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Sample records for regulates minor process

  1. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  2. Minority Aging and Endogenous Pain Facilitatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W.; Goodin, Burel R.; McNew, Myriah; Gossett, Ethan W.; Bradley, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among age, ethnicity, and endogenous pain facilitation using temporal summation (TS) responses to mechanical and heat stimuli. Design The present study assessed hyperalgesia and pain facilitation to thermal and mechanical stimuli at the knee and distal sites in 98 pain-free men and women. Participants were drawn from two ethnic (African-Americans, AA; and non-Hispanic whites, NHW) and age groups (19-35 and 45-85). Results Significant main effects of ethnicity were demonstrated for both mechanical and heat modalities (all p’s≤0.05), suggesting that AA participants, relative to NHW counterparts, demonstrated enhanced hyperalgesia. Age differences (older > younger) in hyperalgesia were found in mechanical pain ratings only. Results indicated that mechanical pain ratings significantly increased from first to maximal pain as a function of both age group and ethnicity (all p’s≤0.05), and a significant ethnicity by age interaction for TS of mechanical pain was found at the forearm (p<0.05) and trended towards significance at the knee (p=0.071). Post-hoc tests suggested that results were primarily driven by the older AA participants, who demonstrated the greatest mechanical TS. Additionally, evidence of differences in heat TS due to both ethnicity alone (all p’s≤0.05) and minority aging was also found. Conclusions This study provides evidence suggesting that older AAs demonstrate enhanced pain facilitatory processes, which is important because this group may be at increased risk for development of chronic pain. These results underscore the necessity of testing pain modulatory mechanisms when addressing questions related to pain perception and minority aging. PMID:26814250

  3. Minor Planet Center Data Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects.Over 2 million observations are received each month via the internet, and are validated and processed in near real time. The observations come in batches whose formats are checked and whose observations are run through a number of other routine checks such as departure from great circle motion, prior publication, single observations, near duplicates, etc. Some or all of a batch of observations may be returned to its sender if they fail one or more of the checks. After the observations have been validated, they are processed to produce orbits of newly discovered objects or used to update the orbits of known objects.Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges face the MPC. These include the following: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights (possibly at different apparitions) which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; determining and examining the range of possible variant orbits of newly discovered Near-Earth objects with very short observation arcs for cases which indicate an object is potentially on a collision course with Earth; linking observations to known artificial satellites and/or booster stages and other space "junk"; prioritizing newly

  4. Clinical Research Involving Minors in International and Serbian Regulations

    PubMed Central

    PLANOJEVIĆ, Nina; ŽIVOJINOVIĆ, Dragica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be – it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative’s consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors’ position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative’s consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone’s health, including a minor in which those are conducted – this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other’s behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors’ participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model. PMID:24455493

  5. Perturbed GUE Minor Process and Warren's Process with Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Patrik L.; Frings, René

    2013-11-01

    We consider the minor process of (Hermitian) matrix diffusions with constant diagonal drifts. At any given time, this process is determinantal and we provide an explicit expression for its correlation kernel. This is a measure on the Gelfand-Tsetlin pattern that also appears in a generalization of Warren's process (Electron. J. Probab. 12:573-590, 2007), in which Brownian motions have level-dependent drifts. Finally, we show that this process arises in a diffusion scaling limit from an interacting particle system in the anisotropic KPZ class in 2+1 dimensions introduced in Borodin and Ferrari (Commun. Math. Phys., 2008). Our results generalize the known results for the zero drift situation.

  6. A comparative study on the regulation of C(3) and C (4) carboxylation processes in the constitutive crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana and the C(3)-CAM intermediate Clusia minor.

    PubMed

    Borland, A M; Griffiths, H

    1997-03-01

    A comparison of carbon metabolism in the constitutive crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perr. and the C(3)-CAM intermediate Clusia minor L. was undertaken under controlled environmental conditions where plants experience gradual changes in light intensity, temperature and humidity at the start and end of the photoperiod. The magnitude of CAM activity was manipulated by maintaining plants in ambient air or by enclosing leaves overnight in an atmosphere of N(2) to suppress C(4) carboxylation. Measurements of diel changes in carbonisotope discrimination and organic acid content were used to quantify the activities of C(3) and C(4) carboxylases in vivo and to indicate the extent to which the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and decarboxylation processes overlap at the start and end of the photoperiod. These measurements in vivo were compared with measurements in vitro of changes in the diel sensitivity of PEPCase to malate inhibition. The results demonstrate fundamental differences in the down-regulation of PEPCase during the day in the two species. While PEPCase is inactivated within the first 30 min of the photoperiod in K. daigremontiana, the enzyme is active for 4 h at the start and 3 h at the end of the photoperiod in C. minor. Enclosing leaves in N(2) overnight resulted in a two-to threefold increase in PEPCase-mediated CO(2) uptake during Phase II of CAM in both species. However, futile cycling of CO(2) between malate synthesis and decarboxylation does not occur during Phase II in either species. In terms of overall carbon balance, C(4) carboxylation accounted for approximately 20% of net daytime assimilation in both species under control conditions, increasing to 30-34% after a night in N(2). Although N(2)-treated leaves of K. daigremontiana took up 25% more CO(2) than control leaves during the day this was insufficient to compensate for

  7. Minor differences in the molecular machinery mediating regulated membrane fusion has major impact on metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Daraio, Teresa; Brismar, Kerstin; Hökfelt, Tomas; Bark, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The exocytosis of signaling molecules from neuronal, neuroendocrine and endocrine cells is regulated by membrane fusion involving SNAP-25 and associated SNARE proteins. The importance of this process for metabolic control recently became evident by studies of mouse mutants genetically engineered to only express one of 2 closely related, alternatively-spliced variants of SNAP-25. The results showed that even minor differences in the function of proteins regulating exocytosis are sufficient to provoke metabolic disease, including hyperglycaemia, liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy and obesity. Thus, an imbalance in the dynamics of hormonal and/or neurotransmitter release can cause obesity and type 2 diabetes. This recent discovery highlights the fact that metabolic health requires a perfectly operating interplay between the SNARE protein machinery in excitable cells and the organs responding to these messengers. PMID:27617177

  8. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  9. Mass Media and Minority Socialization: Conceptualizing the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    The contents of this concept paper examining the roll of the mass media in the socialization of minority groups in America include an examination of the major literature dealing with the socialization of minority groups, a discussion of subculture orientation to minority socialization, consideration of the theories of ethnocentrism and their…

  10. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed. PMID:19748884

  11. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  12. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  13. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...The Department of the Treasury (the Department) is proposing to amend the Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation (DTAR) to include a contract clause on minority and women inclusion, as required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the Dodd-Frank...

  14. Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

  15. Minorities and Constitutional Due Process under Collective Bargaining Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    Chapter 19 of a book on school law examines how racial minority faculty members at colleges where collective bargaining agreements are in operation are likely to be affected under new rules by the U.S. Supreme Court. A few examples are given of court decisions showing, in general, that arbitration of a dispute by the collective bargaining process…

  16. Involvement and Empowerment of Minorities and Women in the Accrediting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Louis W.; And Others

    The involvement of women and minorities in the accrediting process was studied nationally. The experiences of women and minorities who participated in the accrediting process were surveyed, including perceived or actual empowerment derived from participation. Views of accrediting agencies and member institutions were also assessed. Respondents…

  17. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? 361.1 Section 361.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE....1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  18. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? 361.1 Section 361.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE....1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the...

  19. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers' emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  20. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers’ emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  1. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  2. Online Gambling Advertising Regulations in Spain. A Study on the Protection of Minors.

    PubMed

    Buil, Pilar; Solé Moratilla, Maria José; García Ruiz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the online gambling advertising regulations in Spain currently in effect to assess the actual protection of underage youth. In recent years, online gambling among youth has increased. Through advertising, online gambling companies incite and encourage an involvement that can be harmful for vulnerable audiences. Some studies have demonstrated that advertising influences youths' assessment of gambling by increasing its appeal. We demonstrate that the shortcomings of the legal framework in force results in effective vulnerability of minors. We claim that society should seek to implement a regulatory framework to protect children from the risk of developing an addiction. PMID:26437313

  3. Musical chords and emotion: major and minor triads are processed for emotion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, David Radford; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-03-01

    Musical chords are arguably the smallest building blocks of music that retain emotional information. Major chords are generally perceived as positive- and minor chords as negative-sounding, but there has been debate concerning how early these emotional connotations may be processed. To investigate this, emotional facial stimuli and musical chord stimuli were simultaneously presented to participants, and facilitation of processing was measured via event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes. Decreased amplitudes of the P1 and N2 ERP components have been found to index the facilitation of early processing. If simultaneously presented musical chords and facial stimuli are perceived at early stages as belonging to the same emotional category, then early processing should be facilitated for these congruent pairs, and ERP amplitudes should therefore be decreased as compared to the incongruent pairs. ERPs were recorded from 30 musically naive participants as they viewed happy, sad, and neutral faces presented simultaneously with a major or minor chord. When faces and chords were presented that contained congruent emotional information (happy-major or sad-minor), processing was facilitated, as indexed by decreased N2 ERP amplitudes. This suggests that musical chords do possess emotional connotations that can be processed as early as 200 ms in naive listeners. The early stages of processing that are involved suggest that major and minor chords have deeply connected emotional meanings, rather than superficially attributed ones, indicating that minor triads possess negative emotional connotations and major triads possess positive emotional connotations. PMID:24957406

  4. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K.; Mode, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k = 1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.38). When less dispersed with k = 2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. PMID:22079419

  5. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. PMID:27033974

  6. Immigrant and Minority Workers in the Organization of the Labor Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen-Koob, Saskia

    1980-01-01

    Examines how the organization of the labor process generates the need for low wage powerless labor and shows how this is achieved through the use of immigrant and minority workers. Utilizes examples from large urban centers in the northern and northeastern United States. (Author/GC)

  7. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT. PMID:23784718

  8. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  9. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  10. Experimental Studies of the Distribution of Minor Constituents and Dynamic Processes in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jindra

    1999-01-01

    Minor constituents play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and serve as tracers in transport and mixing studies in tropospheric-stratospheric exchange processes. Measurements of trace gases are essential to an understanding of the mechanisms by which minor constituents originating in the troposphere, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, reach the stratosphere. Many of these gases are sources of species directly involved in the chemistry of ozone depletion in the stratosphere and ozone generation in the troposphere. Some contribute to the warming of the atmosphere. Data on tracer distributions are important in the development of models for predicting photochemical effects in the stratosphere and troposphere. Data on atmospheric dynamics are important for the development of models for predicting the transport of photochemical species and for characterizing the nature of stratospheric motions.

  11. Regulation of the aging process by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Autophagy is involved in cellular protein and organelle degradation, which is mediated by the lysosomal pathway. Autophagocytosis has a key role in cellular housekeeping by removing damaged organelles. During aging, the efficiency of autophagic degradation declines and intracellular waste products accumulate. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is clear evidence that lifespan is linked to the capacity to regulate autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that the same signaling factors regulate both aging and autophagocytosis, thus highlighting the role of autophagy in the regulation of aging and age-related degenerative diseases. Here, we examine in detail the interactions of the signaling network involving longevity factors SIRT1, mTOR, FoxO3, NF-kappaB and p53 in the regulation of autophagy. We discuss the possibility that these well-known stress resistance and longevity factors regulate the aging process via autophagy. PMID:19380253

  12. Feedback regulation of microscopes by image processing.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Yuki; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Computational microscope systems are becoming a major part of imaging biological phenomena, and the development of such systems requires the design of automated regulation of microscopes. An important aspect of automated regulation is feedback regulation, which is the focus of this review. As modern microscope systems become more complex, often with many independent components that must work together, computer control is inevitable since the exact orchestration of parameters and timings for these multiple components is critical to acquire proper images. A number of techniques have been developed for biological imaging to accomplish this. Here, we summarize the basics of computational microscopy for the purpose of building automatically regulated microscopes focus on feedback regulation by image processing. These techniques allow high throughput data acquisition while monitoring both short- and long-term dynamic phenomena, which cannot be achieved without an automated system. PMID:23594233

  13. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  14. Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K

    2015-07-01

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:24626458

  15. 76 FR 55849 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Constitutionality of Federal Contracting Programs for Minority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE..., 15, 19, 22, 26, 52, and 53 RIN 9000-AM05 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Constitutionality of Federal...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD, GSA, and NASA are proposing to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  16. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  17. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  18. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  19. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  20. 34 CFR 637.3 - What regulations apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Program: (a) The Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) as follows: (1) 34 CFR... Organizations). (2) 34 CFR part 75 (Direct Grant Programs). (3) 34 CFR part 77 (Definitions that Apply to Department Regulations). (4) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs...

  1. Aging and Self-Regulated Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adult developmental model of self-regulated language processing (SRLP), in which the allocation policy with which a reader engages text is driven by declines in processing capacity, growth in knowledge-based processes, and age-related shifts in reading goals. Evidence is presented to show that the individual reader’s allocation policy is consistent across time and across different types of text, can serve a compensatory function in relation to abilities, and is predictive of subsequent memory performance. As such, it is an important facet of language understanding and learning from text through the adult life span. PMID:16822168

  2. Language in the Process of Cultural Assimilation and Structural Incorporation of Linguistic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    Semilingualism is discussed as a sociolinguistic concept and is viewed as a mediating variable when the society reproduces the class structure and vocational structure of suppressed minorities. A Finnish group of immigrant children in Sweden is the minority considered. It was found that the longer the Finnish children were educated in Finnish, the…

  3. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  4. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Nitrogen Nutrition in the Duckweed Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Brunold, Christian; Suter, Marianne

    1984-01-01

    The effect of nitrate and ammonium on the extractable activity of two enzymes of assimilatory sulfate reduction, ATP sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4) and adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase (APSSTase), was examined in Lemna minor L. cultivated under steady state conditions. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) was measured for comparison. Low nitrate concentrations (0.2 and 0.04 millimolar) caused a decrease in the specific activity of all three enzymes measured. Twenty-four hours after transfer to medium without a nitrogen source, the specific activity of APSSTase and nitrate reductase was at less than 30% of the original level, whereas ATP sulfurylase was still at about 80%. NH4+ added to the nutrient solution caused a 50 to 100% increase in the specific activity of APSSTase within 24 hours, followed by a slow decrease. After 72 hours with NH4+, the specific activity was still 25% higher than originally. During the same period, the extractable protein increased by 30% on a fresh weight basis, and total protein by 55 to 60%. Nitrate reductase activity decreased to less than 5%. After omission of NH4+ from the nutrient solution extractable APSSTase activity rapidly decreased to the level of cultures with NO3− as a nitrogen source. Using [35S]SO42− as a sulfur source, an increased incorporation of label into the protein fraction could be detected when NH4+ was added to the nutrient solution. This indicated that more sulfate was assimilated and used for protein synthesis. The higher extractable activity of APSSTase with NH4+ may be a regulatory mechanism involved in the formation of sufficient sulfur amino acids during a period of increased protein synthesis. PMID:16663886

  5. Operation Pathfinder: Oceanography, Coastal Processes for Elementary, Middle School Teachers--Program Reaches Minority Students, Puts 'AAAH' into Ocean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a 12-day teacher inservice course in oceanography and coastal processes that focuses on enhanced content knowledge, improved teaching strategies, role modeling, and leadership development. The primary objective is improving the teaching techniques of elementary and middle school teachers of predominantly minority students. Strategies…

  6. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful. PMID:16802072

  7. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  8. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  9. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  10. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  11. MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation plays a minor role in the transcriptomic plasticity of cold-acclimated Zebrafish brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes by directing the degradation and/or repression of the translation of gene transcripts. Growing evidence shows that miRNAs are indispensable player in organismal development with its regulatory role in the growth and differentiation of cell lineages. However, the roles of miRNA-mediated regulation in environmental adaptation of organisms are largely unknown. To examine this potential regulatory capability, we characterized microRNAomes from the brain of zebrafish raised under normal (28°C) and cold-acclimated (10°C, 10 days) conditions using Solexa sequencing. We then examined the expression pattern of the protein-coding genes under these two conditions with Affymetrix Zebrafish Genome Array profiling. The potential roles of the microRNAome in the transcriptomic cold regulation in the zebrafish brain were investigated by various statistical analyses. Results Among the total 214 unique, mature zebrafish miRNAs deposited on the miRBase website (release 16), 175 were recovered in this study. In addition, we identified 399 novel, mature miRNAs using multiple miRNA prediction methods. We defined a set of 25 miRNAs differentially expressed under the cold and normal conditions and predicted the molecular functions and biological processes that they involve through Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of their target genes. On the other hand, microarray analysis showed that genes related to mRNA processing and response to stress were overrepresented among the up-regulated genes in cold-stress, but are not directly corresponding to any of the GO molecular functions and biological processes predicted from the differential miRNAs. Using several statistical models including a novel, network-based approach, we found that miRNAs identified in this study, either individually or together, and either directly or indirectly (i.e., mediated by transcription factors), only make minor

  12. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  13. N-cadherin prodomain processing regulates synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reinés, Analía; Bernier, Louis-Philippe; McAdam, Robyn; Belkaid, Wiam; Shan, Weisong; Koch, Alexander W; Séguéla, Philippe; Colman, David R; Dhaunchak, Ajit S

    2012-05-01

    Classical cadherins, which are adhesion molecules functioning at the CNS synapse, are synthesized as adhesively inactive precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Signal sequence and prodomain cleavage in the ER and Golgi apparatus, respectively, activates their adhesive properties. Here, we provide the first evidence for sorting of nonadhesive precursor N-cadherin (ProN) to the neuronal surface, where it coexists with adhesively competent mature N-cadherin (N-cad), generating a spectrum of adhesive strengths. In cultured hippocampal neurons, a high ProN/N-cad ratio downregulates synapse formation. Neurons expressing genetically engineered uncleavable ProN make markedly fewer synapses. The synapse number can be rescued to normality by depleting surface ProN levels through prodomain cleavage by an exogenous protease. Finally, prodomain processing is developmentally regulated in the rat hippocampus. We conclude that it is the ProN/N-cad ratio and not mature N-cad alone that is critical for regulation of adhesion during synaptogenesis. PMID:22553038

  14. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  15. Sequence-specific minor groove binding ligands as potential regulators of gene expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Belikov, S V; Grokhovsky, S L; Isaguliants, M G; Surovaya, A N; Gursky, G V

    2005-10-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent gene activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the DNA-protein interactions following hormone activation. The strategy of artificial regulating of gene activity by sequence-specific minor groove binding ligands is very attractive. We have synthesized and studied the interaction with DNA of bis-linked netropsin derivatives in which two monomers are attached via short linkers in head-to-head and tail-to-tail manners. We have found that cis-diammine-platinum bridged bis-netropsin added to Xenopus oocytes media penetrates cellular and nuclear membrane and binds selectively to the MMTV promoter at the DNA segment that partly overlaps with the site recognized by glucocorticoid receptor. DNase I footprinting studies demonstrate that there are more stronger binding sites for cis-diammine-platinum bridged bis-netropsin on the naked MMTV DNA which are found to be inaccessible for its binding in oocytes. PMID:16060693

  16. Explicit and Implicit Emotion Regulation: A Dual-Process Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Gross, James J.; Etkin, Amit

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organize emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research. PMID:21432682

  17. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and B of this part shall be accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  18. Regulation of ecosystem processes by arthropod communities

    SciTech Connect

    Seastedt, T.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Arthropods or their activities regulate the amounts of forms of mass and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Canopy arthropods have the largest impacts on mobile elements such as potassium, while soil detritivores control mineralization rates of less mobile elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Nominal (base-line) herbivory and detritivory combine to speed nutrient cycling and reduce standing crops of decaying plant materials. 42 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Minor actinide separation: simplification of the DIAMEX-SANEX strategy by means of novel SANEX processes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Kaufholz, P.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of An(III) from PUREX raffinate has previously been demonstrated by applying a DIAMEX process (i.e., co-extraction of An(III) and Ln(III) from HAR) followed by a SANEX process (i.e., selective extraction of An(III) from the DIAMEX product containing An(III) + Ln(III)). In line with process intensification issues, more compact processes have been developed: Recently, a 1c-SANEX process test was successfully performed, directly extracting An(III) from PUREX HAR. More recently, a new i-SANEX process was successfully tested. This process is based on the co-extraction of An(III) + Ln(III) into a TODGA solvent, followed by a selective back-extraction of An(III) by a water soluble complexing agent, in this case SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP. In both cases, good recoveries were achieved, and very pure product solutions were obtained. However, both 1c-SANEX and i-SANEX used non-CHON chemicals. Nevertheless, these processes are a simplification to the DIAMEX + SANEX process as only one solvent is used. Finally, the new i-SANEX process is the most compact process. (authors)

  20. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  1. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) Proposals for changes to the Federal...

  2. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  3. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  4. 50 CFR 100.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accepted by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulation adoption process. 100.18... Structure § 100.18 Regulation adoption process. (a) The Board will accept proposals for changes to...

  5. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

  6. Reproducing Visible-Minority Exclusion from the Ontario School Curriculum: An Ethnography of Educational Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Harry S.

    This study examines how the Ontario (Canada) educational system serves Southeast Asians and West Indians. This is the most recent stage of a longitudinal study started about 16 years ago. The main purpose of the larger study is to examine the notion of curriculum as a social process of cultural selection engaged in by schools operating as the…

  7. Reasoning and Comprehension Processes of Linguistic Minority Persons Learning from Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R.; And Others

    This 3-year project examined the processes and strategies employed by English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and native-English-speaking students when learning from academic texts. A conceptual model guided the analysis of talk aloud protocols elicited from students as they answered questions from textbook materials used in an introductory…

  8. Granulation and infiltration processes for the fabrication of minor actinide fuels, targets and conditioning matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nästren, C.; Fernandez, A.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walter, M.

    2007-05-01

    The impact of Pu and Am, two elements that potentially pose a long term hazard for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, can be abated by their reintroduction into the fuel cycle for transmutation. Such transmutation targets can be fabricated by a sol gel method for the production of porous inactive beads, which are then infiltrated by Am solutions. Following calcination, compaction into pellets and sintering, the product is obtained. At its heart, the sol gel process relies on an ammonia precipitation, so that it is not universally applicable. Therefore, an alternative is sought not just to overcome this chemical limitation, but also to simplify the process and reduce waste streams. The new concept utilises powder metallurgy routes (compaction, crushing and sieving) to produce porous, almost, dust free granules, which are infiltrated with the actinide nitrate. The method has been developed using yttria stabilised zirconia and alumina, and has been demonstrated for the production of Al2O3-AmO2 targets for neutron capture investigations. The results are very promising and meet light water reactor fuel specifications. In addition, the process is ideally suited for the production of ceramic matrices for conditioning actinides for geological disposal.

  9. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  10. [Regulation of the primary photosynthesis processes].

    PubMed

    Rubin, A B; Krendeleva, T E

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms of primary processes of photosynthesis and macromolecular conformational changes that control the efficiency of primary energy transformation in photosynthesis are discussed. Special attention is focused on the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence as an integrated parameter indicative of the efficiency and dynamics of primary steps of photosynthesis. Sharp changes in environmental conditions and other unfavorable factors may lead to the distortions of the coupling between consecutive electron transfer steps. As a result, an excess of electrons and/or electronic excitation energy may form at some sites of the electron transport chain. This may lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species responsible for the subsequent oxidative stress. The results of the application of these data in the areas of biotechnology and ecology are demonstrated. PMID:15129625

  11. Measuring Musical Self-Regulation: Linking Processes, Skills, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This research explores self-regulated learning behaviors as used by 174 students in higher music education during learning and practice, with the aim of demonstrating the interaction between processes, skills, and beliefs. A three-factor structure was identified within a newly adapted, ten-item Musical Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire,…

  12. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems. PMID:26728867

  13. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems. PMID:26728867

  14. Controlling the screening process of a nanoscaled space charge region by minority carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloth, Philipp; Kaiser, Katharina; Wenderoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of future electronic devices is intimately connected to the ability to control electric fields on the atomic scale. In a nanoscopic system defined by a limited number of charges, the combined dynamics of bound and free charges become important. Here we present a model system based on the electrostatic interaction between a metallic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and a GaAs(110) semiconductor surface. The system is driven out of equilibrium by optical excitation, which provides ambipolar free charge carriers, and by an optically induced unipolar tunnel current. This combination enables the active control of the density and spatial distribution of free and bound charge in the space-charge region, that is, modifying the screening processes. Temporal fluctuations of single dopants are modified, meaning we are able to control the noise of the system. It is found that free charge carriers suppress the noise level in field-controlled, nanoscopic systems.

  15. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (ΔRSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children’s physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children’s emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology × Baseline RSA × Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children’s capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology. PMID:18605838

  16. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  17. Resilience as Regulation of Developmental and Family Processes

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, David; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Riggs, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Resilience can be defined as establishing equilibrium subsequent to disturbances to a system caused by significant adversity. When families experience adversity or transitions, multiple regulatory processes may be involved in establishing equilibrium, including adaptability, regulation of negative affect, and effective problem-solving skills. The authors’ resilience-as-regulation perspective integrates insights about the regulation of individual development with processes that regulate family systems. This middle-range theory of family resilience focuses on regulatory processes across levels that are involved in adaptation: whole-family systems such as routines and sense of coherence; coregulation of dyads involving emotion regulation, structuring, and reciprocal influences between social partners; and individual self-regulation. Insights about resilience-as-regulation are then applied to family-strengthening interventions that are designed to promote adaptation to adversity. Unresolved issues are discussed in relation to resilience-as-regulation in families, in particular how risk exposure is assessed, interrelations among family regulatory mechanisms, and how families scaffold the development of children’s resilience. PMID:26568647

  18. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of "number" is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  19. Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills in Bilingual Minority Children: Toward a Relative Independence of Linguistic and Numerical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacci, Paola; Tobia, Valentina; Bernabini, Luca; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the concept of “number” is relatively independent from linguistic skills, although an increasing number of studies suggest that language abilities may play a pivotal role in the development of arithmetic skills. The condition of bilingualism can offer a unique perspective into the role of linguistic competence in numerical development. The present study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between language skills and early numeracy through a multilevel investigation in monolingual and bilingual minority children attending preschool. The sample included 156 preschool children. Of these, 77 were bilingual minority children (mean age = 58.27 ± 5.90), and 79 were monolinguals (mean age = 58.45 ± 6.03). The study focused on three levels of analysis: group differences in language and number skills, concurrent linguistic predictors of early numeracy and, finally, profile analysis of linguistic skills in children with impaired vs. adequate numeracy skills. The results showed that, apart from the expected differences in linguistic measures, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in numerical skills with a verbal component, such as semantic knowledge of digits, but they did not differ in a pure non-verbal component such as quantity comparison. The multigroup structural equation model indicated that letter knowledge was a significant predictor of the verbal component of numeracy for both groups. Phonological awareness was a significant predictor of numeracy skills only in the monolingual group. Profile analysis showed that children with a selective weakness in the non-verbal component of numeracy had fully adequate verbal skills. Results from the present study suggest that only some specific components of language competence predict numerical processing, although linguistic proficiency may not be a prerequisite for developing adequate early numeracy skills. PMID:27458413

  20. Minority Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    Stephanie Kwader is a white minority at the Bowie State University, a 5,500-student historically black university. Students like her belong to a small but growing group: minority students on the campuses of the nation's 105 historically black colleges and universities. HBCUs, as they are referred in the field, offer competitive academics with…

  1. 76 FR 44350 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Drawback Process Regulations (CBP Forms 7551, 7552... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 19120) on April 6, 2011, allowing for a...

  2. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... criteria that an agency must address in a waiver request and a waiver consultation process regarding... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11,...

  3. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation process... Federal Register at 75 FR 62069 on October 7, 2010, to revise FAR 25.702, Prohibition on contracting...

  4. 76 FR 19120 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Drawback Process... Drawback Process Regulations (CBP Forms 7551, 7552 and 7553). This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Drawback...

