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  1. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, and the condition, or histology , of the cancer cells when observed under a microscope. "Favorable" histology is associated with a good chance of a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and ...

  2. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor in most children is unknown. A missing iris of the eye (aniridia) is a birth ... Nausea Swelling in the abdomen (abdominal hernia or mass) Vomiting Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse ...

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Next Topic How are Wilms tumors diagnosed? Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Wilms tumors can ... the abdomen (belly): This is often the first sign of a Wilms tumor. Parents may notice this ...

  4. Wilms' tumor after treatment.

    PubMed

    Brisigotti, M; Cozzutto, C; Fabbretti, G; Caliendo, L; Haupt, R; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P; Callea, F

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-one Wilms' tumors (WTs) from 59 patients who received preoperative therapy were studied. Twenty-seven WTs from 26 patients who did not receive preoperative treatment were also reviewed as controls. Marked and diffuse morphological changes occurred in treated cases. Necrosis affected mostly undifferentiated and replicating elements and was extensive, up to 90% of tumor mass. Minimal residual tumor, permitting recognition as Wilms', was always spared. Epithelial and rhabdomyoblastic components were more resistant to treatment; moreover, they appeared to be susceptible to differentiation and maturation. Necrosis and muscle cell differentiation seemed to have prognostic implications. Cases with extensive necrosis (greater than 90%) had a better outcome, although the difference was not statistically significant. The rhabdomyoblast/tumor mass ratio, after treatment, appears to carry prognostic meaning. Chemotherapy had no apparent effect on anaplasia. PMID:1329055

  5. Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Can Wilms tumor be found early? Wilms tumors are ... point they have often grown quite large. They can be found earlier in some children with tests ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  8. What Are the Key Statistics about Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors for Wilms tumor? What are the key statistics about Wilms tumor? Each year, about 500 new ... rare in adults, although cases have been reported. Statistics related to survival for Wilms tumors are discussed ...

  9. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  10. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor): In these tumors, the look of the cancer cells varies widely, and the cells’ nuclei (the central parts that contain the DNA) tend to be very large and distorted. This is called anaplasia . The more anaplasia a tumor has, the harder it is to cure. Other types of kidney cancers in children Most ...

  11. Mesothelioma following Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Ruxer, R.L. Jr.; Aisner, J.; Vawter, G.

    1984-07-15

    A high percentage of children with Wilms' tumor are cured with multimodal treatment. A small percentage of these children will develop second tumors, perhaps related to a genetic predisposition to neoplasia or possibly secondary to the treatment utilized for Wilms' tumor. Malignant mesothelioma has been associated with contact with asbestos but has also been reported after radiation exposure. Two patients are reported who developed malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after treatment for Wilms' tumor in childhood. Both received orthovoltage radiation; one patient also received triethylenemelamine (TEM), an alkylating agent closely related to nitrogen mustard, for 5 years. Factors in the development of second tumors are discussed.

  12. Combination Chemotherapy and Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Renal Wilms Tumor; Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome; Childhood Renal Wilms Tumor; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Hemihypertrophy; Stage I Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage V Renal Wilms Tumor

  13. [Multicystic renal dysplasia and Wilms tumor].

    PubMed

    Muguerza, R; Martínez-Urrutia, M J; López Pereira, P; Picazo, L; Blesa, E; Jaureguizar, E

    1996-10-01

    We review a case of multicystic right dysplasia containing nodular renal blastema in a 3-year-old girl with left Wilms tumor. In relation to this finding the management of the asymptomatic multicystic dysplastic kidney in discussed. PMID:9131988

  14. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Vincasar PFS ( ...

  15. What's New in Wilms Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for Wilms tumor What’s new in Wilms tumor research and treatment? Over the ... animals. But eventually researchers hope to test these new drugs with children in clinical trials, so that ...

  16. Energy metabolism in neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Sepideh; Vidali, Silvia; Sperl, Wolfgang; Feichtinger, René G.

    2015-01-01

    To support high proliferation, the majority of cancer cells undergo fundamental metabolic changes such as increasing their glucose uptake and shifting to glycolysis for ATP production at the expense of far more efficient mitochondrial energy production by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which at first glance is a paradox. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect. However, enhanced glycolysis is necessary to provide building blocks for anabolic growth. Apart from the generation of ATP, intermediates of glycolysis serve as precursors for a variety of biosynthetic pathways essential for cell proliferation. In the last 10-15 years the field of tumor metabolism has experienced an enormous boom in interest. It is now well established that tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes often play a central role in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Therefore, they significantly contribute to the manifestation of the Warburg effect. While much attention has focused on adult solid tumors, so far there has been comparatively little effort directed at elucidation of the mechanism responsible for the Warburg effect in childhood cancers. In this review we focus on metabolic pathways in neuroblastoma (NB) and Wilms tumor (WT), the two most frequent solid tumors in children. Both tumor types show alterations of the OXPHOS system and glycolytic features. Chromosomal alterations and activation of oncogenes like MYC or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes like TP53 can in part explain the changes of energy metabolism in these cancers. The strict dependence of cancer cells on glucose metabolism is a fairly common feature among otherwise biologically diverse types of cancer. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis or starvation of cancer cells through glucose deprivation via a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet may be a promising avenue for future adjuvant therapeutic strategies. PMID:26835356

  17. Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in children with left-sided Wilms tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Camitta, B.; Kun, L.; Howarth, C.; Tang, T.

    1982-01-01

    Two children with Wilms tumor of the left kidney experienced severe anthracycline cardiomyopathy after irradiation to the tumor bed and conventional dosage of doxorubicin. The cardiomyopathy is attributed 1) to the fact that radiation fields for left Wilms tumor include the lower portion of the heart and 2) to the interaction of doxorubicin and irradiation on cardiac muscle. It is recommended that doxorubicin dosage be sharply restricted in children with Wilms tumor of the left kidney who receive postoperative irradiation.

