, Coastal Processes for Elementary, Middle School Teachers--Program Reaches Minority Students, Puts 'AAAH' into Ocean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a 12-day teacher inservice course in oceanography and coastal processes that focuses on enhanced content knowledge, improved teaching strategies, role modeling, and leadership development. The primary objective is improving the teaching techniques of elementary and middle school teachers of predominantly minority students. Strategies…

  6. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful. PMID:16802072

  7. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  8. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  9. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  10. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  11. MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation plays a minor role in the transcriptomic plasticity of cold-acclimated Zebrafish brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes by directing the degradation and/or repression of the translation of gene transcripts. Growing evidence shows that miRNAs are indispensable player in organismal development with its regulatory role in the growth and differentiation of cell lineages. However, the roles of miRNA-mediated regulation in environmental adaptation of organisms are largely unknown. To examine this potential regulatory capability, we characterized microRNAomes from the brain of zebrafish raised under normal (28°C) and cold-acclimated (10°C, 10 days) conditions using Solexa sequencing. We then examined the expression pattern of the protein-coding genes under these two conditions with Affymetrix Zebrafish Genome Array profiling. The potential roles of the microRNAome in the transcriptomic cold regulation in the zebrafish brain were investigated by various statistical analyses. Results Among the total 214 unique, mature zebrafish miRNAs deposited on the miRBase website (release 16), 175 were recovered in this study. In addition, we identified 399 novel, mature miRNAs using multiple miRNA prediction methods. We defined a set of 25 miRNAs differentially expressed under the cold and normal conditions and predicted the molecular functions and biological processes that they involve through Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of their target genes. On the other hand, microarray analysis showed that genes related to mRNA processing and response to stress were overrepresented among the up-regulated genes in cold-stress, but are not directly corresponding to any of the GO molecular functions and biological processes predicted from the differential miRNAs. Using several statistical models including a novel, network-based approach, we found that miRNAs identified in this study, either individually or together, and either directly or indirectly (i.e., mediated by transcription factors), only make minor

  12. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  13. N-cadherin prodomain processing regulates synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reinés, Analía; Bernier, Louis-Philippe; McAdam, Robyn; Belkaid, Wiam; Shan, Weisong; Koch, Alexander W; Séguéla, Philippe; Colman, David R; Dhaunchak, Ajit S

    2012-05-01

    Classical cadherins, which are adhesion molecules functioning at the CNS synapse, are synthesized as adhesively inactive precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Signal sequence and prodomain cleavage in the ER and Golgi apparatus, respectively, activates their adhesive properties. Here, we provide the first evidence for sorting of nonadhesive precursor N-cadherin (ProN) to the neuronal surface, where it coexists with adhesively competent mature N-cadherin (N-cad), generating a spectrum of adhesive strengths. In cultured hippocampal neurons, a high ProN/N-cad ratio downregulates synapse formation. Neurons expressing genetically engineered uncleavable ProN make markedly fewer synapses. The synapse number can be rescued to normality by depleting surface ProN levels through prodomain cleavage by an exogenous protease. Finally, prodomain processing is developmentally regulated in the rat hippocampus. We conclude that it is the ProN/N-cad ratio and not mature N-cad alone that is critical for regulation of adhesion during synaptogenesis. PMID:22553038

  14. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  15. Sequence-specific minor groove binding ligands as potential regulators of gene expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Belikov, S V; Grokhovsky, S L; Isaguliants, M G; Surovaya, A N; Gursky, G V

    2005-10-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent gene activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the DNA-protein interactions following hormone activation. The strategy of artificial regulating of gene activity by sequence-specific minor groove binding ligands is very attractive. We have synthesized and studied the interaction with DNA of bis-linked netropsin derivatives in which two monomers are attached via short linkers in head-to-head and tail-to-tail manners. We have found that cis-diammine-platinum bridged bis-netropsin added to Xenopus oocytes media penetrates cellular and nuclear membrane and binds selectively to the MMTV promoter at the DNA segment that partly overlaps with the site recognized by glucocorticoid receptor. DNase I footprinting studies demonstrate that there are more stronger binding sites for cis-diammine-platinum bridged bis-netropsin on the naked MMTV DNA which are found to be inaccessible for its binding in oocytes. PMID:16060693

  16. Explicit and Implicit Emotion Regulation: A Dual-Process Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Gross, James J.; Etkin, Amit

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organize emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research. PMID:21432682

  17. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and B of this part shall be accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  18. Regulation of ecosystem processes by arthropod communities

    SciTech Connect

    Seastedt, T.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Arthropods or their activities regulate the amounts of forms of mass and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Canopy arthropods have the largest impacts on mobile elements such as potassium, while soil detritivores control mineralization rates of less mobile elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Nominal (base-line) herbivory and detritivory combine to speed nutrient cycling and reduce standing crops of decaying plant materials. 42 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Minor actinide separation: simplification of the DIAMEX-SANEX strategy by means of novel SANEX processes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Kaufholz, P.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of An(III) from PUREX raffinate has previously been demonstrated by applying a DIAMEX process (i.e., co-extraction of An(III) and Ln(III) from HAR) followed by a SANEX process (i.e., selective extraction of An(III) from the DIAMEX product containing An(III) + Ln(III)). In line with process intensification issues, more compact processes have been developed: Recently, a 1c-SANEX process test was successfully performed, directly extracting An(III) from PUREX HAR. More recently, a new i-SANEX process was successfully tested. This process is based on the co-extraction of An(III) + Ln(III) into a TODGA solvent, followed by a selective back-extraction of An(III) by a water soluble complexing agent, in this case SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP. In both cases, good recoveries were achieved, and very pure product solutions were obtained. However, both 1c-SANEX and i-SANEX used non-CHON chemicals. Nevertheless, these processes are a simplification to the DIAMEX + SANEX process as only one solvent is used. Finally, the new i-SANEX process is the most compact process. (authors)

  20. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  1. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) Proposals for changes to the Federal...

  2. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  3. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  4. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  5. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

  6. Reproducing Visible-Minority Exclusion from the Ontario School Curriculum: An Ethnography of Educational Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Harry S.

    This study examines how the Ontario (Canada) educational system serves Southeast Asians and West Indians. This is the most recent stage of a longitudinal study started about 16 years ago. The main purpose of the larger study is to examine the notion of curriculum as a social process of cultural selection engaged in by schools operating as the…

  7. Reasoning and Comprehension Processes of Linguistic Minority Persons Learning from Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R.; And Others

    This 3-year project examined the processes and strategies employed by English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and native-English-speaking students when learning from academic texts. A conceptual model guided the analysis of talk aloud protocols elicited from students as they answered questions from textbook materials used in an introductory…

  8. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  9. Granulation and infiltration processes for the fabrication of minor actinide fuels, targets and conditioning matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nästren, C.; Fernandez, A.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walter, M.

    2007-05-01

    The impact of Pu and Am, two elements that potentially pose a long term hazard for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, can be abated by their reintroduction into the fuel cycle for transmutation. Such transmutation targets can be fabricated by a sol gel method for the production of porous inactive beads, which are then infiltrated by Am solutions. Following calcination, compaction into pellets and sintering, the product is obtained. At its heart, the sol gel process relies on an ammonia precipitation, so that it is not universally applicable. Therefore, an alternative is sought not just to overcome this chemical limitation, but also to simplify the process and reduce waste streams. The new concept utilises powder metallurgy routes (compaction, crushing and sieving) to produce porous, almost, dust free granules, which are infiltrated with the actinide nitrate. The method has been developed using yttria stabilised zirconia and alumina, and has been demonstrated for the production of Al2O3-AmO2 targets for neutron capture investigations. The results are very promising and meet light water reactor fuel specifications. In addition, the process is ideally suited for the production of ceramic matrices for conditioning actinides for geological disposal.

  10. [Regulation of the primary photosynthesis processes].

    PubMed

    Rubin, A B; Krendeleva, T E

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms of primary processes of photosynthesis and macromolecular conformational changes that control the efficiency of primary energy transformation in photosynthesis are discussed. Special attention is focused on the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence as an integrated parameter indicative of the efficiency and dynamics of primary steps of photosynthesis. Sharp changes in environmental conditions and other unfavorable factors may lead to the distortions of the coupling between consecutive electron transfer steps. As a result, an excess of electrons and/or electronic excitation energy may form at some sites of the electron transport chain. This may lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species responsible for the subsequent oxidative stress. The results of the application of these data in the areas of biotechnology and ecology are demonstrated. PMID:15129625

  11. Measuring Musical Self-Regulation: Linking Processes, Skills, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This research explores self-regulated learning behaviors as used by 174 students in higher music education during learning and practice, with the aim of demonstrating the interaction between processes, skills, and beliefs. A three-factor structure was identified within a newly adapted, ten-item Musical Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire,…

  12. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (ΔRSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children’s physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children’s emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology × Baseline RSA × Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children’s capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology. PMID:18605838

  13. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems. PMID:26728867

  14. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems. PMID:26728867

  15. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems.