  5. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Light and O-Acetyl-l-Serine in Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Urs; Suter, Marianne; Brunold, Christian

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 0.5 millimolar O-acetyl-l-serine added to the nutrient solution on sulfate assimilation of Lemna minor L., cultivated in the light or in the dark, or transferred from light to the dark, was examined. During 24 hours after transfer from light to the dark the extractable activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, a key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, decreased to 10% of the light control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.7.1.) activity, measured for comparison, decreased to 40%. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4.) and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8.) activities were not affected by the transfer. When O-acetyl-l-serine was added to the nutrient solution at the time of transfer to the dark, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity was still at 50% of the light control after 24 hours, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase activity were again not affected, and nitrate reductase activity decreased as before. Addition of O-acetyl-l-serine at the time of the transfer caused a 100% increase in acid-soluble SH compounds after 24 hours in the dark. In continuous light the corresponding increase was 200%. During 24 hours after transfer to the dark the assimilation of 35SO42− into organic compounds decreased by 80% without O-acetyl-l-serine but was comparable to light controls in its presence. The addition of O-acetyl-l-serine to Lemna minor precultivated in the dark for 24 hours induced an increase in adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity so that a constant level of 50% of the light control was reached after an additional 9 hours. Cycloheximide as well as 6-methyl-purine inhibited this effect. In the same type of experiment O-acetyl-l-serine induced a 100-fold increase in the incorporation of label from 35SO42− into cysteine after additional 24 hours in the dark. Taken together, these results show that exogenous O-acetyl-l-serine has a regulatory effect on

  6. The reciprocal regulation between splicing and 3'-end processing.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Daisuke

    2016-07-01

    Most eukaryotic precursor mRNAs are subjected to RNA processing events, including 5'-end capping, splicing and 3'-end processing. These processing events were historically studied independently; however, since the early 1990s tremendous efforts by many research groups have revealed that these processing factors interact with each other to control each other's functions. U1 snRNP and its components negatively regulate polyadenylation of precursor mRNAs. Importantly, this function is necessary for protecting the integrity of the transcriptome and for regulating gene length and the direction of transcription. In addition, physical and functional interactions occur between splicing factors and 3'-end processing factors across the last exon. These interactions activate or inhibit splicing and 3'-end processing depending on the context. Therefore, splicing and 3'-end processing are reciprocally regulated in many ways through the complex protein-protein interaction network. Although interesting questions remain, future studies will illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal regulation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:499-511. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1348 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27019070

  7. CaMKII regulation in information processing and storage

    PubMed Central

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Bayer, K. Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Ca2+/Calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by Ca2+/CaM, but becomes partially autonomous (Ca2+-independent) upon autophosphorylation at T286. This hallmark feature of CaMKII regulation provides a form of molecular memory and is indeed important in long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapse strength and memory formation. However, emerging evidence supports a direct role in information processing, while storage of synaptic information may instead be mediated by regulated interaction of CaMKII with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex. These and other CaMKII regulation mechanisms are discussed here in the context of the kinase structure and their impact on post-synaptic functions. Recent findings also implicate CaMKII in long-term depression (LTD), as well as functional roles at inhibitory synapses, lending renewed emphasis on better understanding the spatio-temporal control of CaMKII regulation. PMID:22717267

  8. Presenilin/γ-Secretase Regulates Neurexin Processing at Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Francisco G.

    2011-01-01

    Neurexins are a large family of neuronal plasma membrane proteins, which function as trans-synaptic receptors during synaptic differentiation. The binding of presynaptic neurexins to postsynaptic partners, such as neuroligins, has been proposed to participate in a signaling pathway that regulates synapse formation/stabilization. The identification of mutations in neurexin genes associated with autism and mental retardation suggests that dysfunction of neurexins may underlie synaptic defects associated with brain disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate neurexin function at synapses are still unclear. Here, we show that neurexins are proteolytically processed by presenilins (PS), the catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex that mediates the intramembraneous cleavage of several type I membrane proteins. Inhibition of PS/γ-secretase by using pharmacological and genetic approaches induces a drastic accumulation of neurexin C-terminal fragments (CTFs) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mouse brain. Neurexin-CTFs accumulate mainly at the presynaptic terminals of PS conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) mice lacking both PS genes in glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain. The fact that loss of PS function enhances neurexin accumulation at glutamatergic terminals mediated by neuroligin-1 suggests that PS regulate the processing of neurexins at glutamatergic synapses. Interestingly, presenilin 1 (PS1) is recruited to glutamatergic terminals mediated by neuroligin-1, thus concentrating PS1 at terminals containing β-neurexins. Furthermore, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked PS1 mutations differentially affect β-neurexin-1 processing. Expression of PS1 M146L and PS1 H163R mutants in PS−/− cells rescues the processing of β-neurexin-1, whereas PS1 C410Y and PS1 ΔE9 fail to rescue the processing defect. These results suggest that PS regulate the synaptic function and processing of neurexins at glutamatergic synapses, and that impaired

  9. The ups and downs of being lesbian, gay, and bisexual: A daily experience perspective on minority stress and support processes.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jonathan J; Sarno, Elissa L

    2016-01-01

    Daily diary methods were used to explore identity-related stress and support processes as they occurred from day-to-day in a sample of 61 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults. At the end of each day for 7-10 consecutive days, participants reported on daily identity-salient experiences (ISEs), proximal minority stressors (internalized stigma, expectations of rejection), and affect (positive, negative). A multilevel latent covariate model was used to examine within- and between-person interrelations among these variables. Participants described a variety of positive and negative ISEs with both heterosexual and LGB people. These ISEs accounted for change in affect from 1 day to the next, even controlling for positive and negative experiences unrelated to identity. For example, relative to the previous day, participants experienced increases in positive affect on days featuring positive ISEs with both heterosexual people and LGB people. ISEs also predicted daily proximal stress variables, and findings differed at the 2 levels of analysis. For example, at the within-person level, participants experienced decreases in internalized stigma on days featuring positive ISEs with heterosexuals. At the between-person level, however, findings indicated that participants who generally had the highest levels of internalized stigma were more likely than others to report negative ISEs with LGB people and less likely to report positive ISEs with LGB people. Finally, proximal stress variables predicted affect at the within-person level: Affect improved on days when levels of internalized stigma and expected rejection were lower than usual. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26575350

  10. Minority scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute sponsors undergraduate and graduate geoscience scholarships for members of ethnic minority groups. U.S. citizens who are majoring in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary geology, or Earth science education, and who are Black, Hispanic or Native American are eligible. Undergraduate awards can be as large as $10,000 a year; graduate awards, $4000 a year. Application deadline is February 1, 1990. Contact AGI Minority Participation Program Scholarships, American Geological Institute, 4220 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22302-1507; tel. 703-379-2480.

  11. Self-regulation in ADHD: the role of error processing.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent and impairing developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Such behavioral dysregulation may be a consequence of deficits in self-monitoring or adaptive control, both of which are required for adaptive behavior. Processing of contextual demands, ongoing monitoring of one's behavior to evaluate whether it is appropriate for a particular situation, and adjusting behavior when it is suboptimal are components of self-regulation. This review examines and integrates the emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control as components of self-regulation into the prominent etiological theories of ADHD. Available data on error-processing, as reflected in event-related potentials (ERN and Pe) and behavioral performance, suggest that both early error detection and later error-evaluation may be diminished in ADHD, thereby interfering with adaptive control processes. However, variability in results limit broad conclusions, particularly for early error detection. A range of methodological issues, including ERP parameters and sample and task characteristics, likely contribute to this variability, and recommendations for future work are presented. The emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control informs etiological theories of ADHD in general and may provide a method for testing self-regulation models in particular. PMID:20659781

  12. Immune Regulation of the Metastatic Process: Implications for Therapy.

    PubMed

    de Mingo Pulido, A; Ruffell, B

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of fatalities in cancer patients, but few therapies are designed to target the metastatic process. Cancer cells must perform a number of steps to successfully establish metastatic foci, including local invasion, intravasation, survival, extravasation, and growth in ectopic tissue. Due to the nonrandom distribution of metastasis, it has long been recognized that the tissue microenvironment must be an important determinant of colonization. More recently it has been established in animal models that immune cells regulate the metastatic process, including a dominant role for monocytes and macrophages, and emerging roles for neutrophils and various lymphocyte populations. While most research has focused on the early dissemination process, patients usually present clinically with disseminated, if not macroscopic, disease. Identifying pathways by which immune cells regulate growth and therapeutic resistance within metastatic sites is therefore key to the development of pharmacological agents that will significantly extend patient survival. PMID:27613132

  13. Piezo Proteins: Regulators of Mechanosensation and Other Cellular Processes*

    PubMed Central

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature. PMID:25305018

  14. Minor Loops in Major Folds: Enhancer–Promoter Looping, Chromatin Restructuring, and Their Association with Transcriptional Regulation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, Navneet; Ahituv, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    The organization and folding of chromatin within the nucleus can determine the outcome of gene expression. Recent technological advancements have enabled us to study chromatin interactions in a genome-wide manner at high resolution. These studies have increased our understanding of the hierarchy and dynamics of chromatin domains that facilitate cognate enhancer–promoter looping, defining the transcriptional program of different cell types. In this review, we focus on vertebrate chromatin long-range interactions as they relate to transcriptional regulation. In addition, we describe how the alteration of boundaries that mark discrete regions in the genome with high interaction frequencies within them, called topological associated domains (TADs), could lead to various phenotypes, including human diseases, which we term as “TADopathies.” PMID:26632825

  15. The Minor MHC Class I Gene UDA of Ducks Is Regulated by Let-7 MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Fuk; Parks-Dely, Julie A; Magor, Brad G; Magor, Katharine E

    2016-08-15

    In many nonmammalian vertebrates, the genomic organization of the MHC class I region leads to biased expression of a single classical MHC class I gene coevolving with TAP transporters, whereas class I genes are poorly expressed. This contrasts to the three codominantly expressed classical MHC class I genes in humans and mice. In a sequenced haplotype from White Pekin duck, Anas platyrhynchos, there is one predominantly expressed MHC class I, UAA, although they have five MHC class I genes in the complex, arranged TAP1-TAP2-UAA-UBA-UCA-UDA-UEA The UAA gene, situated proximal to the TAP2 gene, is expressed at levels 10-fold greater than that of another expressed gene, UDA. Three duck MHC class I genes (UBA, UCA, and UEA) are predicted to be partially or completely inactivated by promoter defects, introduction of in-frame stop codon, or the lack of a polyadenylation signal. In this study, we confirm that UBA, UCA, and UEA are indeed inactivated through genetic defects at the promoter, whereas UAA and UDA have functionally equivalent promoters. To examine promoter accessibility, we performed bisulfite sequencing and show that none of the MHC class I promoters are inactivated by methylation. We determine that UDA is differentially regulated through its 3' untranslated region. Namely, expression of UDA is downregulated by let-7 microRNA, whereas the predominantly expressed MHC class I UAA is not. Regulation of UDA by let-7 microRNA suggests that the lower expression level is maintained for its function in immunity. PMID:27430716

  16. Information Processing Efficiency and Regulation at Five Months

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Anjolii; Bell, Martha Ann

    2011-01-01

    Infants with short look durations are generally thought to have better attentional capabilities due to their efficient information processing. Although effortful attention is considered a key component of developing regulatory abilities, little is known about the relation between speed and efficiency of processing and self-regulation. In this study, 5-month-old infants with shorter look duration had greater EEG power values than infants with longer look during baseline, as well as during a distressing task and a post-distress attentional processing task. These short looking infants also demonstrated higher heart rate, relative to long looking infants, during post-distress information processing. Behaviorally the two groups differed in the amount of distraction during distress. These data provide evidence for an association between the efficiency of information processing and beginning regulatory abilities in early infancy. PMID:21269705

  17. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-04-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  18. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  19. [Minor head trauma - trivial matter or sirious diagnostic and therapeutic problem? The role of Infrascanner in the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Lewartowska-Nyga, Dorota; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries in children, especially minor head injuries, still constitute a important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Despite progress in medical sciences, there is no definition of minor head injury or standards of the management of children with a minor head injury. In consequence, the diagnostic procedure in the child who does not show any signs of central nervous system damage as a result of head injury is individual and depends on the experience and knowledge of the aid provider and as well as procedures established in a given ward. Therefore, a problem which requires to be urgently solved is to determine the justification and indications for imaging investigations (justification for skull X-ray, performance indications for carrying out computed tomography of the head) as well as indications for inpatient observation in such cases. The study presents currently existing definitions and proposals for the management of children presenting with a minor head injury. On the basis of own investigation we would stress that there is an opportunity to use in the initial diagnostics of head injuries in children, a modern non-invasive method already available in Poland, utilising the near-infrared NIR technology in order to detect intracranial haemorrhages by means of the Infrascanner. PMID:27442697

  20. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792

  1. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle. PMID:26762182

  2. Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A R E

    2003-01-01

    The theory of regulation in animal populations is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of populations, the causes of mortality and how natural selection shapes the life history of species. In mammals, the great range in body size allows us to see how allometric relationships affect the mode of regulation. Resource limitation is the fundamental cause of regulation. Top-down limitation through predators is determined by four factors: (i). body size; (ii). the diversity of predators and prey in the system; (iii). whether prey are resident or migratory; and (iv). the presence of alternative prey for predators. Body size in mammals has two important consequences. First, mammals, particularly large species, can act as keystones that determine the diversity of an ecosystem. I show how keystone processes can, in principle, be measured using the example of the wildebeest in the Serengeti ecosystem. Second, mammals act as ecological landscapers by altering vegetation succession. Mammals alter physical structure, ecological function and species diversity in most terrestrial biomes. In general, there is a close interaction between allometry, population regulation, life history and ecosystem dynamics. These relationships are relevant to applied aspects of conservation and pest management. PMID:14561329

  3. [Thrombin--a regulator of reparative processes in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S V; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Rumsh, L D; Zubov, V P; Gluza, E

    1998-04-01

    Thrombin, binding to receptors of the protease activated receptor (PAR) family, is involved in wound healing by inducing the reparation processes and regulating the activity of mast cells, which secrete mediators of inflammation. Using thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP-6) for the activation of rat mast cells, effect of several receptors, including PAR-1, on mast cells was demonstrated. It was shown that TRAP increases the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm of mast cells and regulates cell degranulation, while releasing nitrogen oxide. Thrombin encapsulated in poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL-Ca-Alg) hydrogel films promotes wound healing in rats as demonstrated by the acceleration of fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization. PMID:9612571

  4. microRNA Processing Pathway Regulates Olfactory Neuron Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berdnik, Daniela; Fan, Audrey P.; Potter, Christopher J.; Luo, Liqun

    2008-01-01

    Summary The micro(mi)RNA processing pathway produces miRNAs as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The nuclear RNase III Drosha catalyzes the first processing step together with the dsRNA binding protein DGCR8/Pasha generating pre-miRNAs [1, 2]. The next cleavage employs the cytoplasmic RNase III Dicer producing miRNA duplexes [3, 4]. Finally, Argonautes are recruited with miRNAs into an RNA-induced silencing complex for mRNA recognition (Figure 1A). Here, we identify two members of the miRNA pathway, Pasha and Dicer-1, in a forward genetic screen for mutations that disrupt wiring specificity of Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs). The olfactory system is built as discrete map of highly stereotyped neuronal connections [5, 6]. Each PN targets dendrites to a specific glomerulus in the antennal lobe and projects axons stereotypically into higher brain centers [7–9]. In selected PN classes, pasha and Dicer-1 mutants cause specific PN dendrite mistargeting in the antennal lobe and altered axonal terminations in higher brain centers. Furthermore, Pasha and Dicer-1 act cell-autonomously in postmitotic neurons to regulate dendrite and axon targeting during development. However, Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 are dispensable for PN morphogenesis. Our findings suggest a role for the miRNA processing pathway in establishing wiring specificity in the nervous system. PMID:19013069

  5. MicroRNA processing pathway regulates olfactory neuron morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berdnik, Daniela; Fan, Audrey P; Potter, Christopher J; Luo, Liqun

    2008-11-25

    The microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway produces miRNAs as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The nuclear RNase III Drosha catalyzes the first processing step together with the dsRNA binding protein DGCR8/Pasha generating pre-miRNAs [1, 2]. The next cleavage employs the cytoplasmic RNase III Dicer producing miRNA duplexes [3, 4]. Finally, Argonautes are recruited with miRNAs into an RNA-induced silencing complex for mRNA recognition (Figure 1A). Here, we identify two members of the miRNA pathway, Pasha and Dicer-1, in a forward genetic screen for mutations that disrupt wiring specificity of Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs). The olfactory system is built as discrete map of highly stereotyped neuronal connections [5, 6]. Each PN targets dendrites to a specific glomerulus in the antennal lobe and projects axons stereotypically into higher brain centers [7-9]. In selected PN classes, pasha and Dicer-1 mutants cause specific PN dendrite mistargeting in the antennal lobe and altered axonal terminations in higher brain centers. Furthermore, Pasha and Dicer-1 act cell autonomously in postmitotic neurons to regulate dendrite and axon targeting during development. However, Argonaute-1 and Argonaute-2 are dispensable for PN morphogenesis. Our findings suggest a role for the miRNA processing pathway in establishing wiring specificity in the nervous system. PMID:19013069

  6. HNF1 regulates critical processes in the human epididymis epithelium.

    PubMed

    Browne, James A; Yang, Rui; Eggener, Scott E; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-04-15

    The luminal environment of the epididymis participates in sperm maturation and impacts male fertility. It is dependent on the coordinated expression of many genes encoding proteins with a role in epithelial transport. We identified cis-regulatory elements for critical genes in epididymis function, by mapping open chromatin genome-wide in human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Bioinformatic predictions of transcription factors binding to the regulatory elements suggested an important role for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) in the transcriptional program of these cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed HNF1 target genes in HEE cells. In parallel, the contribution of HNF1 to the transcriptome of HEE cells was determined by RNA-seq, following siRNA-mediated depletion of both HNF1α and HNF1β transcription factors. Repression of these factors caused differential expression of 1892 transcripts (902 were downregulated and 990 upregulated) in comparison to non-targeting siRNAs. Differentially expressed genes with HNF1 ChIP-seq peaks within 20 kb were subject to gene ontology process enrichment analysis. Among the most significant processes associated with down-regulated genes were epithelial transport of water, phosphate and bicarbonate, all critical processes in epididymis epithelial function. Measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) confirmed a role for HNF1 in regulating the epididymis luminal environment. PMID:26808453

  7. Nitric Oxide Regulation of Mitochondrial Processes: Commonality in Medical Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    The vital status of diverse classes of eukaryotic mitochondria is reflected by the high degree of evolutionary modification functionally linked to ongoing multifaceted organelle development. From this teleological perspective, a logistical enhancement of eukaryotic cellular energy requirements indicates a convergence of metabolic processes within the mitochondrial matrix for optimal synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate and necessitates an evolutionarily driven retrofit of the primordial endosymbiont bacterial plasma membrane into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The biochemical complexity of eukaryotic inner membrane electron transport complexes linked to temporally-defined, state-dependent, fluctuations in mitochondrial oxygen utilization is capable of generating deleterious reactive oxygen species. Within this functional context, an extensive neurochemical literature supports the role of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a key signaling molecule involved in the regulation of multiple aspects of mitochondrial respiration/oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, the unique chemical properties of NO underlie its rapid metabolism in vivo within a mechanistic spectrum of small oxidative molecules, free and protein-bound thiol adducts, and reversible binding to ferrous heme iron centers. Recent compelling work has identified a medically relevant dual regulation pathway for mitochondrial NO expression mediated by traditionally characterized NO synthases (NOS) and by enzymatic reduction of available cellular nitrite pools by a diverse class of cytosolic and mitochondrial nitrite reductases. Accordingly, our short review presents selected medically-based discussion topics relating to multi-faceted NO regulation of mitochondrial functions in human health and disease states. PMID:26177568

  8. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings. PMID:27533012

  9. Controlling crystallization process and thermal stability of a binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass via minor element addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T. T.; Liu, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of minor element addition on the initial structural evolution during crystallization in a simple binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming liquid has been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Despite no changes in the completely crystallized products, the remarkable opposite impacts on the supercooled liquid region (SLR) and crystallization reaction rate constant Kcr are observed as a result of minor selective additions of an affine element, i.e., Sn and an immiscible element, i.e., Nb into the Cu-Zr BMG alloy, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the primary devitrification pathway and crystalline phases are simultaneously modified, which leads to significant changes in kinetics of atomic rearrangement and thus thermal stability of this material. Such a finding offers a promising way to control the type of primary crystalline phases of BMG-forming metallic supercooled liquids to synthesize novel BMGs or BMG matrix composites for structural or functional applications.

  10. Minority Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to increase the number of ethnic minorities on the faculties of American colleges and universities, the Ford Foundation is offering fellowships to members of six groups who have been severely underrepresented in academia.In a program administered by the National Research Council (NRC), the Ford Foundation is offering 50 three-year predoctoral fellowships ($14,000 per year, plus a $6000 annual institutional grant) and 25 one-year dissertation fellowships ($18,000 for one year) to Native American Indians, Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Aleuts), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians and Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, life sciences, or interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more of those disciplines. The predoctoral fellowships are intended for beginning graduate students; the dissertation fellowships are designed to provide support for students in their final year.

  11. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  12. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  13. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  14. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  15. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  16. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term...

  17. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  18. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  19. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  20. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  1. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  2. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  3. Regulating the High: Cognitive and Neural Processes Underlying Positive Emotion Regulation in Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Ayduk, Özlem; O'Donnell, Lisa; Chun, Jinsoo; Gruber, June; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin; Deldin, Patricia; Kross, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well established that Bipolar Disorder (BD) is characterized by excessive positive emotionality, the cognitive and neural processes that underlie such responses are unclear. We addressed this issue by examining the role that an emotion regulatory process called self-distancing plays in two potentially different BD phenotypes—BD with vs. without a history of psychosis—and healthy individuals. Participants reflected on a positive autobiographical memory and then rated their level of spontaneous self-distancing. Neurophysiological activity was continuously monitored using electroencephalogram. As predicted, participants with BD who have a history of psychosis spontaneously self-distanced less and displayed greater neurophysiological signs of positive emotional reactivity compared to the other two groups. These findings shed light on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying excessive positive emotionality in BD. They also suggest that individuals with BD who have a history of psychosis may represent a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by dysfunctional emotion regulation. PMID:26719819

  4. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  5. tRNAs as regulators of biological processes

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Medha; Ibba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are best known for their role as adaptors during translation of the genetic code. Beyond their canonical role during protein biosynthesis, tRNAs also perform additional functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for example in regulating gene expression. Aminoacylated tRNAs have also been implicated as substrates for non-ribosomal peptide bond formation, post-translational protein labeling, modification of phospholipids in the cell membrane, and antibiotic biosyntheses. Most recently tRNA fragments, or tRFs, have also been recognized to play regulatory roles. Here, we examine in more detail some of the new functions emerging for tRNA in a variety of cellular processes outside of protein synthesis. PMID:24966867

  6. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  7. A Nucleus-Imaging Probe That Selectively Stabilizes a Minor Conformation of c-MYC G-quadruplex and Down-regulates c-MYC Transcription in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Deepanjan; Debnath, Manish; Mandal, Samir; Bessi, Irene; Schwalbe, Harald; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2015-01-01

    The c-MYC proto-oncogene is a regulator of fundamental cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The development of novel c-MYC inhibitors that can act by targeting the c-MYC DNA G-quadruplex at the level of transcription would provide potential insight into structure-based design of small molecules and lead to a promising arena for cancer therapy. Herein we report our finding that two simple bis-triazolylcarbazole derivatives can inhibit c-MYC transcription, possibly by stabilizing the c-MYC G-quadruplex. These compounds are prepared using a facile and modular approach based on Cu(I) catalysed azide and alkyne cycloaddition. A carbazole ligand with carboxamide side chains is found to be microenvironment-sensitive and highly selective for “turn-on” detection of c-MYC quadruplex over duplex DNA. This fluorescent probe is applicable to visualize the cellular nucleus in living cells. Interestingly, the ligand binds to c-MYC in an asymmetric fashion and selects the minor-populated conformer via conformational selection. PMID:26286633

  8. Lactate Produced by Glycogenolysis in Astrocytes Regulates Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Korol, Donna L.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions. PMID:22180782

  9. High-gain nonlinear observer for simple genetic regulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, L. A.; Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Escalante-Minakata, P.; Rosu, H. C.

    2007-07-01

    High-gain nonlinear observers occur in the nonlinear automatic control theory and are in standard usage in chemical engineering processes. We apply such a type of analysis in the context of a very simple one-gene regulation circuit. In general, an observer combines an analytical differential-equation-based model with partial measurement of the system in order to estimate the non-measured state variables. We use one of the simplest observers, that of Gauthier et al., which is a copy of the original system plus a correction term which is easy to calculate. For the illustration of this procedure, we employ a biological model, recently adapted from Goodwin's old book by De Jong, in which one plays with the dynamics of the concentrations of the messenger RNA coding for a given protein, the protein itself, and a single metabolite. Using the observer instead of the metabolite, it is possible to rebuild the non-measured concentrations of the mRNA and the protein.

  10. Autophagic Processes in Yeast: Mechanism, Machinery and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Reggiori, Fulvio; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy refers to a group of processes that involve degradation of cytoplasmic components including cytosol, macromolecular complexes, and organelles, within the vacuole or the lysosome of higher eukaryotes. The various types of autophagy have attracted increasing attention for at least two reasons. First, autophagy provides a compelling example of dynamic rearrangements of subcellular membranes involving issues of protein trafficking and organelle identity, and thus it is fascinating for researchers interested in questions pertinent to basic cell biology. Second, autophagy plays a central role in normal development and cell homeostasis, and, as a result, autophagic dysfunctions are associated with a range of illnesses including cancer, diabetes, myopathies, some types of neurodegeneration, and liver and heart diseases. That said, this review focuses on autophagy in yeast. Many aspects of autophagy are conserved from yeast to human; in particular, this applies to the gene products mediating these pathways as well as some of the signaling cascades regulating it, so that the information we relate is relevant to higher eukaryotes. Indeed, as with many cellular pathways, the initial molecular insights were made possible due to genetic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. PMID:23733851

  11. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  12. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  13. Socially Shared Regulation in Collaborative Groups: An Analysis of the Interplay between Quality of Social Regulation and Group Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogat, Toni Kempler; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study extends prior research on both individual self-regulation and socially shared regulation during group learning to examine the range and quality of the cognitive and behavioral social regulatory sub-processes employed by six small collaborative groups of upper-elementary students (n = 24). Qualitative analyses were conducted based on…

  14. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  15. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use...

  16. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  17. Regulation of chronic inflammatory and immune processes by extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul D; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Booker, Cori N

    2016-04-01

    Almost all cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are derived either from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. EVs contain a subset of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids from the cell from which they are derived. EV factors, particularly small RNAs such as miRNAs, likely play important roles in cell-to-cell communication both locally and systemically. Most of the functions associated with EVs are in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens and cancer, as well as in regulating autoimmunity. This Review will focus on the different modes of immune regulation, both direct and indirect, by EVs. The therapeutic utility of EVs for the regulation of immune responses will also be discussed. PMID:27035808

  18. EFFECT OF MINOR ADDITIONS OF HYDROGEN TO ARGON SHIELDING GAS WHEN WELDING AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH THE GTAW PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-12-15

    This paper provides the technical basis to conclude that the use of hydrogen containing shielding gases during welding of austenitic stainless steels will not lead to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of the weld or weld heat affected zone. Argon-hydrogen gas mixtures, with hydrogen additions up to 35% [1], have been successfully used as the shielding gas in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of austenitic stainless steels. The addition of hydrogen improves weld pool wettability, bead shape control, surface cleanliness and heat input. The GTAW process is used extensively for welding various grades of stainless steel and is preferred when a very high weld quality is desired, such as that required for closure welding of nuclear materials packages. The use of argon-hydrogen gas mixtures for high-quality welding is occasionally questioned, primarily because of concern over the potential for HIC. This paper was written specifically to provide a technical basis for using an argon-hydrogen shielding gas in conjunction with the development, at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), of an ''optimized'' closure welding process for the DOE standardized spent nuclear fuel canister [2]. However, the basis developed here can be applied to other applications in which the use of an argon-hydrogen shielding gas for GTAW welding of austenitic stainless steels is desired.

  19. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevski, E M; Chesnakov, V A; Sinitsyn, V V

    1995-01-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately or = 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M > or = 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (=short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M < or = 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries. PMID:11543538

  20. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    Many moonlike bodies (M ~= 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (~ 50%) forming thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetary magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% of organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, so deserving a close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H_2 + O_2. If M >= 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (= short-period comet nuclei), whereas if M <= 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt asteroids origin ~ 3.9 Byr ago). 2H_2 + O_2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffer new explosions when receiving an additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing also light organics and 2H_2 + O_2 explains unexpected energetics and nearnuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, CO over CO_2, origin of CHON particles etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly, with the Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  1. Binding of the human cytomegalovirus 80-kDa immediate-early protein (IE2) to minor groove A/T-rich sequences bounded by CG dinucleotides is regulated by protein oligomerization and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Waheed, I; Chiou, C J; Ahn, J H; Hayward, G S

    1998-12-01

    The 80-kDa immediate-early regulatory protein IE2 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) functions as an essential positive transactivator of downstream viral promoters, but it also specifically down-regulates transcription from the major immediate-early promoter through a 14-bp DNA target motif known as the cis-repression signal (CRS) located at the transcription start site. The IE2 protein purified from bacteria as a fusion product of either staphylococcal Protein A/IE2(290-579) or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/IE2(346-579) bound specifically to a [32P]-labeled CRS oligonucleotide probe in an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In contrast, no direct interaction with the CRS probes could be detected with IE2 wild-type protein in extracts from infected or transfected mammalian cells or when synthesized by in vitro translation. However, in vitro phosphorylation of GST/IE2(346-579) by incubation with either the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) or a HeLa cell nuclear extract strongly inhibited its DNA-binding activity. This process required ATP hydrolysis and could be reversed by subsequent incubation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Importantly, dephosphorylation of the constitutively expressed native IE2 protein present in a nuclear extract from the U373(A45) cell line unmasked a specific CRS DNA-binding activity that could be supershifted with anti-IE2 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A series of high-molecular-weight hetero-oligomeric DNA-bound structures of intermediate mobility were formed in EMSA assays when a mixture of staphylococcal Protein A/IE2 and GST/IE2 was coincubated with the CRS probe. Coincubation with a DNA-binding negative but dimerization-competent GST/IE2 deletion mutant competitively inhibited DNA-binding by staphylococcal Protein A/IE2, whereas coincubation with a GST/IE2 deletion mutant that lacked the ability to both dimerize and bind to DNA failed to influence the mobility of the DNA-bound staphylococcal Protein A/IE2

  2. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: Implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Chesnakov, V. A.; Sinitsyn, V. V.