  18. Pulmonary function in survivors of Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, N.J.; Eden, O.B.; Jenney, M.E.; Stevens, R.F.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Craft, A.W.; Castillo, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The respiratory status of 47 patients surviving childhood Wilms' tumor was studied. The group that had received flank irradiation (which impinges on the lower lung) (n = 17) had a significantly lower mean percent predicted for forced expiratory volume in one second, residual volume, and total lung capacity when compared to those who had received no irradiation (n = 23). Those patients who had received whole-lung irradiation (n = 3) had significantly lower transfer factor for carbon monoxide and gas transfer per unit lung volume when compared to the nonirradiated group (n = 23). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the three groups. Patients receiving any form of radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor may have abnormalities of pulmonary function and should have pulmonary function tests performed as part of their long-term follow-up.

  19. Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis after Wilms' tumor therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.A.; Marshall, G.S.; Neblett, W.W.; Gray, G.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1986-04-01

    A 9-yr-old girl developed massive hemorrhage from esophageal varices 2 yr after combined modality therapy for Wilms' tumor. Evaluation showed a patent extrahepatic portal venous system and an elevated splenic pulp pressure. In contrast to previous reports of hepatopathy after irradiation injury, histologic sections of the liver did not demonstrate occlusion of the central veins, but rather a diffuse obliteration of intrahepatic portal venous radicles. This pattern of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis has not been described following antitumor therapy.

  20. Human lymphocytes express the transcriptional regulator, Wilms tumor 1: The role of WT1 in mediating nitric oxide-dependent repression of lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Davoine, Francis; Adamko, Darryl J.; Moqbel, Redwan; Befus, A. Dean

    2007-11-16

    The inhibitory roles of nitric oxide (NO) in T cell proliferation have been observed and studied extensively over the last two decades. Despite efforts, the fundamental pathway by which NO exerts its inhibitory actions remains to be elucidated although recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) may be important. WT1 has been linked to numerous developmental pathways in particular nephrogenesis. Due to its roles in development and cell proliferation, polymorphisms within the WT1 gene can result in malignancies such as leukemia and Wilms tumor. WT1 functions as a transcriptional regulator and its activity is controlled through phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). PKA-dependent WT1 phosphorylation results in translocation of WT1 from the nucleus to the cytosol, a process that interferes with WT1 transcriptional activities. In the current study we demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in human lymphocytes. Using the proliferative compound PHA we induced T cell proliferation and growth correlated with an increase in the expression of WT1 measured by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoblot. Co-stimulation with the NO donor SNOG at concentrations of 0, 100, 300 and 600 {mu}M reduced in a concentration dependent way the PHA-induced upregulation of WT1 that correlated with a reduction in T cell proliferation. We conclude that WT1 might be an important component of the NO-dependent regulation of T lymphocyte proliferation and potential function.

  1. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the human Wilms' tumor gene (WT1). Cell type-specific enhancer and promiscuous promoter.

    PubMed

    Fraizer, G C; Wu, Y J; Hewitt, S M; Maity, T; Ton, C C; Huff, V; Saunders, G F

    1994-03-25

    The Wilms' tumor gene, WT1, is expressed in few tissues, mainly the developing kidney, genitourinary system, and mesothelium, and in immature hematopoietic cells. To develop an understanding of the role of WT1 in development and tumorigenesis, we have identified transcriptional regulatory elements that function in transient reporter gene constructs transfected into kidney and hematopoietic cell lines. We found three transcription start sites of the WT1 gene and have identified an essential promoter region by deletion analysis. The WT1 promoter is a member of the GC-rich, TATA-less, and CCAAT-less class of polymerase II promoters. Whereas the WT1 promoter is similar to other tumor suppressor gene promoters, the WT1 expression pattern (unlike Rb and p53) is tissue-restricted. The WT1 GC-rich promoter is promiscuous, functioning in all cell lines tested, independent of WT1 expression. This finding suggests that the promoter is not tissue-specific, but that tissue-specific expression of WT1 is modulated by additional regulatory elements. Indeed, we have identified a transcriptional enhancer located 3' of the WT1 gene > 50 kilobases downstream from the promoter. This orientation-independent enhancer increases the basal transcription rate of the WT1 promoter in the human erythroleukemia cell line K562, but not in any of the other cell lines tested. PMID:8132626

  3. Wilms Tumor Chromatin Profiles Highlight Stem Cell Properties and a Renal Developmental Network

    PubMed Central

    Aiden, Aviva Presser; Rivera, Miguel N.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ku, Manching; Coffman, Erik J.; Truong, Thanh T.; Vargas, Sara O.; Lander, Eric S.; Haber, Daniel A.; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2010-01-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common pediatric kidney cancer. To identify transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms that drive this disease, we compared genomewide chromatin profiles of Wilms tumors, embryonic stem (ES) cells and normal kidney. Wilms tumors prominently exhibit large active chromatin domains previously observed in ES cells. In the cancer, these domains frequently correspond to genes that are critical for kidney development and expressed in the renal stem cell compartment. Wilms cells also express ‘embryonic’ chromatin regulators and maintain stem cell-like p16 silencing. Finally, Wilms and ES cells both exhibit ‘bivalent’ chromatin modifications at silent promoters that may be poised for activation. In Wilms tumor, bivalent promoters correlate to genes expressed in specific kidney compartments and point to a kidney-specific differentiation program arrested at an early-progenitor stage. We suggest that Wilms cells share a transcriptional and epigenetic landscape with a normal renal stem cell, which is inherently susceptible to transformation and may represent a cell-of-origin for this disease. PMID:20569696

  4. novH: differential expression in developing kidney and Wilm's tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, G.; Yeger, H.; Martinerie, C.; Laurent, M.; Alami, J.; Schofield, P. N.; Perbal, B.