  16. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  17. Resilience as Regulation of Developmental and Family Processes

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, David; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Riggs, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Resilience can be defined as establishing equilibrium subsequent to disturbances to a system caused by significant adversity. When families experience adversity or transitions, multiple regulatory processes may be involved in establishing equilibrium, including adaptability, regulation of negative affect, and effective problem-solving skills. The authors’ resilience-as-regulation perspective integrates insights about the regulation of individual development with processes that regulate family systems. This middle-range theory of family resilience focuses on regulatory processes across levels that are involved in adaptation: whole-family systems such as routines and sense of coherence; coregulation of dyads involving emotion regulation, structuring, and reciprocal influences between social partners; and individual self-regulation. Insights about resilience-as-regulation are then applied to family-strengthening interventions that are designed to promote adaptation to adversity. Unresolved issues are discussed in relation to resilience-as-regulation in families, in particular how risk exposure is assessed, interrelations among family regulatory mechanisms, and how families scaffold the development of children’s resilience. PMID:26568647

  18. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of "number" is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  19. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of “number” is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  20. Minority Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    Stephanie Kwader is a white minority at the Bowie State University, a 5,500-student historically black university. Students like her belong to a small but growing group: minority students on the campuses of the nation's 105 historically black colleges and universities. HBCUs, as they are referred in the field, offer competitive academics with…

  1. 76 FR 44350 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Drawback Process Regulations (CBP Forms 7551, 7552... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 19120) on April 6, 2011, allowing for a...

  2. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... criteria that an agency must address in a waiver request and a waiver consultation process regarding... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11,...

  3. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation process... Federal Register at 75 FR 62069 on October 7, 2010, to revise FAR 25.702, Prohibition on contracting...

  4. 76 FR 19120 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... Drawback Process Regulations (CBP Forms 7551, 7552 and 7553). This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Drawback...

  5. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Light and O-Acetyl-l-Serine in Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Urs; Suter, Marianne; Brunold, Christian

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 0.5 millimolar O-acetyl-l-serine added to the nutrient solution on sulfate assimilation of Lemna minor L., cultivated in the light or in the dark, or transferred from light to the dark, was examined. During 24 hours after transfer from light to the dark the extractable activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, a key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, decreased to 10% of the light control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.7.1.) activity, measured for comparison, decreased to 40%. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4.) and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8.) activities were not affected by the transfer. When O-acetyl-l-serine was added to the nutrient solution at the time of transfer to the dark, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity was still at 50% of the light control after 24 hours, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase activity were again not affected, and nitrate reductase activity decreased as before. Addition of O-acetyl-l-serine at the time of the transfer caused a 100% increase in acid-soluble SH compounds after 24 hours in the dark. In continuous light the corresponding increase was 200%. During 24 hours after transfer to the dark the assimilation of 35SO42− into organic compounds decreased by 80% without O-acetyl-l-serine but was comparable to light controls in its presence. The addition of O-acetyl-l-serine to Lemna minor precultivated in the dark for 24 hours induced an increase in adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity so that a constant level of 50% of the light control was reached after an additional 9 hours. Cycloheximide as well as 6-methyl-purine inhibited this effect. In the same type of experiment O-acetyl-l-serine induced a 100-fold increase in the incorporation of label from 35SO42− into cysteine after additional 24 hours in the dark. Taken together, these results show that exogenous O-acetyl-l-serine has a regulatory effect on

  6. The reciprocal regulation between splicing and 3'-end processing.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Daisuke

    2016-07-01

    Most eukaryotic precursor mRNAs are subjected to RNA processing events, including 5'-end capping, splicing and 3'-end processing. These processing events were historically studied independently; however, since the early 1990s tremendous efforts by many research groups have revealed that these processing factors interact with each other to control each other's functions. U1 snRNP and its components negatively regulate polyadenylation of precursor mRNAs. Importantly, this function is necessary for protecting the integrity of the transcriptome and for regulating gene length and the direction of transcription. In addition, physical and functional interactions occur between splicing factors and 3'-end processing factors across the last exon. These interactions activate or inhibit splicing and 3'-end processing depending on the context. Therefore, splicing and 3'-end processing are reciprocally regulated in many ways through the complex protein-protein interaction network. Although interesting questions remain, future studies will illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal regulation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:499-511. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1348 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27019070

  7. CaMKII regulation in information processing and storage

    PubMed Central

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Bayer, K. Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Ca2+/Calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by Ca2+/CaM, but becomes partially autonomous (Ca2+-independent) upon autophosphorylation at T286. This hallmark feature of CaMKII regulation provides a form of molecular memory and is indeed important in long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapse strength and memory formation. However, emerging evidence supports a direct role in information processing, while storage of synaptic information may instead be mediated by regulated interaction of CaMKII with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex. These and other CaMKII regulation mechanisms are discussed here in the context of the kinase structure and their impact on post-synaptic functions. Recent findings also implicate CaMKII in long-term depression (LTD), as well as functional roles at inhibitory synapses, lending renewed emphasis on better understanding the spatio-temporal control of CaMKII regulation. PMID:22717267

  8. Presenilin/γ-Secretase Regulates Neurexin Processing at Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Francisco G.

    2011-01-01

    Neurexins are a large family of neuronal plasma membrane proteins, which function as trans-synaptic receptors during synaptic differentiation. The binding of presynaptic neurexins to postsynaptic partners, such as neuroligins, has been proposed to participate in a signaling pathway that regulates synapse formation/stabilization. The identification of mutations in neurexin genes associated with autism and mental retardation suggests that dysfunction of neurexins may underlie synaptic defects associated with brain disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate neurexin function at synapses are still unclear. Here, we show that neurexins are proteolytically processed by presenilins (PS), the catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex that mediates the intramembraneous cleavage of several type I membrane proteins. Inhibition of PS/γ-secretase by using pharmacological and genetic approaches induces a drastic accumulation of neurexin C-terminal fragments (CTFs) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mouse brain. Neurexin-CTFs accumulate mainly at the presynaptic terminals of PS conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) mice lacking both PS genes in glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. The fact that loss of PS function enhances neurexin accumulation at glutamatergic terminals mediated by neuroligin-1 suggests that PS regulate the processing of neurexins at glutamatergic synapses. Interestingly, presenilin 1 (PS1) is recruited to glutamatergic terminals mediated by neuroligin-1, thus concentrating PS1 at terminals containing β-neurexins. Furthermore, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked PS1 mutations differentially affect β-neurexin-1 processing. Expression of PS1 M146L and PS1 H163R mutants in PS−/− cells rescues the processing of β-neurexin-1, whereas PS1 C410Y and PS1 ΔE9 fail to rescue the processing defect. These results suggest that PS regulate the synaptic function and processing of neurexins at glutamatergic synapses, and that impaired

  9. The ups and downs of being lesbian, gay, and bisexual: A daily experience perspective on minority stress and support processes.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jonathan J; Sarno, Elissa L

    2016-01-01

    Daily diary methods were used to explore identity-related stress and support processes as they occurred from day-to-day in a sample of 61 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults. At the end of each day for 7-10 consecutive days, participants reported on daily identity-salient experiences (ISEs), proximal minority stressors (internalized stigma, expectations of rejection), and affect (positive, negative). A multilevel latent covariate model was used to examine within- and between-person interrelations among these variables. Participants described a variety of positive and negative ISEs with both heterosexual and LGB people. These ISEs accounted for change in affect from 1 day to the next, even controlling for positive and negative experiences unrelated to identity. For example, relative to the previous day, participants experienced increases in positive affect on days featuring positive ISEs with both heterosexual people and LGB people. ISEs also predicted daily proximal stress variables, and findings differed at the 2 levels of analysis. For example, at the within-person level, participants experienced decreases in internalized stigma on days featuring positive ISEs with heterosexuals. At the between-person level, however, findings indicated that participants who generally had the highest levels of internalized stigma were more likely than others to report negative ISEs with LGB people and less likely to report positive ISEs with LGB people. Finally, proximal stress variables predicted affect at the within-person level: Affect improved on days when levels of internalized stigma and expected rejection were lower than usual. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26575350

  10. Minority scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute sponsors undergraduate and graduate geoscience scholarships for members of ethnic minority groups. U.S. citizens who are majoring in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary geology, or Earth science education, and who are Black, Hispanic or Native American are eligible. Undergraduate awards can be as large as $10,000 a year; graduate awards, $4000 a year. Application deadline is February 1, 1990. Contact AGI Minority Participation Program Scholarships, American Geological Institute, 4220 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22302-1507; tel. 703-379-2480.

  11. Self-regulation in ADHD: the role of error processing.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent and impairing developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Such behavioral dysregulation may be a consequence of deficits in self-monitoring or adaptive control, both of which are required for adaptive behavior. Processing of contextual demands, ongoing monitoring of one's behavior to evaluate whether it is appropriate for a particular situation, and adjusting behavior when it is suboptimal are components of self-regulation. This review examines and integrates the emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control as components of self-regulation into the prominent etiological theories of ADHD. Available data on error-processing, as reflected in event-related potentials (ERN and Pe) and behavioral performance, suggest that both early error detection and later error-evaluation may be diminished in ADHD, thereby interfering with adaptive control processes. However, variability in results limit broad conclusions, particularly for early error detection. A range of methodological issues, including ERP parameters and sample and task characteristics, likely contribute to this variability, and recommendations for future work are presented. The emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control informs etiological theories of ADHD in general and may provide a method for testing self-regulation models in particular. PMID:20659781

  12. Immune Regulation of the Metastatic Process: Implications for Therapy.

    PubMed

    de Mingo Pulido, A; Ruffell, B

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of fatalities in cancer patients, but few therapies are designed to target the metastatic process. Cancer cells must perform a number of steps to successfully establish metastatic foci, including local invasion, intravasation, survival, extravasation, and growth in ectopic tissue. Due to the nonrandom distribution of metastasis, it has long been recognized that the tissue microenvironment must be an important determinant of colonization. More recently it has been established in animal models that immune cells regulate the metastatic process, including a dominant role for monocytes and macrophages, and emerging roles for neutrophils and various lymphocyte populations. While most research has focused on the early dissemination process, patients usually present clinically with disseminated, if not macroscopic, disease. Identifying pathways by which immune cells regulate growth and therapeutic resistance within metastatic sites is therefore key to the development of pharmacological agents that will significantly extend patient survival. PMID:27613132