    1995-07-01

    Many moonlike bodies (M approximately equal to 1 Moon) beyond the Martian orbit contain large amounts of dirty ice (approximately 50%) forming a thick mantle with the solid phase thermal convection. When a body moves through the inter- or nearplanetray magnetized plasma, electric current is generated in the body and its environment. The current passing through a dirty ice containing up to 10% organic admixtures produces a lot of electrochemical effects which have a profound impact on its composition. At this stage one can hardly say something definite concerning changes experienced by organics. The changes must occur inevitably and can be of a rather unexpected and far-reaching nature, thus deserving close study. Another obvious effect is a volumetric electrolysis of ice containing alien inclusions. The electrolysis products accumulate in ice in the form of a solid solution which is capable of detonation at 15-20 wt.% of 2H2 + O2. If M is greater that or approximately equal to 1 Moon (Galilean satellites, Titan), the body loses in explosion a part of its mass in the form of vapor and ice fragments (i.e. short-period (SP) comet nuclei), whereas if M is less than or approximately equal to 0.2 Moon, the body breaks up totally (the Main Belt (MB) asteroids origin approximately 3.9 Byr ago). 2H2 + O2 containing cometary nuclei are capable of burning or suffering new explosions when receiving additional energy. The combustion in the sublimation products containing light organics and 2H2 + O2 explains unexpected energetics and near-nuclear chemistry of Comet P/Halley (e.g. great abundances of negative and positive ions, atomic carbon, Co over CO2, origin of CHON particles, etc) and its distant outbursts correlated, possibly with Solar activity. Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries.

  3. Disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to differences in offending by minorities and whites. Others attribute them to "differential selection"--that is, to the fact that the justice system treats minority and white offenders in different ways. Still others believe the explanation lies in a combination of the two. Differential involvement may be important earlier in the judicial process, especially in youths' contacts with police, and may influence differential selection later as individuals make their way through the juvenile justice system. Adjudicating between these options, says Piquero, is difficult and may even be impossible. Asking how much minority overrepresentation is due to differences in offending and how much to differences in processing no longer seems a helpful way to frame the discussion. Piquero urges future research to move beyond the debate over "which one matters more" and seek to understand how each of the two hypotheses can explain both the fact of minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and how best to address it. Piquero cites many sizable gaps in the research and policy-relevant literature. Work is needed especially, he says, in analyzing the first stage of the justice system that juveniles confront: police contacts. The police are a critical part of the juvenile justice decision-making system and are afforded far more discretion than any other formal agent of social control, but researchers have paid surprisingly little attention to contacts between police and citizens, especially juveniles. Piquero notes that some states and localities are undertaking initiatives to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. He urges researchers and

  4. Adolescents' Conscious Processes of Developing Regulation: Learning to Appraise Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects…

  5. Effects of Self-Regulated Vocabulary Learning Process on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers, especially in the field of educational psychology, have argued that self-efficacy plays an important role in self-regulated learning. As such, teaching of self-regulated learning often focuses on enhancing self-efficacy. However, few studies have examined how the process of self-regulated learning might lead to the enhancement of…

  6. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  7. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F; Sheehan, David F; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I Lorena; Kittler, Josef T

    2015-12-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca(2+)-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca(2+) wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. PMID:26631479

  8. Adolescents' conscious processes of developing regulation: learning to appraise challenges.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed W

    2011-01-01

    To understand regulation and agency, it important to consider the nature of the regulatory challenges that adolescents must deal with. These include emotional, motivation, interpersonal, and other obstacles and problems. In this chapter, the author discusses the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. Adolescents' new higher-order cognitive capacities allow them to better understand the irregularities and complexity of real-world challenges. They also use these capacities to consciously develop skills to navigate these challenges. PMID:21898901

  9. Sumoylation regulates EXO1 stability and processing of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Bologna, Serena; Altmannova, Veronika; Valtorta, Emanuele; Koenig, Christiane; Liberali, Prisca; Gentili, Christian; Anrather, Dorothea; Ammerer, Gustav; Pelkmans, Lucas; Krejci, Lumir; Ferrari, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair by the error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR) requires the concerted action of several factors. Among these, EXO1 and DNA2/BLM are responsible for the extensive resection of DNA ends to produce 3′-overhangs, which are essential intermediates for downstream steps of HR. Here we show that EXO1 is a SUMO target and that sumoylation affects EXO1 ubiquitylation and protein stability. We identify an UBC9-PIAS1/PIAS4-dependent mechanism controlling human EXO1 sumoylation in vivo and demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in yeast by the Ubc9-Siz1/Siz2 using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we show physical interaction between EXO1 and the de-sumoylating enzyme SENP6 both in vitro and in vivo, promoting EXO1 stability. Finally, we identify the major sites of sumoylation in EXO1 and show that ectopic expression of a sumoylation-deficient form of EXO1 rescues the DNA damage-induced chromosomal aberrations observed upon wt-EXO1 expression. Thus, our study identifies a novel layer of regulation of EXO1, making the pathways that regulate its function an ideal target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26083678

  10. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:25416309

  11. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  12. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Nowak; J. Arnone; L. Fenstermaker; and S. D. Smith

    2005-07-26

    This project provided the funding to operate and maintain the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. This support funds the CO{sub 2}, system repairs and maintenance, basic physical and biological site information, and personnel that are essential for the experiment to continue. They have continued to assess the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on three key processes: (1) leaf- to plant-level responses of desert vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (2) ecosystem-level responses; and (3) integration of plant and ecosystem processes to understand carbon balance of deserts. The focus is the seminal interactions among atmospheric CO{sub 2}, water, and nitrogen that drive desert responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and explicitly address processes that occur across scales (biological, spatial, and temporal).

  13. A self-regulating biomolecular comparator for processing oscillatory signals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Franco, Elisa; Schulman, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    While many cellular processes are driven by biomolecular oscillators, precise control of a downstream on/off process by a biochemical oscillator signal can be difficult: over an oscillator's period, its output signal varies continuously between its amplitude limits and spends a significant fraction of the time at intermediate values between these limits. Further, the oscillator's output is often noisy, with particularly large variations in the amplitude. In electronic systems, an oscillating signal is generally processed by a downstream device such as a comparator that converts a potentially noisy oscillatory input into a square wave output that is predominantly in one of two well-defined on and off states. The comparator's output then controls downstream processes. We describe a method for constructing a synthetic biochemical device that likewise produces a square-wave-type biomolecular output for a variety of oscillatory inputs. The method relies on a separation of time scales between the slow rate of production of an oscillatory signal molecule and the fast rates of intermolecular binding and conformational changes. We show how to control the characteristics of the output by varying the concentrations of the species and the reaction rates. We then use this control to show how our approach could be applied to process different in vitro and in vivo biomolecular oscillators, including the p53-Mdm2 transcriptional oscillator and two types of in vitro transcriptional oscillators. These results demonstrate how modular biomolecular circuits could, in principle, be combined to build complex dynamical systems. The simplicity of our approach also suggests that natural molecular circuits may process some biomolecular oscillator outputs before they are applied downstream. PMID:26378119

  14. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... migrant issues Access to health care Language barriers Human trafficking Taking care of your health Immunizations and screenings Sharing family health history Health before pregnancy More... Government in action on minority women's health Minority partnerships ...

  15. Minority Inclusion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the United States has a long, sad history of discrimination against minority rights. Discusses the origins and history of minority inclusion or affirmative action programs. Includes a special report on the "English Only" movement. (CFR)

  16. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  18. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  19. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes.

    PubMed

    Cools, Roshan; Roberts, Angela C; Robbins, Trevor W

    2008-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to punishment or other aversive signals, while disinhibiting previously rewarded but now punished behaviours. Findings suggest that 5-HT modulates the impact of punishment-related signals on learning and emotion (aversion), but also promotes response inhibition. Exaggerated aversive processing and deficient response inhibition could underlie distinct symptoms of a range of affective disorders, namely stress- or threat-vulnerability and compulsive behaviour, respectively. We review evidence from studies with human volunteers and experimental animals that begins to elucidate the neurobiological systems underlying these different effects. PMID:18069045

  20. Granule Protein Processing and Regulated Secretion in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sheshachalam, Avinash; Srivastava, Nutan; Mitchell, Troy; Lacy, Paige; Eitzen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are part of a family of granulocytes that, together with eosinophils and basophils, play an essential role in innate immunity. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and are vital for rapid immune responses, being recruited to sites of injury or infection within minutes, where they can act as specialized phagocytic cells. However, another prominent function of neutrophils is the release of pro-inflammatory compounds, including cytokines, chemokines, and digestive enzymes, which are stored in intracellular compartments and released through regulated exocytosis. Hence, an important feature that contributes to rapid immune responses is capacity of neutrophils to synthesize and store pre-formed pro-inflammatory mediators in specialized intracellular vesicles and thus no new synthesis is required. This review will focus on advancement in three topics relevant to neutrophil secretion. First, we will examine what is known about basal level pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis, trafficking, and storage in secretory compartments. Second, we will review recent advancements in the mechanisms that control vesicle mobilization and the release of pre-formed mediators. Third, we will examine the upregulation and de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils engaged at sites of infection. PMID:25285096

  1. Lax regulation of oil vessels and processing facilities continues

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovitch, N.

    1993-12-31

    Four years after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in 1989, oil spills continue to occur with alarming frequency: In 1992 the Shoko Maru spilled more than 96,000 gallons of crude oil into the Texas City Channel and a leak at an offshore well in Louisiana spilled at least 30,000 gallons; in 1991 alone, there were 677 spills in the Port of New Orleans, 398 spills in New York Harbor, 239 spills in Port of Hampton Roads, 235 spills in Port of Philadelphia, 130 spills in Seattle, and 116 spills in Boston Harbor. The amount of oil spilled in these ports alone in one year exceeded 300,000 gallons. The recent huge spills off foreign coasts-the Shetland Islands, the coasts of Spain and Indonesia-reinforce the importance of regulation. The Oil Pollution Act, passed in August 1992 mandates that all vessels traveling in US waters and all oil transfer and storage facilities take measurable and enforceable actions to reduce spills. However, major problems remain, both with the act and with enforcing it. This article discusses both the problems and the solutions to pollution control of oil spills.

  2. [Participation of cholinergic mechanisms in the regulation of immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Gushchin, G V; Shkhinek, E K

    1979-01-01

    Chronic administration of cholinomimetic (arecolin, pilocarpin, nicotin) and cholinolytic (bezohexonium, pedifen) drugs produces changes of different directions in the number of rosette-forming cells in the spleen of CBA mice immunized with sheep red blood cells. The analysis performed does not allow the effect of the drugs on immunologic processes to be accounted for by an immediate action on lymphoid cells or by an action of the function of the pituitary-adrenal system. PMID:574093

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell printing and process regulated cell properties.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica; Rin Son, Ae; Hamid, Qudus; Wang, Chengyang; Lui, Yigong; Sun, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This topical review with original analysis and empirical results compares cell sensitivity to physical stress during printing. The objective is to frame a reproducible causation between printing environment and printed cell morphology, viability and phenotype stability. Content includes: (1) a topical review classifies the overlap between physical stress vectors during printing and mesenchymal stem cell sensitivities. (2) Original flow analysis frames the feasible range of stress duration and intensity during manufacturing. (3) Preliminary empirical results define cell properties as a function of minimum, mean and maximum stress conditions. The review and analytical characterization serve as an essential precursor to interpret surprising empirical results. Results identify key cell properties are stress-dependent and controllable based on printing process parameter selection. Printing's minimum stress condition preserves cell viability. The maximum stress increases heterogeneity of cell response, induces inelastic ultra-structural distortion of the cell membrane and chromatin, and increases necrotic subpopulations post-printing. The review, analysis and preliminary results support the feasibility of modulating cell properties during fabrication by prescriptively tuning the stress environment. The process control over cell morphology, health and the rate of differentiation is both a direct result of strain during printing and an in-direct result of increased distress signaling from necrotic sub-populations. PMID:26696405

  4. Relationships between Students' Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between students' conceptions of constructivist learning on the one hand, and their regulation and processing strategies on the other hand. Students in a constructivist, problem-based learning curriculum were questioned about their conceptions of knowledge construction and self-regulated learning, as…

  5. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  6. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  7. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by serotonin signaling.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anna A; Thathiah, Amantha; De Strooper, Bart; Tesseur, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases releases the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in senile plaques and contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The α-secretase cleaves APP in the Aβ peptide sequence to generate soluble APPα (sAPPα). Upregulation of α-secretase activity through the 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4) receptor has been shown to reduce Aβ production, amyloid plaque load and to improve cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of AD. Consequently, activation of 5-HT4 receptors following agonist stimulation is considered to be a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment; however, the signaling cascade involved in 5-HT4 receptor-stimulated proteolysis of APP remains to be determined. Here we used chemical and siRNA inhibition to identify the proteins which mediate 5-HT4d receptor-stimulated α-secretase activity in the SH-SY5Y human neuronal cell line. We show that G protein and Src dependent activation of phospholipase C are required for α-secretase activity, while, unexpectedly, adenylyl cyclase and cAMP are not involved. Further elucidation of the signaling pathway indicates that inositol triphosphate phosphorylation and casein kinase 2 activation is also a prerequisite for α-secretase activity. Our findings provide a novel route to explore the treatment of AD through 5-HT4 receptor-induced α-secretase activation. PMID:24466315

  8. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  9. Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2011-06-01

    Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

  10. Regulation of vincamine biosynthesis and associated growth promoting effects through abiotic elicitation, cyclooxygenase inhibition, and precursor feeding of bioreactor grown Vinca minor hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Lal, Raj Kishori

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools have been fortified to vincamine less hairy root clone of Vinca minor to determine the regulatory factors associated with vincamine biosynthesis. Growth kinetic studies revealed that acetyltransferase elicitor acetic anhydride and terpenoid precursor loganin significantly reduce the growth either supplemented alone or in combination (GI = 140.6 ± 18.5 to 246.7 ± 24.3), while shikimate and tryptophan trigger biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 ± 31.5 to 540.5 ± 40.3). Loganin also downregulates total alkaloid biosynthesis. Maximum flux towards vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained when 20-day-old hairy roots were fortified with secologanin (10 mg/l) along with tryptophan (100 mg/l), naproxen (8.4 mg/l), hydrogen peroxide (20 μg/l), and acetic anhydride (32.4 mg/l). This was supported by RT PCR (qPCR) analysis where 2- and 3-fold increase in tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC; RQ = 2.0 ± 0.09) and strictosidine synthase (STR; RQ = 3.3 ± 0.36) activity, respectively, was recorded. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for growth kinetics, total alkaloid content, and gene expression studies favored highly significant data (P < 0.05-0.01). Above treated hairy roots were also up-scaled in a 5-l stirred-tank bioreactor where a 40-day cycle yielded 8-fold increase in fresh root mass. PMID:24723203

  11. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  12. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  13. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  14. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  15. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of...

  16. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  17. A process evaluation: Does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers’ receptivity and participation. Methods We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and

  18. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2740 Section 51.2740 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2762 Section 51.2762 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2720 Section 51.2720 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  2. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  3. Analysis of Self-Regulated Learning Processing Using Statistical Models for Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Costa, Lara-Jeane; Dellinger, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often use measures of the frequency of self-regulated learning (SRL; Zimmerman, "American Educational Research Journal," 45(1), 166-183, 2000) processing as a predictor of learning gains. These frequency data, which are really counts of SRL processing events, are often non-normally distributed, and the accurate analysis of these data…

  4. Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This paper explores the origin and historical background of the "model minority" stereotype. It includes evidence illustrating problems resulting from the artificial grouping of Asian Americans as one ethnic group and the stereotype's influence on young Asian Americans. In the 1960s, the U.S. media began to portray the model minority through…

  5. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  6. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  7. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "Introduction"…

  8. American Minorities in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jill S.; Hafer, Abigail A.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of articles that address the question of why minorities are still underrepresented in science after years of civil rights legislation and affirmative action. A variety of programs aimed at increasing minorities and women in the field of astronomy and other sciences are discussed. Personal accounts are also provided. (LZ)

  9. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  10. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  11. Individual differences in cognitive control processes and their relationship to emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Buchanan, Tony W

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive control and emotional control share many similarities, but the specific relationship between these processes is not well understood. This study explored the relationship between three types of cognitive control (working memory updating, response inhibition and set-shifting) and two emotional regulation strategies (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal). Corrugator electromyography, behaviour and self-reports of affect were measured as indices of emotion regulation. Results indicate that working memory updating predicted negative affect reduction during reappraisal and during expressive suppression. This study specifically shows that the working memory component of cognitive control is associated with negative affect reduction. Response inhibition and set-shifting were not specifically related to negative affect reduction, but these variables did predict aspects of emotional behaviour and regulation. These results suggest a general role for cognitive control in some aspects of emotion regulation as well as a specific modulatory role for working memory updating in the regulation of negative affect. PMID:25947896

  12. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  13. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examininggroup-based emotion regulationthat integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. PMID:25870386

  14. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  15. 25 CFR 518.6 - What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF-REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.6 What are the responsibilities of the Office of Self-Regulation in the certification process? The Office of Self-Regulation shall... report and recommendation to the Commission as to whether a certificate of self-regulation should...

  16. Key role of the 3' untranslated region in the cell cycle regulated expression of the Leishmania infantum histone H2A genes: minor synergistic effect of the 5' untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Abanades, Daniel R; Ramírez, Laura; Iborra, Salvador; Soteriadou, Ketty; González, Victor M; Bonay, Pedro; Alonso, Carlos; Soto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Histone synthesis in Leishmania is tightly coupled to DNA replication by a post-transcriptional mechanism operating at the level of translation. Results In this work we have analyzed the implication of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) in the cell cycle regulated expression of the histone H2A in Leishmania infantum. For that purpose, L. infantum promastigotes were stably transfected with different plasmid constructs in which the CAT coding region used as a reporter was flanked by the 5' and 3' UTR regions of the different H2A genes. We report that in spite of their sequence differences, histone H2A 5' and 3' UTRs conferred a cell cycle dependent pattern of expression on the CAT reporter since de novo synthesis of CAT increased when parasites enter the S phase. Using one established L. infantum cell line we showed that CAT expression is controlled by the same regulatory events that control the endogenous histone gene expression. Thus, although we did not detect changes in the level of CAT mRNAs during cell cycle progression, a drastic change in the polysome profiles of CAT mRNAs was observed during the progression from G1 to S phase. In the S phase CAT mRNAs were on polyribosomal fractions, but in the G1 phase the association of CAT transcripts with ribosomes was impaired. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of just the H2A 3' UTR to the CAT reporter gene is sufficient to achieve a similar pattern of post-transcriptional regulation indicating that this region contains the major regulatory sequences involved in the cell cycle dependent expression of the H2A genes. On the other hand, although CAT transcripts bearing the H2A 5' alone were translated both in the G1 and S phase, higher percentages of transcripts were detected on polyribosomes in the S phase correlating with an increase in the de novo synthesis of CAT. Thus, it can be concluded that this region also contributes, although to a minor extent than the 3' UTR, in the enhancement

  17. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  18. Minority Women's Health: Latinas

    MedlinePlus

    ... left navigation Minority Women's Health African-Americans Latinas Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/ ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Latinos may be any race. This ...

  19. Minority workers and communities.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973

  20. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  1. Multichoice minority game

    SciTech Connect

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-06-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

  2. Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and novel secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    King, J A; Lush, D J; Fray, J C

    1993-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis. cAMP, on the other hand, by stimulating H+ influx, provides the acidic granular environment for prorenin processing to renin. It is concluded that, in the presence of a favorable chemiosmotic environment, prorenin is processed to renin, which may then be secreted by regulative degranulation or divergence translocation, a novel secretory pathway used by several secretory proteins, including renin. PMID:7690183

  3. 77 FR 27658 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to provide policy changes that better meet the needs of insured producers. The proposed changes will be effective for the 2013 and succeeding crop...

  4. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  5. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  6. Understanding EFL Students' Development of Self-Regulated Learning in a Process-Oriented Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a study which investigated how explicit strategy instruction may shape student use of metacognitive knowledge and in what ways this knowledge promotes self-regulation in the learning of writing. From a class of a 2-year associate degree programme in Hong Kong, which experienced a 15-week process-oriented writing course…

  7. Processes of Self-Regulated Learning in Music Theory in Elementary Music Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Barbara Smolej; Peklaj, Cirila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was determine how students regulate their learning in music theory (MT). The research is based on the socio-cognitive theory of learning. The aim of our study was twofold: first, to design the instruments for measuring (meta)cognitive and affective-motivational processes in learning MT, and, second, to examine the relationship…

  8. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  9. Children's Strategic Regulation, Metacognitive Monitoring, and Control Processes during Test Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia S.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From the perspective of self-regulated learning, the interplay between learners' individual characteristics and the context of testing have been emphasized for assessing learning outcomes. Aims: The present study examined metacognitive processes in children's test-taking behaviour and explored their impacts on performance. Further, it…

  10. REGULATED PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF TIE1 MODULATES LIGAND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TIE2

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Marie B; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A; Kavumkal, Jais; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Koh, Gou Young; Brindle, Nicholas PJ

    2008-01-01

    Regulated ectodomain shedding followed by intramembrane proteolysis has recently been recognized as important in cell signaling and for degradation of several type I transmembrane proteins. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 is known to undergo ectodomain cleavage generating a membrane tethered endodomain. Here we show Tie1 is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Following Tie1 ectodomain cleavage the newly formed 45 kDa endodomain undergoes additional proteolytic processing mediated by γ-secretase to generate an amino-terminally truncated 42 kDa fragment which is subsequently degraded by proteasomal activity. This sequential processing occurs constitutively and is stimulated by phorbol ester and vascular endothelial growth factor. To assess the biological significance of regulated Tie1 processing we analyzed its effects on angiopoietin signaling. Activation of ectodomain cleavage causes loss of phosphorylated Tie1 holoreceptor and generation of phosphorylated receptor fragments in the presence of COMP-Angiopoietin1. A key function of γ-secretase is in preventing accumulation of these phosphorylated fragments. We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases COMP-Angiopoietin1 activation of Tie2. This correlates with increased ability of Tie2 to bind ligand following shedding of the Tie1 extracellular domain. A similar enhancement of ligand activation of Tie2 is seen when Tie1 expression is suppressed by RNA interference. Together these data indicate that Tie1, via its extracellular domain, limits the ability of ligand to bind and activate Tie2. Furthermore the data suggests regulated processing of Tie1 may be an important mechanism for controlling signaling by Tie2. PMID:17728252

  11. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-10-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  12. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  13. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    PubMed Central

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  14. Sedentary Behavior as a Daily Process Regulated by Habits and Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behavior is a health risk but little is known about the motivational processes that regulate daily sedentary behavior. This study was designed to test a dual-process model of daily sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on the role of intentions and habits in regulating daily sedentary behavior. Methods College students (N = 128) self-reported on their habit strength for sitting and completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment study that combined daily diaries for reporting motivation and behavior with ambulatory monitoring of sedentary behavior using accelerometers. Results Less than half of the variance in daily sedentary behavior was attributable to between-person differences. People with stronger sedentary habits reported more sedentary behavior on average. People whose intentions for limiting sedentary behavior were stronger, on average, exhibited less self-reported sedentary behavior (and marginally less monitored sedentary behavior). Daily deviations in those intentions were negatively associated with changes in daily sedentary behavior (i.e., stronger than usual intentions to limit sedentary behavior were associated with reduced sedentary behavior). Sedentary behavior also varied within-people as a function of concurrent physical activity, the day of week, and the day in the sequence of the monitoring period. Conclusions Sedentary behavior was regulated by both automatic and controlled motivational processes. Interventions should target both of these motivational processes to facilitate and maintain behavior change. Links between sedentary behavior and daily deviations in intentions also indicate the need for ongoing efforts to support controlled motivational processes on a daily basis. PMID:23477579

  15. Drought and Recovery: Independently Regulated Processes Highlighting the Importance of Protein Turnover Dynamics and Translational Regulation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Mehmeti-Tershani, Vlora; Staudinger, Christiana; Kleemaier, Christoph; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth.During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular interaction networks are part of this regulatory process. In order to study this complex regulatory network, a comprehensive analysis is presented for the first time, investigating protein turnover and regulatory classes of proteins and metabolites during a stress recovery scenario in the model legume Medicago truncatula The data give novel insights into the molecular capacity and differential processes required for acclimation and deacclimation of severe drought stressed plants.Functional cluster and network analyses unraveled independent regulatory mechanisms for stress and recovery with different dynamic phases that during the course of recovery define the plants deacclimation from stress. The combination of relative abundance levels and turnover analysis revealed an early transition phase that seems key for recovery initiation through water resupply and is independent from renutrition. Thus, a first indication for a metabolite and protein-based load capacity was observed necessary for the recovery from drought, an important but thus far ignored possible feature toward tolerance. The data indicate that apart from the plants molecular stress response mechanisms, plasticity may be related to the nutritional status of the plant prior to stress initiation. A new perspective and possible new

  16. Understanding the Psychological Process of Avoidance-Based Self-Regulation on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Marder, Ben; Houghton, David; Joinson, Adam; Shankar, Avi; Bull, Eleanor

    2016-05-01

    In relation to social network sites, prior research has evidenced behaviors (e.g., censoring) enacted by individuals used to avoid projecting an undesired image to their online audiences. However, no work directly examines the psychological process underpinning such behavior. Drawing upon the theory of self-focused attention and related literature, a model is proposed to fill this research gap. Two studies examine the process whereby public self-awareness (stimulated by engaging with Facebook) leads to a self-comparison with audience expectations and, if discrepant, an increase in social anxiety, which results in the intention to perform avoidance-based self-regulation. By finding support for this process, this research contributes an extended understanding of the psychological factors leading to avoidance-based regulation when online selves are subject to surveillance. PMID:27096603

  17. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W-W; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M G; Brown, Louise J; Brown, David A; Breit, Samuel N

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1(-/-)) and wild-type (CLIC1(+/+)) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1(-/-) BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1(+/+), but not CLIC1(-/-) cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1(-/-) BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  18. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W.-W.; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Brown, Louise J.; Brown, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/−) and wild-type (CLIC1+/+) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  19. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA or agency) is issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, requiring FHFA, the Federal National Mortgage Association,......

  20. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  1. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  2. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  3. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  4. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  5. Thermophysiologic aspects of the three-process-model of sleepiness regulation.