    1998-01-01

    We previously established that the expression of the human nov gene (novH) was altered in Wilms' tumors and that levels of novH and WT1 mRNA were inversely correlated in individual Wilms' tumors. Insofar as novH has been shown to be a target for WT1 regulation, novH might play an important role during normal nephrogenesis and in the development of Wilms' tumors. We now show that during normal nephrogenesis novH protein is tightly associated with differentiation of glomerular podocytes. NovH expression is not restricted to renal differentiation but is also detected in endothelium and neural tissue of the kidney. Our results establish that alteration of novH expression in sporadic and heritable Wilms' tumors is associated with dysregulated expression of both novH mRNA and protein. In general, the highest novH expression was noted in the Wilms' tumor, genitourinary anomalies, aniridia, and mental retardation (WAGR)-associated Wilms' tumors. Expression in the Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS)-associated Wilms' tumors fell within the variable spectrum observed in sporadic Wilms' tumor cases. As in developing kidney podocytes, novH protein was also prominent in the abnormal hypoplastic podocytes from DDS cases and in kidney podocytes adjoining Wilms' tumors. In Wilms' tumors exhibiting heterotypic differentiation, novH protein was expressed at high levels in tumor-derived striated muscle and at lower levels in tumor-derived cartilage. These observations taken together indicate that novH may represent both a marker of podocytic differentiation in kidney and a marker of heterotypic mesenchymal differentiation in Wilms' tumors. In addition, absence or very low levels of WT1 are correlated with higher novH expression, and its variable expression in cases with mutant WT1 (sporadic and DDS) suggests that the potential activation and repression transcriptional functions possessed by WT1 are likely dependent on the specific mutation incurred. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 3

  5. Bilateral Wilms' tumors: changing concepts in management

    SciTech Connect

    Laberge, J.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Homsy, Y.L.; Doody, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were five girls and four boys. Associated findings include nephroblastomatosis in three cases (33%), one of which also had a familial history; undescended testis in two cases; and minor anomalies in two other cases. Surgical treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy with contralateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy in six cases, nephrectomy with contralateral biopsy only in two cases, and the other patient had bilateral biopsies initially, followed at a later date by partial nephrectomy on one side. All patients received chemotherapy; actinomycin D (AMD) only was used in the oldest case, vincristine and AMD in five cases, to which was added cyclophosphamide in one case and adriamycin in two. Seven patients received radiation therapy. Seven out of the nine patients survived more than 2 years (77%); five are well, off chemotherapy, with no evidence of disease from 4 to 11 years after diagnosis. Two patients suffered from chronic renal failure and one died from complications after renal transplantation more than 19 years after diagnosis. The two patients who died from their disease presented with more advanced tumor. Therefore, the agressiveness of multimodal therapy can be tailored according to stage and histology, and effective chemotherapy allows maximal preservation of renal parenchyma in patients with stage I and II tumors.

  6. β-HCG Elevation in Wilms Tumor: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya Kumar; Charlton, Amanda; Prelog, Kristina; Kellie, Stewart J

    2016-06-01

    Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) is a readily diagnosed common abdominal tumor in children. Rarely, it may present with factors that may confound the diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing and invasive abdominal mass with the histopathologic features of Wilms tumor associated with an elevated serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin, which has not been previously reported in this condition. PMID:26894993

  7. Wilms Tumor: An Uncommon Entity in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Fade; Allen, M Brandon; Cox, Roni; Davis, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor, the most common kidney tumor in children, is rarely seen in adults, making it a challenge for the adult oncologist to diagnose and treat. Unlike with renal cell carcinoma, patients with Wilms tumor should receive adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Adult oncologists may not be familiar with pediatric oncology protocols, so it is important to consult with pediatric oncologists who have more experience in this disease. Multimodal therapy based on pediatric protocols improved the outcomes of adults with Wilms tumor worldwide. We report a rare case of a 24-year-old woman with a slow-growing mass of the left kidney during a 4-year period. The mass was surgically removed and final diagnosis confirmed by pathology to be Wilms tumor. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and has been free of disease since 2014. PMID:27043834

  8. Mutations in the transcriptional repressor REST predispose to Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Hanks, Sandra; Karlin, Kristen L; Zachariou, Anna; Perdeaux, Elizabeth R; Ruark, Elise; Shaw, Chad A; Renwick, Alexander; Ramsay, Emma; Yost, Shawn; Elliott, Anna; Birch, Jillian; Capra, Michael; Gray, Juliet; Hale, Juliet; Kingston, Judith; Levitt, Gill; McLean, Thomas; Sheridan, Eamonn; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Stiller, Charles; Sebire, Neil; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-12-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal cancer. To identify mutations that predispose to Wilms tumor, we are conducting exome sequencing studies. Here we describe 11 different inactivating mutations in the REST gene (encoding RE1-silencing transcription factor) in four familial Wilms tumor pedigrees and nine non-familial cases. Notably, no similar mutations were identified in the ICR1000 control series (13/558 versus 0/993; P < 0.0001) or in the ExAC series (13/558 versus 0/61,312; P < 0.0001). We identified a second mutational event in two tumors, suggesting that REST may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in Wilms tumor pathogenesis. REST is a zinc-finger transcription factor that functions in cellular differentiation and embryonic development. Notably, ten of 11 mutations clustered within the portion of REST encoding the DNA-binding domain, and functional analyses showed that these mutations compromise REST transcriptional repression. These data establish REST as a Wilms tumor predisposition gene accounting for ∼2% of Wilms tumor. PMID:26551668

  9. Offspring of patients treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.M.; Fine, W.E.; Li, F.P.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven women and the wives of nine men who survived unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood had a total of 59 live born offspring. Among the 33 infants born to women who had received orthovoltage abdominal irradiation, ten weighed less than 2500 g at birth and three died during the perinatal period. In addition, one term infant of normal weight died of complications of a breech delivery. Only one of 26 infants born to the wives of Wilms' tumor patients and unirradiated female patients weighed less than 2500 g at birth and none died. The frequency of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in this series was not increased, and no offspring has developed cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of Wilms' tumor is low among progeny of survivors of nonfamilial, unilateral lesions. Damage from abdominal irradiation given to girls with Wilms' tumor may predispose them to the subsequent delivery of low birthweight children.