  13. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    PubMed Central

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. PMID:25305018

  14. Minor Loops in Major Folds: Enhancer–Promoter Looping, Chromatin Restructuring, and Their Association with Transcriptional Regulation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, Navneet; Ahituv, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    The organization and folding of chromatin within the nucleus can determine the outcome of gene expression. Recent technological advancements have enabled us to study chromatin interactions in a genome-wide manner at high resolution. These studies have increased our understanding of the hierarchy and dynamics of chromatin domains that facilitate cognate enhancer–promoter looping, defining the transcriptional program of different cell types. In this review, we focus on vertebrate chromatin long-range interactions as they relate to transcriptional regulation. In addition, we describe how the alteration of boundaries that mark discrete regions in the genome with high interaction frequencies within them, called topological associated domains (TADs), could lead to various phenotypes, including human diseases, which we term as “TADopathies.” PMID:26632825

  15. The Minor MHC Class I Gene UDA of Ducks Is Regulated by Let-7 MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Fuk; Parks-Dely, Julie A; Magor, Brad G; Magor, Katharine E

    2016-08-15

    In many nonmammalian vertebrates, the genomic organization of the MHC class I region leads to biased expression of a single classical MHC class I gene coevolving with TAP transporters, whereas class I genes are poorly expressed. This contrasts to the three codominantly expressed classical MHC class I genes in humans and mice. In a sequenced haplotype from White Pekin duck, Anas platyrhynchos, there is one predominantly expressed MHC class I, UAA, although they have five MHC class I genes in the complex, arranged TAP1-TAP2-UAA-UBA-UCA-UDA-UEA The UAA gene, situated proximal to the TAP2 gene, is expressed at levels 10-fold greater than that of another expressed gene, UDA. Three duck MHC class I genes (UBA, UCA, and UEA) are predicted to be partially or completely inactivated by promoter defects, introduction of in-frame stop codon, or the lack of a polyadenylation signal. In this study, we confirm that UBA, UCA, and UEA are indeed inactivated through genetic defects at the promoter, whereas UAA and UDA have functionally equivalent promoters. To examine promoter accessibility, we performed bisulfite sequencing and show that none of the MHC class I promoters are inactivated by methylation. We determine that UDA is differentially regulated through its 3' untranslated region. Namely, expression of UDA is downregulated by let-7 microRNA, whereas the predominantly expressed MHC class I UAA is not. Regulation of UDA by let-7 microRNA suggests that the lower expression level is maintained for its function in immunity. PMID:27430716

  16. Information Processing Efficiency and Regulation at Five Months

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Anjolii; Bell, Martha Ann

    2011-01-01

    Infants with short look durations are generally thought to have better attentional capabilities due to their efficient information processing. Although effortful attention is considered a key component of developing regulatory abilities, little is known about the relation between speed and efficiency of processing and self-regulation. In this study, 5-month-old infants with shorter look duration had greater EEG power values than infants with longer look during baseline, as well as during a distressing task and a post-distress attentional processing task. These short looking infants also demonstrated higher heart rate, relative to long looking infants, during post-distress information processing. Behaviorally the two groups differed in the amount of distraction during distress. These data provide evidence for an association between the efficiency of information processing and beginning regulatory abilities in early infancy. PMID:21269705

  17. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  18. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-04-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  19. [Minor head trauma - trivial matter or sirious diagnostic and therapeutic problem? The role of Infrascanner in the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Lewartowska-Nyga, Dorota; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries in children, especially minor head injuries, still constitute a important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Despite progress in medical sciences, there is no definition of minor head injury or standards of the management of children with a minor head injury. In consequence, the diagnostic procedure in the child who does not show any signs of central nervous system damage as a result of head injury is individual and depends on the experience and knowledge of the aid provider and as well as procedures established in a given ward. Therefore, a problem which requires to be urgently solved is to determine the justification and indications for imaging investigations (justification for skull X-ray, performance indications for carrying out computed tomography of the head) as well as indications for inpatient observation in such cases. The study presents currently existing definitions and proposals for the management of children presenting with a minor head injury. On the basis of own investigation we would stress that there is an opportunity to use in the initial diagnostics of head injuries in children, a modern non-invasive method already available in Poland, utilising the near-infrared NIR technology in order to detect intracranial haemorrhages by means of the Infrascanner. PMID:27442697

  20. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792

  1. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle. PMID:26762182

  2. Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A R E

    2003-01-01

    The theory of regulation in animal populations is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of populations, the causes of mortality and how natural selection shapes the life history of species. In mammals, the great range in body size allows us to see how allometric relationships affect the mode of regulation. Resource limitation is the fundamental cause of regulation. Top-down limitation through predators is determined by four factors: (i). body size; (ii). the diversity of predators and prey in the system; (iii). whether prey are resident or migratory; and (iv). the presence of alternative prey for predators. Body size in mammals has two important consequences. First, mammals, particularly large species, can act as keystones that determine the diversity of an ecosystem. I show how keystone processes can, in principle, be measured using the example of the wildebeest in the Serengeti ecosystem. Second, mammals act as ecological landscapers by altering vegetation succession. Mammals alter physical structure, ecological function and species diversity in most terrestrial biomes. In general, there is a close interaction between allometry, population regulation, life history and ecosystem dynamics. These relationships are relevant to applied aspects of conservation and pest management. PMID:14561329

  3. [Thrombin--a regulator of reparative processes in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S V; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Rumsh, L D; Zubov, V P; Gluza, E

    1998-04-01

    Thrombin, binding to receptors of the protease activated receptor (PAR) family, is involved in wound healing by inducing the reparation processes and regulating the activity of mast cells, which secrete mediators of inflammation. Using thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP-6) for the activation of rat mast cells, effect of several receptors, including PAR-1, on mast cells was demonstrated. It was shown that TRAP increases the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm of mast cells and regulates cell degranulation, while releasing nitrogen oxide. Thrombin encapsulated in poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL-Ca-Alg) hydrogel films promotes wound healing in rats as demonstrated by the acceleration of fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization. PMID:9612571

  4. HNF1 regulates critical processes in the human epididymis epithelium.

    PubMed

    Browne, James A; Yang, Rui; Eggener, Scott E; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-04-15

    The luminal environment of the epididymis participates in sperm maturation and impacts male fertility. It is dependent on the coordinated expression of many genes encoding proteins with a role in epithelial transport. We identified cis-regulatory elements for critical genes in epididymis function, by mapping open chromatin genome-wide in human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Bioinformatic predictions of transcription factors binding to the regulatory elements suggested an important role for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) in the transcriptional program of these cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed HNF1 target genes in HEE cells. In parallel, the contribution of HNF1 to the transcriptome of HEE cells was determined by RNA-seq, following siRNA-mediated depletion of both HNF1α and HNF1β transcription factors. Repression of these factors caused differential expression of 1892 transcripts (902 were downregulated and 990 upregulated) in comparison to non-targeting siRNAs. Differentially expressed genes with HNF1 ChIP-seq peaks within 20 kb were subject to gene ontology process enrichment analysis. Among the most significant processes associated with down-regulated genes were epithelial transport of water, phosphate and bicarbonate, all critical processes in epididymis epithelial function. Measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) confirmed a role for HNF1 in regulating the epididymis luminal environment. PMID:26808453

  5. microRNA Processing Pathway Regulates Olfactory Neuron Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berdnik, Daniela; Fan, Audrey P.; Potter, Christopher J.; Luo, Liqun

    2008-01-01

    Summary The micro(mi)RNA processing pathway produces miRNAs as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The nuclear RNase III Drosha catalyzes the first processing step together with the dsRNA binding protein DGCR8/Pasha generating pre-miRNAs [1, 2]. The next cleavage employs the cytoplasmic RNase III Dicer producing miRNA duplexes [3, 4]. Finally, Argonautes are recruited with miRNAs into an RNA-induced silencing complex for mRNA recognition (Figure 1A). Here, we identify two members of the miRNA pathway, Pasha and Dicer-1, in a forward genetic screen for mutations that disrupt wiring specificity of Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs). The olfactory system is built as discrete map of highly stereotyped neuronal connections [5, 6]. Each PN targets dendrites to a specific glomerulus in the antennal lobe and projects axons stereotypically into higher brain centers [7–9]. In selected PN classes, pasha and Dicer-1 mutants cause specific PN dendrite mistargeting in the antennal lobe and altered axonal terminations in higher brain centers. Furthermore, Pasha and Dicer-1 act cell-autonomously in postmitotic neurons to regulate dendrite and axon targeting during development. However, Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 are dispensable for PN morphogenesis. Our findings suggest a role for the miRNA processing pathway in establishing wiring specificity in the nervous system. PMID:19013069

  6. MicroRNA processing pathway regulates olfactory neuron morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berdnik, Daniela; Fan, Audrey P; Potter, Christopher J; Luo, Liqun

    2008-11-25

    The microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway produces miRNAs as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The nuclear RNase III Drosha catalyzes the first processing step together with the dsRNA binding protein DGCR8/Pasha generating pre-miRNAs [1, 2]. The next cleavage employs the cytoplasmic RNase III Dicer producing miRNA duplexes [3, 4]. Finally, Argonautes are recruited with miRNAs into an RNA-induced silencing complex for mRNA recognition (Figure 1A). Here, we identify two members of the miRNA pathway, Pasha and Dicer-1, in a forward genetic screen for mutations that disrupt wiring specificity of Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs). The olfactory system is built as discrete map of highly stereotyped neuronal connections [5, 6]. Each PN targets dendrites to a specific glomerulus in the antennal lobe and projects axons stereotypically into higher brain centers [7-9]. In selected PN classes, pasha and Dicer-1 mutants cause specific PN dendrite mistargeting in the antennal lobe and altered axonal terminations in higher brain centers. Furthermore, Pasha and Dicer-1 act cell autonomously in postmitotic neurons to regulate dendrite and axon targeting during development. However, Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 are dispensable for PN morphogenesis. Our findings suggest a role for the miRNA processing pathway in establishing wiring specificity in the nervous system. PMID:19013069