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Cajochen, Christian; Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2005-04-01

    The following overview reconsiders the three-process model of sleepiness regulation (homeostatic, circadian, and sleep inertia) from a thermophysiologic point of view. Our results gathered over the last decade indicate that the homeostatic aspect of sleepiness regulation (ie, buildup of sleepiness during wakefulness and its decay during sleep) is not related to the thermoregulatory system, whereas the two other processes of sleepiness regulation (ie, circadian and sleep inertia process) are clearly related to thermoregulation in humans. Distal skin temperature of hands and feet seems to be the crucial variable for the association between thermophysiology, sleepiness, and sleep. Increased distal skin temperature before a nocturnal sleep episode is a good predictor for short sleep-onset latency. The disappearance of sleep inertia after sleep or a nap episode shows very similar kinetics as distal vasoconstriction. Furthermore, relaxation-induced sleepiness (eg, after lying down, at lights-off, with thermal biofeedback training) also evokes an increase in distal skin temperatures. The reverse effect occurs at lights-on or a posture change from supine to standing, Therefore, in terms of thermophysiology, sleep inertia can be explained as the reverse of a relaxation process (ie, decrease in distal skin temperatures). Our results reinterpret the so-called "sleep-evoked" reduction of core body temperature as a consequence of relaxation-induced vasodilatation after lights-off. Sleep per se has no further thermoregulatory effect. Taken together, a thermophysiologic approach may provide a successful strategy to treat sleep-onset insomnia and alleviate sleep inertia. PMID:15892924

  6. A new window of opportunity to reject process-based biotechnology regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Stevens, Yvonne A

    2015-10-01

    The question of whether biotechnology regulation should be based on the process or the product has long been debated, with different jurisdictions adopting different approaches. The European Union has adopted a process-based approach, Canada has adopted a product-based approach, and the United States has implemented a hybrid system. With the recent proliferation of new methods of genetic modification, such as gene editing, process-based regulatory systems, which are premised on a binary system of transgenic and conventional approaches, will become increasingly obsolete and unsustainable. To avoid unreasonable, unfair and arbitrary results, nations that have adopted process-based approaches will need to migrate to a product-based approach that considers the novelty and risks of the individual trait, rather than the process by which that trait was produced. This commentary suggests some approaches for the design of such a product-based approach. PMID:26930116

  7. Taspase1 processing alters TFIIA cofactor properties in the regulation of TFIID

    PubMed Central

    Malecová, Barbora; Caputo, Valentina S; Lee, Diane F; Hsieh, James J; Oelgeschläger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    TFIIA is an important positive regulator of TFIID, the primary promoter recognition factor of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. TFIIA antagonises negative TFIID regulators such as negative cofactor 2 (NC2), promotes specific binding of the TBP subunit of TFIID to TATA core promoter sequence elements and stimulates the interaction of TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in the TFIID complex with core promoter elements located downstream of TATA, such as the initiator element (INR). Metazoan TFIIA consists of 3 subunits, TFIIAα (35 kDa), β (19 kDa) and γ (12 kDa). TFIIAα and β subunits are encoded by a single gene and result from site-specific cleavage of a 55 kDa TFIIA(α/β) precursor protein by the protease Taspase1. Metazoan cells have been shown to contain variable amounts of TFIIA (55/12 kDa) and Taspase1-processed TFIIA (35/19/12 kDa) depending on cell type, suggesting distinct gene-specific roles of unprocessed and Taspase1-processed TFIIA. How precisely Taspase1 processing affects TFIIA functions is not understood. Here we report that Taspase1 processing alters TFIIA interactions with TFIID and the conformation of TFIID/TFIIA promoter complexes. We further show that Taspase1 processing induces increased sensitivity of TFIID/TFIIA complexes to the repressor NC2, which is counteracted by the presence of an INR core promoter element. Our results provide first evidence that Taspase1 processing affects TFIIA regulation of TFIID and suggest that Taspase1 processing of TFIIA is required to establish INR-selective core promoter activity in the presence of NC2. PMID:25996597

  8. The Roots of Minority Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbe, M. Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of ways to increase minority giving to colleges and universities debunks the myth of "minorities don't give," and reports a recent study of minority philanthropy, which details philanthropic characteristics of four minority cultures: blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians. Specific strategies recommended include…

  9. eQTL Regulating Transcript Levels Associated with Diverse Biological Processes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Aashish; Budke, Jessica M; Rowland, Steven D; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kumar, Ravi; Carriedo, Leonela; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Zumstein, Kristina; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-09-01

    Variation in gene expression, in addition to sequence polymorphisms, is known to influence developmental, physiological, and metabolic traits in plants. Genetic mapping populations have facilitated identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the genetic determinants of variation in gene expression patterns. We used an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted Solanum pennellii and domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to identify the genetic basis of transcript level variation. We established the effect of each introgression on the transcriptome and identified approximately 7,200 eQTL regulating the steady-state transcript levels of 5,300 genes. Barnes-Hut t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding clustering identified 42 modules revealing novel associations between transcript level patterns and biological processes. The results showed a complex genetic architecture of global transcript abundance pattern in tomato. Several genetic hot spots regulating a large number of transcript level patterns relating to diverse biological processes such as plant defense and photosynthesis were identified. Important eQTL regulating transcript level patterns were related to leaf number and complexity as well as hypocotyl length. Genes associated with leaf development showed an inverse correlation with photosynthetic gene expression, but eQTL regulating genes associated with leaf development and photosynthesis were dispersed across the genome. This comprehensive eQTL analysis details the influence of these loci on plant phenotypes and will be a valuable community resource for investigations on the genetic effects of eQTL on phenotypic traits in tomato. PMID:27418589

  10. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  11. Glycosylation is an Androgen-Regulated Process Essential for Prostate Cancer Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Munkley, Jennifer; Vodak, Daniel; Livermore, Karen E; James, Katherine; Wilson, Brian T; Knight, Bridget; Mccullagh, Paul; Mcgrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Harries, Lorna W; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Mills, Ian G; Rajan, Prabhakar; Elliott, David J

    2016-06-01

    Steroid androgen hormones play a key role in the progression and treatment of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the first-line treatment used to control cancer growth. Here we apply a novel search strategy to identify androgen-regulated cellular pathways that may be clinically important in prostate cancer. Using RNASeq data, we searched for genes that showed reciprocal changes in expression in response to acute androgen stimulation in culture, and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer. Amongst 700 genes displaying reciprocal expression patterns we observed a significant enrichment in the cellular process glycosylation. Of 31 reciprocally-regulated glycosylation enzymes, a set of 8 (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3) were significantly up-regulated in clinical prostate carcinoma. Androgen exposure stimulated synthesis of glycan structures downstream of this core set of regulated enzymes including sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl Lewis(X) (SLe(X)), O-GlcNAc and chondroitin sulphate, suggesting androgen regulation of the core set of enzymes controls key steps in glycan synthesis. Expression of each of these enzymes also contributed to prostate cancer cell viability. This study identifies glycosylation as a global target for androgen control, and suggests loss of specific glycosylation enzymes might contribute to tumour regression following androgen depletion therapy. PMID:27428423

  12. Roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 in cellular and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Shamseddine, Achraf A; Airola, Michael V; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the functions of ceramide signaling has advanced tremendously over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that generates the bioactive lipid ceramide through the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. A large body of work has now implicated nSMase2 in a diverse set of cellular functions, physiological processes, and disease pathologies. We discuss different aspects of this enzyme's regulation from transcriptional, post-translational, and biochemical. Furthermore, we highlight nSMase2 involvement in cellular processes including inflammatory signaling, exosome generation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which in turn play important roles in pathologies such as cancer metastasis, Alzheimer's disease, and other organ systems disorders. Lastly, we examine avenues where targeted nSMase2-inhibition may be clinically beneficial in disease scenarios. PMID:25465297

  13. Roles and regulation of Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2 in cellular and pathological processes

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddine, Achraf A.; Airola, Michael V.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the functions of ceramide signaling has advanced tremendously over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that generates the bioactive lipid ceramide through the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. A large body of work has now implicated nSMase2 in a diverse set of cellular functions, physiological processes, and disease pathologies. We discuss different aspects of this enzyme’s regulation from transcriptional, post-translational, and biochemical. Furthermore, we highlight nSMase2 involvement in cellular processes including inflammatory signaling, exosome generation, cell growth, and apoptosis, which in turn play important roles in pathologies such as cancer metastasis, Alzheimer’s disease, and other organ systems disorders. Lastly, we examine avenues where targeted nSMase2-inhibition may be clinically beneficial in disease scenarios. PMID:25465297

  14. The RB/E2F pathway and regulation of RNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlander, Joseph; Bosco, Giovanni

    2009-07-03

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.

  15. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  16. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  17. Minority Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the community college's role in Native American education. Describes recruitment, counseling, assessment, remedial, and outreach programs developed by San Juan College to help minority students succeed, and specifically help Native Americans bridge the worlds of public school, reservation, and university. Identifies keys to the programs'…

  18. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  19. Spotlight on Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yous, Phakdey Chea; Mahamed, Hodman; Kost, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This article spotlights minority students in school psychology training programs. Three students from underrepresented backgrounds were asked to reflect on what aspects of their program made them feel welcome and supported. In their discussions, they took the task a step further and furnished ideas about ways in which school psychology training…

  20. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  1. Language, Literacy, and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    The ideal of a world where bilingualism or multilingualism is a normal and accepted feature is promoted in a commissioned report for International Literacy Year. It is noted that many minority groups are forced into bilingualism as a necessity for survival, but that those skills are rarely seen as an advantage and often seen as a cause of…

  2. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  3. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  4. The Year Ahead: Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

  5. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  6. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  7. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  8. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  9. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: Evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K.; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. PMID:24418532

  10. FXR1P is a GSK3β substrate regulating mood and emotion processing

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Latapy, Camille; Rampino, Antonio; Khlghatyan, Jivan; Lemasson, Morgane; Gelao, Barbara; Quarto, Tiziana; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Barbeau, Annie; Lamarre, Claude; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a shared action believed to be involved in the regulation of behavior by psychoactive drugs such as antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. However, little is known about the identity of the substrates through which GSK3β affects behavior. We identified fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1P), a RNA binding protein associated to genetic risk for schizophrenia, as a substrate for GSK3β. Phosphorylation of FXR1P by GSK3β is facilitated by prior phosphorylation by ERK2 and leads to its down-regulation. In contrast, behaviorally effective chronic mood stabilizer treatments in mice inhibit GSK3β and increase FXR1P levels. In line with this, overexpression of FXR1P in the mouse prefrontal cortex also leads to comparable mood-related responses. Furthermore, functional genetic polymorphisms affecting either FXR1P or GSK3β gene expression interact to regulate emotional brain responsiveness and stability in humans. These observations uncovered a GSK3β/FXR1P signaling pathway that contributes to regulating mood and emotion processing. Regulation of FXR1P by GSK3β also provides a mechanistic framework that may explain how inhibition of GSK3β can contribute to the regulation of mood by psychoactive drugs in mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. Moreover, this pathway could potentially be implicated in other biological functions, such as inflammation and cell proliferation, in which FXR1P and GSK3 are known to play a role. PMID:26240334

  11. 2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) uncovers a necrotic process regulated by oxidative stress and p53.

    PubMed

    Mattiolo, Paolo; Barbero-Farran, Ares; Yuste, Víctor J; Boix, Jacint; Ribas, Judit

    2014-10-01

    2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) or pifithrin-μ is a promising anticancer agent with preferential toxicity for cancer cells. The type of cell death and the molecular cascades activated by this compound are controversial. Here, we demonstrate PES elicits a caspase- and BAX/BAK-independent non-necroptotic necrotic cell death, since it is not inhibited by necrostatin-1. This process is characterized by an early generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in p53 up-regulation. Accordingly, thiolic antioxidants protect cells from PES-induced death. Furthermore, inhibiting the natural sources of glutathione with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) strongly cooperates with PES in triggering cytotoxicity. Genetically modified p53-null or p53 knocked-down cells show resistance to PES-driven necrosis. The predominant localization of p53 in chromatin-enriched fractions added to the up-regulation of the p53-responsive gene p21, strongly suggest the involvement of a transcription-dependent p53 program. On the other hand, we report an augmented production of ROS in p53-positive cells that, added to the increased p53 content in response to PES-elicited ROS, suggests that p53 and ROS are mutually regulated in response to PES. In sum, p53 up-regulation by ROS triggers a positive feedback loop responsible of further increasing ROS production and reinforcing PES-driven non-necroptotic necrosis. PMID:25139326

  12. Molecular mechanisms regulating formation, trafficking and processing of annular gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Falk, Matthias M; Bell, Cheryl L; Kells Andrews, Rachael M; Murray, Sandra A

    2016-01-01

    Internalization of gap junction plaques results in the formation of annular gap junction vesicles. The factors that regulate the coordinated internalization of the gap junction plaques to form annular gap junction vesicles, and the subsequent events involved in annular gap junction processing have only relatively recently been investigated in detail. However it is becoming clear that while annular gap junction vesicles have been demonstrated to be degraded by autophagosomal and endo-lysosomal pathways, they undergo a number of additional processing events. Here, we characterize the morphology of the annular gap junction vesicle and review the current knowledge of the processes involved in their formation, fission, fusion, and degradation. In addition, we address the possibility for connexin protein recycling back to the plasma membrane to contribute to gap junction formation and intercellular communication. Information on gap junction plaque removal from the plasma membrane and the subsequent processing of annular gap junction vesicles is critical to our understanding of cell-cell communication as it relates to events regulating development, cell homeostasis, unstable proliferation of cancer cells, wound healing, changes in the ischemic heart, and many other physiological and pathological cellular phenomena. PMID:27230503

  13. Down-Regulation of Negative Emotional Processing by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Effects of Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. PMID:21829522

  14. Graphics processing units as tools to predict mechanisms of biological signaling pathway regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Patrick; Elston, Timothy; Nagiek, Michal; Dohlman, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical and genomic studies have revealed protein components of S. cerevisiae (yeast) signal transduction networks. These networks allow the transmission of extracellular signals to the cell nucleus through coordinated biochemical interactions, resulting in direct responses to specific external stimuli. The coordination and regulation mechanisms of proteins in these networks have not been fully characterized. Thus, in this work we develop systems of ordinary differential equations to characterize processes that regulate signaling pathways. We employ graphics processing units (GPUs) in high performance computing environments to search in parallel through substantially more comprehensive parameter sets than allowed by personal computers. As a result, we are able to parameterize larger models with experimental data, leading to an increase in our model prediction capabilities. Thus far these models have helped to identify specific mechanisms such as positive and negative feedback loops that control network protein activity. We ultimately believe that the use of GPUs in biochemical signal transduction pathway modeling will help to discern how regulation mechanisms allow cells to respond to multiple external stimuli.

  15. MicroRNAs (MiRs) Precisely Regulate Immune System Development and Function in Immunosenescence Process.

    PubMed

    Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-κB binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human. PMID:26327579

  16. Language Minority Children's Linguistic and Cognitive Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Carolyn; Quinn, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses findings from an empirical investigation of the effects of bilingualism (Spanish-English) on the creativity of language minority children in terms of the cognitive processes of divergent and convergent thinking, and the linguistic process of metaphorizing in the context of formulating scientific hypotheses. (Author/CB)

  17. Minor planet databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhlova, L.; Bakanas, E.

    We cast a retrospective look at the mankind's acquaintance with minor bodies of the Solar System, at the explosive growth in their discoveries resulting from the technological progress, and at gradual understanding of the danger to our very existence that some of them might actually pose. Then, we review current effort, of the astronomical community in general and of its Russian part in particular, to integrate our rapidly expanding knowledge of the potential Earth impactors and to make it readily available online.

  18. Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Diamond, Adele

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interrelations between biological and social influences on the development of self-regulation in young children and considers implications of these interrelations for the promotion of self-regulation and positive adaptation to school. Emotional development and processes of emotion regulation are seen as influencing and being influenced by the development of executive cognitive functions, including working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility important for the effortful regulation of attention and behavior. Developing self-regulation is further understood to reflect an emerging balance between processes of emotional arousal and cognitive regulation. Early childhood educational programs that effectively link emotional and motivational arousal with activities designed to exercise and promote executive functions can be effective in enhancing self-regulation, school readiness, and school success. PMID:18606037

  19. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules. PMID:27319340

  20. The role of nonautomatic processes in activity regulation: from Lipps to Galperin.

    PubMed

    Arievitch, Igor M; van der Veer, René

    2004-05-01

    The authors present the historical analysis of one of the central questions in psychology: how and why the nonautomatic, psychological level of regulation (in contrast to automatic physiological processes) emerges both in evolution and in everyday context of activity. They discuss several approaches (by Lipps, Groos, Stern, James, Dewey, Claparède, Pavlov, and Leontiev) that culminated in the system of ideas developed by Galperin, one of the key figures in the cultural -historical activity theory. The authors analyze the relation of Galperin's ideas to Vygotsky's theoretical framework and then focus on Galperin's account of the origin and functions of mental activity. Galperin's contribution is highly relevant for understanding the role of psychological regulation and for contemporary research on cognition, consciousness, and conscious awareness. PMID:15179958

  1. The Effectiveness of Minority Teachers on Minority Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jose P.

    This paper examines the shortage of minority teachers and explores the high priority that exists among parents, teachers, and the business community to work toward a diversified teaching force, focusing on the U.S. Hispanic population and investigating whether minority teachers in the classroom can result in minority student success in school. The…

  2. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Qi, X.; Souza, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive researches have been done to explore whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in plant and litter pools but not in soil pool. Thus, the basis of PNL occurrence partially exists. However, CO2 enrichment also significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth over time was observed. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, our synthesis showed that CO2 enrichment increased soil ammonium (NH4+) but decreased nitrate (NO3-). The different responses of NH4+ and NO3-, and the consequent biological processes, may result in changes in soil microenvironment, community structures and above-belowground interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and the feedback to climate change.

  3. Regulation of the MIR155 host gene in physiological and pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Elton, Terry S; Selemon, Helina; Elton, Shane M; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2013-12-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes. PMID:23246696

  4. DISC1 regulates trafficking and processing of APP and Aβ generation.

    PubMed

    Shahani, N; Seshadri, S; Jaaro-Peled, H; Ishizuka, K; Hirota-Tsuyada, Y; Wang, Q; Koga, M; Sedlak, T W; Korth, C; Brandon, N J; Kamiya, A; Subramaniam, S; Tomoda, T; Sawa, A

    2015-07-01

    We report the novel regulation of proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by DISC1, a major risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and schizophrenia. RNAi knockdown of DISC1 in mature primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular α-C-terminal fragment of APP (APP-CTFα) and the corresponding N-terminal-secreted ectodomain product sAPPα. DISC1 knockdown also elicited a significant decrease in the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ)42 and Aβ40. These aberrant proteolytic events were successfully rescued by co-expression of wild-type DISC1, but not by mutant DISC1 lacking the amino acids required for the interaction with APP, suggesting that APP-DISC1 protein interactions are crucial for the regulation of the C-terminal proteolysis. In a genetically engineered model in which a major full-length DISC1 isoform is depleted, consistent changes in APP processing were seen: an increase in APP-CTFα and decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels. Finally, we found that knockdown of DISC1 increased the expression of APP at the cell surface and decreased its internalization. The presented DISC1 mechanism of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ peptide generation, which is central to Alzheimer's disease pathology, suggests a novel interface between neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:25224257

  5. Hormonal regulation, processing, and secretion of cysteine proteinases in barley aleurone layers.

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, S M; Ho, T H

    1990-01-01

    Barley aleurone layers synthesize and secrete several proteases in response to gibberellic acid (GA3). Two major cysteine proteinases designated EP-A (37,000 M(r)) and EP-B (30,000 M(r)) have been described [Koehler and Ho (1988). Plant Physiol. 87, 95-103]. We now report the cDNA cloning of EP-B and describe the post-translational processing and hormonal regulation of both cysteine proteinases. Three cDNAs for cysteine proteinases were cloned from GA3-induced barley aleurone layers. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated that these are members of a small gene family with no more than four to five different genes. The proteins encoded by two of these clones, pHVEP1 and 4, are 98% similar to each other and are isozymes of EP-B. The proteins contain large preprosequences followed by the amino acid sequence described as the mature N terminus of purified EP-B, and are antigenic to EP-B antiserum. The results of pulse-chase experiments indicated that the post-translational processing of large prosequences proceeds in a multistep fashion to produce the mature enzymes. Processing intermediates for EP-B are observed both in the aleurone layers and surrounding incubation medium, but only mature EP-A is secreted. The regulation of synthesis of EP-A, EP-B, and other aleurone cysteine proteinases was compared at the protein and mRNA levels. We conclude that barley aleurone cysteine proteinases are differentially regulated with respect to their temporal and hormonally induced expression. PMID:2152126

  6. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Certain ethnic and racial minorities as well as other underserved populations experience ... disorders than do non-Hispanic whites, ethnic and racial disparities still exist for alcohol-related diseases, problems, ...

  7. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  8. Infant responding to joint attention, executive processes, and self-regulation in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Van Hecke, Amy; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J; Delgado, Christine E F; Parlade, Meaghan V; Pomares, Yuly B; Hobson, Jessica A

    2012-04-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention (RJA) skill in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person's gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children's use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  9. Proteolytic processing of Atg32 by the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 regulates mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Jin, Meiyan; Liu, Xu; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy, the autophagic removal of mitochondria, occurs through a highly selective mechanism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondria sequestration as a cargo by the autophagic machinery through its interaction with Atg11, a scaffold protein for selective types of autophagy. The activity of mitophagy in vivo must be tightly regulated considering that mitochondria are essential organelles that produce most of the cellular energy, but also generate reactive oxygen species that can be harmful to cell physiology. We found that Atg32 was proteolytically processed at its C terminus upon mitophagy induction. Adding an epitope tag to the C terminus of Atg32 interfered with its processing and caused a mitophagy defect, suggesting the processing is required for efficient mitophagy. Furthermore, we determined that the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 mediated Atg32 processing and was required for mitophagy. Finally, we found that the interaction between Atg32 and Atg11 was significantly weakened in yme1∆ cells. We propose that the processing of Atg32 by Yme1 acts as an important regulatory mechanism of cellular mitophagy activity. PMID:24025448

  10. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer’s disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes. PMID:27383650

  11. Career Education: Implications for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; Witherspoon, Everette L.

    In general, minorities, especially blacks, approach career education warily, fearing it might turn out to be a new name for an old game. Statistics indicate the minority dilemma; for example, unemployment among minorities 16 and older is nearly twice the white unemployment rate. A number of critical questions about career education as related to…

  12. 75 FR 69614 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... more drugs legally available to veterinarians and animal owners for the treatment of minor animal... regulations (part 516 (21 CFR part 516)) in the Federal Register of July 26, 2007 (72 FR 41010). FDA is... statutory requirement'' (70 FR 56394 at 56398, September 27, 2005). To accomplish this clarification,...

  13. 75 FR 69586 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... more drugs legally available to veterinarians and animal owners for the treatment of minor animal... regulations (part 516 (21 CFR part 516)) in the Federal Register of July 26, 2007 (72 FR 41010). FDA is... implement this statutory requirement'' (70 FR 56394 at 56398, September 27, 2005). To accomplish...

  14. Ethylene and the Regulation of Senescence Processes in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Thomas F.; Gonzalez-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Maunders, Martin J.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Exposure of plants to ethylene can influence a spectrum of developmental processes including organ senescence and abscission. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the gaseous regulator in Nicotiana sylvestris plants exhibiting a silenced or constitutive ethylene response. Methods Transgenic N. sylvestris plants were generated that either ectopically expressed the Arabidopsis mutant ethylene receptor ETR1-1 or the tomato EIN3-like (LeEIL1) gene. Highly expressing homozygous lines were selected and the time-course of development, from germination to organ senescence, was studied. Key Results Fifty percent of the homozygous Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines examined showed a high susceptibility to collapse prior to flowering, with plant death occurring within a few days of leaf wilting. The time-course of leaf senescence in the remaining Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines was visibly arrested compared to wild type (negative segregant) plants and this observation was reaffirmed by chlorophyll and protein analysis. Petal necrosis was also delayed in Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines and corolla abscission did not take place. When senescence of Pro35S:ETR1-1 plants did take place this was accompanied by leaf bleaching, but tissues remained fully turgid and showed no signs of collapse. A single Pro35S:LeEIL1 line was found to exhibit consistently accelerated leaf and flower senescence and precocious flower bud shedding. Conclusions These observations support a role for ethylene in regulating a spectrum of developmental events associated with organ senescence and tissue necrosis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines generated during this study may provide a valuable resource for exploring how senescence processes are regulated in plants. PMID:17901061

  15. Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog Affects the Replication Stress Response through Regulation of RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Zhao, Runxiang; Guo, Yan; Mohni, Kareem N.; Glick, Gloria; Lacy, Monica E.; Hutson, M. Shane; Ascano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Accurate replication of DNA is imperative for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog (ERH) using a whole-genome RNA interference (RNAi) screen to discover novel proteins that function in the replication stress response. Here we report that ERH is important for DNA replication and recovery from replication stress. ATR pathway activity is diminished in ERH-deficient cells. The reduction in ATR signaling corresponds to a decrease in the expression of multiple ATR pathway genes, including ATR itself. ERH interacts with multiple RNA processing complexes, including splicing regulators. Furthermore, splicing of ATR transcripts is deficient in ERH-depleted cells. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicates that ERH depletion affects the levels of ∼1,500 transcripts, with DNA replication and repair genes being highly enriched among those with reduced expression. Splicing defects were evident in ∼750 protein-coding genes, which again were enriched for DNA metabolism genes. Thus, ERH regulation of RNA processing is needed to ensure faithful DNA replication and repair. PMID:26100022

  16. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  17. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease. PMID:26531823

  18. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splicemore » site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.« less

  19. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.

  20. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G

    2016-01-29

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease. PMID:26531823

  1. 75 FR 19827 - Acquisition Regulation Rewrite

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...The Department of the Interior (DOI) is taking interim final action on administrative changes to the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation (DIAR). This action revises the DIAR, 48 CFR Chapter 14, but does not impose any new requirements on DOI contractors. The revisions in this interim final rule will make minor corrections to and streamline DOI acquisition processes to be......

  2. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age...

  3. Rescuing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-processing mutants by transcomplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Jablonsky, Michael; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Muccio, Donald D.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by mutations that block the biosynthetic maturation of the CF gene product, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. CFTR-processing mutants fail to escape the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. Current efforts to induce the maturation of CFTR mutants target components of the biosynthetic pathway (e.g., chaperones) rather than CFTR per se. Such methods are inherently nonspecific. Here we show that the most common CF-causing mutant (ΔF508-CFTR) can form mature, functional chloride channels that reach the cell surface when coexpressed with several other CFTR-processing mutants or with amino fragments of the wild-type CFTR protein. This transcomplementation effect required a specific match between the region flanking the disease-causing mutation and the complementing fragment; e.g., amino fragments complemented ΔF508-CFTR but not H1085R (a carboxy-processing mutant), whereas a carboxy fragment complemented H1085R but not ΔF508-CFTR. Transcomplementing fragments did not affect CFTR interactions with Hsc70, a chaperone previously implicated in CFTR biosynthesis. Instead, they may promote CFTR maturation by blocking nonproductive interactions between domains within the same or neighboring CFTR polypeptides that prevent normal processing. These findings indicate that it may be possible to develop CF therapies (e.g., mini-cDNA constructs for gene therapy) that are tailored to specific disease-causing mutants of CFTR. PMID:15141088

  4. Nanostructures of Designed Geometry and Functionality Enable Regulation of Cellular Signaling Processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie-Ren; Shi, Lifang; Deng, Zhao; Lo, Su Hao; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrices (ECM) triggered cellular signaling processes often begin with the clustering of the cellular receptors such as integrin and FcεRI. The sizes of these initial protein complexes or clusters are tens to 100 nm in dimension; therefore, engineered nanostructures could provide effective mimics of ECM for investigation and control of the initial and downstream specific signaling process. This current topic discusses recent advances in nanotechnology in the context of design and production of matching chemical functionality and geometry for control of specific cellular signaling processes. Two investigations are reported to demonstrate this concept: (a) how the presentation of antigen at nanometer scale would influence the aggregation of FcεRI, which would impact the formation of activation complexes, leading to rearrangement of actin in cytoskeleton and degranulation or activation of mast cells; (b) how the engineered nanostructure could guide the initial integrin clustering, which would impact the formation of focal adhesion and downstream cell signaling cascades, leading to polarization, migration and morphological changes. Complimentary to engineered ECMs using synthetic ligands or peptides, or topographic control at micrometer scale, nanostructures of designed geometry and chemical functionality provide new and effective biochemical cues for regulation of cellular signaling processes and downstream behaviors. PMID:22783801

  5. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone.

    PubMed

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G

    2016-08-15

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2' ,7' -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. PMID:27448766

  6. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Predictive Association between Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  8. Reciprocal Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Calcium Signaling in Astrocyte Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that inhibition of neuronal activity, glutamate uptake, or reversed-Na+/Ca2+-exchange with TTX, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769, respectively, increases mitochondrial mobility in astrocytic processes. In the present study, we examined the interrelationships between mitochondrial mobility and Ca2+ signaling in astrocyte processes in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus. All of the treatments that increase mitochondrial mobility decreased basal Ca2+. As recently reported, we observed spontaneous Ca2+ spikes with half-lives of ∼1 s that spread ∼6 μm and are almost abolished by a TRPA1 channel antagonist. Virtually all of these Ca2+ spikes overlap mitochondria (98%), and 62% of mitochondria are overlapped by these spikes. Although tetrodotoxin, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769 increased Ca2+ signaling, the specific effects on peak, decay time, and/or frequency were different. To more specifically manipulate mitochondrial mobility, we explored the effects of Miro motor adaptor proteins. We show that Miro1 and Miro2 are both expressed in astrocytes and that exogenous expression of Ca2+-insensitive Miro mutants (KK) nearly doubles the percentage of mobile mitochondria. Expression of Miro1KK had a modest effect on the frequency of these Ca2+ spikes but nearly doubled the decay half-life. The mitochondrial proton ionophore, FCCP, caused a large, prolonged increase in cytosolic Ca2+ followed by an increase in the decay time and the spread of the spontaneous Ca2+ spikes. Photo-ablation of mitochondria in individual astrocyte processes has similar effects on Ca2+. Together, these studies show that Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial mobility, and mitochondria in turn regulate Ca2+ signals in astrocyte processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In neurons, the movement and positioning of mitochondria at sites of elevated activity are important for matching local energy and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Previously, we demonstrated that mitochondria are immobilized in astrocytes in response

  9. Dynamic Processes in Regulation and Some Implications for Biofeedback and Biobehavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Eddie, David

    2013-01-01

    Systems theory has long been applied in psychology, biology, and sociology. This paper applies newer methods of control systems modeling to the assessment of system stability in health and disease. Control systems can be characterized as open or closed systems with feedback loops. Feedback produces oscillatory activity, and the complexity of naturally occurring oscillatory patterns reflects the multiplicity of feedback mechanisms, such that many mechanisms operate simultaneously to control the system. Unstable systems, often associated with poor health, are characterized by absence of oscillation, random noise, or a very simple pattern of oscillation. This modeling approach can be applied to a diverse range of phenomena, including cardiovascular and brain activity, mood and thermal regulation, and social system stability. External system stressors such as disease, psychological stress, injury, or interpersonal conflict may perturb a system, yet simultaneously stimulate oscillatory processes and exercise control mechanisms. Resonance can occur in systems with negative feedback loops, causing high-amplitude oscillations at a single frequency. Resonance effects can be used to strengthen modulatory oscillations, but may obscure other information and control mechanisms, and weaken system stability. Positive as well as negative feedback loops are important for system function and stability. Examples are presented of oscillatory processes in heart rate variability, and regulation of autonomic, thermal, pancreatic and central nervous system processes, as well as in social/organizational systems such as marriages and business organizations. Resonance in negative feedback loops can help stimulate oscillations and exercise control reflexes, but also can deprive the system of important information. Empirical hypotheses derived from this approach are presented, including that moderate stress may enhance health and functioning. PMID:23572244

  10. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3- ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.