  10. Uniparental disomy occurs infrequently in Wilms tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Grundy, P.; Wilson, B.; Telzerow, P.; Zhou, W.; Paterson, M.C. )

    1994-02-01

    Wilms tumors commonly exhibit loss of heterozygosity for polymorphic DNA markers located on the short arm of chromosome 11 at band p15. In some instances, the deleted region does not include 11p13, the location of the WT1 gene, suggesting the existence of a second Wilms tumor gene on 11p. Both the exclusive loss of the maternally derived allele in Wilms tumors and the recent description of constitutional paternal isodisomy for this region in patients with either the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or isolated hemihypertrophy have suggested that this second locus is subject to sex-specific genomic imprinting. Given that one of these isodisomic patients had minimal congenital anomalies (hemihypertrophy), the authors hypothesized that a proportion of Wilms tumors which had not lost heterozygosity for 11p markers (about 60% of all cases) might have arisen consequent to 11p paternal heterodisomy and that patients constitutionally homozygous at 11p15 might harbor paternal isodisomy. They have analyzed 40 Wilms tumor cases to determine the parental origin of the child's 11p15 alleles. Paternal heterodisomy could be excluded in all 28 unilateral and 8/9 bilateral potential candidates. It is intriguing that somatic mosaicism for 11p paternal isodisomy was detected in one child with bilateral Wilms tumor and macroglossia. Isodisomy could only be excluded in one of the three possible cases. Thus, 11p paternal hetero- and isodisomy appear to be uncommon causes of non-anomaly-associated Wilms tumors but may be more frequent in Wilms tumor patients with BWS-associated anomalies. 44 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Caricasole, A; Duarte, A; Larsson, S H; Hastie, N D; Little, M; Holmes, G; Todorov, I; Ward, A

    1996-01-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 is implicated in the ontogeny of genito-urinary abnormalities, including Denys-Drash syndrome and Wilms tumor of the kidney. WT1 encodes Kruppel-type zinc finger proteins that can regulate the expression of several growth-related genes, apparently by binding to specific DNA sites located within 5' untranslated leader regions as well as 5' promoter sequences. Both WT1 and a closely related early growth response factor, EGR1, can bind the same DNA sequences from the mouse gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf-2). We report that WT1, but not EGR1, can bind specific Igf-2 exonic RNA sequences, and that the zinc fingers are required for this interaction. WT1 zinc finger 1, which is not represented in EGR1, plays a more significant role in RNA binding than zinc finger 4, which does have a counterpart in EGR1. Furthermore, the normal subnuclear localization of WT1 proteins is shown to be RNase, but not DNase, sensitive. Therefore, WT1 might, like the Kruppel-type zinc finger protein TFIIIA, regulate gene expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755514

  12. [Adhesion molecules in Wilm's tumor: expression and significance of beta-catenin (part II)].

    PubMed

    Basta-Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević, Sanja; Djuricić, Slavisa; Savin, Marina; Skodrić, Stevo; Bunjevacki, Gordana; Hadzi-Djokić, Jovan; Nesić, Vida

    2003-01-01

    Beta-catenin is a glicoprotein which has an important role in cell-cell adhesion, as well as in cell signal transmission, in u regulation of gen expression and in interaction with axin and APC (adenomatous poliposis coli). Its oncogenic role in several types of carcinomas in human population is well known. It is very likely that beta-catenin as an protooncogen plays an important role in genesis of Wilms tumor. It is well known that in 15% Wilms tumors there are beta-catenin mutations, which indicates that there is a disorder in Wnt signal path that plays an important role in Wilms tumor genesis. The aim of our study was to investigate b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor, to compare it with the expression in normal renal tissue as well as to see if there is a positive correlation between b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor with tumor stage, histologic type and/or prognostic group. PMID:14608868

  13. Intracardiac extension of Wilms' tumor. A report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, D K; Norkool, P; deLorimier, A A; O'Neill, J A; D'Angio, G J

    1986-01-01

    Extension of Wilms' tumor through the inferior vena cava into the heart presents a formidable clinical challenge. Excision of such a tumor without provoking emobilization may require cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The completeness of excision and the likelihood of tumor embolization during operation guide subsequent radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy. To help define these issues, the clinical records of 15 patients enrolled in three National Wilms' Tumor Studies (NWTS) who had intracardiac tumor extension (ICE) were reviewed. The median age at diagnosis was 4 years. One patient had clear cell sarcoma (CCS); the remainder had favorable histologic findings (FH). The clinicopathologic stage was stage II in one patient, stage III in eight patients, and stage IV in six patients. ICE was detected before operation in six patients, during operation in five patients, and after operation in five patients. CPB was used in 10 patients. Eleven patients (73%) had operative complications, with major intraoperative hemorrhage occurring most often (six patients). Complications occurred less often when ICE was recognized before operation (three of six patients) than when it was not (eight of nine patients). Embolization occurred in only two patients. There were no operative deaths. The patient with CCS died. Eleven of 14 patients with FH survived, with an actuarial event-free, 2-year survival rate of 86%. There were no patients in the first NWTS. Of the six patients in the second NWTS (NWTS-2), four died (67%). All nine patients in the third NWTS (NWTS-3) survived, but follow-up was shorter (median 4 years 9 months vs. 2 years 7 months). No particular surgical procedure was associated with an increased death rate. This review suggests Wilms' tumor with ICE presents a formidable surgical undertaking but has a relatively good prognosis. Embolization is an uncommon event in ICE (two patients, 13.3%), allowing a planned operative approach. Echocardiography and ultrasonography