  7. Nitric Oxide Regulation of Mitochondrial Processes: Commonality in Medical Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    The vital status of diverse classes of eukaryotic mitochondria is reflected by the high degree of evolutionary modification functionally linked to ongoing multifaceted organelle development. From this teleological perspective, a logistical enhancement of eukaryotic cellular energy requirements indicates a convergence of metabolic processes within the mitochondrial matrix for optimal synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate and necessitates an evolutionarily driven retrofit of the primordial endosymbiont bacterial plasma membrane into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The biochemical complexity of eukaryotic inner membrane electron transport complexes linked to temporally-defined, state-dependent, fluctuations in mitochondrial oxygen utilization is capable of generating deleterious reactive oxygen species. Within this functional context, an extensive neurochemical literature supports the role of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a key signaling molecule involved in the regulation of multiple aspects of mitochondrial respiration/oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, the unique chemical properties of NO underlie its rapid metabolism in vivo within a mechanistic spectrum of small oxidative molecules, free and protein-bound thiol adducts, and reversible binding to ferrous heme iron centers. Recent compelling work has identified a medically relevant dual regulation pathway for mitochondrial NO expression mediated by traditionally characterized NO synthases (NOS) and by enzymatic reduction of available cellular nitrite pools by a diverse class of cytosolic and mitochondrial nitrite reductases. Accordingly, our short review presents selected medically-based discussion topics relating to multi-faceted NO regulation of mitochondrial functions in human health and disease states. PMID:26177568

  8. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings. PMID:27533012

  9. Controlling crystallization process and thermal stability of a binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass via minor element addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T. T.; Liu, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of minor element addition on the initial structural evolution during crystallization in a simple binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming liquid has been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Despite no changes in the completely crystallized products, the remarkable opposite impacts on the supercooled liquid region (SLR) and crystallization reaction rate constant Kcr are observed as a result of minor selective additions of an affine element, i.e., Sn and an immiscible element, i.e., Nb into the Cu-Zr BMG alloy, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the primary devitrification pathway and crystalline phases are simultaneously modified, which leads to significant changes in kinetics of atomic rearrangement and thus thermal stability of this material. Such a finding offers a promising way to control the type of primary crystalline phases of BMG-forming metallic supercooled liquids to synthesize novel BMGs or BMG matrix composites for structural or functional applications.

  10. Minority Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to increase the number of ethnic minorities on the faculties of American colleges and universities, the Ford Foundation is offering fellowships to members of six groups who have been severely underrepresented in academia.In a program administered by the National Research Council (NRC), the Ford Foundation is offering 50 three-year predoctoral fellowships ($14,000 per year, plus a $6000 annual institutional grant) and 25 one-year dissertation fellowships ($18,000 for one year) to Native American Indians, Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Aleuts), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians and Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, life sciences, or interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more of those disciplines. The predoctoral fellowships are intended for beginning graduate students; the dissertation fellowships are designed to provide support for students in their final year.

  11. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  12. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  13. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  14. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  15. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  16. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  17. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  18. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  19. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term...

  20. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  1. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  2. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  3. Regulating the High: Cognitive and Neural Processes Underlying Positive Emotion Regulation in Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Ayduk, Özlem; O'Donnell, Lisa; Chun, Jinsoo; Gruber, June; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin; Deldin, Patricia; Kross, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well established that Bipolar Disorder (BD) is characterized by excessive positive emotionality, the cognitive and neural processes that underlie such responses are unclear. We addressed this issue by examining the role that an emotion regulatory process called self-distancing plays in two potentially different BD phenotypes—BD with vs. without a history of psychosis—and healthy individuals. Participants reflected on a positive autobiographical memory and then rated their level of spontaneous self-distancing. Neurophysiological activity was continuously monitored using electroencephalogram. As predicted, participants with BD who have a history of psychosis spontaneously self-distanced less and displayed greater neurophysiological signs of positive emotional reactivity compared to the other two groups. These findings shed light on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying excessive positive emotionality in BD. They also suggest that individuals with BD who have a history of psychosis may represent a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by dysfunctional emotion regulation. PMID:26719819

  4. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  5. tRNAs as regulators of biological processes

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Medha; Ibba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are best known for their role as adaptors during translation of the genetic code. Beyond their canonical role during protein biosynthesis, tRNAs also perform additional functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for example in regulating gene expression. Aminoacylated tRNAs have also been implicated as substrates for non-ribosomal peptide bond formation, post-translational protein labeling, modification of phospholipids in the cell membrane, and antibiotic biosyntheses. Most recently tRNA fragments, or tRFs, have also been recognized to play regulatory roles. Here, we examine in more detail some of the new functions emerging for tRNA in a variety of cellular processes outside of protein synthesis. PMID:24966867

  6. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  7. A Nucleus-Imaging Probe That Selectively Stabilizes a Minor Conformation of c-MYC G-quadruplex and Down-regulates c-MYC Transcription in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Deepanjan; Debnath, Manish; Mandal, Samir; Bessi, Irene; Schwalbe, Harald; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The c-MYC proto-oncogene is a regulator of fundamental cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The development of novel c-MYC inhibitors that can act by targeting the c-MYC DNA G-quadruplex at the level of transcription would provide potential insight into structure-based design of small molecules and lead to a promising arena for cancer therapy. Herein we report our finding that two simple bis-triazolylcarbazole derivatives can inhibit c-MYC transcription, possibly by stabilizing the c-MYC G-quadruplex. These compounds are prepared using a facile and modular approach based on Cu(I) catalysed azide and alkyne cycloaddition. A carbazole ligand with carboxamide side chains is found to be microenvironment-sensitive and highly selective for “turn-on” detection of c-MYC quadruplex over duplex DNA. This fluorescent probe is applicable to visualize the cellular nucleus in living cells. Interestingly, the ligand binds to c-MYC in an asymmetric fashion and selects the minor-populated conformer via conformational selection. PMID:26286633

  8. Autophagic Processes in Yeast: Mechanism, Machinery and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Reggiori, Fulvio; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy refers to a group of processes that involve degradation of cytoplasmic components including cytosol, macromolecular complexes, and organelles, within the vacuole or the lysosome of higher eukaryotes. The various types of autophagy have attracted increasing attention for at least two reasons. First, autophagy provides a compelling example of dynamic rearrangements of subcellular membranes involving issues of protein trafficking and organelle identity, and thus it is fascinating for researchers interested in questions pertinent to basic cell biology. Second, autophagy plays a central role in normal development and cell homeostasis, and, as a result, autophagic dysfunctions are associated with a range of illnesses including cancer, diabetes, myopathies, some types of neurodegeneration, and liver and heart diseases. That said, this review focuses on autophagy in yeast. Many aspects of autophagy are conserved from yeast to human; in particular, this applies to the gene products mediating these pathways as well as some of the signaling cascades regulating it, so that the information we relate is relevant to higher eukaryotes. Indeed, as with many cellular pathways, the initial molecular insights were made possible due to genetic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. PMID:23733851

  9. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  10. Lactate Produced by Glycogenolysis in Astrocytes Regulates Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Korol, Donna L.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions. PMID:22180782

  11. High-gain nonlinear observer for simple genetic regulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, L. A.; Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Escalante-Minakata, P.; Rosu, H. C.

    2007-07-01

    High-gain nonlinear observers occur in the nonlinear automatic control theory and are in standard usage in chemical engineering processes. We apply such a type of analysis in the context of a very simple one-gene regulation circuit. In general, an observer combines an analytical differential-equation-based model with partial measurement of the system in order to estimate the non-measured state variables. We use one of the simplest observers, that of Gauthier et al., which is a copy of the original system plus a correction term which is easy to calculate. For the illustration of this procedure, we employ a biological model, recently adapted from Goodwin's old book by De Jong, in which one plays with the dynamics of the concentrations of the messenger RNA coding for a given protein, the protein itself, and a single metabolite. Using the observer instead of the metabolite, it is possible to rebuild the non-measured concentrations of the mRNA and the protein.

  12. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  13. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  14. Socially Shared Regulation in Collaborative Groups: An Analysis of the Interplay between Quality of Social Regulation and Group Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogat, Toni Kempler; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study extends prior research on both individual self-regulation and socially shared regulation during group learning to examine the range and quality of the cognitive and behavioral social regulatory sub-processes employed by six small collaborative groups of upper-elementary students (n = 24). Qualitative analyses were conducted based on…

  15. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use...

  16. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  17. Regulation of chronic inflammatory and immune processes by extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul D; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Booker, Cori N

    2016-04-01

    Almost all cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are derived either from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. EVs contain a subset of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids from the cell from which they are derived. EV factors, particularly small RNAs such as miRNAs, likely play important roles in cell-to-cell communication both locally and systemically. Most of the functions associated with EVs are in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens and cancer, as well as in regulating autoimmunity. This Review will focus on the different modes of immune regulation, both direct and indirect, by EVs. The therapeutic utility of EVs for the regulation of immune responses will also be discussed. PMID:27035808

  18. EFFECT OF MINOR ADDITIONS OF HYDROGEN TO ARGON SHIELDING GAS WHEN WELDING AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH THE GTAW PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-12-15

    This paper provides the technical basis to conclude that the use of hydrogen containing shielding gases during welding of austenitic stainless steels will not lead to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of the weld or weld heat affected zone. Argon-hydrogen gas mixtures, with hydrogen additions up to 35% [1], have been successfully used as the shielding gas in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of austenitic stainless steels. The addition of hydrogen improves weld pool wettability, bead shape control, surface cleanliness and heat input. The GTAW process is used extensively for welding various grades of stainless steel and is preferred when a very high weld quality is desired, such as that required for closure welding of nuclear materials packages. The use of argon-hydrogen gas mixtures for high-quality welding is occasionally questioned, primarily because of concern over the potential for HIC. This paper was written specifically to provide a technical basis for using an argon-hydrogen shielding gas in conjunction with the development, at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), of an ''optimized'' closure welding process for the DOE standardized spent nuclear fuel canister [2]. However, the basis developed here can be applied to other applications in which the use of an argon-hydrogen shielding gas for GTAW welding of austenitic stainless steels is desired.