  11. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: A meta-analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-10

    Here, the nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one ofmore » the basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3–) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3– ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  12. Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Junyi; Qi, Xuan; Souza, Lara; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-10

    The nitrogen (N) cycle has the potential to regulate climate change through its influence on carbon (C) sequestration. Although extensive research has explored whether or not progressive N limitation (PNL) occurs under CO2 enrichment, a comprehensive assessment of the processes that regulate PNL is still lacking. Here, we quantitatively synthesized the responses of all major processes and pools in the terrestrial N cycle with meta-analysis of CO2 experimental data available in the literature. The results showed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased N sequestration in the plant and litter pools but not in the soil pool, partially supporting one of themore » basic assumptions in the PNL hypothesis that elevated CO2 results in more N sequestered in organic pools. However, CO2 enrichment significantly increased the N influx via biological N fixation and the loss via N2O emission, but decreased the N efflux via leaching. In addition, no general diminished CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth was observed over time up to the longest experiment of 13 years. Overall, our analyses suggest that the extra N supply by the increased biological N fixation and decreased leaching may potentially alleviate PNL under elevated CO2 conditions in spite of the increases in plant N sequestration and N2O emission. Moreover, our syntheses indicate that CO2 enrichment increases soil ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3−) ratio. The changed NH4+/NO3− ratio and subsequent biological processes may result in changes in soil microenvironments, above-belowground community structures and associated interactions, which could potentially affect the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. In addition, our data synthesis suggests that more long-term studies, especially in regions other than temperate ones, are needed for comprehensive assessments of the PNL hypothesis.« less

  13. FUS-mediated regulation of alternative RNA processing in neurons: insights from global transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akio; Takeda, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-05-01

    Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein that is causally associated with oncogenesis and neurodegeneration. Recently, the role of FUS in neurodegeneration has been extensively studied, because mutations in FUS are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the FUS protein has been identified as a major component of intracellular inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders including ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. FUS is a key molecule in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing including processes such as pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and polyadenylation. Interaction of FUS with various components of the transcription machinery, spliceosome, and the 3'-end processing machinery has been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomic profiling approaches have enabled us to determine the mechanisms of FUS-dependent RNA processing networks at a cellular level. These analyses have revealed that depletion of FUS in neuronal cells affects alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of thousands of mRNAs. Gene ontology analysis has suggested that FUS-modulated genes are implicated in neuronal functions and development. CLIP-seq of FUS has shown that FUS is frequently clustered around these alternative sites of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) has demonstrated that an interaction between FUS and nascent RNA downregulates local transcriptional activity of RNAP II, which is critically involved in RNA processing. Both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation are fundamental processes by which cells expand their transcriptomic diversity, and are particularly essential in the nervous system. Dependence of transcriptomic diversity on FUS makes the nervous system vulnerable to neurodegeneration, when FUS is functionally compromised. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:330-340. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1338 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26822113

  14. Calcium sensing and cell signaling processes in the local regulation of osteoclastic bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Mone; Moonga, Baljit S; Huang, Christopher L H

    2004-02-01

    The skeletal matrix in terrestrial vertebrates undergoes continual cycles of removal and replacement in the processes of bone growth, repair and remodeling. The osteoclast is uniquely important in bone resorption and thus is implicated in the pathogenesis of clinically important bone and joint diseases. Activated osteoclasts form a resorptive hemivacuole with the bone surface into which they release both acid and osteoclastic lysosomal hydrolases. This article reviews cell physiological studies of the local mechanisms that regulate the resorptive process. These used in vitro methods for the isolation, culture and direct study of the properties of neonatal rat osteoclasts. They demonstrated that both local microvascular agents and products of the bone resorptive process such as ambient Ca2+ could complement longer-range systemic regulatory mechanisms such as those that might be exerted through calcitonin (CT). Thus elevated extracellular [Ca2+], or applications of surrogate divalent cation agonists for Ca2+, inhibited bone resorptive activity and produced parallel increases in cytosolic [Ca2+], cell retraction and longer-term inhibition of enzyme release in isolated rat osteoclasts. These changes showed specificity, inactivation, and voltage-dependent properties that implicated a cell surface Ca2+ receptor (CaR) sensitive to millimolar extracellular [Ca2+]. Pharmacological, biophysical and immunochemical evidence implicated a ryanodine-receptor (RyR) type II isoform in this process and localized it to a unique, surface membrane site, with an outward-facing channel-forming domain. Such a surface RyR might function either directly or indirectly in the process of extracellular [Ca2+] sensing and in turn be modulated by cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPr) produced by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38. The review finishes by speculating about possible detailed models for these transduction events and their possible interactions with other systemic mechanisms involved

  15. FE65 as a link between VLDLR and APP to regulate their trafficking and processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies found that FE65, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, interacts with APP and LRP1, altering the trafficking and processing of APP. We have previously shown that FE65 interacts with the ApoE receptor, ApoER2, altering its trafficking and processing. Interestingly, it has been shown that FE65 can act as a linker between APP and LRP1 or ApoER2. In the present study, we tested whether FE65 can interact with another ApoE receptor, VLDLR, thereby altering its trafficking and processing, and whether FE65 can serve as a linker between APP and VLDLR. Results We found that FE65 interacted with VLDLR using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays in COS7 cells and in brain lysates. This interaction occurs via the PTB1 domain of FE65. Co-transfection with FE65 and full length VLDLR increased secreted VLDLR (sVLDLR); however, the levels of VLDLR C-terminal fragment (CTF) were undetectable as a result of proteasomal degradation. Additionally, FE65 increased cell surface levels of VLDLR. Moreover, we identified a novel complex between VLDLR and APP, which altered trafficking and processing of both proteins. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that the presence of FE65 increased the interaction between APP and VLDLR in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that FE65 can regulate VLDLR trafficking and processing. Additionally, the interaction between VLDLR and APP altered both protein's trafficking and processing. Finally, our data suggest that FE65 serves as a link between VLDLR and APP. This novel interaction adds to a growing body of literature indicating trimeric complexes with various ApoE Receptors and APP. PMID:22429478

  16. Getting Ahead in Oregon: Expanding Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Nontraditional Students. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy of the Committee on Small Business. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Portland, OR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Small Business.

    As part of a series of field hearings examining the issue of education reform and the preparedness of the work force, testimony was heard on the need to expand higher education opportunities for minorities and nontraditional college students. Oregon, in particular, faces these questions because the state's economy is expected to change from…

  17. The influence of the WWOX gene on the regulation of biological processes during endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Płuciennik, E; Nowakowska, M; Gałdyszyńska, M; Popęda, M; Bednarek, A K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) downregulation in biological cancer-related processes in normal (non-malignant) and cancer endometrial cell lines. We created an in vitro model using the normal endometrial cell line, THESC, and 2 endometrial cancer cell lines with varying degrees of differentiation, the Ishikawa (well-differentiated) and the MFE296 (moderately differentiated) cells, in which the WWOX tumor suppressor gene was silenced using Gipz lentiviral shRNA. In this model, we examined the changes in invasiveness via biological assays, such as zymography, migration through a basement membrane, the adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix proteins, anchorage-independent growth and colony formation assay. We also evaluated the correlation between the mRNA expression of the WWOX gene and genes involved in the processes of carcinogenesis, namely catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) (gene transcription), cadherin 1 (CDH1) and ezrin (EZR) (cell adhesion), vimentin (VIM) (structural proteins), as well as phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (tumor suppression) and secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) (SPARC) (cell growth regulation) by RT-qPCR. Downregulation of the WWOX gene in the moderately differentiated MFE296 cell line caused decreased migratory capacity, and a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. However, these cells grew in semisolid medium and exhibited higher expression of CDH1 and EZR (cell adhesion) and secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) (cell growth regulation). Moreover, in the well-differentiated endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line, WWOX gene silencing resulted in an increased ability of the cells to proliferate indefinitely. Additionally, WWOX regulated changes in adhesion potential in both the normal and cancer cell lines. Our results suggest that the

  18. Minority Achievement Report, 1996, Data Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Higher Education Commission, Annapolis.

    Each Maryland public campus submits annual minority achievement reports as part of the state-mandated accountability process. This is a report of the 1995 data. In 1995, Prince George's Community College had the largest number of African-American undergraduate students (7,623) followed by Morgan (5,337), Baltimore City Community College (4,877),…

  19. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  20. Group Counseling for Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lynne E.; Hartman, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    The issues facing sexual minority youth are reviewed. A group-counseling model tested at a public high school is presented. Counseling issues include homophobia, loneliness, isolation, identity issues, alienation from family, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. The structure and process for support-group operation is presented; sensitive issues…

  1. Feedback regulation of the spc operon in Escherichia coli: translational coupling and mRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Mattheakis, L C; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    The spc operon of Escherichia coli encodes 10 ribosomal proteins in the order L14, L24, L5, S14, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30, and L15. This operon is feedback regulated by S8, which binds near the translation start site of L5 and inhibits translation of L5 directly and that of the distal genes indirectly. We constructed plasmids carrying a major portion of the spc operon genes under lac transcriptional control. The plasmids carried a point mutation in the S8 target site which abolished regulation and resulted in overproduction of plasmid-encoded ribosomal proteins upon induction. We showed that alteration of the AUG start codon of L5 to UAG decreased the synthesis rates of plasmid-encoded distal proteins, as well as L5, by approximately 20-fold, with a much smaller (if any) effect on mRNA synthesis rates, indicating coupling of the distal cistrons' translation with the translation of L5. This conclusion was also supported by experiments in which S8 was overproduced in trans. In this case, there was a threefold reduction in the synthesis rates of chromosome-encoded L5 and the distal spc operon proteins, but no decrease in the mRNA synthesis rate. These observations also suggest that transcription from ribosomal protein promoters may be special, perhaps able to overcome transcription termination signals. We also analyzed the state of ribosomal protein mRNA after overproduction of S8 in these experiments and found that repression of ribosomal protein synthesis was accompanied by stimulation of processing (and degradation) of spc operon mRNA. The possible role of mRNA degradation in tightening the regulation is discussed. Images PMID:3049533

  2. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles. PMID:24652587

  3. Training of Working Memory Impacts Neural Processing of Vocal Pitch Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weifeng; Guo, Zhiqiang; Jones, Jeffery A.; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Working memory training can improve the performance of tasks that were not trained. Whether auditory-motor integration for voice control can benefit from working memory training, however, remains unclear. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the impact of working memory training on the auditory-motor processing of vocal pitch. Trained participants underwent adaptive working memory training using a digit span backwards paradigm, while control participants did not receive any training. Before and after training, both trained and control participants were exposed to frequency-altered auditory feedback while producing vocalizations. After training, trained participants exhibited significantly decreased N1 amplitudes and increased P2 amplitudes in response to pitch errors in voice auditory feedback. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the degree of improvement in working memory capacity and the post-pre difference in P2 amplitudes. Training-related changes in the vocal compensation, however, were not observed. There was no systematic change in either vocal or cortical responses for control participants. These findings provide evidence that working memory training impacts the cortical processing of feedback errors in vocal pitch regulation. This enhanced cortical processing may be the result of increased neural efficiency in the detection of pitch errors between the intended and actual feedback. PMID:26553373

  4. Cellulosome stoichiometry in Clostridium cellulolyticum is regulated by selective RNA processing and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenggang; Huang, Ranran; Teng, Lin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jianqiang; Cui, Guzhen; Wang, Yilin; Cui, Qiu; Xu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism, physiological relevance and evolutionary implication of selective RNA processing and stabilization (SRPS) remain elusive. Here we report the genome-wide maps of transcriptional start sites (TSs) and post-transcriptional processed sites (PSs) for Clostridium cellulolyticum. The PS-associated genes are preferably associated with subunits of heteromultimeric protein complexes, and the intergenic PSs (iPSs) are enriched in operons exhibiting highly skewed transcript-abundance landscape. Stem-loop structures associated with those iPSs located at 3′ termini of highly transcribed genes exhibit folding free energy negatively correlated with transcript-abundance ratio of flanking genes. In the cellulosome-encoding cip-cel operon, iPSs and stem-loops precisely regulate structure and abundance of the subunit-encoding transcripts processed from a primary polycistronic RNA, quantitatively specifying cellulosome stoichiometry. Moreover, cellulosome evolution is shaped by the number, position and biophysical nature of TSs, iPSs and stem-loops. Our findings unveil a genome-wide RNA-encoded strategy controlling in vivo stoichiometry of protein complexes. PMID:25908225

  5. Virtual welding equipment for simulation of GMAW processes with integration of power source regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Zabirov, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    A two dimensional transient numerical analysis and computational module for simulation of electrical and thermal characteristics during electrode melting and metal transfer involved in Gas-Metal-Arc-Welding (GMAW) processes is presented. Solution of non-linear transient heat transfer equation is carried out using a control volume finite difference technique. The computational module also includes controlling and regulation algorithms of industrial welding power sources. The simulation results are the current and voltage waveforms, mean voltage drops at different parts of circuit, total electric power, cathode, anode and arc powers and arc length. We describe application of the model for normal process (constant voltage) and for pulsed processes with U/I and I/I-modulation modes. The comparisons with experimental waveforms of current and voltage show that the model predicts current, voltage and electric power with a high accuracy. The model is used in simulation package SimWeld for calculation of heat flux into the work-piece and the weld seam formation. From the calculated heat flux and weld pool sizes, an equivalent volumetric heat source according to Goldak model, can be generated. The method was implemented and investigated with the simulation software SimWeld developed by the ISF at RWTH Aachen University.

  6. A midline switch of receptor processing regulates commissural axon guidance in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Homaira; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Clark, Christopher; Sanyas, Isabelle; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Bozon, Muriel; Takeshima, Kaori; Yoshida, Yutaka; Moret, Frédéric; Abouzid, Karima; Castellani, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide evidence that Semaphorin3B/Plexin-A1 signaling participates in the guidance of commissural projections at the vertebrate ventral midline. Second, we show that, at the precrossing stage, commissural neurons synthesize the Neuropilin-2 and Plexin-A1 Semaphorin3B receptor subunits, but Plexin-A1 expression is prevented by a calpain1-mediated processing, resulting in silencing commissural responsiveness. Third, we report that, during floor plate (FP) in-growth, calpain1 activity is suppressed by local signals, allowing Plexin-A1 accumulation in the growth cone and sensitization to Sema3B. Finally, we show that the FP cue NrCAM mediates the switch of Plexin-A1 processing underlying growth cone sensitization to Sema3B. This reveals pathway-dependent modulation of guidance receptor processing as a novel mechanism for regulating guidance decisions at intermediate targets. PMID:20159958

  7. A midline switch of receptor processing regulates commissural axon guidance in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Homaira; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Clark, Christopher; Sanyas, Isabelle; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuno, Tatsusada; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Bozon, Muriel; Takeshima, Kaori; Yoshida, Yutaka; Moret, Frédéric; Abouzid, Karima; Castellani, Valérie

    2010-02-15

    Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide evidence that Semaphorin3B/Plexin-A1 signaling participates in the guidance of commissural projections at the vertebrate ventral midline. Second, we show that, at the precrossing stage, commissural neurons synthesize the Neuropilin-2 and Plexin-A1 Semaphorin3B receptor subunits, but Plexin-A1 expression is prevented by a calpain1-mediated processing, resulting in silencing commissural responsiveness. Third, we report that, during floor plate (FP) in-growth, calpain1 activity is suppressed by local signals, allowing Plexin-A1 accumulation in the growth cone and sensitization to Sema3B. Finally, we show that the FP cue NrCAM mediates the switch of Plexin-A1 processing underlying growth cone sensitization to Sema3B. This reveals pathway-dependent modulation of guidance receptor processing as a novel mechanism for regulating guidance decisions at intermediate targets. PMID:20159958

  8. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

  9. Effortful control, explicit processing, and the regulation of human evolved predispositions.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kevin B

    2008-10-01

    This article analyzes the effortful control of automatic processing related to social and emotional behavior, including control over evolved modules designed to solve problems of survival and reproduction that were recurrent over evolutionary time. The inputs to effortful control mechanisms include a wide range of nonrecurrent information--information resulting not from evolutionary regularities but from explicit appraisals of costs and benefits. Effortful control mechanisms are associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral anterior cingulated cortex. These mechanisms are largely separate from mechanisms of cognitive control (termed executive function) and working memory, and they enable effortful control of behavior in the service of long range goals. Individual differences in effortful control are associated with measures of conscientiousness in the Five Factor Model of personality. Research in the areas of aggression, ethnocentrism, sexuality, reward seeking, and emotion regulation is reviewed indicating effortful control of automatic, implicit processing based on explicit appraisals of the context. Evidence is reviewed indicating that evolutionary pressure for cooperation may be a critical adaptive function accounting for the evolution of explicit processing. PMID:18954212

  10. Cytotoxicity of Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Farahanikia, Behnaz; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cerebral and memory disorders in European folk medicine. Furthermore, it contains more than 50 alkaloids, some of them having bisindole structure such as the antineoplastic alkaloids present in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae). In this study, the plant's alkaloid extract was divided into three fractions and the cytotoxic effects on cell proliferation of HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, and NIH/3T3 cell lines were examined. All alkaloid fractions showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on the cell lines. IC(50) values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were less affected in comparison to other cell lines. PMID:20645762

  11. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  12. Process characterization of a novel cross-regulation system for cloned protein production in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Kallio, P.T.; Bailey, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel cross-regulation expression system has been shown previously to be very effective for regulated recombinant protein production. Earlier studies established that this system offers better control of basal expression and higher maximal induced expression than more traditional vectors. Using production of cloned chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) as a model system, several factors determining the performance of this system were examined. Specifically, the effects of varying induction times and inducer (IPTG) concentrations on cell growth and the rate of CAT production were examined. The CAT expression was maximally induced with at least 0.5 mM IPTG added at the midexponential growth phase. Specific CAT content (on a total protein basis) was correlated with the CAT mRNA level. CAT message levels were minimal preinduction and far above background postinduction, consistent with prior simulation results. Cessation of CAT accumulation as the culture entered the stationary phase coincided with a corresponding 10-fold decrease in the level of CAT mRNA which was likely caused by an increased mRNA degradation rate. Maintenance of significant CAT message levels with a concomitant 2-fold increase in CAT accumulation was achieved by extending cell growth in a fed-batch process. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory processes during hepatofibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanchari; Benz, Fabian; Luedde, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis represents the end stage of most chronic inflammatory liver diseases and is a major global health burden. Despite the enormous relevance of cirrhotic disease, pharmacological strategies for prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis are still limited, underlining the need to establish a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as a new class of RNAs that do not withhold the information to encode for proteins but regulate whole gene expression networks during different physiological and pathological processes. Various authors demonstrated that miRNA species are functionally involved in the regulation of chronic liver damage and development of liver cirrhosis in inflamed livers. Moreover, circulating miRNA patterns were suggested to serve as blood-based biomarkers indicating liver injury and progression to hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. Here we summarize current findings on a potential role of miRNAs in the cascade leading from liver inflammation to liver fibrosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. We compare data from animal models with findings on miRNAs dysregulated in human patients and finally highlight a potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers for liver injury, fibrosis and cancer. PMID:25713802

  14. 45 CFR 233.107 - Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... minor parent. 233.107 Section 233.107 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF... Restriction in payment to households headed by a minor parent. (a) State plan requirements. A State in its title IV-A State plan may provide that a minor parent and the dependent child in his or her care...

  15. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 CFR 570.121), showing that such minor is at least 16... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall...

  16. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 CFR 570.121), showing that such minor is at least 16... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall...

  17. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 CFR 570.121), showing that such minor is at least 16... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall...

  18. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 CFR 570.121), showing that such minor is at least 16... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall...

  19. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 CFR 570.121), showing that such minor is at least 16... unintentional employment of underage minors. 50-201.104 Section 50-201.104 Public Contracts and Property... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall...

  20. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and...

  1. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office...

  2. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities and the Office...

  3. 12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION (Eff. Jan. 27, 2011) Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated...

  4. Regulation of chain length in two diatoms as a growth-fragmentation process.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Marco; Amato, Alberto; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Cheminant, Soizic; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; d'Alcalá, Maurizio Ribera; Iudicone, Daniele; Falciatore, Angela; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Chain formation in diatoms is relevant because of several aspects of their adaptation to the ecosystem. However, the tools to quantify the regulation of their assemblage and infer specific mechanisms in a laboratory setting are scarce. To address this problem, we define an approach based on a statistical physics model of chain growth and separation in combination with experimental evaluation of chain-length distributions. Applying this combined analysis to data from Chaetoceros decipiens and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we find that cells of the first species control chain separation, likely through a cell-to-cell communication process, while the second species only modulates the separation rate. These results promote quantitative methods for characterizing chain formation in several chain-forming species and in diatoms in particular. PMID:27627344

  5. Social information processing, security of attachment, and emotion regulation in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security scale and the children's self-control scale. Study results demonstrated major difficulties in SIP, lower attachment security, and less ER in children with LD compared to children without LD. Attachment as well as the interaction between attachment and ER emerged as important contributors to most SIP steps, suggesting that children with higher security who also have better ER skills will have better SIP capabilities along the different steps, beyond group inclusion. Results were discussed in terms of practical and clinical implications regarding the importance of mother-child attachment and ER skills for social cognitive capabilities in children with LD. PMID:18443148

  6. The Organization of Right Prefrontal Networks Reveals Common Mechanisms of Inhibitory Regulation Across Cognitive, Emotional, and Motor Processes.

    PubMed

    Depue, B E; Orr, J M; Smolker, H R; Naaz, F; Banich, M T

    2016-04-01

    Inhibitory control/regulation is critical to adapt behavior in accordance with changing environmental circumstances. Dysfunctional inhibitory regulation is ubiquitous in neurological and psychiatric populations. These populations exhibit dysfunction across psychological domains, including memory/thought, emotion/affect, and motor response. Although investigation examining inhibitory regulation within a single domain has begun outlining the basic neural mechanisms supporting regulation, it is unknown how the neural mechanisms of these domains interact. To investigate the organization of inhibitory neural networks within and across domains, we used neuroimaging to outline the functional and anatomical pathways that comprise inhibitory neural networks regulating cognitive, emotional, and motor processes. Networks were defined at the group level using an array of analyses to indicate their intrinsic pathway structure, which was subsequently assessed to determine how the pathways explained individual differences in behavior. Results reveal how neural networks underlying inhibitory regulation are organized both within and across domains, and indicate overlapping/common neural elements. PMID:25601236

  7. Carbonyl Stress in Aging Process: Role of Vitamins and Phytochemicals as Redox Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Ergin, Volkan; Hariry, Reza Ebrahimi; Karasu, Çimen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing scientific agreement that the cellular redox regulators such as antioxidants, particularly the natural polyphenolic forms, may help lower the incidence of some pathologies, including metabolic diseases like diabetes and diabesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative abnormalities, and certain cancers or even have anti-aging properties. The recent researches indicate that the degree of metabolic modulation and adaptation response of cells to reductants as well as oxidants establish their survival and homeostasis, which is linked with very critical balance in imbalances in cellular redox capacity and signaling, and that might be an answer the questions why some antioxidants or phytochemicals potentially could do more harm than good, or why some proteins lose their function by increase interactions with glyco- and lipo-oxidation mediates in the cells (carbonyl stress). Nonetheless, pursue of healthy aging has led the use of antioxidants as a means to disrupt age-associated physiological dysfunctions, dysregulated metabolic processes or prevention of many age-related diseases. Although it is still early to define their exact clinical benefits for treating age-related disease, a diet rich in polyphenolic or other forms of antioxidants does seem to offer hope in delaying the onset of age-related disorders. It is now clear that any deficiency in antioxidant vitamins, inadequate enzymatic antioxidant defenses can distinctive for many age-related disease, and protein carbonylation can used as an indicator of oxidative stress associated diseases and aging status. This review examines antioxidant compounds and plant polyphenols as redox regulators in health, disease and aging processes with hope that a better understanding of the many mechanisms involved with these distinct compounds, which may lead to better health and novel treatment approaches for age-related diseases. PMID:24124633

  8. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Adaptive Regulation of Intestinal Riboflavin Uptake Process

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Ghosal, Abhisek; Kapadia, Rubina; Nabokina, Svetlana M.; Said, Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal absorption process of vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is carrier-mediated, and all three known human RF transporters, i.e., hRFVT-1, -2, and -3 (products of the SLC52A1, 2 & 3 genes, respectively) are expressed in the gut. We have previously shown that the intestinal RF uptake process is adaptively regulated by substrate level, but little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) involved. Using human intestinal epithelial NCM460 cells maintained under RF deficient and over-supplemented (OS) conditions, we now show that the induction in RF uptake in RF deficiency is associated with an increase in expression of the hRFVT-2 & -3 (but not hRFVT-1) at the protein and mRNA levels. Focusing on hRFVT-3, the predominant transporter in the intestine, we also observed an increase in the level of expression of its hnRNA and activity of its promoter in the RF deficiency state. An increase in the level of expression of the nuclear factor Sp1 (which is important for activity of the SLC52A3 promoter) was observed in RF deficiency, while mutating the Sp1/GC site in the SLC52A3 promoter drastically decreased the level of induction in SLC52A3 promoter activity in RF deficiency. We also observed specific epigenetic changes in the SLC52A3 promoter in RF deficiency. Finally, an increase in hRFVT-3 protein expression at the cell surface was observed in RF deficiency. Results of these investigations show, for the first time, that transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in the adaptive regulation of intestinal RF uptake by the prevailing substrate level. PMID:26121134

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate MHC and Antigen Processing Molecules in Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Ramón M.; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Blanco-Gelaz, Miguel A.; Suhr, Steve T.; Ortega, Francisco; Otero, Jesus; Cibelli, Jose B.; Moore, Harry; Fraga, Mario F.; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM) components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and NTera2 (NT2) teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1) and tapasin (TPN) components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of β2-microglobulin (β2m) light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB) were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and β2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs). Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance

  10. The Role of Culture, Family Processes, and Anger Regulation in Korean American Adolescents’ Adjustment Problems

    PubMed Central

    Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May

    2010-01-01

    Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

  11. Tracking individual secretory vesicles during exocytosis reveals an ordered and regulated process

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Post-Golgi secretory vesicle trafficking is a coordinated process, with transport and regulatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate exocytosis. While the contributions of many individual regulatory proteins to this process are well studied, the timing and dependencies of events have not been defined. Here we track individual secretory vesicles and associated proteins in vivo during tethering and fusion in budding yeast. Secretory vesicles tether to the plasma membrane very reproducibly for ∼18 s, which is extended in cells defective for membrane fusion and significantly lengthened and more variable when GTP hydrolysis of the exocytic Rab is delayed. Further, the myosin-V Myo2p regulates the tethering time in a mechanism unrelated to its interaction with exocyst component Sec15p. Two-color imaging of tethered vesicles with Myo2p, the GEF Sec2p, and several exocyst components allowed us to document a timeline for yeast exocytosis in which Myo2p leaves 4 s before fusion, whereas Sec2p and all the components of the exocyst disperse coincident with fusion. PMID:26169352

  12. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PMID:23895316

  13. 31 CFR 306.57 - Minors and incompetents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minors and incompetents. 306.57 Section 306.57 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments by or in Behalf of Individuals...

  14. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... WorkFlow to process vouchers. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published January 19, 2012, at 77 FR... clarifying the proposed rule published on January 19, 2012 (77 FR 2682), which proposes to revise... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  15. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  16. Lines of Deterritorialization: The Becoming-Minor of Carter's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…

  17. Belowground processes regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during a multi-year forest dieback event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Le Moine, J.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Curtis, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of disturbances, forests typically have strong retention capacity for nitrogen (N), which is internally recycled between soil, microbial and plant pools. However, disturbances that trigger senescence or mortality of forest vegetation may alter internal N cycling processes and lead to the loss of ecosystem N retention capacity. Here, we present an assessment of the role played by belowground processes in governing ecosystem N cycling and retention during an experimental disturbance that killed the dominant canopy taxa in a Great Lakes forest over a 4-year period. After applying stem girdling to hasten the age-related senescence of the dominant taxa (Populus and Betula spp.; ~35% of the basal area), we observed a 38% decrease in stand-level allocation of nonstructural carbohydrates to fine roots, which triggered a tenfold increase in the rate of fine root turnover and increased soil NH4+ and NO3- availability. Elevated soil N availability decreased mycorrhizal hyphal foraging and N uptake, effectively down-regulating the role of symbiotic fungi in the N nutrition of the residual (longer-lived) tree taxa. However, even as residual trees took up less N from mycorrhizal sources, their overall N uptake increased and served to offset the loss of the dominant taxa. The net result of this offset was that canopy N stocks remained constant through the disturbance period and there was no appreciable loss of ecosystem N stocks due to leaching or gaseous export. In sum, the cascade of changes in root, microbial, and soil processes during this experiment indicates that these interdependent components of the belowground system comprised a mechanism responsible for retention and redistribution of ecosystem N stocks during the disturbance period.