  14. The History of Multimodal Treatment of Wilms' Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K; Bonasso, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    Multimodal therapy-surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy-the foundation of modern cancer treatment, has led to dramatic improvements in survival. How the three disciplines coalesced to conquer Wilms' tumor is a compelling story that includes two of history's greatest discoveries, X-rays and antibiotics. By the mid-20th century both fields had matured to where dedicated clinicians and creative scientists could apply them to Wilms' tumor and achieve successive improvements in survival. William Ladd was able to achieve a zero operative mortality by 1940, but was left with a 32 per cent survival with surgery alone. Robert Gross and Edwin Neuhauser combined surgery and radiotherapy and achieve 47 per cent survival rate in 1950. Sidney Farber and his colleagues added an antibiotic, dactinomycin, to the treatment regimen and reached 80 per cent survival rate in 1966. The National Wilms' Tumor Study, organized in 1968, was a multidisciplinary effort of surgeons, radiotherapists, and pediatric oncologists across the country. By the 1990s, the National Wilms' Tumor Study achieved survival rates above 95 per cent while minimizing long-term effects through shortening courses of chemotherapy and radiation. The story of Wilms' tumor serves as a paragon for all types of cancer, in both children and adults. PMID:27305878

  15. Portal Hypertension in Children With Wilms' Tumor: A Report From the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Anne B.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Ou, San-San; Green, Daniel M.; Norkool, Pat A.; Peterson, Susan M.; Breslow, Norman E.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: This analysis was undertaken to determine the cumulative risk of and risk factors for portal hypertension (PHTN) in patients with Wilms' tumor (WT). Methods and Materials: Medical records were reviewed to identify cases of PHTN identified with late liver/spleen/gastric toxicities in a cohort of 5,195 patients treated with National Wilms' Tumor Studies (NWTS) protocols 1 to 4. A nested case control study (5 controls/case) was conducted to determine relationships among doxorubicin, radiation therapy (RT) dose to the liver, patient gender, and PHTN. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of PHTN associated with these factors. Results: Cumulative risk of PHTN at 6 years from WT diagnosis was 0.7% for patients with right-sided tumors vs. 0.1% for those with left-sided tumors (p = 0.002). Seventeen of 19 cases were evaluable for RT. The majority of cases (16/17 [94%]) received right-flank RT either alone or as part of whole-abdomen RT and received >15 Gy to the liver. Fifteen of 17 (88%) patients received a higher dose to the liver than they would have with modern WT protocols. Controlling for RT dose, the HR was 3.0 for patients who received doxorubicin (p = 0.32) and 2.8 for females (p = 0.15). Controlling for doxorubicin, the 95% lower confidence bound on the HR associating PHTN with a minimum liver RT dose of >15 Gy vs. <=15 Gy was 2.5 (p = 0.001); it was 2.4 for a maximum liver dose of >15 Gy vs. <=15 Gy (p = 0.001). Conclusions: There was a strong association between higher doses of liver RT (>15 Gy) and the development of PHTN among WT patients.

  16. N -Methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced Renal Tumors in Rats: Immunohistochemical Comparison to Human Wilms Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced renal tumors in rats and Wilms tumors in humans were compared. Renal mesenchymal tumors (RMTs) and nephroblastomas (blastemal and epithelial components) in female Lewis rats treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg MNU at birth and Wilms tumors (blastemal, epithelial and mesenchymal components) in humans were analyzed for the expression of pancytokeratin (CK), vimentin, p63, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, S-100, CD57, CD117/c-kit, Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) and β-catenin. The mesenchymal components of rat RMTs and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, SMA and β-catenin. The blastemal components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, CD117/c-kit and β-catenin. The epithelial components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin and β-catenin. WT1 was expressed in different cellular components of rat tumors as compared with human Wilms tumors; the expression was seen in mesenchymal tumors and blastemal components of nephroblastomas in rats and epithelial components in human Wilms tumors. CK, p63 and CD57 were not expressed in rat RMTs or nephroblastomas, while CK and WT1 were expressed in epithelial components and CD57 was expressed in blastemal and epithelial components of human Wilms tumors. Rat and human tumors were universally negative for the expression of desmin and S-100. The immunohistochemical characteristics of rat renal tumors and human Wilms tumors may provide valuable information on the differences in renal oncogenesis and biology between the two species. PMID:23914056

  17. Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, R.; Lee, B.M.; Debler, E.W.; Laity, J.H.; Wilson, I.A.; Dyson, H.J.; Wright, P.E.

    2009-06-04

    The zinc finger domain of the Wilms tumor suppressor protein (WT1) contains four canonical Cys{sub 2}His{sub 2} zinc fingers. WT1 binds preferentially to DNA sequences that are closely related to the EGR-1 consensus site. We report the structure determination by both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy of the WT1 zinc finger domain in complex with DNA. The X-ray structure was determined for the complex with a cognate 14 base-pair oligonucleotide, and composite X-ray/NMR structures were determined for complexes with both the 14 base-pair and an extended 17 base-pair DNA. This combined approach allowed unambiguous determination of the position of the first zinc finger, which is influenced by lattice contacts in the crystal structure. The crystal structure shows the second, third and fourth zinc finger domains inserted deep into the major groove of the DNA where they make base-specific interactions. The DNA duplex is distorted in the vicinity of the first zinc finger, with a cytidine twisted and tilted out of the base stack to pack against finger 1 and the tip of finger 2. By contrast, the composite X-ray/NMR structures show that finger 1 continues to follow the major groove in the solution complexes. However, the orientation of the helix is non-canonical, and the fingertip and the N terminus of the helix project out of the major groove; as a consequence, the zinc finger side-chains that are commonly involved in base recognition make no contact with the DNA. We conclude that finger 1 helps to anchor WT1 to the DNA by amplifying the binding affinity although it does not contribute significantly to binding specificity. The structures provide molecular level insights into the potential consequences of mutations in zinc fingers 2 and 3 that are associated with Denys-Drash syndrome and nephritic syndrome. The mutations are of two types, and either destabilize the zinc finger structure or replace key base contact residues.