  19. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevski, E M; Chesnakov, V A; Sinitsyn, V V

    1995-01-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately or = 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M > or = 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (=short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M < or = 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries. PMID:11543538

  20. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    Many moonlike bodies (M ~= 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (~ 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H_2 + O_2. If M >= 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (= short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M <= 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin ~ 3.9 Byr ago). 2H_2 + O_2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H_2 + O_2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO_2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  1. Binding of the human cytomegalovirus 80-kDa immediate-early protein (IE2) to minor groove A/T-rich sequences bounded by CG dinucleotides is regulated by protein oligomerization and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Waheed, I; Chiou, C J; Ahn, J H; Hayward, G S

    1998-12-01

    The 80-kDa immediate-early regulatory protein IE2 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) functions as an essential positive transactivator of downstream viral promoters, but it also specifically down-regulates transcription from the major immediate-early promoter through a 14-bp DNA target motif known as the cis-repression signal (CRS) located at the transcription start site. The IE2 protein purified from bacteria as a fusion product of either staphylococcal Protein A/IE2(290-579) or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/IE2(346-579) bound specifically to a [32P]-labeled CRS oligonucleotide probe in an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In contrast, no direct interaction with the CRS probes could be detected with IE2 wild-type protein in extracts from infected or transfected mammalian cells or when synthesized by in vitro translation. However, in vitro phosphorylation of GST/IE2(346-579) by incubation with either the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) or a HeLa cell nuclear extract strongly inhibited its DNA-binding activity. This process required ATP hydrolysis and could be reversed by subsequent incubation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Importantly, dephosphorylation of the constitutively expressed native IE2 protein present in a nuclear extract from the U373(A45) cell line unmasked a specific CRS DNA-binding activity that could be supershifted with anti-IE2 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A series of high-molecular-weight hetero-oligomeric DNA-bound structures of intermediate mobility were formed in EMSA assays when a mixture of staphylococcal Protein A/IE2 and GST/IE2 was coincubated with the CRS probe. Coincubation with a DNA-binding negative but dimerization-competent GST/IE2 deletion mutant competitively inhibited DNA-binding by staphylococcal Protein A/IE2, whereas coincubation with a GST/IE2 deletion mutant that lacked the ability to both dimerize and bind to DNA failed to influence the mobility of the DNA-bound staphylococcal Protein A/IE2

  2. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: Implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    1995-07-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately equal to 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming a thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetray magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, thus deserving close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M is greater that or approximately equal to 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (i.e. short-period (SP) comet nuclei), whereas if M is less than or approximately equal to 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt (MB) asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffering new explosions when receiving additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and near-nuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, Co over CO2, origin of CHON particles, etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly with Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  3. Disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to differences in offending by minorities and whites. Others attribute them to "differential selection"--that is, to the fact that the justice system treats minority and white offenders in different ways. Still others believe the explanation lies in a combination of the two. Differential involvement may be important earlier in the judicial process, especially in youths' contacts with police, and may influence differential selection later as individuals make their way through the juvenile justice system. Adjudicating between these options, says Piquero, is difficult and may even be impossible. Asking how much minority overrepresentation is due to differences in offending and how much to differences in processing no longer seems a helpful way to frame the discussion. Piquero urges future research to move beyond the debate over "which one matters more" and seek to understand how each of the two hypotheses can explain both the fact of minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and how best to address it. Piquero cites many sizable gaps in the research and policy-relevant literature. Work is needed especially, he says, in analyzing the first stage of the justice system that juveniles confront: police contacts. The police are a critical part of the juvenile justice decision-making system and are afforded far more discretion than any other formal agent of social control, but researchers have paid surprisingly little attention to contacts between police and citizens, especially juveniles. Piquero notes that some states and localities are undertaking initiatives to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. He urges researchers and

  4. Adolescents' Conscious Processes of Developing Regulation: Learning to Appraise Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects…

  5. Effects of Self-Regulated Vocabulary Learning Process on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers, especially in the field of educational psychology, have argued that self-efficacy plays an important role in self-regulated learning. As such, teaching of self-regulated learning often focuses on enhancing self-efficacy. However, few studies have examined how the process of self-regulated learning might lead to the enhancement of…

  6. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  7. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F; Sheehan, David F; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I Lorena; Kittler, Josef T

    2015-12-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca(2+)-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca(2+) wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. PMID:26631479

  8. Adolescents' conscious processes of developing regulation: learning to appraise challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed W

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. Adolescents' new higher-order cognitive capacities allow them to better understand the irregularities and complexity of real-world challenges. They also use these capacities to consciously develop skills to navigate these challenges. PMID:21898901

  9. Sumoylation regulates EXO1 stability and processing of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Bologna, Serena; Altmannova, Veronika; Valtorta, Emanuele; Koenig, Christiane; Liberali, Prisca; Gentili, Christian; Anrather, Dorothea; Ammerer, Gustav; Pelkmans, Lucas; Krejci, Lumir; Ferrari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair by the error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR) requires the concerted action of several factors. Among these, EXO1 and DNA2/BLM are responsible for the extensive resection of DNA ends to produce 3′-overhangs, which are essential intermediates for downstream steps of HR. Here we show that EXO1 is a SUMO target and that sumoylation affects EXO1 ubiquitylation and protein stability. We identify an UBC9-PIAS1/PIAS4-dependent mechanism controlling human EXO1 sumoylation in vivo and demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in yeast by the Ubc9-Siz1/Siz2 using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we show physical interaction between EXO1 and the de-sumoylating enzyme SENP6 both in vitro and in vivo, promoting EXO1 stability. Finally, we identify the major sites of sumoylation in EXO1 and show that ectopic expression of a sumoylation-deficient form of EXO1 rescues the DNA damage-induced chromosomal aberrations observed upon wt-EXO1 expression. Thus, our study identifies a novel layer of regulation of EXO1, making the pathways that regulate its function an ideal target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26083678

  10. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:25416309

  11. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  12. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Nowak; J. Arnone; L. Fenstermaker; and S. D. Smith

    2005-07-26

    This project provided the funding to operate and maintain the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. This support funds the CO{sub 2}, system repairs and maintenance, basic physical and biological site information, and personnel that are essential for the experiment to continue. They have continued to assess the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on three key processes: (1) leaf- to plant-level responses of desert vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (2) ecosystem-level responses; and (3) integration of plant and ecosystem processes to understand carbon balance of deserts. The focus is the seminal interactions among atmospheric CO{sub 2}, water, and nitrogen that drive desert responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and explicitly address processes that occur across scales (biological, spatial, and temporal).

  13. A self-regulating biomolecular comparator for processing oscillatory signals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Franco, Elisa; Schulman, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    While many cellular processes are driven by biomolecular oscillators, precise control of a downstream on/off process by a biochemical oscillator signal can be difficult: over an oscillator's period, its output signal varies continuously between its amplitude limits and spends a significant fraction of the time at intermediate values between these limits. Further, the oscillator's output is often noisy, with particularly large variations in the amplitude. In electronic systems, an oscillating signal is generally processed by a downstream device such as a comparator that converts a potentially noisy oscillatory input into a square wave output that is predominantly in one of two well-defined on and off states. The comparator's output then controls downstream processes. We describe a method for constructing a synthetic biochemical device that likewise produces a square-wave-type biomolecular output for a variety of oscillatory inputs. The method relies on a separation of time scales between the slow rate of production of an oscillatory signal molecule and the fast rates of intermolecular binding and conformational changes. We show how to control the characteristics of the output by varying the concentrations of the species and the reaction rates. We then use this control to show how our approach could be applied to process different in vitro and in vivo biomolecular oscillators, including the p53-Mdm2 transcriptional oscillator and two types of in vitro transcriptional oscillators. These results demonstrate how modular biomolecular circuits could, in principle, be combined to build complex dynamical systems. The simplicity of our approach also suggests that natural molecular circuits may process some biomolecular oscillator outputs before they are applied downstream. PMID:26378119

  14. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... migrant issues Access to health care Language barriers Human trafficking Taking care of your health Immunizations and screenings Sharing family health history Health before pregnancy More... Government in action on minority women's health Minority partnerships ...

  15. Minority Inclusion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the United States has a long, sad history of discrimination against minority rights. Discusses the origins and history of minority inclusion or affirmative action programs. Includes a special report on the "English Only" movement. (CFR)

  16. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  18. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  19. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes.