  18. Co-regulation of redox processes in freshwater wetlands as a function of organic matter availability?

    PubMed

    Alewell, C; Paul, S; Lischeid, G; Storck, F R

    2008-10-15

    Wetlands have important filter functions in landscapes but are considered to be the biggest unknowns regarding their element dynamics under global climate change. Information on sink and source function of sulphur, nitrogen, organic matter and acidity in wetlands is crucial for freshwater regeneration. Recent results indicate that redox processes are not completely controlled by the sequential reduction chain (that is electron acceptor availability) but that electron donor availability may be an important regulator. Our hypothesis was that only sites which are limited in their electron donor availability (low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) follow the concept of the sequential reduction chain. We compared the results of two freshwater wetland systems: 1) three forested fens within a boreal spruce catchment in a low mountain range in southern Germany (high DOC regime) and 2) three floodplain soils within a groundwater enrichment area in the Rhein valley in northwest Switzerland (low DOC regime). Micro scale investigations (a few cm(3)) with dialyse chambers as well as soil solution and groundwater concentrations at the forested fens (high DOC regime) indicated simultaneous consumption of nitrate and sulphate with release of iron, manganese and methane (CH(4)) as well as an enrichment in stable sulphur isotopes indicating a co-existence of processes attributed to different redox gradients. Soil and aquifer gas measurements down to 4.6 m at the groundwater enrichment site (low DOC regime and carbon limitation) showed extreme high rates of metabolism with carbon dioxide (CO(2))(,) dinitrous oxide (N(2)O) and CH(4) concentrations reaching fifty, thirty and three times atmospheric concentrations, respectively. Simultaneously, groundwater oxygen (O(2)) saturation was between 50 and 95%. We concluded that independent of DOC regime the sequential reduction chain was not a suitable concept in our systems. Instead of electron acceptor or donor availability

  19. Switch-like regulation of tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA processing patterns revealed by customized fluorescence reporters

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito

    2013-01-01

    Alternative processing of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs), including alternative transcription start sites, alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation, is the major source of protein diversity and plays crucial roles in development, differentiation and diseases in higher eukaryotes. It is estimated from microarray analyses and deep sequencing of mRNAs from synchronized worms that up to 25% of protein-coding genes in Caenorhabditis elegans undergo alternative pre-mRNA processing and that many of them are subject to developmental regulation. Recent progress in visualizing the alternative pre-mRNA processing patterns in living worms with custom-designed fluorescence reporters has enabled genetic analyses of the regulatory mechanisms for alternative processing events of interest in vivo. Expression of the tissue-specific isoforms of actin depolymerising factor (ADF)/cofilin, UNC-60A and UNC-60B, is regulated by a combination of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of pre-mRNA from a single gene unc-60. We recently found that muscle-specific splicing regulators ASD-2 and SUP-12 cooperatively switch the pre-mRNA processing patterns of the unc-60 gene in body wall muscles. Here I summarize the bichromatic fluorescence reporter system utilized for visualizing the tissue-specific alternative processing patterns of the unc-60 pre-mRNA. I also discuss the model for the coordinated regulation of the UNC-60B-type pre-mRNA processing in body wall muscles by ASD-2 and SUP-12. PMID:24778931

  20. The tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 are regulators of microRNA processing complex.

    PubMed

    Boominathan, Lakshmanane

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressors p53, p73, and p63 are known to function as transcription factors. They promote either growth arrest or apoptosis, depending upon the DNA damage. A number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to function as transcriptional targets of p53 and they appear to aid p53 in promoting growth arrest and apoptosis. However, the question of p53/p63/p73 regulating the miRNA processing complex has not been addressed in depth so far. Comparative/computational genomic analysis was performed using Target scan, Mami, and Diana software to identify miRNAs that regulate the miRNA processing complex. Here, I present evidence for the first time that the tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 function as both positive and negative regulators of the miRNA processing components. Curated p53-dependent miRNA expression data was used to identify p53-miRs that target the components of the miRNA-processing complex. This analysis suggests that most of the components (mRNAs' 3'UTR) of the miRNA processing complex are targeted by p53-miRs. Remarkably, this data revealed the conserved nature of p53-miRs in targeting a number of components of the miRNA processing complex. p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the major components of the miRNA processing, such as Drosha-DGCR8, Dicer-TRBP2, and Argonaute proteins. In particular, p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the processing of miRNAs, such as let-7, miR-200c, miR-143, miR-107, miR-16, miR-145, miR-134, miR-449a, miR-503, and miR-21. Interestingly, there seems to be a phenotypic similarity between p63(-/-) and dicer(-/-) mice, suggesting that p63 and dicer could regulate each other. In addition, p63, p73, and the DGCR8 proteins contain a conserved interaction domain. Further, promoters of a number of components of the miRNA processing machinery, including dicer and P2P-R, contain p53-REs, suggesting that they could be direct transcriptional targets of p63/p73/p53. Together, this study provides mechanistic insights into how p53, p63, and

  1. ECH Will Provide Minority Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the availability of information about minority status of all existing people-oriented data banks of the American Chemical Society, including data gathering and file search procedures. Contained is a chart illustrating unemployment statistics for minority groups as self-identified by the Employment Clearing House registrants. (CC)

  2. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  3. Growing Your Own: Minority Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    In the USA, the number of school age children who represent minority backgrounds is rapidly growing. However, despite several efforts, the teaching force remains primarily White. The purpose of this paper is to describe a residential future teachers program in Connecticut which recruits minority rising juniors and seniors from high schools across…

  4. College and the Minority Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    The crusade to recruit "minority" students has now progressed far enough to draw some conclusions from the results. This article summarizes the minority student recruitment program in general and outlines some of the areas most in need of revision. (Author/PC)

  5. What Minority Employees Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Stephanie N.

    2000-01-01

    Selections for this list of the nation's best companies for minorities were made based on the company's commitment to diversity at every level, paying particular attention to the upper ranks of the companies. In these companies, ethnic minorities make up 22 percent of the officials and managers. (JOW)

  6. Minority Students and Professional Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The role of professional associations in facilitating minority access to graduate and professional education is addressed. Information on minority applications, financial aid, recruitment, and support activities was requested from 29 associations; 16 responded. The general posture of the associations appears to be limited to expressions of support…

  7. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  8. Protecting Minors from Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joan Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Because the Supreme Court has put severe limits on the use of the concepts of national security and protection of women to justify censorship, the predominant strategy has become censorship to protect minors. This article examines the legal concepts of obscenity and material harmful to minors, restrictions on broadcasting, and challenges raised by…

  9. Introducing Literature of the Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Elizabeth

    This paper discusses a thematic approach to introduce high school or college students to fiction that deals with minority groups. The author discusses how this thematic arrangement of novels may be a useful method for organizing a study of minority groups as represented in major works of American fiction. She discusses the initiation motif as a…

  10. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  11. Supporting Women and Minority Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, JoAnn

    2004-01-01

    Good departmental practices can help women and minority faculty thrive and make the greatest possible contribution to the academic enterprise. Several recent books have explored what is wrong with the current way of doing business. In this article, the author outlines steps to bring U.S. minority and European American women faculty--at both the…

  12. Professional Societies of Minority Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2003-12-01

    This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

  13. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  14. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  15. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  16. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Participates in Amyloid-β Processing in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease but Plays a Minor Role in the Therapeutic Properties of a Cannabis-Based Medicine.

    PubMed

    Aso, Ester; Andrés-Benito, Pol; Carmona, Margarita; Maldonado, Rafael; Ferrer, Isidre

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target to modify neurodegenerative pathways linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the specific contribution of CB2 receptor to the progression of AD-like pathology and its role in the positive effect of a cannabis-based medicine (1:1 combination of Δ9-tetrahidrocannabinol and cannabidiol) previously demonstrated to be beneficial in the AβPP/PS1 transgenic model of the disease. A new mouse strain was generated by crossing AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice with CB2 knockout mice. Results show that lack of CB2 exacerbates cortical Aβ deposition and increases the levels of soluble Aβ40. However, CB2 receptor deficiency does not affect the viability of AβPP/PS1 mice, does not accelerate their memory impairment, does not modify tau hyperphosphorylation in dystrophic neurites associated to Aβ plaques, and does not attenuate the positive cognitive effect induced by the cannabis-based medicine in these animals. These findings suggest a minor role for the CB2 receptor in the therapeutic effect of the cannabis-based medicine in AβPP/PS1 mice, but also constitute evidence of a link between CB2 receptor and Aβ processing. PMID:26890764

  17. Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2 Peptidase Assembling Process and Associated Functional Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Rosenbaum, Eva; Durá, M. Asunción; Colombo, Matteo; Marty, Vincent; Savoye, Marjolaine Noirclerc; Godfroy, Anne; Schoehn, Guy; Girard, Eric; Gabel, Frank; Franzetti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral (TET) aminopeptidases are large polypeptide destruction machines present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, the rules governing their assembly into hollow 12-subunit tetrahedrons are addressed by using TET2 from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhTET2) as a model. Point mutations allowed the capture of a stable, catalytically active precursor. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed that it is a dimer whose architecture in solution is identical to that determined by x-ray crystallography within the fully assembled TET particle. Small angle x-ray scattering also showed that the reconstituted PhTET2 dodecameric particle displayed the same quaternary structure and thermal stability as the wild-type complex. The PhTET2 assembly intermediates were characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, native gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. They revealed that PhTET2 assembling is a highly ordered process in which hexamers represent the main intermediate. Peptide degradation assays demonstrated that oligomerization triggers the activity of the TET enzyme toward large polypeptidic substrates. Fractionation experiments in Pyrococcus and Halobacterium cells revealed that, in vivo, the dimeric precursor co-exists together with assembled TET complexes. Taken together, our observations explain the biological significance of TET oligomerization and suggest the existence of a functional regulation of the dimer-dodecamer equilibrium in vivo. PMID:23696647

  18. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  19. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  20. Mandibular arch muscle identity is regulated by a conserved molecular process during vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Knight, Robert D; Mebus, Katharina; Roehl, Henry H

    2008-06-15

    Vertebrate head muscles exhibit a highly conserved pattern of innervation and skeletal connectivity and yet it is unclear whether the molecular basis of their development is likewise conserved. Using the highly conserved expression of Engrailed 2 (En2) as a marker of identity in the dorsal mandibular muscles of zebrafish, we have investigated the molecular signals and tissues required for patterning these muscles. We show that muscle En2 expression is not dependent on signals from the adjacent neural tube, pharyngeal endoderm or axial mesoderm and that early identity of head muscles does not require bone morphogenetic pathway, Notch or Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. However, constrictor dorsalis En2 expression is completely lost after a loss of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling and we show that is true throughout head muscle development. These results suggest that head muscle identity is dependent on Fgf signalling. Data from experiments performed in chick suggest a similar regulation of En2 genes by Fgf signalling revealing a conserved mechanism for specifying head muscle identity. We present evidence that another key gene important in the development of mouse head muscles, Tbx1, is also critical for specification of mandibular arch muscle identity and that this is independent of Fgf signalling. These data imply that dorsal mandibular arch muscle identity in fish, chick and mouse is specified by a highly conserved molecular process despite differing functions of these muscles in different lineages. PMID:18338789

  1. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. PMID:26893074

  2. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

    2002-10-10

    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

  3. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports. 1426.7102 Section 1426.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  4. 48 CFR 1426.7102 - Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports. 1426.7102 Section 1426.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Reports 1426.7102 Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA-91) Plan and Reports....

  5. Regulation of Activation and Processing of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by a Complex Electrostatic Interaction between the Regulatory Domain and Cytoplasmic Loop 3*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangyu; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2012-01-01

    NEG2, a short C-terminal segment (817–838) of the unique regulatory (R) domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, has been reported to regulate CFTR gating in response to cAMP-dependent R domain phosphorylation. The underlying mechanism, however, is unclear. Here, Lys-946 of cytoplasmic loop 3 (CL3) is proposed as counter-ion of Asp-835, Asp-836, or Glu-838 of NEG2 to prevent the channel activation by PKA. Arg-764 or Arg-766 of the Ser-768 phosphorylation site of the R domain is proposed to promote the channel activation possibly by weakening the putative CL3-NEG2 electrostatic attraction. First, not only D835A, D836A, and E838A but also K946A reduced the PKA-dependent CFTR activation. Second, both K946D and D835R/D836R/E838R mutants were activated by ATP and curcumin to a different extent. Third, R764A and R766A mutants enhanced the PKA-dependent activation. However, it is very exciting that D835R/D836R/E838R and K946D/H950D and H950R exhibited normal channel processing and activity whereas D835R/D836R/E838R/K946D/H950D was fractionally misprocessed and silent in response to forskolin. Further, D836R and E838R played a critical role in the asymmetric electrostatic regulation of CFTR processing, and Ser-768 phosphorylation may not be involved. Thus, a complex interfacial interaction among CL3, NEG2, and the Ser-768 phosphorylation site may be responsible for the asymmetric electrostatic regulation of CFTR activation and processing. PMID:23060444

  6. Process Mining Techniques for Analysing Patterns and Strategies in Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannert, Maria; Reimann, Peter; Sonnenberg, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Referring to current research on self-regulated learning, we analyse individual regulation in terms of a set of specific sequences of regulatory activities. Successful students perform regulatory activities such as analysing, planning, monitoring and evaluating cognitive and motivational aspects during learning not only with a higher frequency…

  7. Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education: Identifying Key Component Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The concept of self-regulated learning is becoming increasingly relevant in the study of learning and academic achievement, especially in higher education, where quite distinctive demands are placed on students. Though several key theoretical perspectives have been advanced for self-regulated learning, there is consensus regarding the central role…

  8. Meckel diverticulum in exomphalos minor

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hee Ju; Park, Kwi-Won; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Mi-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    A congenital hernia into the base of the umbilical cord is known as an exomphalos and when the size of the defect is 5 cm or less and containing only bowel, it is called as exomphalos minor. We present a case of a newborn with an exomphalos minor within a Meckel diverticulum. He underwent surgical resection of the Meckel diverticulum and repair of the abdominal wall defect. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Meckel diverticulum in an exomphalos minor in Korea. PMID:27478815

  9. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  10. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. PMID:27470332

  11. Developmental expression of chicken antithrombin III is regulated by increased RNA abundance and intracellular processing.

    PubMed

    Amrani, D L; Rosenberg, J; Samad, F; Bergtrom, G; Banfield, D K

    1993-01-23

    We isolated and sequenced a 432 bp cDNA to cAT-III, that encoded 115 nucleotides of 5' untranslated sequence, a 17 amino acid long signal peptide and residues 1-88 of the mature protein, and used it to prepare a probe for measuring and correlating the developmental changes of steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels with known changes in antigen levels. Densitometric analysis of nuclease protection (n = 2), Northern blot (n = 4), and slot blots (n = 3) of total RNA from chick livers of 16-day-old embryos to 6-day-old chicks showed a 2.6 +/- 0.5-fold increase in steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels. Assay of functional mRNA levels by in vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA and specific immunoprecipitation of 35S-Met-labelled cAT-III was comparable to RNA analysis (16-day-old embryos vs. 10-day-old hatchlings). We evaluated whether there were developmental differences in post-translational secretion which may also contribute to the regulation of the circulating level of this protein. Pulse-chase studies of freshly-isolated hepatocytes from 16-day-old embryos and 10-day-old hatchlings maintained in suspension demonstrated a approx. 5.0-5.5-fold increase in cAT-III levels at steady-state secretion. The above findings indicate that changes in circulating cAT-III levels during late embryonic development are primarily due to increased abundance of cAT-III mRNA. In addition, we postulate that post-translational intracellular processing may account for further differences in circulating protein levels. PMID:8424948

  12. Plasmid R1 Conjugative DNA Processing Is Regulated at the Coupling Protein Interface▿

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Sanja; Lang, Silvia; Sut, Marta V.; Strohmaier, Heimo; Gruber, Christian J.; Koraimann, Günther; Cabezón, Elena; Moncalián, Gabriel; de la Cruz, Fernando; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective substrate uptake controls initiation of macromolecular secretion by type IV secretion systems in gram-negative bacteria. Type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) are essential, but the molecular mechanisms governing substrate entry to the translocation pathway remain obscure. We report a biochemical approach to reconstitute a regulatory interface between the plasmid R1 T4CP and the nucleoprotein relaxosome dedicated to the initiation stage of plasmid DNA processing and substrate presentation. The predicted cytosolic domain of T4CP TraD was purified in a predominantly monomeric form, and potential regulatory effects of this protein on catalytic activities exhibited by the relaxosome during transfer initiation were analyzed in vitro. TraDΔN130 stimulated the TraI DNA transesterase activity apparently via interactions on both the protein and the DNA levels. TraM, a protein interaction partner of TraD, also increased DNA transesterase activity in vitro. The mechanism may involve altered DNA conformation as TraM induced underwinding of oriT plasmid DNA in vivo (ΔLk = −4). Permanganate mapping of the positions of duplex melting due to relaxosome assembly with TraDΔN130 on supercoiled DNA in vitro confirmed localized unwinding at nic but ruled out formation of an open complex compatible with initiation of the TraI helicase activity. These data link relaxosome regulation to the T4CP and support the model that a committed step in the initiation of DNA export requires activation of TraI helicase loading or catalysis. PMID:19767437

  13. Processing Body and Stress Granule Assembly Occur by Independent and Differentially Regulated Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Khyati H.; Zhang, Bo; Ramachandran, Vidhya; Herman, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules form in eukaryotic cells to regulate the translation, decay, and localization of the encapsulated messenger RNA (mRNAs). The work here examined the assembly and function of two highly conserved RNP structures, the processing body (P body) and the stress granule, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These granules are induced by similar stress conditions and contain translationally repressed mRNAs and a partially overlapping set of protein constituents. However, despite these similarities, the data indicate that these RNP complexes are independently assembled and that this assembly is controlled by different signaling pathways. In particular, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was found to control P body formation under all conditions examined. In contrast, the assembly of stress granules was not affected by changes in either PKA or TORC1 signalling activity. Both of these RNP granules were also detected in stationary-phase cells, but each appears at a distinct time. P bodies were formed prior to stationary-phase arrest, and the data suggest that these foci are important for the long-term survival of these quiescent cells. Stress granules, on the other hand, were not assembled until after the cells had entered into the stationary phase of growth and their appearance could therefore serve as a specific marker for the entry into this quiescent state. In all, the results here provide a framework for understanding the assembly of these RNP complexes and suggest that these structures have distinct but important activities in quiescent cells. PMID:23105015

  14. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-03

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. In conclusion, these data suggested

  15. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-03

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system]more » and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. In conclusion, these data suggested that

  16. Memory acquisition and retrieval impact different epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A fundamental question in neuroscience is how memories are stored and retrieved in the brain. Long-term memory formation requires transcription, translation and epigenetic processes that control gene expression. Thus, characterizing genome-wide the transcriptional changes that occur after memory acquisition and retrieval is of broad interest and importance. Genome-wide technologies are commonly used to interrogate transcriptional changes in discovery-based approaches. Their ability to increase scientific insight beyond traditional candidate gene approaches, however, is usually hindered by batch effects and other sources of unwanted variation, which are particularly hard to control in the study of brain and behavior. Results We examined genome-wide gene expression after contextual conditioning in the mouse hippocampus, a brain region essential for learning and memory, at all the time-points in which inhibiting transcription has been shown to impair memory formation. We show that most of the variance in gene expression is not due to conditioning and that by removing unwanted variance through additional normalization we are able provide novel biological insights. In particular, we show that genes downregulated by memory acquisition and retrieval impact different functions: chromatin assembly and RNA processing, respectively. Levels of histone 2A variant H2AB are reduced only following acquisition, a finding we confirmed using quantitative proteomics. On the other hand, splicing factor Rbfox1 and NMDA receptor-dependent microRNA miR-219 are only downregulated after retrieval, accompanied by an increase in protein levels of miR-219 target CAMKIIγ. Conclusions We provide a thorough characterization of coding and non-coding gene expression during long-term memory formation. We demonstrate that unwanted variance dominates the signal in transcriptional studies of learning and memory and introduce the removal of unwanted variance through normalization as a

  17. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  18. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  19. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  20. The Influence of Teacher Perceived Administration of Self-Regulated Learning on Students' Motivation and Information-Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozendaal, J.S.; Minnaert, A.; Boekaerts, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS^(R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational schools. A total of 185 students were grouped post…

  1. [Quantum processes in evolution of regulation of living system (mathematical modelling)].

    PubMed

    Menshutkin, V V; Natochin, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an imitation model of the appearance of regulation of physiological functions of protocell at the initial stages of evolution of living system. It is based on suggestion of the appearance of signal function in spontaneously formed products of partial hydrolysis of the protocell polypeptides, based on which there appear the regulatory molecules--quanta of regulation. For construction of the model, the mathematical apparatus of final automats and of genetic algorithm is used. The model has demonstrated the positive role of involvement of regulatory peptides in the system of regulation of protocell functions to provide its viability under the changing envelopment conditions. PMID:21780648

  2. Genomic misconception: a fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops. A plea for a process agnostic regulation.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Klaus

    2014-01-25

    The regulation of genetically engineered crops, in Europe and within the legislation of the Cartagena biosafety protocol is built on false premises: The claim was (and unfortunately still is) that there is a basic difference between conventional and transgenic crops, this despite the fact that this has been rejected on scientifically solid grounds since many years. This contribution collects some major arguments for a fresh look at regulation of transgenic crops, they are in their molecular processes of creation not basically different from conventional crops, which are based in their breeding methods on natural, sometimes enhanced mutation. But the fascination and euphoria of the discoveries in molecular biology and the new perspectives in plant breeding in the sixties and seventies led to the wrong focus on transgenic plants alone. In a collective framing process the initial biosafety debates focused on the novelty of the process of transgenesis. When early debates on the risk assessment merged into legislative decisions, this wrong focus on transgenesis alone seemed uncontested. The process-focused view was also fostered by a conglomerate of concerned scientists and biotechnology companies, both with a vested interest to at least tolerate the rise of the safety threshold to secure research money and to discourage competitors of all kinds. Policy minded people and opponent activists without deeper insight in the molecular science agreed to those efforts without much resistance. It is interesting to realize, that the focus on processes was uncontested by a majority of regulators, this despite of serious early warnings from important authorities in science, mainly of US origin. It is time to change the regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops toward a more science based process-agnostic legislation. Although this article concentrates on the critique of the process-oriented regulation, including some details about the history behind, there should be no

  3. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  4. Minor mergers: fundamental but unexplored drivers of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata

    We use the SDSS Stripe 82 to study the stellar-mass growth that is triggered by minor mergers in local disk galaxies. Since major mergers destroy disks and create spheroids, morphologically disturbed spirals are likely remnants of minor mergers (since the disk remains intact). Disturbed spirals exhibit enhanced specific star formation rates (SSFRs), with the enhancement increasing in galaxies with `later' morphological type (that have larger gas reservoirs and smaller bulges). By combining the SSFR enhancements with the fraction of time spirals in various morphological classes spend in this `enhanced' mode, we estimate that ~40% of the star formation activity in local spirals is directly triggered by minor mergers. Combining our results with the star formation in local early-type galaxies - which is almost completely driven by minor mergers - suggests that around half the star formation activity at the present day is likely to be triggered by the minor-merger process.

  5. LA-ICP-MS analyses of minor and trace elements and bulk Ge isotopes in zoned Ge-rich sphalerites from the Noailhac - Saint-Salvy deposit (France): Insights into incorporation mechanisms and ore deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belissont, Rémi; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Luais, Béatrice; Cathelineau, Michel

    2014-02-01

    sphalerite varies from -2.07 ± 0.37‰ to +0.91 ± 0.16‰ (2σ SD) and positively correlates with bulk Ge content. This indicates considerable Ge isotopic fractionation within sphalerite during low-T hydrothermal deposition and zoning processes, associated with possible microscale open system fluid mixing. The trace element features in sphalerite from Saint-Salvy compared with those of other deposits confirm their use as discriminators among genetic types of ores (e.g., high In contents for magmatic-related deposits, and Ge for low-temperature deposits). The LA-ICP-MS technique is revealed to be a powerful tool to measure in situ trace and minor elements occurring as solid solutions in sphalerite. The 74Ge isotope is most relevant for Ge analysis using the LA-ICP-MS, as this isotope shows the lowest isobaric interferences. Principal component analysis (PCA) of LA-ICP-MS dataset revealed an antithetic distribution of element clusters in sphalerite: Cu and trace elements Ge, Sb, Ag, and As are enriched and positively correlated in sector zoning whereas Fe, Cd, In and Sn are enriched in dark brown rhythmic bands. This distribution implies crystallographic controls on the incorporation of trace elements. Regardless of the zoning type, all spots considered, notable coupled substitutions have been suggested from binary scatter plots: 2Zn2+ ↔ Cu+ + Sb3+ and 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2Ag+. Also, the data suggest the substitution 3Zn2+ ↔ In3+ + Sn3+ + □ although Sn oxidation state needs verification using appropriate methods (e.g., XAS, μ-XANES/EXAFS). Fe and Cd are mainly involved in direct Zn2+ ↔ (Fe2+, Cd2+) substitutions. Noticeably, in all spots, Cu content approaches the sum of all available tri- and tetravalent cations. In this way, Cu (occurring as Cu+) could provide charge-balance for the entire broad set of coupled substitution mechanisms responsible for incorporation of the whole range of trace elements in Saint-Salvy sphalerite, especially Ge, Ga and Sb. Germanium

  6. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  7. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  8. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  9. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of...

  10. On the inclusion of self regulating branching processes in the working paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Mode, Charles J.; Sleeman, Candace K.; Raj, Towfique

    2013-01-01

    The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a general audience in the genetics community that the consideration of recent developments of self regulating branching processes may lead to the possibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part of working paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class of branching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolving population will grow only to a total population size that can be sustained by the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processes under consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statistics sometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochastic processes. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulation procedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of a formulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameter space and computing replications of realizations of the process over thousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used on such samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of the data that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computer experiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-linear difference equations in the stochastic process by using a statistical procedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which has interesting methodological implications as to whether stochastic or deterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination in the study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on population genetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlo simulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyond the scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of self regulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics. PMID:23424044

  11. mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhong, Xiaomin; Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng; Xu, Congjian; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Tim M.; DeMichele, Angela; Zhang, Lin

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ► mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ► BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ► mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ► mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

  12. Loss of promoter IV-driven BDNF expression impacts oscillatory activity during sleep, sensory information processing and fear regulation.

    PubMed

    Hill, J L; Hardy, N F; Jimenez, D V; Maynard, K R; Kardian, A S; Pollock, C J; Schloesser, R J; Martinowich, K

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by hyperarousal, sensory processing impairments, sleep disturbances and altered fear regulation; phenotypes associated with changes in brain oscillatory activity. Molecules associated with activity-dependent plasticity, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), may regulate neural oscillations by controlling synaptic activity. BDNF synthesis includes production of multiple Bdnf transcripts, which contain distinct 5' noncoding exons. We assessed arousal, sensory processing, fear regulation and sleep in animals where BDNF expression from activity-dependent promoter IV is disrupted (Bdnf-e4 mice). Bdnf-e4 mice display sensory hyper-reactivity and impaired electrophysiological correlates of sensory information processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERP). Utilizing electroencephalogram, we identified a decrease in slow-wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, suggesting impaired sleep homeostasis. Fear extinction is controlled by hippocampal-prefrontal cortical BDNF signaling, and neurophysiological communication patterns between the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlate with behavioral performance during extinction. Impaired fear extinction in Bdnf-e4 mice is accompanied by increased HPC activation and decreased HPC-mPFC theta phase synchrony during early extinction, as well as increased mPFC activation during extinction recall. These results suggest that activity-dependent BDNF signaling is critical for regulating oscillatory activity, which may contribute to altered behavior. PMID:27552586

  13. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production. PMID:27474953

  14. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  15. Les langues minoritaires en contexte; Minderheitensprachen im Kontext (Minority Languages in Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Anna-Alice Dazzi, Ed.; Mondada, Lorenza, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Articles in Italian, English, French, and German address issues in minority languages and minority language groups. They include: "The Role of Italian in Some Changes in Walser Morphosyntax" (article in Italian); "Compensatory Linguistic Strategies in the Gradual Death Process of a Minority Language: Evidence from Some Dying Dialects of Basque";…

  16. Do we need a new law or regulation? The public health decision process.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges; O'Brien, Daniel J; Trotter, Donne

    2002-01-01

    New laws or regulations may not be a practical response to a public health threat. While in some instances legislation or regulation may be the only alternative to protecting the public's health, in many situations public health authorities and their legal counsel must consider alternative approaches to abating threats. This article provides an overview of the alternatives available to the public health official by providing discussion of a "legal tool box" available to public health officials. It also presents scenarios, with commentary, that serve as the basis for illustration of other means of intervention. PMID:12508501

  17. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. PMID:26944746

  18. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  19. 31 CFR 363.83 - May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Direct General § 363.83 May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner may transfer a bond to a minor as a gift or pursuant to one of the specified exceptions in § 363...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.83 Section 363.83 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  20. 31 CFR 363.101 - Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Direct Gifts § 363.101 Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner can transfer a book-entry savings bond held in TreasuryDirect ® to a minor as a gift or pursuant...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.101 Section 363.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...

  1. 31 CFR 363.101 - Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Direct Gifts § 363.101 Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner can transfer a book-entry savings bond held in TreasuryDirect ® to a minor as a gift or pursuant...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.101 Section 363.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...

  2. 31 CFR 363.83 - May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Direct General § 363.83 May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner may transfer a bond to a minor as a gift or pursuant to one of the specified exceptions in § 363...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.83 Section 363.83 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  3. 31 CFR 363.101 - Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Direct Gifts § 363.101 Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner can transfer a book-entry savings bond held in TreasuryDirect ® to a minor as a gift or pursuant...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.101 Section 363.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...