  18. Outcome of pregnancy in survivors of Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Gimbrere, K.; Gelber, R.D.; Sallan, S.E.; Flamant, F.; Green, D.M.; Heyn, R.M.; Meadows, A.T.

    1987-01-09

    Outcome of pregnancy was reported by 99 patients who were cured of childhood Wilms' tumor at seven pediatric cancer centers during 1931 to 1979. These patients carried or sired 191 singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks in duration. Among the 114 pregnancies in women who had received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor, an adverse outcome occurred in 34 (30%). There were 17 perinatal deaths (five in premature low-birth-weight infants) and 17 other low-birth-weight infants. Compared with white women in the United States, the irradiated women had an increased perinatal mortality rate (relative risk, 7.9) and an excess of low-birth-weight infants (relative risk, 4.0). In contrast, an adverse outcome was found in two (3%) of the 77 pregnancies in nonirradiated female patients with Wilms' tumor and wives of male patients. The high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome should be considered in the counseling and prenatal care of women who have received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor.

  19. Delayed tumor resection in a 5-year-old child with bilateral Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Samuel P; Pulliam, Joseph F; D'Orazio, John A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl whose abdominal pain and distension were caused by Wilms tumor of the kidney. Because of the bilateral nature of her disease, she was spared biopsy or initial nephrectomy as part of her treatment course. Rather, she was treated presumptively for Wilms tumor based primarily on radiologic findings. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin was given to facilitate nephron-sparing surgery for tumor resection. Her initial chemotherapeutic course was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome manifested by elevated serum uric acid and was treated effectively with hyperhydration and alkalization of intravenous fluids. The patient's disease responded well to chemotherapy, and she underwent successful tumor excision after 12 weeks of chemotherapy. The resected tumor was identified as anaplastic Wilms tumor, illustrating that pathologic identification of Wilms tumor is possible even after multiple cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and marked tumor shrinkage. PMID:24964423

  20. Transcriptional Regulation by the Wilms Tumor Protein, Wt1, Suggests a Role of the Metalloproteinase Adamts16 in Murine Genitourinary Development*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Charlotte L. J.; Rudigier, Lucas J.; Scholz, Holger; Kirschner, Karin M.

    2013-01-01

    ADAMTS16 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) is a secreted mammalian metalloproteinase with unknown function. We report here that murine Adamts16 is co-expressed with the Wilms tumor protein, Wt1, in the developing glomeruli of embryonic kidneys. Adamts16 mRNA levels were significantly reduced upon transfection of embryonic murine kidney explants with Wt1 antisense vivo-morpholinos. Antisense knockdown of Adamts16 inhibited branching morphogenesis in kidney organ cultures. Adamts16 was detected by in situ mRNA hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry also in embryonic gonads and in spermatids and granulosa cells of adult testes and ovaries, respectively. Silencing of Wt1 by transfection with antisense vivo-morpholinos significantly increased Adamts16 mRNA in cultured embryonic XY gonads (11.5 and 12.5 days postconception), and reduced Adamts16 transcripts in XX gonads (12.5 and 13.5 days postconception). Three predicted Wt1 consensus motifs could be identified in the promoter and the 5′-untranslated region of the murine Adamts16 gene. Binding of Wt1 protein to these elements was verified by EMSA and ChIP. A firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of the Adamts16 promoter was activated ∼8-fold by transient co-transfection of human granulosa cells with a Wt1 expression construct. Gradual shortening of the 5′-flanking sequence successively reduced and eventually abrogated Adamts16 promoter activation by Wt1. These findings demonstrate that Wt1 differentially regulates the Adamts16 gene in XX and XY embryonic gonads. It is suggested that Adamts16 acts immediately downstream of Wt1 during murine urogenital development. We propose that Adamts16 is involved in branching morphogenesis of the kidneys in mice. PMID:23661704

  1. B7-H1 Expression in Wilms Tumor: Correlation With Tumor Biology and Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Jonathan C.; Ashley, Richard A.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Husmann, Douglas A.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Kwon, Eugene D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Despite tremendous gains in improving prognosis, 10% of patients with Wilms tumor will ultimately experience disease recurrence. The identification of novel prognostic markers and tumor associated targets for patients at risk could enable clinicians to treat recurrences more aggressively and, thus, optimize outcomes. We have previously shown that tumor expression of the T cell coregulatory ligand B7-H1 portends a poor prognosis for adults with renal cell carcinoma and represents a promising target to improve therapy. We hypothesize that this finding may be true for Wilms tumor. Materials and Methods We identified 81 patients with Wilms tumor treated at 1 institution between 1968 and 2004. Histopathological features, including Wilms tumor B7-H1 expression, were correlated with clinical observations and outcome. Results Tumor recurrences were noted in 22% of patients with Wilms tumor and 14% died. B7-H1 was expressed in 11 tumors (14%) and was more likely to occur in anaplastic Wilms tumor (p = 0.03). Tumor B7-H1 expression was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrence, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.06). However, in favorable histology tumors B7-H1 expression was associated with a 3.7-fold increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusions B7-H1 is expressed by Wilms tumor, correlates with tumor biology and is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in patients with favorable histology tumors. B7-H1 may prove useful in identifying high risk patients who could benefit from more aggressive initial treatment regimens, and may represent a promising therapeutic target. Multi-institutional studies to elucidate the role of B7-H1 in the treatment of Wilms tumor are warranted. PMID:18355839