    PubMed

    Cools, Roshan; Roberts, Angela C; Robbins, Trevor W

    2008-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to punishment or other aversive signals, while disinhibiting previously rewarded but now punished behaviours. Findings suggest that 5-HT modulates the impact of punishment-related signals on learning and emotion (aversion), but also promotes response inhibition. Exaggerated aversive processing and deficient response inhibition could underlie distinct symptoms of a range of affective disorders, namely stress- or threat-vulnerability and compulsive behaviour, respectively. We review evidence from studies with human volunteers and experimental animals that begins to elucidate the neurobiological systems underlying these different effects. PMID:18069045

  20. Granule Protein Processing and Regulated Secretion in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sheshachalam, Avinash; Srivastava, Nutan; Mitchell, Troy; Lacy, Paige; Eitzen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are part of a family of granulocytes that, together with eosinophils and basophils, play an essential role in innate immunity. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and are vital for rapid immune responses, being recruited to sites of injury or infection within minutes, where they can act as specialized phagocytic cells. However, another prominent function of neutrophils is the release of pro-inflammatory compounds, including cytokines, chemokines, and digestive enzymes, which are stored in intracellular compartments and released through regulated exocytosis. Hence, an important feature that contributes to rapid immune responses is capacity of neutrophils to synthesize and store pre-formed pro-inflammatory mediators in specialized intracellular vesicles and thus no new synthesis is required. This review will focus on advancement in three topics relevant to neutrophil secretion. First, we will examine what is known about basal level pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis, trafficking, and storage in secretory compartments. Second, we will review recent advancements in the mechanisms that control vesicle mobilization and the release of pre-formed mediators. Third, we will examine the upregulation and de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils engaged at sites of infection. PMID:25285096

  1. Lax regulation of oil vessels and processing facilities continues

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovitch, N.

    1993-12-31

    Four years after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in 1989, oil spills continue to occur with alarming frequency: In 1992 the Shoko Maru spilled more than 96,000 gallons of crude oil into the Texas City Channel and a leak at an offshore well in Louisiana spilled at least 30,000 gallons; in 1991 alone, there were 677 spills in the Port of New Orleans, 398 spills in New York Harbor, 239 spills in Port of Hampton Roads, 235 spills in Port of Philadelphia, 130 spills in Seattle, and 116 spills in Boston Harbor. The amount of oil spilled in these ports alone in one year exceeded 300,000 gallons. The recent huge spills off foreign coasts-the Shetland Islands, the coasts of Spain and Indonesia-reinforce the importance of regulation. The Oil Pollution Act, passed in August 1992 mandates that all vessels traveling in US waters and all oil transfer and storage facilities take measurable and enforceable actions to reduce spills. However, major problems remain, both with the act and with enforcing it. This article discusses both the problems and the solutions to pollution control of oil spills.

  2. [Participation of cholinergic mechanisms in the regulation of immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Gushchin, G V; Shkhinek, E K

    1979-01-01

    Chronic administration of cholinomimetic (arecolin, pilocarpin, nicotin) and cholinolytic (bezohexonium, pedifen) drugs produces changes of different directions in the number of rosette-forming cells in the spleen of CBA mice immunized with sheep red blood cells. The analysis performed does not allow the effect of the drugs on immunologic processes to be accounted for by an immediate action on lymphoid cells or by an action of the function of the pituitary-adrenal system. PMID:574093

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell printing and process regulated cell properties.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica; Rin Son, Ae; Hamid, Qudus; Wang, Chengyang; Lui, Yigong; Sun, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This topical review with original analysis and empirical results compares cell sensitivity to physical stress during printing. The objective is to frame a reproducible causation between printing environment and printed cell morphology, viability and phenotype stability. Content includes: (1) a topical review classifies the overlap between physical stress vectors during printing and mesenchymal stem cell sensitivities. (2) Original flow analysis frames the feasible range of stress duration and intensity during manufacturing. (3) Preliminary empirical results define cell properties as a function of minimum, mean and maximum stress conditions. The review and analytical characterization serve as an essential precursor to interpret surprising empirical results. Results identify key cell properties are stress-dependent and controllable based on printing process parameter selection. Printing's minimum stress condition preserves cell viability. The maximum stress increases heterogeneity of cell response, induces inelastic ultra-structural distortion of the cell membrane and chromatin, and increases necrotic subpopulations post-printing. The review, analysis and preliminary results support the feasibility of modulating cell properties during fabrication by prescriptively tuning the stress environment. The process control over cell morphology, health and the rate of differentiation is both a direct result of strain during printing and an in-direct result of increased distress signaling from necrotic sub-populations. PMID:26696405

  4. Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

  5. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  6. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by serotonin signaling.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anna A; Thathiah, Amantha; De Strooper, Bart; Tesseur, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases releases the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in senile plaques and contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The α-secretase cleaves APP in the Aβ peptide sequence to generate soluble APPα (sAPPα). Upregulation of α-secretase activity through the 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4) receptor has been shown to reduce Aβ production, amyloid plaque load and to improve cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of AD. Consequently, activation of 5-HT4 receptors following agonist stimulation is considered to be a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment; however, the signaling cascade involved in 5-HT4 receptor-stimulated proteolysis of APP remains to be determined. Here we used chemical and siRNA inhibition to identify the proteins which mediate 5-HT4d receptor-stimulated α-secretase activity in the SH-SY5Y human neuronal cell line. We show that G protein and Src dependent activation of phospholipase C are required for α-secretase activity, while, unexpectedly, adenylyl cyclase and cAMP are not involved. Further elucidation of the signaling pathway indicates that inositol triphosphate phosphorylation and casein kinase 2 activation is also a prerequisite for α-secretase activity. Our findings provide a novel route to explore the treatment of AD through 5-HT4 receptor-induced α-secretase activation. PMID:24466315

  7. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  8. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  9. Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2011-06-01

    Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

  10. Regulation of vincamine biosynthesis and associated growth promoting effects through abiotic elicitation, cyclooxygenase inhibition, and precursor feeding of bioreactor grown Vinca minor hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Lal, Raj Kishori

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools have been fortified to vincamine less hairy root clone of Vinca minor to determine the regulatory factors associated with vincamine biosynthesis. Growth kinetic studies revealed that acetyltransferase elicitor acetic anhydride and terpenoid precursor loganin significantly reduce the growth either supplemented alone or in combination (GI = 140.6 ± 18.5 to 246.7 ± 24.3), while shikimate and tryptophan trigger biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 ± 31.5 to 540.5 ± 40.3). Loganin also downregulates total alkaloid biosynthesis. Maximum flux towards vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained when 20-day-old hairy roots were fortified with secologanin (10 mg/l) along with tryptophan (100 mg/l), naproxen (8.4 mg/l), hydrogen peroxide (20 μg/l), and acetic anhydride (32.4 mg/l). This was supported by RT PCR (qPCR) analysis where 2- and 3-fold increase in tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC; RQ = 2.0 ± 0.09) and strictosidine synthase (STR; RQ = 3.3 ± 0.36) activity, respectively, was recorded. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for growth kinetics, total alkaloid content, and gene expression studies favored highly significant data (P < 0.05-0.01). Above treated hairy roots were also up-scaled in a 5-l stirred-tank bioreactor where a 40-day cycle yielded 8-fold increase in fresh root mass. PMID:24723203

  11. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  12. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  13. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  14. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  15. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  16. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  17. A process evaluation: Does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers’ receptivity and participation. Methods We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and

  18. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2740 Section 51.2740 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2762 Section 51.2762 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2720 Section 51.2720 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  2. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  3. Analysis of Self-Regulated Learning Processing Using Statistical Models for Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Dellinger, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often use measures of the frequency of self-regulated learning (SRL; Zimmerman, "American Educational Research Journal," 45(1), 166-183, 2000) processing as a predictor of learning gains. These frequency data, which are really counts of SRL processing events, are often non-normally distributed, and the accurate analysis of these data…

  4. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  5. Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This paper explores the origin and historical background of the "model minority" stereotype. It includes evidence illustrating problems resulting from the artificial grouping of Asian Americans as one ethnic group and the stereotype's influence on young Asian Americans. In the 1960s, the U.S. media began to portray the model minority through…

  6. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  7. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  8. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "Introduction"…

  9. American Minorities in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jill S.; Hafer, Abigail A.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of articles that address the question of why minorities are still underrepresented in science after years of civil rights legislation and affirmative action. A variety of programs aimed at increasing minorities and women in the field of astronomy and other sciences are discussed. Personal accounts are also provided. (LZ)

  10. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  11. Individual differences in cognitive control processes and their relationship to emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Buchanan, Tony W

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive control and emotional control share many similarities, but the specific relationship between these processes is not well understood. This study explored the relationship between three types of cognitive control (working memory updating, response inhibition and set-shifting) and two emotional regulation strategies (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal). Corrugator electromyography, behaviour and self-reports of affect were measured as indices of emotion regulation. Results indicate that working memory updating predicted negative affect reduction during reappraisal and during expressive suppression. This study specifically shows that the working memory component of cognitive control is associated with negative affect reduction. Response inhibition and set-shifting were not specifically related to negative affect reduction, but these variables did predict aspects of emotional behaviour and regulation. These results suggest a general role for cognitive control in some aspects of emotion regulation as well as a specific modulatory role for working memory updating in the regulation of negative affect. PMID:25947896

  12. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  13. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examininggroup-based emotion regulationthat integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. PMID:25870386

  14. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  15. 25 CFR 518.6 - What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF-REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.6 What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process? The Office of Self-Regulation shall... report and recommendation to the Commission as to whether a certificate of self-regulation should...