  4. 31 CFR 363.83 - May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Direct General § 363.83 May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner may transfer a bond to a minor as a gift or pursuant to one of the specified exceptions in § 363...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.83 Section 363.83 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  5. 31 CFR 363.83 - May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Direct General § 363.83 May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner may transfer a bond to a minor as a gift or pursuant to one of the specified exceptions in § 363...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.83 Section 363.83 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  6. 31 CFR 363.83 - May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Direct General § 363.83 May an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner may transfer a bond to a minor as a gift or pursuant to one of the specified exceptions in § 363...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.83 Section 363.83 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  7. 31 CFR 363.101 - Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Direct Gifts § 363.101 Can an account owner transfer a book-entry savings bond to a minor? An account owner can transfer a book-entry savings bond held in TreasuryDirect ® to a minor as a gift or pursuant...-entry savings bond to a minor? 363.101 Section 363.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...

  8. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FR 28448, May 20, 2010. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)...

  9. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  10. Process-Oriented Design Principles for Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieling, E. M.; Bastiaens, T. J.; Stijnen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies have stressed the importance of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills for successful learning. Consequently, primary teacher educators have been encouraged by policy makers to increase their students' SRL opportunities in educational pre-service programs. However, primary teacher educators often find it difficult to…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS FOR COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES. VOLUME II. SELECTED STATE, MEXICAN, AND CANADIAN REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this report is to provide those working in the engineering areas of multimedia environmental control an awareness of the types and breadth of regulations and criteria that have been and will be implemented. The information contains an engineering interpretation of s...

  12. Parasympathetic Regulation and Parental Socialization of Emotion: Biopsychosocial Processes of Adjustment in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; De, Ishani

    2008-01-01

    Variations in parents' emotion socialization have been linked to children's social competence (SC) and behavior problems, but parental influences do not act independently of children's characteristics. A biopsychosocial model was tested, in which children's parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function and paternal and maternal socialization of…

  13. Time to Learn, Time to Develop? Change Processes in Three Schools with Weak National Time Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyroos, Mikaela

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses change of time use and time allocation in three schools participating in a Swedish five-year national experiment in which State regulation of teaching time was weakened. Participating schools could freely decide how to use and distribute teaching time. The experiment was launched at a late stage in a 25-year decentralisation…

  14. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous single-stranded small RNA molecules (sRNA) that are fundamental post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Many conserved plant miRNAs play important roles in plant growth and development, but more species-specific miRNAs remain to be identified and charact...

  15. Presenilin/γ-secretase-dependent processing of β-amyloid precursor protein regulates EGF receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-wu; Wang, Ruishan; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Han; Liao, Francesca-Fang; Xu, Huaxi

    2007-01-01

    Presenilins (PS, PS1/PS2) are necessary for the proteolytic activity of γ-secretase, which cleaves multiple type I transmembrane proteins including Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), Notch, ErbB4, etc. Cleavage by PS/γ-secretase releases the intracellular domain (ICD) of its substrates. Notch ICD translocates into the nucleus to regulate expression of genes important for development. However, the patho/physiological role of other ICDs, especially APP ICD (AICD), in regulating gene expression remains controversial because evidence supporting this functionality stems mainly from studies performed under supraphysiological conditions. EGF receptor (EGFR) is up-regulated in a wide variety of tumors and hence is a target for cancer therapeutics. Abnormal expression/activation of EGFR contributes to keratinocytic carcinomas, and mice with reduced PS dosages have been shown to develop skin tumors. Here we demonstrate that the levels of PS and EGFR in the skin tumors of PS1+/−/ PS2−/− mice and the brains of PS1/2 conditional double knockout mice are inversely correlated. Deficiency in PS/γ-secretase activity or APP expression results in a significant increase of EGFR in fibroblasts. Importantly, we show that AICD mediates transcriptional regulation of EGFR. Furthermore, we provide in vivo evidence demonstrating direct binding of endogenous AICD to the EGFR promoter. Our results indicate an important role of PS/γ-secretase-generated APP metabolite AICD in gene transcription and in EGFR-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:17556541

  16. Mathematical modelling of diurnal regulation of carbohydrate allocation by osmo-related processes in plants.

    PubMed

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Plants synthesize sucrose in source tissues (mainly mature leafs) and supply it for growth of sink tissues (young leafs). Sucrose is derived from photosynthesis during daytime and from starch at night. Because the diurnal regulation of sucrose fluxes is not completely understood, we built a mathematical model designed to reproduce all key experimental observations. For this, assumptions were made about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulations, which are all motivated by experimental facts. The key regulators in our model are two kinases (SnRK1 and osmo-sensitive kinase OsmK) under the control of the circadian clock. SnRK1 is activated in the night to prepare for regularly occurring carbon-limiting conditions, whereas OsmK is activated during the day to prepare for water deficit, which often occurs in the afternoon. Decrease of SnRK1 and increase of OsmK result in partitioning of carbon towards sucrose to supply growing sink tissues. Concomitantly, increasing levels of the growth regulator trehalose-6-phosphate stimulates the development of new sink tissues and thus sink demand, which further activates sucrose supply in a positive feedback loop. We propose that OsmK acts as a timer to measure the length of the photoperiod and suggest experiments how this hypothesis can be validated. PMID:25631572

  17. 18 CFR 11.5 - Exemption of minor projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of minor projects. 11.5 Section 11.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF THE FEDERAL...

  18. 18 CFR 154.313 - Schedules for minor rate changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedules for minor rate changes. 154.313 Section 154.313 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Material To Be Filed With Changes § 154.313...

  19. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  20. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  1. 29 CFR 1911.5 - Minor changes in standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor changes in standards. 1911.5 Section 1911.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR PROMULGATING, MODIFYING, OR REVOKING OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR...

  2. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 CMP Electric Arc Furnace Dust Management Symposium: A Summary of Presentations on Regulations and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report contains the entire talk or a summary of the presentations made at the symposium on the present state of regulations and enforcement, commercial and emerging technologies, recycling dust back to the EAF and markets for products derived from treating dust. Also, a round table comprised of six steel company environmental managers discussed firsthand experiences with various treatment processes and their remarks are contained in the report.

  4. OTAG & the FACA ozone, PM, and regional haze process: Forces that can tighten NO{sub x} regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    THe Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) ozone, particulate matter (PM), and the regional haze process are outlined. These are the forces that can tighten NO{sub x} regulations. The following topics are discussed: basic thrusts, OTAG activities, goals, the Northeastern Ozone Transport Region (NEOTR), potential regulatory scenarios, practical roles, subcommittee actions, possible changes in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone, and implications of proposed changes.

  5. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T.; Villamayor, M.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar-N2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf-N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail.

  6. Minor satellites and the Gaspra encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanflandern, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Observational evidence, especially from occultations and radar, indicate that satellites of minor planets are numerous and commonplace. This leads to the prediction that the Galileo spacecraft will find many such 'minor satellites' at the upcoming close encounter with minor planet 951 Gaspra. If such objects are found, this argues strongly against the current theory of minor planet origin from the primeval solar nebula.

  7. Interplay between cold-responsive gene regulation, metabolism and RNA processing during plant cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Chun-Hai; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-06-01

    Temperate plants are capable of developing freezing tolerance when they are exposed to low nonfreezing temperatures. Acquired freezing tolerance involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression and metabolism. Recent full-genome transcript profiling studies, in combination with mutational and transgenic plant analyses, have provided a snapshot of the complex transcriptional network that operates under cold stress. Ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal protein degradation has a crucial role in regulating one of the upstream transcription factors, INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 (ICE1), and thus in controlling the cold-responsive transcriptome. The changes in expression of hundreds of genes in response to cold temperatures are followed by increases in the levels of hundreds of metabolites, some of which are known to have protective effects against the damaging effects of cold stress. Genetic analysis has revealed important roles for cellular metabolic signals, and for RNA splicing, export and secondary structure unwinding, in regulating cold-responsive gene expression and chilling and freezing tolerance. PMID:17468037

  8. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, M. . E-mail: motonobu@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp; Une, H.

    2005-07-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article.

  9. Epithelial SCAP/INSIG/SREBP Signaling Regulates Multiple Biological Processes during Perinatal Lung Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, James P.; Schehr, Angelica; Wang, Yanhua; Huo, Liya; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is required for lung function at birth and throughout postnatal life. Defects in the surfactant system are associated with common pulmonary disorders including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults. Lipogenesis is essential for the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant by type II epithelial cells lining the alveoli. This study sought to identify the role of pulmonary epithelial SREBP, a transcriptional regulator of cellular lipid homeostasis, during a critical time period of perinatal lung maturation in the mouse. Genome wide mRNA expression profiling of lung tissue from transgenic mice with epithelial-specific deletions of Scap (ScapΔ/Δ, resulting in inactivation of SREBP signaling) or Insig1 and Insig2 (Insig1/2Δ/Δ, resulting in activation of SREBP signaling) was assessed. Differentially expressed genes responding to SREBP perturbations were identified and subjected to functional enrichment analysis, pathway mapping and literature mining to predict upstream regulators and transcriptional networks regulating surfactant lipid homeostasis. Through comprehensive data analysis and integration, time dependent effects of epithelial SCAP/INSIG/SREBP deletion and defined SCAP/INSIG/SREBP-associated genes, bioprocesses and downstream pathways were identified. SREBP signaling influences epithelial development, cell death and cell proliferation at E17.5, while primarily influencing surfactant physiology, lipid/sterol synthesis, and phospholipid transport after birth. SREBP signaling integrated with the Wnt/β-catenin and glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathways during perinatal lung maturation. SREBP regulates perinatal lung lipogenesis and maturation through multiple mechanisms by interactions with distinct sets of regulatory partners. PMID:24806461

  10. The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Billotti, Danielle; Murphy, Vicky; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the consequences of different forms of emotion regulation. Eighty nine healthy participants viewed a distressing video of the aftermath of road traffic accidents under either suppression (of both felt and expressed affect), acceptance, or no-regulation control instructions and the immediate and longer-term consequences on emotion, mood, and memory were examined. Suppression (relative to control) led to reduced subjective experience of fear when viewing the video, but did not alter electrodermal (EDA) or heart rate (HR) response. Subsequently, suppression led to a less marked subjective emotional reaction to positive but not negative emotional images, reduced free recall memory of the video, and a greater likelihood of experiencing zero intrusions of the video's content. Acceptance (relative to control) had no impact when viewing the video, was associated with a less marked increase in EDA activity in the 5 min period immediately after viewing the video, a more marked HR deceleration and EDA response to both positive and negative images, and elevated negative affect at one week follow-up. These findings suggest, contrary to the current clinical zeitgeist, that emotion suppression can successfully lead to an ongoing down-regulation of emotion and memory, whereas acceptance may elevate subsequent emotionality. PMID:19559401

  11. Information Services for Cultural Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masling, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Describes Houston Public Library's nontraditional programs for cultural minorities which address four areas of library services: outreach, information and referral, and neighborhood information centers; foreign language collection development; coordinated programming; and adult basic education. Ethnic groups that constitute the library's clientele…

  12. Office management of minor wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, S.; Patel, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review office interventions for minor wounds not requiring sutures, such as abrasions, bites, and lacerations. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most information on minor wound management comes from descriptive studies. Few comparative studies examine the effectiveness of topical antisepsis for minor wounds. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that tissue adhesives produce short- and long-term cosmetic results equivalent to those achieved with suture materials. MAIN MESSAGE: Sterile saline is the least toxic solution for wound irrigation. Chlorhexidine (2%) and povidone iodine (10%) have been the most investigated antiseptic solutions. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary for wounds unlikely to be infected. All bite wounds require special attention. Primary closure of bite wounds is indicated in certain circumstances: less than 12-hour-old nonpuncture wounds, uninfected wounds, and low-risk lesions (such as on the face). In spite of their many advantages, skin tapes should be used for low-tension wounds only. The popularity of tissue adhesives has greatly increased. Since the advent of newer products (with increased bonding strength and flexibility), adhesives are used to manage most lacerations except those in areas of high tension (e.g., joints) and on mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSION: Minor wounds not requiring sutures can be managed easily in the office. PMID:11340758

  13. Obstacles to Financing Minority Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    In 1972, the District of Columbia Advisory Committee initiated an inquiry to determine the role that discrimination has played in limiting minority business enterprises in the Washington area. Meetings were held in which businessmen, representatives of technical assistance organizations, government officials, and bankers examined the question of…

  14. Language, Power, and Minority Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1991-01-01

    Ways are discussed that education and the discourse practices it authorizes can routinely repress, dominate, and disempower language users whose practices differ from the norms that it establishes. The ideas of two key theorists, Bourdieu and Bhaskar, are linked and applied to such issues as schooling, high status language, and minority discursive…

  15. Magic, Myth and Minority Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R.

    Optimum time for efforts to attract minority students to a science career is when the students are enrolled in grade school and junior high school rather than at undergraduate and graduate levels, where many present programs are aimed. Student population is at its maximum in grade school, and successful efforts will reduce the amount of remedial…

  16. Mainstreaming and the Minority Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Provided are 16 author-contributed papers dealing with theoretical questions and practical concerns relating to the effect of mainstreaming on the minority child. The text is divided into five parts: overview and perspectives, educational assessment for mainstream placement, curriculum issues and teaching strategies, evaluation and research, and…

  17. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  18. Educating Language-Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara T.

    This ERIC Digest delineates problems posed by the increasing number of language-minority children in schools and offers suggestions for teaching children from different cultures. It is maintained that a group's language reflects its culture, and the uses to which that language is put are culturally determined. When children and adults do not share…

  19. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  20. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  1. Effects of Using Online Tools in Improving Regulation of the Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Cano, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando; Pichardo, Maria del Carmen; Garcia-Berben, Ana Belen; Martinez-Vicente, Jose Manuel; Sander, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The current panorama of Higher Education reveals a need to improve teaching and learning processes taking place there. The rise of the information society transforms how we organize learning and transmit knowledge. On this account, teaching-learning processes must be enhanced, the role of teachers and students must be evaluated, and…

  2. Online Process Scaffolding and Students' Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Thomas, Leslie; Seibert, Diane; Tron, Myriam

    This study examined the role of different scaffolding instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (n=53) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 scaffolding conditions (adaptive content and process scaffolding (ACPS), adaptive…

  3. A New Short Oligonucleotide-Based Strategy for the Precursor-Specific Regulation of microRNA Processing by Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Kurzynska-Kokorniak, Anna; Koralewska, Natalia; Tyczewska, Agata; Twardowski, Tomasz; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The precise regulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis seems to be critically important for the proper functioning of all eukaryotic organisms. Even small changes in the levels of specific miRNAs can initiate pathological processes, including carcinogenesis. Accordingly, there is a great need to develop effective methods for the regulation of miRNA biogenesis and activity. In this study, we focused on the final step of miRNA biogenesis; i.e., miRNA processing by Dicer. To test our hypothesis that RNA molecules can function not only as Dicer substrates but also as Dicer regulators, we previously identified by SELEX a pool of RNA oligomers that bind to human Dicer. We found that certain of these RNA oligomers could selectively inhibit the formation of specific miRNAs. Here, we show that these specific inhibitors can simultaneously bind both Dicer and pre-miRNAs. These bifunctional riboregulators interfere with miRNA maturation by affecting pre-miRNA structure and sequestering Dicer. Based on these observations, we designed a set of short oligomers (12 nucleotides long) that were capable of influencing pre-miRNA processing in vitro, both in reactions involving recombinant human Dicer and in cytosolic extracts. We propose that the same strategy may be used to develop effective and selective regulators to control the production of any miRNA. Overall, our findings indicate that the interactions between pre-miRNAs and other RNAs may form very complex regulatory networks that modulate miRNA biogenesis and consequently gene expression. PMID:24204924

  4. A Simple Auxin Transcriptional Response System Regulates Multiple Morphogenetic Processes in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo; Eklund, D Magnus; Bowman, John L

    2015-05-01

    In land plants comparative genomics has revealed that members of basal lineages share a common set of transcription factors with the derived flowering plants, despite sharing few homologous structures. The plant hormone auxin has been implicated in many facets of development in both basal and derived lineages of land plants. We functionally characterized the auxin transcriptional response machinery in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of the basal lineage of extant land plants. All components known from flowering plant systems are present in M. polymorpha, but they exist as single orthologs: a single MpTOPLESS (TPL) corepressor, a single MpTRANSPORT inhibitor response 1 auxin receptor, single orthologs of each class of auxin response factor (ARF; MpARF1, MpARF2, MpARF3), and a single negative regulator auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (MpIAA). Phylogenetic analyses suggest this simple system is the ancestral condition for land plants. We experimentally demonstrate that these genes act in an auxin response pathway--chimeric fusions of the MpTPL corepressor with heterodimerization domains of MpARF1, MpARF2, or their negative regulator, MpIAA, generate auxin insensitive plants that lack the capacity to pattern and transition into mature stages of development. Our results indicate auxin mediated transcriptional regulation acts as a facilitator of branching, differentiation and growth, rather than acting to determine or specify tissues during the haploid stage of the M. polymorpha life cycle. We hypothesize that the ancestral role of auxin is to modulate a balance of differentiated and pluri- or totipotent cell states, whose fates are determined by interactions with combinations of unrelated transcription factors. PMID:26020649

  5. A Simple Auxin Transcriptional Response System Regulates Multiple Morphogenetic Processes in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo; Eklund, D. Magnus; Bowman, John L.

    2015-01-01

    In land plants comparative genomics has revealed that members of basal lineages share a common set of transcription factors with the derived flowering plants, despite sharing few homologous structures. The plant hormone auxin has been implicated in many facets of development in both basal and derived lineages of land plants. We functionally characterized the auxin transcriptional response machinery in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of the basal lineage of extant land plants. All components known from flowering plant systems are present in M. polymorpha, but they exist as single orthologs: a single MpTOPLESS (TPL) corepressor, a single MpTRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 auxin receptor, single orthologs of each class of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF; MpARF1, MpARF2, MpARF3), and a single negative regulator AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (MpIAA). Phylogenetic analyses suggest this simple system is the ancestral condition for land plants. We experimentally demonstrate that these genes act in an auxin response pathway — chimeric fusions of the MpTPL corepressor with heterodimerization domains of MpARF1, MpARF2, or their negative regulator, MpIAA, generate auxin insensitive plants that lack the capacity to pattern and transition into mature stages of development. Our results indicate auxin mediated transcriptional regulation acts as a facilitator of branching, differentiation and growth, rather than acting to determine or specify tissues during the haploid stage of the M. polymorpha life cycle. We hypothesize that the ancestral role of auxin is to modulate a balance of differentiated and pluri- or totipotent cell states, whose fates are determined by interactions with combinations of unrelated transcription factors. PMID:26020649

  6. Oxidative folding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space: A regulated process important for cell physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Afroditi; Manganas, Phanee; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are fundamental organelles with a complex internal architecture that fulfill important diverse functions including iron-sulfur cluster assembly and cell respiration. Intense work for more than 30 years has identified the key protein import components and the pathways involved in protein targeting and assembly. More recently, oxidative folding has been discovered as one important mechanism for mitochondrial proteostasis whilst several human disorders have been linked to this pathway. We describe the molecular components of this pathway in view of their putative redox regulation and we summarize available evidence on the connections of these pathways to human disorders. PMID:27033519

  7. The N-BAR Domain Protein, Bin3, Regulates Rac1- and Cdc42-Dependent Processes in Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Simionescu-Bankston, Adriana; Leoni, Giovanna; Wang, Yanru; Pham, Peter P.; Ramalingam, Arivudainambi; DuHadaway, James B.; Faundez, Victor; Nusrat, Asma; Prendergast, George C.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Actin dynamics are necessary at multiple steps in the formation of multinucleated muscle cells. BAR domain proteins can regulate actin dynamics in several cell types, but have been little studied in skeletal muscle. Here, we identify novel functions for the N-BAR domain protein, Bridging integrator 3 (Bin3), during myogenesis in mice. Bin3 plays an important role in regulating myofiber size in vitro and in vivo. During early myogenesis, Bin3 promotes migration of differentiated muscle cells, where it colocalizes with F-actin in lamellipodia. In addition, Bin3 forms a complex with Rac1 and Cdc42, Rho GTPases involved in actin polymerization, which are known to be essential for myotube formation. Importantly, a Bin3-dependent pathway is a major regulator of Rac1 and Cdc42 activity in differentiated muscle cells. Overall, these data classify N-BAR domain proteins as novel regulators of actin-dependent processes in myogenesis, and further implicate BAR domain proteins in muscle growth and repair. PMID:23872330

  8. GTPase Activating Protein (Sh3 Domain) Binding Protein 1 Regulates the Processing of MicroRNA-1 during Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    He, Minzhen; Yang, Zhi; Abdellatif, Maha; Sayed, Danish

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miR) are small, posttranscriptional regulators, expressed as part of a longer primary transcript, following which they undergo nuclear and cytoplasmic processing by Drosha and Dicer, respectively, to form the functional mature ~20mer that gets incorporated into the silencing complex. Others and we have shown that mature miR-1 levels decrease with pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy, however, there is little or no change in the primary transcript encompassing miR-1 stem-loop, suggesting critical regulatory step in microRNA processing. The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms regulating miR-1 expression in cardiomyocytes. Results Here we report that GTPase–activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 (G3bp1), an endoribonuclease regulates miR-1 processing in cardiomyocytes. G3bp1 is upregulated during cardiac hypertrophy and restricts miR-1 processing by binding to its consensus sequence in the pre-miR-1-2 stem-loop. In accordance, exogenous G3bp1 is sufficient to reduce miR-1 levels, along with derepression of miR-1 targets; General transcription factor IIB (Gtf2b), cyclin dependent factor 9 (Cdk9) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (Eif4e). While Cdk9 and Gtf2b are essential for transcription, Eif4e is required for translation. Thus, downregulation of miR-1 is necessary for increase in these molecules. Similar to miR-1 knockdown, G3bp1 overexpression is not sufficient for development of cardiac hypertrophy. Conversely, knockdown of G3bp1 in hypertrophying cardiomyocytes inhibited downregulation of miR-1 and upregulation of its targets along with restricted hypertrophy, suggesting that G3bp1 is necessary for development of cardiac hypertrophy. These results indicate that G3bp1-mediated inhibition of miR-1 processing with growth stimulation results in decrease in mature miR-1 and, thereby, an increase of its targets, which play fundamental roles in the development of hypertrophy. Conclusion G3bp1

  9. Effects of Lipid Regulation Using Raw and Processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhen; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2012-01-01

    Raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori have been used in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia, and related diseases in Asian counties for centuries. The lipid regulation ability of raw and processed Poligoni Multiflori Radix were compared in high-fat diet fed rats in this research. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood and liver tissue were all significantly higher in model rats. However, triglyceride (TG) contents increased only in liver tissue, not in the blood samples. The rats fed the high-fat diets were considered the model of type IIa hyperlipidemia and early-stage nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Both Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) revealed TC-lowing effects, and middling doses of RPMP displayed the most significant TC-lowing effects, as indicated by blood samples. Neither RPM nor RPMP was found to reduce LDL-C in rats' blood. Nevertheless, RPM showed dose-dependent TC- and TG-lowing effects in the liver tissue samples. In conclusion, RPM showed more pronounced effects on lipid regulation in liver samples in the treatment of early-stage NAFLD. RPMP, however, displayed better effects in regulating lipids in circulating blood for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:23304197

  10. Role of Protein Phosphorylation in the Regulation of Cell Cycle and DNA-Related Processes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Poncet, Sandrine; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Mijakovic, Ivan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    In all living organisms, the phosphorylation of proteins modulates various aspects of their functionalities. In eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell signaling, gene expression, and differentiation. Protein phosphorylation is also involved in the global control of DNA replication during the cell cycle, as well as in the mechanisms that cope with stress-induced replication blocks. Similar to eukaryotes, bacteria use Hanks-type kinases and phosphatases for signal transduction, and protein phosphorylation is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, it remains unclear whether protein phosphorylation in bacteria can also regulate the activity of proteins involved in DNA-mediated processes such as DNA replication or repair. Accumulating evidence supported by functional and biochemical studies suggests that phospho-regulatory mechanisms also take place during the bacterial cell cycle. Recent phosphoproteomics and interactomics studies identified numerous phosphoproteins involved in various aspect of DNA metabolism strongly supporting the existence of such level of regulation in bacteria. Similar to eukaryotes, bacterial scaffolding-like proteins emerged as platforms for kinase activation and signaling. This review reports the current knowledge on the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity and the regulation of cell cycle in bacteria that reveals surprising similarities to eukaryotes. PMID:26909079

  11. 43 CFR 5442.3 - Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies. 5442.3 Section 5442.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Procedure § 5442.3 Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies. When the authorized officer...

  12. 43 CFR 5442.3 - Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies. 5442.3 Section 5442.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Procedure § 5442.3 Rejection of bids; waiver of minor deficiencies. When the authorized officer...

  13. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  14. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  15. Cycling in the nucleus: regulation of RNA 3' processing and nuclear organization of replication-dependent histone genes.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Valentina; Schümperli, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The histones which pack new DNA during the S phase of animal cells are made from mRNAs that are cleaved at their 3' end but not polyadenylated. Some of the factors used in this reaction are unique to it while others are shared with the polyadenylation process that generates all other mRNAs. Recent work has begun to shed light on how the cell manages the assignment of these common components to the two 3' processing systems, and how it achieves their cell cycle-regulation and recruitment to the histone pre-mRNA. Moreover, recent and older findings reveal multiple connections between the nuclear organization of histone genes, their transcription and 3' end processing as well as the control of cell proliferation. PMID:26895140

  16. Crystal Structure of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase with Bound Substrate Analogue Provides Insight on Antigenic Epitope Precursor Recognition and Processing.