  2. Risk stratification for wilms tumor: current approach and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, has provided a paradigm for progressive improvement in clinical outcomes achieved through serial cooperative group studies. With modern surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy approaches, the overall survival rate for patients with Wilms tumor has reached 90%. Remarkably, the increase in survival has been achieved with a reduction in therapy for most patient subgroups, leading not only to more survivors, but also to healthier survivors. A key contributor to improved outcomes has been the development of clinical and biologic prognostic markers that have enabled risk-directed therapy. Whereas the early cooperative group studies used only tumor stage for risk stratification, current Children's Oncology Group (COG) and International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols employ a multitude of prognostic factors to guide therapy. Prognostic factors used in the current generation of COG studies include stage, histology, patient age, tumor weight, completeness of lung nodule response, and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. Future COG studies seek to incorporate gain of chromosome 1q and methylation pattern of chromosome 11p15 into the risk classification schema. Prognostic factors used in the current SIOP studies include stage, histology, tumor volume, and responsiveness to therapy. Future SIOP studies seek to incorporate absolute blastemal volume and novel molecular markers for resistant blastema into the risk stratification approach. PMID:24857079

  3. Extremely High Expression of Antisense RNA for Wilms' Tumor 1 in Active Osteoclasts: Suppression of Wilms' Tumor 1 Protein Expression during Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Ji; Kukita, Akiko; Kyumoto-Nakamura, Yukari; Kukita, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1), a zinc-finger transcription regulator of the early growth response family, identified as the product of a tumor suppressor gene of Wilms' tumors, bears potential ability to induce macrophage differentiation in blood cell differentiation. Herein, we examined the involvement of WT1 in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. We detected a high level of WT1 protein expression in osteoclast precursors; however, WT1 expression was markedly suppressed during osteoclastogenesis. We examined expression of WT1 transcripts in bone tissue by RNA in situ hybridization. We found a high level of antisense transcripts in osteoclasts actively resorbing bone in mandible of newborn rats. Expression of antisense WT1 RNA in mandible was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis and strand-specific RT-PCR. Overexpression of antisense WT1 RNA in RAW-D cells, an osteoclast precursor cell line, resulted in a marked enhancement of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that antisense WT1 RNA functions to suppress expression of WT1 protein in osteoclastogenesis. High level expression of antisense WT1 RNA may contribute to commitment to osteoclastogenesis, and may allow osteoclasts to maintain or stabilize their differentiation state. PMID:27393793

  4. Prepubertal endocrine follow-up in subjects with Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, L.; Sinisi, A.A.; Sicuranza, R.; Di Tullio, M.T.; Indolfi, P.; Giuliano, M.G.; Bellastella, A.; Faggiano, M.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three prepubertal subjects treated for Wilms' tumor (10 males and 13 females) were endocrinologically evaluated off therapy from 0.5 to 4.08 years. They were divided into two groups: 11 subjects (6M, 5F) who had received chemotherapy only (group 1) and 12 (4M, 8F) who had in addition received abdominal radiation (1,500-3,000 rads) (group 2). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free tri-iodo thyronine (FT3), testosterone (T), estradiol-17 beta (E2), and cortisol (F) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma levels of TSH, PRL, FT4, FT3, and F were normal in both groups, as were FSH, LH, T, and E2 in group 1. In group 2, female subjects showed FSH levels significantly higher than controls, while LH and E2 were normal; male subjects showed significantly higher LH levels, while FSH and T levels were normal. These results indicate that in the treatment protocol used by us for Wilms' tumor (WT), chemotherapy does not affect endocrine function, whereas abdominal radiation seems to damage gonadal function directly. The present findings indicate that gonadal damage may be revealed in WT before puberty not only in females, as has been previously reported, but also in male subjects.

  5. Open Partial Nephrectomy for Wilms' Tumor in a Cross-fused Pelvic Ectopic Kidney.

    PubMed

    Rac, Goran; Ellet, Justin D; Sarkissian, Hagop; Eklund, Meryle J; Stec, Andrew A

    2016-07-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common pediatric solid renal tumor. Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which the left and right kidneys become fused and fail to ascend from the pelvis and abdomen. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that underwent open partial nephrectomy on a cross-fused ectopic kidney, "pancake kidney," after incidental discovery of a solid renal mass found to be a Wilms' tumor. Thorough review of the literature shows that this combination of Wilms' tumor in the setting of cross-fused renal ectopia has only been reported twice previously. PMID:26948529

  6. Outcomes of Children With Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor and Peritoneal Implants Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies-4 and -5

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Green, Daniel M.; Haase, Gerald; Anderson, James R.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Grundy, Paul E.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: There are no published reports on the optimal management and survival rates of children with Wilms tumor (WT) and peritoneal implants (PIs). Methods and Materials: Among favorable histology WT patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS)-4 and NWTS-5, 57 children had PIs at the time of nephrectomy. The median age was 3 years 5 months (range, 3 months to 14 years). The majority of children (42 of 57 [74%)] had Stage III tumors; 15 had Stage IV disease. All patients received multimodality therapy. Of 56 children who underwent primary surgery, 48 (84%) had gross total resection of all tumors. All patients received 3-drug chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, and doxorubicin. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy (RT) was used in 47 patients (82%), and in 50 patients (88%) the RT dose was 10.5 Gy. Results: After a median follow-up of 7.5 years, the overall abdominal and systemic tumor control rates were 97% and 93%, respectively. A comparative analysis between children with PIs and those without PIs showed no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the two groups. The 5-year event-free survival rates with and without PIs were 90% (95% confidence interval, 78-96%) and 83% (95% confidence interval, 81-85%) respectively (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Multimodality therapy with surgery, whole-abdomen RT, and three-drug chemotherapy delivered according to the NWTS-4 and -5 protocols resulted in excellent abdominal and systemic tumor control rates. All children should be monitored in long-term surveillance programs for the early detection and management of therapy-related toxicities.