  16. Key role of the 3' untranslated region in the cell cycle regulated expression of the Leishmania infantum histone H2A genes: minor synergistic effect of the 5' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Abanades, Daniel R; Ramírez, Laura; Iborra, Salvador; Soteriadou, Ketty; González, Victor M; Bonay, Pedro; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Histone synthesis in Leishmania is tightly coupled to DNA replication by a post-transcriptional mechanism operating at the level of translation. Results In this work we have analyzed the implication of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) in the cell cycle regulated expression of the histone H2A in Leishmania infantum. For that purpose, L. infantum promastigotes were stably transfected with different plasmid constructs in which the CAT coding region used as a reporter was flanked by the 5' and 3' UTR regions of the different H2A genes. We report that in spite of their sequence differences, histone H2A 5' and 3' UTRs conferred a cell cycle dependent pattern of expression on the CAT reporter since de novo synthesis of CAT increased when parasites enter the S phase. Using one established L. infantum cell line we showed that CAT expression is controlled by the same regulatory events that control the endogenous histone gene expression. Thus, although we did not detect changes in the level of CAT mRNAs during cell cycle progression, a drastic change in the polysome profiles of CAT mRNAs was observed during the progression from G1 to S phase. In the S phase CAT mRNAs were on polyribosomal fractions, but in the G1 phase the association of CAT transcripts with ribosomes was impaired. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of just the H2A 3' UTR to the CAT reporter gene is sufficient to achieve a similar pattern of post-transcriptional regulation indicating that this region contains the major regulatory sequences involved in the cell cycle dependent expression of the H2A genes. On the other hand, although CAT transcripts bearing the H2A 5' alone were translated both in the G1 and S phase, higher percentages of transcripts were detected on polyribosomes in the S phase correlating with an increase in the de novo synthesis of CAT. Thus, it can be concluded that this region also contributes, although to a minor extent than the 3' UTR, in the enhancement

  17. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  18. Minority Women's Health: Latinas

    MedlinePlus

    ... left navigation Minority Women's Health African-Americans Latinas Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/ ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Latinos may be any race. This ...

  19. Minority workers and communities.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973

  20. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  1. Multichoice minority game

    SciTech Connect

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-06-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

  2. Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and novel secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    King, J A; Lush, D J; Fray, J C

    1993-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis. cAMP, on the other hand, by stimulating H+ influx, provides the acidic granular environment for prorenin processing to renin. It is concluded that, in the presence of a favorable chemiosmotic environment, prorenin is processed to renin, which may then be secreted by regulative degranulation or divergence translocation, a novel secretory pathway used by several secretory proteins, including renin. PMID:7690183

  3. 77 FR 27658 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to provide policy changes that better meet the needs of insured producers. The proposed changes will be effective for the 2013 and succeeding crop...

  4. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  5. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  6. Understanding EFL Students' Development of Self-Regulated Learning in a Process-Oriented Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a study which investigated how explicit strategy instruction may shape student use of metacognitive knowledge and in what ways this knowledge promotes self-regulation in the learning of writing. From a class of a 2-year associate degree programme in Hong Kong, which experienced a 15-week process-oriented writing course…

  7. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  8. Children's Strategic Regulation, Metacognitive Monitoring, and Control Processes during Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia S.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From the perspective of self-regulated learning, the interplay between learners' individual characteristics and the context of testing have been emphasized for assessing learning outcomes. Aims: The present study examined metacognitive processes in children's test-taking behaviour and explored their impacts on performance. Further, it…

  9. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  10. REGULATED PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF TIE1 MODULATES LIGAND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TIE2

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Marie B; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A; Kavumkal, Jais; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Koh, Gou Young; Brindle, Nicholas PJ

    2008-01-01

    Regulated ectodomain shedding followed by intramembrane proteolysis has recently been recognized as important in cell signaling and for degradation of several type I transmembrane proteins. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 is known to undergo ectodomain cleavage generating a membrane tethered endodomain. Here we show Tie1 is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Following Tie1 ectodomain cleavage the newly formed 45 kDa endodomain undergoes additional proteolytic processing mediated by γ-secretase to generate an amino-terminally truncated 42 kDa fragment which is subsequently degraded by proteasomal activity. This sequential processing occurs constitutively and is stimulated by phorbol ester and vascular endothelial growth factor. To assess the biological significance of regulated Tie1 processing we analyzed its effects on angiopoietin signaling. Activation of ectodomain cleavage causes loss of phosphorylated Tie1 holoreceptor and generation of phosphorylated receptor fragments in the presence of COMP-Angiopoietin1. A key function of γ-secretase is in preventing accumulation of these phosphorylated fragments. We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases COMP-Angiopoietin1 activation of Tie2. This correlates with increased ability of Tie2 to bind ligand following shedding of the Tie1 extracellular domain. A similar enhancement of ligand activation of Tie2 is seen when Tie1 expression is suppressed by RNA interference. Together these data indicate that Tie1, via its extracellular domain, limits the ability of ligand to bind and activate Tie2. Furthermore the data suggests regulated processing of Tie1 may be an important mechanism for controlling signaling by Tie2. PMID:17728252

  11. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-10-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  12. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    PubMed Central

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  13. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  14. Sedentary Behavior as a Daily Process Regulated by Habits and Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behavior is a health risk but little is known about the motivational processes that regulate daily sedentary behavior. This study was designed to test a dual-process model of daily sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on the role of intentions and habits in regulating daily sedentary behavior. Methods College students (N = 128) self-reported on their habit strength for sitting and completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment study that combined daily diaries for reporting motivation and behavior with ambulatory monitoring of sedentary behavior using accelerometers. Results Less than half of the variance in daily sedentary behavior was attributable to between-person differences. People with stronger sedentary habits reported more sedentary behavior on average. People whose intentions for limiting sedentary behavior were stronger, on average, exhibited less self-reported sedentary behavior (and marginally less monitored sedentary behavior). Daily deviations in those intentions were negatively associated with changes in daily sedentary behavior (i.e., stronger than usual intentions to limit sedentary behavior were associated with reduced sedentary behavior). Sedentary behavior also varied within-people as a function of concurrent physical activity, the day of week, and the day in the sequence of the monitoring period. Conclusions Sedentary behavior was regulated by both automatic and controlled motivational processes. Interventions should target both of these motivational processes to facilitate and maintain behavior change. Links between sedentary behavior and daily deviations in intentions also indicate the need for ongoing efforts to support controlled motivational processes on a daily basis. PMID:23477579

  15. Drought and Recovery: Independently Regulated Processes Highlighting the Importance of Protein Turnover Dynamics and Translational Regulation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Mehmeti-Tershani, Vlora; Staudinger, Christiana; Kleemaier, Christoph; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth.During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular interaction networks are part of this regulatory process. In order to study this complex regulatory network, a comprehensive analysis is presented for the first time, investigating protein turnover and regulatory classes of proteins and metabolites during a stress recovery scenario in the model legume Medicago truncatula The data give novel insights into the molecular capacity and differential processes required for acclimation and deacclimation of severe drought stressed plants.Functional cluster and network analyses unraveled independent regulatory mechanisms for stress and recovery with different dynamic phases that during the course of recovery define the plants deacclimation from stress. The combination of relative abundance levels and turnover analysis revealed an early transition phase that seems key for recovery initiation through water resupply and is independent from renutrition. Thus, a first indication for a metabolite and protein-based load capacity was observed necessary for the recovery from drought, an important but thus far ignored possible feature toward tolerance. The data indicate that apart from the plants molecular stress response mechanisms, plasticity may be related to the nutritional status of the plant prior to stress initiation. A new perspective and possible new

  16. Understanding the Psychological Process of Avoidance-Based Self-Regulation on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Marder, Ben; Houghton, David; Joinson, Adam; Shankar, Avi; Bull, Eleanor

    2016-05-01

    In relation to social network sites, prior research has evidenced behaviors (e.g., censoring) enacted by individuals used to avoid projecting an undesired image to their online audiences. However, no work directly examines the psychological process underpinning such behavior. Drawing upon the theory of self-focused attention and related literature, a model is proposed to fill this research gap. Two studies examine the process whereby public self-awareness (stimulated by engaging with Facebook) leads to a self-comparison with audience expectations and, if discrepant, an increase in social anxiety, which results in the intention to perform avoidance-based self-regulation. By finding support for this process, this research contributes an extended understanding of the psychological factors leading to avoidance-based regulation when online selves are subject to surveillance. PMID:27096603

  17. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W-W; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M G; Brown, Louise J; Brown, David A; Breit, Samuel N

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1(-/-)) and wild-type (CLIC1(+/+)) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1(-/-) BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1(+/+), but not CLIC1(-/-) cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1(-/-) BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  18. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W.-W.; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Brown, Louise J.; Brown, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/−) and wild-type (CLIC1+/+) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  19. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  20. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  1. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  2. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  3. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  4. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA or agency) is issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, requiring FHFA, the Federal National Mortgage Association,......

  5. Thermophysiologic aspects of the three-process-model of sleepiness regulation.

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Cajochen, Christian; Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2005-04-01

    The following overview reconsiders the three-process model of sleepiness regulation (homeostatic, circadian, and sleep inertia) from a thermophysiologic point of view. Our results gathered over the last decade indicate that the homeostatic aspect of sleepiness regulation (ie, buildup of sleepiness during wakefulness and its decay during sleep) is not related to the thermoregulatory system, whereas the two other processes of sleepiness regulation (ie, circadian and sleep inertia process) are clearly related to thermoregulation in humans. Distal skin temperature of hands and feet seems to be the crucial variable for the association between thermophysiology, sleepiness, and sleep. Increased distal skin temperature before a nocturnal sleep episode is a good predictor for short sleep-onset latency. The disappearance of sleep inertia after sleep or a nap episode shows very similar kinetics as distal vasoconstriction. Furthermore, relaxation-induced sleepiness (eg, after lying down, at lights-off, with thermal biofeedback training) also evokes an increase in distal skin temperatures. The reverse effect occurs at lights-on or a posture change from supine to standing, Therefore, in terms of thermophysiology, sleep inertia can be explained as the reverse of a relaxation process (ie, decrease in distal skin temperatures). Our results reinterpret the so-called "sleep-evoked" reduction of core body temperature as a consequence of relaxation-induced vasodilatation after lights-off. Sleep per se has no further thermoregulatory effect. Taken together, a thermophysiologic approach may provide a successful strategy to treat sleep-onset insomnia and alleviate sleep inertia. PMID:15892924