    PubMed

    Mpakali, Anastasia; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Harlos, Karl; Zhao, Yuguang; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Kokkala, Paraskevi; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-09-15

    Aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides influence immunodominance and adaptive cytotoxic immune responses. The mechanisms that allow these enzymes to efficiently process a vast number of different long peptide substrates are poorly understood. In this work, we report the structure of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, an enzyme that prepares antigenic epitopes for cross-presentation in dendritic cells, in complex with an antigenic peptide precursor analog. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase is found in a semiclosed conformation with an extended internal cavity with limited access to the solvent. The N-terminal moiety of the peptide is located at the active site, positioned optimally for catalysis, whereas the C-terminal moiety of the peptide is stabilized along the extended internal cavity lodged between domains II and IV. Hydrophobic interactions and shape complementarity enhance peptide affinity beyond the catalytic site and support a limited selectivity model for antigenic peptide selection that may underlie the generation of complex immunopeptidomes. PMID:26259583

  17. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  18. Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Mei; He, Ya-Ping; Shi, Yan; Sun, Zhao-Gui; Shi, Hui-Juan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy. PMID:27175791

  19. Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Mei; He, Ya-Ping; Shi, Yan; Sun, Zhao-Gui; Shi, Hui-Juan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy. PMID:27175791

  20. Role of diacylglycerol kinase in cellular regulatory processes: a new regulator for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Goto, Kaoru; Kubota, Isao

    2007-09-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase (DGK) phosphorylates and converts DAG to phosphatidic acid. DGK regulates cellular DAG levels and attenuates DAG signaling. The 10 mammalian DGK isoforms have been identified to date. In cardiac myocytes, DGKalpha, epsilon, and zeta are expressed, and DGKzeta is the predominant isoform. DGKzeta inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activation and subsequent hypertrophic programs in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. DGKzeta blocks cardiac hypertrophy induced by G protein-coupled receptor agonists and pressure overload in vivo. DGKzeta attenuates ventricular remodeling and improves survival after myocardial infarction. These data provide a novel insight for subcellular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and DGKzeta may be a new therapeutic target to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and progression to heart failure. PMID:17659347

  1. Autophagy regulates endothelial cell processing, maturation and secretion of von Willebrand factor

    PubMed Central

    Torisu, Takehiro; Torisu, Kumiko; Lee, In Hye; Liu, Jie; Malide, Daniela; Combs, Christian A.; Wu, Xufeng S.; Rovira, Ilsa I.; Fergusson, Maria M.; Weigert, Roberto; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P; Komatsu, Masaaki; Cao, Liu; Finkel, Toren

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial secretion of von Willebrand factor (VWF) from intracellular organelles known as Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) is required for platelet adhesion to the injured vessel wall. Here, we demonstrate that WPBs are in some cases found near or within autophagosomes and that endothelial autophagosomes contain abundant VWF protein. Pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy, or knockdown of the essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Atg7, inhibits the in vitro secretion of VWF. Furthermore, while mice with an endothelial specific deletion of Atg7 have normal vessel architecture and capillary density, these animals exhibit impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, reduced levels of high molecular weight VWF multimers and a corresponding elevation of their bleeding times. Endothelial deletion of Atg5 or pharmacological inhibition of autophagic flux results in a similar in vivo alteration of hemostasis. Thus, autophagy regulates endothelial VWF secretion and transient pharmacological inhibition of autophagic flux may be a useful strategy to prevent thrombotic events. PMID:24056772

  2. Self-esteem and the quest for felt security: how perceived regard regulates attachment processes.

    PubMed

    Murray, S L; Holmes, J G; Griffin, D W

    2000-03-01

    The authors proposed that personal feelings of self-esteem foster the level of confidence in a partner's regard critical for satisfying attachments. Dating and married couples described themselves, their partners, how they thought their partners saw them, and how they wanted their partners to see them on a variety of interpersonal qualities. The results revealed that low self-esteem individuals dramatically underestimated how positively their partners saw them. Such unwarranted and unwanted insecurities were associated with less generous perceptions of partners and lower relationship well-being. The converse was true for high self-esteem individuals. A longitudinal examination of the dating couples revealed that the vulnerabilities of lows were only exacerbated over time. A dependency regulation model is proposed, wherein felt security in a partner's perceived regard is suggested as a prime mechanism linking self-esteem to relational well-being. PMID:10743875

  3. The c-Jun-induced transformation process involves complex regulation of tenascin-C expression.

    PubMed Central

    Mettouchi, A; Cabon, F; Montreau, N; Dejong, V; Vernier, P; Gherzi, R; Mercier, G; Binétruy, B

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with an activated ras oncogene, the site-dependent AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun transforms primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REF). Although signal transduction pathways leading to activation of c-Jun proteins have been extensively studied, little is known about c-Jun cellular targets. We identified c-Jun-upregulated cDNA clones homologous to the tenascin-C gene by differential screening of a cDNA library from REF. This tightly regulated gene encodes a rare extracellular matrix protein involved in cell attachment and migration and in the control of cell growth. Transient overexpression of c-Jun induced tenascin-C expression in primary REF and in FR3T3, an established fibroblast cell line. Surprisingly, tenascin-C synthesis was repressed after stable transformation by c-Jun compared to that in the nontransformed parental cells. As assessed by using the tenascin-C (-220 to +79) promoter fragment cloned in a reporter construct, the c-Jun-induced transient activation is mediated by two binding sites: one GCN4/AP-1-like site, at position -146, and one NF-kappaB site, at position -210. Furthermore, as demonstrated by gel shift experiments and cotransfections of the reporter plasmid and expression vectors encoding the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB and c-Jun, the two transcription factors bind and synergistically transactivate the tenascin-C promoter. We previously described two other extracellular matrix proteins, SPARC and thrombospondin-1, as c-Jun targets. Thus, our results strongly suggest that the regulation of the extracellular matrix composition plays a central role in c-Jun-induced transformation. PMID:9154819

  4. Modelling hyporheic processes for regulated rivers under transient hydrological and hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergieiev, D.; Ehlert, L.; Reimann, T.; Lundberg, A.; Liedl, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of major hydrogeological controls on hyporheic exchange and bank storage is essential for river water management, groundwater abstraction, restoration and ecosystem sustainability. Analytical models cannot adequately represent complex settings with, for example, transient boundary conditions, varying geometry of surface water-groundwater interface, unsaturated and overland flow, etc. To understand the influence of parameters such as (1) sloping river banks, (2) varying hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed and (3) different river discharge wave scenarios on hyporheic exchange characteristics such as (a) bank storage, (b) return flows and (c) residence time, a 2-D hydrogeological conceptual model and, subsequently, an adequate numerical model were developed. The numerical model was calibrated against observations in the aquifer adjacent to the hydropower-regulated Lule River, northern Sweden, which has predominantly diurnal discharge fluctuations during summer and long-lasting discharge peaks during autumn and winter. Modelling results revealed that bank storage increased with river wave amplitude, wave duration and smaller slope of the river bank, while maximum exchange flux decreased with wave duration. When a homogeneous clogging layer covered the entire river-aquifer interface, hydraulic conductivity positively affected bank storage. The presence of a clogging layer with hydraulic conductivity < 0.001 m d-1 significantly reduced the exchange flows and virtually eliminated bank storage. The bank storage return/fill time ratio was positively related to wave amplitude and the hydraulic conductivity of the interface and negatively to wave duration and bank slope. Discharge oscillations with short duration and small amplitude decreased bank storage and, therefore, the hyporheic exchange, which has implications for solute fluxes, redox conditions and the potential of riverbeds as fish-spawning locations. Based on these results, river

  5. Effortful Control, Explicit Processing, and the Regulation of Human Evolved Predispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effortful control of automatic processing related to social and emotional behavior, including control over evolved modules designed to solve problems of survival and reproduction that were recurrent over evolutionary time. The inputs to effortful control mechanisms include a wide range of nonrecurrent…

  6. Counter-regulating on the Internet: Threat elicits preferential processing of positive information.

    PubMed

    Greving, Hannah; Sassenberg, Kai; Fetterman, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The Internet is a central source of information. It is increasingly used for information search in self-relevant domains (e.g., health). Self-relevant topics are also associated with specific emotions and motivational states. For example, individuals may fear serious illness and feel threatened. Thus far, the impact of threat has received little attention in Internet-based research. The current studies investigated how threat influences Internet search. Threat is known to elicit the preferential processing of positive information. The self-directed nature of Internet search should particularly provide opportunities for such processing behavior. We predicted that during Internet search, more positive information would be processed (i.e., allocated more attention to) and more positive knowledge would be acquired under threat than in a control condition. Three experiments supported this prediction: Under threat, attention is directed more to positive web pages (Study 1) and positive links (Study 2), and more positive information is acquired (Studies 1 and 3) than in a control condition. Notably, the effect on knowledge acquisition was mediated by the effect on attention allocation during an actual Internet search (Study 1). Thus, Internet search under threat leads to selective processing of positive information and dampens threatened individuals' negative affect. PMID:26098968

  7. Effects of phytoestrogens on expression of genes regulating growth-related processes in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived isoflavones that activate estrogen receptors. Phytoestrogen content of aquafeeds is increasing due to higher inclusion levels of soy and other legumes rich in these compounds. It is unknown whether phytoestrogens affect growth-related processes in a manner similar...

  8. Observed positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, J.; Szczodrowska-Kozar, B.

    Photographic positions were determined for the six minor planets Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Flora, Eunomia, and Melromene, the observations being made from the Wroclaw Astronomical Observatory between February 1981 and February 1982. Tabulated data include UT of the observation, epoch-1950 topocentric positions, standard deviation of a reference star, the number of reference stars, and the exposure time. The AGK3, SAO, and Perth 70 catalogs were used for reference star positions.

  9. Emotion Processing in Parkinson’s Disease: A Three-Level Study on Recognition, Representation, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Ardito, Rita B.; Mitkova, Antonia; Cavallo, Marco; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Castelli, Lorys

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by well-known motor symptoms, whereas the presence of cognitive non-motor symptoms, such as emotional disturbances, is still underestimated. One of the major problems in studying emotion deficits in PD is an atomising approach that does not take into account different levels of emotion elaboration. Our study addressed the question of whether people with PD exhibit difficulties in one or more specific dimensions of emotion processing, investigating three different levels of analyses, that is, recognition, representation, and regulation. Methodology Thirty-two consecutive medicated patients with PD and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Participants performed a three-level analysis assessment of emotional processing using quantitative standardised emotional tasks: the Ekman 60-Faces for emotion recognition, the full 36-item version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) for emotion representation, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) for emotion regulation. Principal Findings Regarding emotion recognition, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the total score of Ekman 60-Faces but not in any other basic emotions. For emotion representation, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the RME experimental score but no in the RME gender control task. Finally, on emotion regulation, PD and controls did not perform differently at TAS-20 and no specific differences were found on TAS-20 subscales. The PD impairments on emotion recognition and representation do not correlate with dopamine therapy, disease severity, or with the duration of illness. These results are independent from other cognitive processes, such as global cognitive status and executive function, or from psychiatric status, such as depression, anxiety or apathy. Conclusions These results may contribute to better understanding of the emotional problems that are often seen in patients

  10. Urey Prize Lecture: Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J. L.

    2004-11-01

    The discovery of binary systems in the near-Earth, main belt, and Kuiper belt populations provides an abundance of new data that expand our knowledge of the physics and chemistry of the solar system. Binary minor planets form as a result of collisional, tidal, and capture processes that are important to study as they play major roles in the formation and evolution of planetary systems. The frequency of occurrence of such processes directly reflects the dynamical environment in the various populations. Observations of binaries provide a powerful way to measure the bulk properties of small bodies, which in turn lead to inferences about their composition and internal structure. These data may offer a rare glimpse of what physical and chemical conditions prevailed when protoplanets formed, and what subsequent evolution took place. In the case of the Kuiper Belt, the study of a handful of binaries forces us to rethink how dense and how bright these bodies are, and to significantly revise our current mass estimates for the entire population. The number of known binary minor planets has increased dramatically over the past few years, with roughly ten new discoveries each year. I will attempt to summarize recent developments, with examples drawn from my observations with the Hubble, Palomar, Keck, Arecibo and Goldstone telescopes.

  11. Regulation of exocellular proteases in Neurospora crassa: metabolic requirements of the process.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, H

    1975-01-01

    To induce exocellular proteolytic enzyme from carbon-starved exponential-phase cells of Neurospora crassa, both a protein substrate and an activating protease of certain specific properties must be present at the same time. The cells must be capable of protein synthesis, since cycloheximide inhibits the process, but cell growth, as determined by increase in cell mass, does not appear to be required. Both soluble (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin) and insoluble protein substrates (collagen, corn zein) will affect protease induction, although certain soluble, globular proteins (egg white globulin, bovine gamma globulin) will not. In most cases, rates of protease induction are proportional to protein concentration, regardless of the nature of the inducing protein. All activating proteases capable of affecting induction in a manner similar to that of N. crassa exocellular protease were of bacterial origin and were exoproteases. Mammalian proteases and peptidases had little or no effect on the induction process. PMID:125263

  12. Neural Regulation of Lacrimal Gland Secretory Processes: Relevance in Dry Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dartt, Darlene A.

    2013-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins. The amount and composition of this layer is critical for the health, maintenance, and protection of the cells of the cornea and conjunctiva (the ocular surface). Small changes in the concentration of tear electrolytes have been correlated with dry eye syndrome. While the mechanisms of secretion of water, electrolytes and proteins from the lacrimal gland differ, all three are under tight neural control. This allows for a rapid response to meet the needs of the cells of the ocular surface in response to environmental conditions. The neural response consists of the activation of the afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva to stimulate efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland. Neurotransmitters are released from the stimulated parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that cause secretion of water, electrolytes, and proteins from the lacrimal gland and onto the ocular surface. This review focuses on the neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretion under normal and dry eye conditions. PMID:19376264

  13. [Possible ways of regulating detoxifying processes in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction with pantothenic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Chernikevich, I P; Dorofeev, B F; Moĭseenok, A G

    1993-01-01

    Oxidation of derivatives and precursors of pantothenic acid was studied in alcohol dehydrogenase reactions. Despite the presence of free hydroxymethyl groups in a number of pantothenic acid derivatives only panthenol with Km = 8 x 10(-3) M was shown to serve as a substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver tissue (EC 1.1.1.1) Pantethine, sodium phosphopantothenate, CoA and acetyl-CoA decreased the rate of ethanol oxidation, where pantethine and sodium phosphopantothenate were competitive inhibitors, while CoA and acetyl-CoA inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively Ki = 1.2 x 10(-2) M, 2.1 x 10(-2) M, 4.4 x 10(-4) M and 5.1 x 10(-4) M, respectively. Metabolic precursors, which were different from pantothenic acid in their structure, were not involved in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. Possible regulation of alcohol intoxication using derivatives and precursors of vitamin B3 is discussed. PMID:8511887

  14. UVR emissions from solaria in Australia and implications for the regulation process.

    PubMed

    Gies, Peter; Javorniczky, John; Henderson, Stuart; McLennan, Alan; Roy, Colin; Lock, Jordan; Lynga, Claire; Melbourne, Alan; Gordon, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    To assist in the development of the 2008 Australian/New Zealand standard on solaria and related regulations, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency scientists visited a number of tanning establishments during 2008 to measure the intensity and spectral distribution of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emissions from a range of solaria. The 2002 Australian/New Zealand Standard "Solaria for cosmetic purposes" (AS/NZS 2635) allowed a maximum UVR output from solaria of UV Index 60, a compromise between the solarium industry who wanted no upper limit and the health agencies who wanted to limit intensity. Of the 20 solaria examined in detail, only one had emissions of intensity less than UV Index 12, typical of mid-latitude summer sunlight, 15 units emitted more than UV Index 20, while three units emitted at intensities above UV Index 36, the maximum allowed by the new standard, AS/NZS 2635 (2008) and would thus not comply. UVA emissions ranged from 98W·m(-2) up to a maximum of 438W·m(-2) , more than six times the UVA content of mid-latitude summer sunshine. The results indicate that solaria users in Australia have access to solaria that are high intensity units with both significantly higher UVB and UVA emissions than sunlight, with implications for resultant adverse health effects. PMID:21091485

  15. Arsenite exposure accelerates aging process regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan-Wei; How, Chun Ming; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and high levels of arsenic contamination in food, soils, water, and air are of toxicology concerns. Nowadays, arsenic is still a contaminant of emerging interest, yet the effects of arsenic on aging process have received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of chronic arsenite exposure on the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that prolonged arsenite exposure caused significantly decreased lifespan compared to non-exposed ones. In addition, arsenite exposure (100 μM) caused significant changes of age-dependent biomarkers, including a decrease of defecation frequency, accumulations of intestinal lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner in C. elegans. Further evidence revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased in an age-dependent manner upon 100 μM arsenite exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional makers of aging (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70) were increased in aged worms under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Finally, we showed that daf-16 mutant worms were more sensitive to arsenite exposure (100 μM) on lifespan and failed to induce the expression of its target gene sod-3 in aged daf-16 mutant under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Our study demonstrated that chronic arsenite exposure resulted in accelerated aging process in C. elegans. The overproduction of intracellular ROS and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO play roles in mediating the accelerated aging process by arsenite exposure in C. elegans. This study implicates a potential ecotoxicological and health risk of arsenic in the environment. PMID:26796881

  16. Astrocyte Stellation, a Process Dependent on Rac1 Is Sustained by the Regulated Exocytosis of Enlargeosomes

    PubMed Central

    Racchetti, Gabriella; D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    Cultured astrocytes exhibit a flat/epitelioid phenotype much different from the star-like phenotype of tissue astrocytes. Upon exposure to treatments that affect the small GTPase Rho and/or its effector ROCK, however, flat astrocytes undergo stellation, with restructuring of cytoskeleton and outgrowth of processes with lamellipodia, assuming a phenotype closer to that exhibited in situ. The mechanisms of this change are known only in part. Using the ROCK blocker drug Y27632, which induces rapid (tens of min), dose-dependent and reversible stellations, we focused on two specific aspects of the process: its dependence on small GTPases and the large surface expansion of the cells. Contrary to previous reports, we found stellation to be governed by the small G protein Rac1, up to disappearance of the process when Rac1 was downregulated or blocked by a specific drug. In contrast cdc42, the other G-protein often involved in phenotype changes, appeared not involved. The surface expansion concomitant to cytoskeleton restructuring, also dependent on Rac1, was found to be at least partially sustained by the exocytosis of enlargeosomes, small vesicles distinct from classical cell organelles, which are abundant in astrocytes. Exhaustion of stellation induced by repeated administrations of Y27632 correlated with the decrease of the enlargeosome pool. A whole-cell process like stellation of cultured astrocytes might be irrelevant in the brain tissue. However, local restructuring of the cytoskeleton coordinate with surface expansion, occurring at critical cell sites and sustained by mechanisms analogous to those of stellation, might be of importance in both astrocyte physiology and pathology. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22144092

  17. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes. PMID:27088643

  18. Acetylome Profiling Reveals Overlap in the Regulation of Diverse Processes by Sirtuins, Gcn5, and Esa1*

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Michael; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Davey, Norman E.; Newton, Billy W.; Johnson, Tasha L.; Galaang, Shastyn; Seller, Charles A.; Krogan, Nevan; Toczyski, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Although histone acetylation and deacetylation machineries (HATs and HDACs) regulate important aspects of cell function by targeting histone tails, recent work highlights that non-histone protein acetylation is also pervasive in eukaryotes. Here, we use quantitative mass-spectrometry to define acetylations targeted by the sirtuin family, previously implicated in the regulation of non-histone protein acetylation. To identify HATs that promote acetylation of these sites, we also performed this analysis in gcn5 (SAGA) and esa1 (NuA4) mutants. We observed strong sequence specificity for the sirtuins and for each of these HATs. Although the Gcn5 and Esa1 consensus sequences are entirely distinct, the sirtuin consensus overlaps almost entirely with that of Gcn5, suggesting a strong coordination between these two regulatory enzymes. Furthermore, by examining global acetylation in an ada2 mutant, which dissociates Gcn5 from the SAGA complex, we found that a subset of Gcn5 targets did not depend on an intact SAGA complex for targeting. Our work provides a framework for understanding how HAT and HDAC enzymes collaborate to regulate critical cellular processes related to growth and division. PMID:25381059

  19. An integrated RNA-Seq and network study reveals a complex regulation process of rice embryo during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; He, Zilong; Tan, XinYu; Liu, Xue; Yuan, Xiao; Luo, Yingfeng; Hu, Songnian

    2015-08-14

    Seed germination is a crucial stage for plant development and agricultural production. To investigate its complex regulation process, the RNA-Seq study of rice embryo was conducted at three time points of 0, 12 and 48 h post imbibition (HPI). Dynamic transcriptional alterations were observed, especially in the early stage (0-12 HPI). Seed related genes, especially those encoding desiccation inducible proteins and storage reserves in embryo, decreased drastically after imbibition. The expression profiles of phytohormone related genes indicated distinct roles of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) in germination. Moreover, network analysis revealed the importance of protein phosphorylation in phytohormone interactions. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses suggested that transcription factors (TFs) played a regulatory role in functional transitions during germination, and the enriched TF families at 0 HPI implied a regulation of epigenetic modification in dry seeds. In addition, 35 germination-specific TF genes in embryo were identified and seven genes were verified by qRT-PCR. Besides, enriched TF binding sites (TFBSs) supported physiological changes in germination. Overall, this study expands our comprehensive knowledge of multiple regulation factors underlying rice seed germination. PMID:26116530

  20. SorLA/LR11 regulates processing of amyloid precursor protein via interaction with adaptors GGA and PACS-1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Sporbert, Anje; Rohe, Michael; Reimer, Tatjana; Rehm, Armin; Andersen, Olav M; Willnow, Thomas E

    2007-11-01

    SorLA has been recognized as a novel sorting receptor that regulates trafficking and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that represents a significant risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms that control intracellular trafficking of sorLA and their relevance for APP processing. We demonstrate that sorLA acts as a retention factor for APP in trans-Golgi compartments/trans-Golgi network, preventing release of the precursor into regular processing pathways. Proper localization and activity of sorLA are dependent on functional interaction with GGA and PACS-1, adaptor proteins involved in protein transport to and from the trans-Golgi network. Aberrant targeting of sorLA to the recycling compartment or the plasma membrane causes faulty APP trafficking and imbalance in non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic processing fates. Thus, our findings identified altered routing of sorLA as a major cellular mechanism contributing to abnormal APP processing and enhanced amyloid beta-peptide formation. PMID:17855360

  1. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands. PMID:26498950

  2. The influence of perceptual information on control processes involved in self-regulated learning: evidence from item selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengying; Xie, Ruibo; Li, Xinyu; Li, Weijian

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that perceptual information such as font size has an impact on learners' judgments of their own learning. The present study extended the font-size effect to examine the influence of font size on how people decide which items to study first. Across three experiments, we showed that participants preferred to first select items presented in a large font size (48 pt) more than items presented in a small font size (18 pt), and that this effect continued even when more diagnostic cues (difficulty and reward value of items) were presented, suggesting that perceptual cues can strongly influence control process involved in self-regulated learning. These results provide evidence that perceptual information plays a key role in higher cognition. Moreover, our results also suggest that control processes are influenced by multiple cues, including font size, difficulty of items, and the reward value of items. PMID:25413682

  3. Synchronization of elastically coupled processive molecular motors and regulation of cargo transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Felix; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The collective work of motor proteins plays an important role in cellular transport processes. Since measuring intermotor coupling and hence a comparison to theoretical predictions is difficult, we introduce the synchronization as an alternative observable for motor cooperativity. This synchronization can be determined from the ratio of the mean times of motor resting and stepping. Results from a multistate Markov chain model and Brownian dynamics simulations, describing the elastically coupled motors, coincide well. Our model can explain the experimentally observed effect of strongly increased transport velocities and powers by the synchronization and coupling of myosin V and kinesin I.

  4. The Counseling of Minority Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Dwane R.; Collins, Myrtle T.

    1974-01-01

    This article maintains that the counseling of minority students is complicated and demands a high level of professional competence. Discusses needs, mores, and life styles of certain minority groups and includes suggestions for improving the counseling relationship. (HMV)

  5. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in physiological and pathological brain processes.

    PubMed

    Gräff, Johannes; Kim, Dohoon; Dobbin, Matthew M; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2011-04-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly obvious that epigenetic mechanisms are an integral part of a multitude of brain functions that range from the development of the nervous system over basic neuronal functions to higher order cognitive processes. At the same time, a substantial body of evidence has surfaced indicating that several neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders are in part caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications. Because of their inherent plasticity, such pathological epigenetic modifications are readily amenable to pharmacological interventions and have thus raised justified hopes that the epigenetic machinery provides a powerful new platform for therapeutic approaches against these diseases. In this review, we give a detailed overview of the implication of epigenetic mechanisms in both physiological and pathological brain processes and summarize the state-of-the-art of "epigenetic medicine" where applicable. Despite, or because of, these new and exciting findings, it is becoming apparent that the epigenetic machinery in the brain is highly complex and intertwined, which underscores the need for more refined studies to disentangle brain-region and cell-type specific epigenetic codes in a given environmental condition. Clearly, the brain contains an epigenetic "hotspot" with a unique potential to not only better understand its most complex functions, but also to treat its most vicious diseases. PMID:21527733

  6. Computational Systems Biology Approach Predicts Regulators and Targets of microRNAs and Their Genomic Hotspots in Apoptosis Process.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-07-01

    Novel computational systems biology tools such as common targets analysis, common regulators analysis, pathway discovery, and transcriptomic-based hotspot discovery provide new opportunities in understanding of apoptosis molecular mechanisms. In this study, after measuring the global contribution of microRNAs in the course of apoptosis by Affymetrix platform, systems biology tools were utilized to obtain a comprehensive view on the role of microRNAs in apoptosis process. Network analysis and pathway discovery highlighted the crosstalk between transcription factors and microRNAs in apoptosis. Within the transcription factors, PRDM1 showed the highest upregulation during the course of apoptosis, with more than 9-fold expression increase compared to non-apoptotic condition. Within the microRNAs, MIR1208 showed the highest expression in non-apoptotic condition and downregulated by more than 6 fold during apoptosis. Common regulators algorithm showed that TNF receptor is the key upstream regulator with a high number of regulatory interactions with the differentially expressed microRNAs. BCL2 and AKT1 were the key downstream targets of differentially expressed microRNAs. Enrichment analysis of the genomic locations of differentially expressed microRNAs led us to the discovery of chromosome bands which were highly enriched (p < 0.01) with the apoptosis-related microRNAs, such as 13q31.3, 19p13.13, and Xq27.3 This study opens a new avenue in understanding regulatory mechanisms and downstream functions in the course of apoptosis as well as distinguishing genomic-enriched hotspots for apoptosis process. PMID:27178576

  7. REGULATION OF PROCESS RETRACTION AND CELL MIGRATION BY EPHA3 IS MEDIATED BY THE ADAPTOR PROTEIN NCK1†

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianjing; Shi, Guanfang; Larose, Louise; Rivera, Gonzalo M.; Mayer, Bruce J.; Zhou, Renping

    2009-01-01

    The Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, participates in the regulation of a wide variety of biological functions under normal and pathological conditions. During embryonic development, interactions between the ligands and receptors define tissue boundaries, guide migrating axons, and regulate angiogenesis, as well as bone morphogenesis. These molecules have also been shown to modify neural activity in the adult nervous system, and influence tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these diverse functions are not completely understood. In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screen has been conducted to identify molecules that physically interact with Eph receptors using the cytoplasmic domain of EphA3 as “bait”. This study identified Nck1 as a strong binding partner of EphA3 as assayed using both GST-fusion protein pull down and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. The interaction is mediated through binding of the Nck1 SH2 domain to the phosphotyrosine residue at position 602 (Y602) of EphA3 receptor. The removal of the SH2 domain or the mutation of the Y602 residue abolishes the interaction. It is further demonstrated that EphA3 activation inhibits cell migration and process outgrowth, and these inhibiting effects are partially alleviated by dominant-negative Nck1 mutants that lack functional SH2 or SH3 domains, but not by the wild type Nck1 gene. These results suggest that Nck1 interacts with EphA3 to regulate cell migration and process retraction. PMID:19505147

  8. Heart rate variability analysis as an index of emotion regulation processes: interest of the Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI).

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, J; Rommel, D; Nandrino, J L; Jeanne, M; Logier, R

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) variations are strongly influence by emotion regulation processes. Indeed, emotional stimuli are at the origin of an activation of the ANS and the way an individual pass from a state of alert in the case of emotional situation to a state of calm is closely coupled with the ANS flexibility. We have previously described and developed an Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) for real time pain measurement during surgical procedure under general anesthesia. This index, based on heart rate variability analysis, constitutes a measure of parasympathetic tone and can be used in several other environments. In this paper, we hypothesized that such an index could be used as a tool to investigate the processes of emotional regulation of a human subject. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed ANI's response to a negative emotional stimulus. This analysis showed that the index decreases during the emotion induction phase and returns to its baseline after 2 minutes. This result confirms that ANI could be a good indicator of parasympathetic changes in emotional situation. PMID:23366664

  9. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  10. Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for hormone-regulated RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, J L; Taylor, J M; Ringold, G M

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the glucocorticoid-mediated accumulation of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in mRNA in HTC rat hepatoma cells. In contrast to the well-characterized primary response of mouse mammary tumor virus, in vitro transcription assays in isolated nuclei show that the rate of transcription of the AGP gene is high even in the absence of hormone. Despite the constitutive transcription of the AGP gene, no detectable AGP RNA can be found in either the cytoplasm or the nuclei of untreated cells. Previous experiments have shown that the glucocorticoid induction of AGP RNA requires ongoing protein synthesis. In conjunction with the present study, our data suggest that glucocorticoids stimulate accumulation of AGP RNA by inducing an RNA processing factor that allows production of stable transcripts. Images PMID:6205392

  11. Tracking developmentally regulated post-synthetic processing of homogalacturonan and chitin using reciprocal oligosaccharide probes.

    PubMed

    Mravec, Jozef; Kračun, Stjepan K; Rydahl, Maja G; Westereng, Bjørge; Miart, Fabien; Clausen, Mads H; Fangel, Jonatan U; Daugaard, Mathilde; Van Cutsem, Pierre; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Höfte, Herman; Malinovsky, Frederikke G; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides are major components of extracellular matrices and are often extensively modified post-synthetically to suit local requirements and developmental programmes. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics and functional significance of these modifications is limited by a lack of suitable molecular tools. Here, we report the development of a novel non-immunological approach for producing highly selective reciprocal oligosaccharide-based probes for chitosan (the product of chitin deacetylation) and for demethylesterified homogalacturonan. Specific reciprocal binding is mediated by the unique stereochemical arrangement of oppositely charged amino and carboxy groups. Conjugation of oligosaccharides to fluorophores or gold nanoparticles enables direct and rapid imaging of homogalacturonan and chitosan with unprecedented precision in diverse plant, fungal and animal systems. We demonstrated their potential for providing new biological insights by using them to study homogalacturonan processing during Arabidopsis thaliana root cap development and by analyzing sites of chitosan deposition in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. PMID:25395456

  12. Regulated bioluminescence as a tool for bioremediation process monitoring and control of bacterial cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlage, Robert S.; Heitzer, Armin; Digrazia, Philip M.

    1991-01-01

    An effective on-line monitoring technique for toxic waste bioremediation using bioluminescent microorganisms has shown great potential for the description and optimization of biological processes. The lux genes of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri are used by this species to produce visible light. The lux genes can be genetically fused to the control region of a catabolic gene, with the result that bioluminescence is produced whenever the catabolic gene is induced. Thus the detection of light from a sample indicates that genetic expression from a specific gene is occurring. This technique was used to monitor biodegradation of specific contaminants from waste sites. For these studies, fusions between the lux genes and the operons for naphthalene and toluene/xylene degradation were constructed. Strains carrying one of these fusions respond sensitively and specifically to target substrates. Bioluminescence from these cultures can be rapidly measured in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. The potential for this technique in this and other biological systems is discussed.

  13. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  14. Ethnic Minorities in America: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marion Therese

    This paper investigates the nature of ethnic prejudice and examines the treatment of four ethnic minorities in the United States--American Indians, blacks, Chinese Americans, and Mexican Americans. The hypothesis is that, despite inequality, ethnic minorities in the United States enjoy a better lot than ethnic minorities elsewhere. Two forms of…

  15. Social Studies: Minorities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Grace G.; Schmidt, Frances

    This guide describes and outlines a course that focuses on a historical view of the ethnic, racial, and religious composition of our society with emphasis on how minorities have contributed to the makeup of America. The problems and progress of the major minority groups are also examined. The concept that everyone is part of a minority and that…

  16. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of... office. For the purposes of 11 CFR 9002.7, candidate means with respect to any preceding Presidential... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7...

  17. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential...

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