  6. A new window of opportunity to reject process-based biotechnology regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Stevens, Yvonne A

    2015-10-01

    The question of whether biotechnology regulation should be based on the process or the product has long been debated, with different jurisdictions adopting different approaches. The European Union has adopted a process-based approach, Canada has adopted a product-based approach, and the United States has implemented a hybrid system. With the recent proliferation of new methods of genetic modification, such as gene editing, process-based regulatory systems, which are premised on a binary system of transgenic and conventional approaches, will become increasingly obsolete and unsustainable. To avoid unreasonable, unfair and arbitrary results, nations that have adopted process-based approaches will need to migrate to a product-based approach that considers the novelty and risks of the individual trait, rather than the process by which that trait was produced. This commentary suggests some approaches for the design of such a product-based approach. PMID:26930116

  7. Taspase1 processing alters TFIIA cofactor properties in the regulation of TFIID

    PubMed Central

    Malecová, Barbora; Caputo, Valentina S; Lee, Diane F; Hsieh, James J; Oelgeschläger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    TFIIA is an important positive regulator of TFIID, the primary promoter recognition factor of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. TFIIA antagonises negative TFIID regulators such as negative cofactor 2 (NC2), promotes specific binding of the TBP subunit of TFIID to TATA core promoter sequence elements and stimulates the interaction of TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in the TFIID complex with core promoter elements located downstream of TATA, such as the initiator element (INR). Metazoan TFIIA consists of 3 subunits, TFIIAα (35 kDa), β (19 kDa) and γ (12 kDa). TFIIAα and β subunits are encoded by a single gene and result from site-specific cleavage of a 55 kDa TFIIA(α/β) precursor protein by the protease Taspase1. Metazoan cells have been shown to contain variable amounts of TFIIA (55/12 kDa) and Taspase1-processed TFIIA (35/19/12 kDa) depending on cell type, suggesting distinct gene-specific roles of unprocessed and Taspase1-processed TFIIA. How precisely Taspase1 processing affects TFIIA functions is not understood. Here we report that Taspase1 processing alters TFIIA interactions with TFIID and the conformation of TFIID/TFIIA promoter complexes. We further show that Taspase1 processing induces increased sensitivity of TFIID/TFIIA complexes to the repressor NC2, which is counteracted by the presence of an INR core promoter element. Our results provide first evidence that Taspase1 processing affects TFIIA regulation of TFIID and suggest that Taspase1 processing of TFIIA is required to establish INR-selective core promoter activity in the presence of NC2. PMID:25996597

  8. eQTL Regulating Transcript Levels Associated with Diverse Biological Processes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Aashish; Budke, Jessica M; Rowland, Steven D; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kumar, Ravi; Carriedo, Leonela; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Zumstein, Kristina; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-09-01

    Variation in gene expression, in addition to sequence polymorphisms, is known to influence developmental, physiological, and metabolic traits in plants. Genetic mapping populations have facilitated identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the genetic determinants of variation in gene expression patterns. We used an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted Solanum pennellii and domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to identify the genetic basis of transcript level variation. We established the effect of each introgression on the transcriptome and identified approximately 7,200 eQTL regulating the steady-state transcript levels of 5,300 genes. Barnes-Hut t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding clustering identified 42 modules revealing novel associations between transcript level patterns and biological processes. The results showed a complex genetic architecture of global transcript abundance pattern in tomato. Several genetic hot spots regulating a large number of transcript level patterns relating to diverse biological processes such as plant defense and photosynthesis were identified. Important eQTL regulating transcript level patterns were related to leaf number and complexity as well as hypocotyl length. Genes associated with leaf development showed an inverse correlation with photosynthetic gene expression, but eQTL regulating genes associated with leaf development and photosynthesis were dispersed across the genome. This comprehensive eQTL analysis details the influence of these loci on plant phenotypes and will be a valuable community resource for investigations on the genetic effects of eQTL on phenotypic traits in tomato. PMID:27418589

  9. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  10. Glycosylation is an Androgen-Regulated Process Essential for Prostate Cancer Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Munkley, Jennifer; Vodak, Daniel; Livermore, Karen E; James, Katherine; Wilson, Brian T; Knight, Bridget; Mccullagh, Paul; Mcgrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Harries, Lorna W; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Mills, Ian G; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J

    2016-06-01

    Steroid androgen hormones play a key role in the progression and treatment of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the first-line treatment used to control cancer growth. Here we apply a novel search strategy to identify androgen-regulated cellular pathways that may be clinically important in prostate cancer. Using RNASeq data, we searched for genes that showed reciprocal changes in expression in response to acute androgen stimulation in culture, and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer. Amongst 700 genes displaying reciprocal expression patterns we observed a significant enrichment in the cellular process glycosylation. Of 31 reciprocally-regulated glycosylation enzymes, a set of 8 (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3) were significantly up-regulated in clinical prostate carcinoma. Androgen exposure stimulated synthesis of glycan structures downstream of this core set of regulated enzymes including sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl Lewis(X) (SLe(X)), O-GlcNAc and chondroitin sulphate, suggesting androgen regulation of the core set of enzymes controls key steps in glycan synthesis. Expression of each of these enzymes also contributed to prostate cancer cell viability. This study identifies glycosylation as a global target for androgen control, and suggests loss of specific glycosylation enzymes might contribute to tumour regression following androgen depletion therapy. PMID:27428423

  11. The Roots of Minority Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbe, M. Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of ways to increase minority giving to colleges and universities debunks the myth of "minorities don't give," and reports a recent study of minority philanthropy, which details philanthropic characteristics of four minority cultures: blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians. Specific strategies recommended include…

  12. Roles and regulation of Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2 in cellular and pathological processes

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddine, Achraf A.; Airola, Michael V.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the functions of ceramide signaling has advanced tremendously over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that generates the bioactive lipid ceramide through the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. A large body of work has now implicated nSMase2 in a diverse set of cellular functions, physiological processes, and disease pathologies. We discuss different aspects of this enzyme’s regulation from transcriptional, post-translational, and biochemical. Furthermore, we highlight nSMase2 involvement in cellular processes including inflammatory signaling, exosome generation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which in turn play important roles in pathologies such as cancer metastasis, Alzheimer’s disease, and other organ systems disorders. Lastly, we examine avenues where targeted nSMase2-inhibition may be clinically beneficial in disease scenarios. PMID:25465297

  13. Roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 in cellular and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Shamseddine, Achraf A; Airola, Michael V; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the functions of ceramide signaling has advanced tremendously over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that generates the bioactive lipid ceramide through the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. A large body of work has now implicated nSMase2 in a diverse set of cellular functions, physiological processes, and disease pathologies. We discuss different aspects of this enzyme's regulation from transcriptional, post-translational, and biochemical. Furthermore, we highlight nSMase2 involvement in cellular processes including inflammatory signaling, exosome generation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which in turn play important roles in pathologies such as cancer metastasis, Alzheimer's disease, and other organ systems disorders. Lastly, we examine avenues where targeted nSMase2-inhibition may be clinically beneficial in disease scenarios. PMID:25465297

  14. The RB/E2F pathway and regulation of RNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlander, Joseph; Bosco, Giovanni

    2009-07-03

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.

  15. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  16. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  17. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  18. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  19. Minority Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the community college's role in Native American education. Describes recruitment, counseling, assessment, remedial, and outreach programs developed by San Juan College to help minority students succeed, and specifically help Native Americans bridge the worlds of public school, reservation, and university. Identifies keys to the programs'…

  20. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  1. Spotlight on Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yous, Phakdey Chea; Mahamed, Hodman; Kost, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This article spotlights minority students in school psychology training programs. Three students from underrepresented backgrounds were asked to reflect on what aspects of their program made them feel welcome and supported. In their discussions, they took the task a step further and furnished ideas about ways in which school psychology training…

  2. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  3. The Year Ahead: Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

  4. Language, Literacy, and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    The ideal of a world where bilingualism or multilingualism is a normal and accepted feature is promoted in a commissioned report for International Literacy Year. It is noted that many minority groups are forced into bilingualism as a necessity for survival, but that those skills are rarely seen as an advantage and often seen as a cause of…

  5. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  6. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  7. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  8. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  9. FXR1P is a GSK3β substrate regulating mood and emotion processing

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Latapy, Camille; Rampino, Antonio; Khlghatyan, Jivan; Lemasson, Morgane; Gelao, Barbara; Quarto, Tiziana; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Barbeau, Annie; Lamarre, Claude; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a shared action believed to be involved in the regulation of behavior by psychoactive drugs such as antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. However, little is known about the identity of the substrates through which GSK3β affects behavior. We identified fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1P), a RNA binding protein associated to genetic risk for schizophrenia, as a substrate for GSK3β. Phosphorylation of FXR1P by GSK3β is facilitated by prior phosphorylation by ERK2 and leads to its down-regulation. In contrast, behaviorally effective chronic mood stabilizer treatments in mice inhibit GSK3β and increase FXR1P levels. In line with this, overexpression of FXR1P in the mouse prefrontal cortex also leads to comparable mood-related responses. Furthermore, functional genetic polymorphisms affecting either FXR1P or GSK3β gene expression interact to regulate emotional brain responsiveness and stability in humans. These observations uncovered a GSK3β/FXR1P signaling pathway that contributes to regulating mood and emotion processing. Regulation of FXR1P by GSK3β also provides a mechanistic framework that may explain how inhibition of GSK3β can contribute to the regulation of mood by psychoactive drugs in mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. Moreover, this pathway could potentially be implicated in other biological functions, such as inflammation and cell proliferation, in which FXR1P and GSK3 are known to play a role. PMID:26240334

  10. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: Evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K.; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. PMID:24418532