  7. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  8. Constitutional partial 1q trisomy mosaicism and Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mark, Hon Fong L; Wyandt, Herman; Pan, Agen; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2005-10-15

    We report on a female patient with severe-profound mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, as well as a history of mosaicism for partial 1q trisomy in the amniotic fluid and a previous Wilms tumor specimen. Peripheral blood and fibroblasts were studied and did not demonstrate the mosaicism initially detected for 1q. Array comparative genomic hybridization yielded negative results. Additional cytogenetic studies helped clarify the previous findings and revealed evidence of partial 1q trisomy mosaicism in normal kidney tissue and in a kidney lesion. GTG-banded results showing low-percentage mosaicism for the structural rearrangement der(1)t(1;1)(p36.1;q23) in both tissues were corroborated by fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. We hypothesize that the partial 1q trisomy predisposed the target tissue (in this case kidney) to neoplasia. This study provides further support for the hypothesis that certain constitutional chromosomal abnormalities can predispose to cancer. As detection of a low-percentage mosaicism may be hampered by the limits imposed by currently available technology and the constraint of a finite sample size, extra vigilance in monitoring other somatic tissues will be needed throughout the patient's lifetime. Anticipatory clinical guidance and prognostication are meaningful only if given accurate cytogenetic diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Wilms tumor associated with constitutional partial 1q trisomy, either in pure or mosaic form, with the particular 1q23 breakpoint in conjunction with a break on 1p36.1. PMID:16213366

  9. Wilms' tumor in a 51-year-old patient: An extremely rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    HU, JIA; JIN, LU; HE, TAO; LI, YIFAN; ZHAO, YANG; DING, YU; LI, XIANXIN; LIU, YUNCHU; GUI, YAOTING; MAO, XIANGMING; LAI, YONGQING; NI, LIANGCHAO

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma is a common kidney malignant tumor in childhood, accounting for ~5% of all pediatric tumors. At present, reports on Wilms' tumor occurring in adults, particularly at ages >30 years, are extremely rare. The majority of the cases of adult Wilms' tumor are closely associated with chemotherapy. Furthermore, in rare cases, Wilms' tumor is characterized by three classic types of cells, namely blastemal, stromal and epithelial cells. We herein report a case of Wilms' tumor with three classic types of cells on histological examination in a 51 year-old male patient who had received prior chemotherapy. The patient promptly underwent radical nephrectomy and remains alive. A review of previously presented cases of adult Wilms' tumor from PubMed database was also performed. PMID:27313862

  10. Role for the Wilms tumor gene in genital development

    SciTech Connect

    van Heyningen, V.; Bickmore, W.A.; Seawright, A.; Fletcher, J.M.; Maule, J.; Hastie, N.D. ); Fekete, G. ); Gessler, M.; Bruns, G.A.P. ); Huerre-Jeanpierre, C.; Junien, C. ); Williams, B.R.G. )

    1990-07-01

    Detailed molecular definition of the WAGR region at chromosome 11p13 has been achieved by chromosome breakpoint analysis and long-range restriction mapping. Here the authors describe the molecular detection of a cytogenetically invisible 1-megabase deletion in an individual with aniridia, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias but no Wilms tumor (WT). The region of overlap between this deletion and one associated with WT and similar genital anomalies but no aniridia covers a region of 350-400 kilobases, which is coincident with the extent of homozygous deletion detected in tumor tissue from a sporadic WT. A candidate WT gene located within this region has recently been isolated, suggesting nonpenetrance for tumor expression in the first individual. The inclusion within the overlap region of a gene for WT predisposition and a gene for the best-documented WT-associated genitourinary malformations leads to suggest that both of these anomalies result from a loss-of-function mutation at the same locus. This in turn implies that the WT gene exerts pleiotropic effect on both kidney and genitourinary development, a possibility supported by the observed expression pattern of the WT candidate gene in developing kidney and gonads.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 in Wilms' tumors correlates with unfavorable outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, C.; Thorner, P.; Malkin, D.; Yeger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of p53 in the pathogenesis and progression of Wilms' tumors is only partly understood. Although p53 mutations were initially reported only in anaplastic Wilms' tumors, we had reported that, of two of twenty-one cases that had a p53 mutation, one tumor showed no evidence of anaplasia. To determine the significance of p53 expression in all clinical stages of Wilms' tumor, twenty-eight cases were analyzed for p53 immunoreactivity. Paraffin sections were immunolabeled with two different monoclonal antibodies, recognizing both mutant and wild-type p53. Fifteen of sixteen tumors in the recurrent/metastatic group and three of twelve tumors in the nonmetastatic/nonrecurrent group showed p53 immunopositivity. Only one of three positive tumors in the latter group showed moderate to strong positivity, whereas twelve of sixteen metastatic/recurrent tumors revealed a similar degree of p53 positivity. The positivity was stronger in the metastasis/recurrences as compared with the corresponding primary tumor. Western blot analysis revealed p53 expression in all of the Wilms' tumors tested, suggesting its involvement in the development of Wilms' tumors. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis performed on twenty-three of these tumors revealed p53 mutations in four of fourteen recurrent/metastatic tumors and none in the nonmetastatic/nonrecurrent group. Our results show that, whereas 60% of cases were immunopositive for p53 protein, mutations were detected in only 16% of tumors, indicating that wild-type p53 protein is retained in the other tumors. We conclude that p53 immunopositivity strongly correlates with recurrence/metastasis in Wilms' tumors. Furthermore, the accumulation of p53 in these tumors is not only due to mutations but may also involve stabilization of normal p53 with other proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623926

  12. Bilateral wilms tumor with TP53-related anaplasia.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey D; Vujanic, Gordan M; Sebire, Neil J; Chagtai, Tasnim; Williams, Richard; Vaidya, Sucheta; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) with diffuse anaplasia has an unfavorable prognosis and is often (>70%) associated with mutations in the TP53 gene. Although most WTs are unilateral, 5-10% are bilateral, and they are almost always present with nephrogenic rests. The latter are considered a precursor of WT. Two cases of bilateral WTs with nephroblastomatosis, in which anaplastic changes were detected over a period of time, were analyzed using clinical, radiological, histopathological, and molecular-genetic data. TP53 was analyzed by direct sequencing of its full coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries in 11 fragments. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded or frozen specimens. High-resolution genomic copy number profiling was carried out by UCL Genomics on the Affymetrix Human Mapping 250K Nsp or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. Both cases demonstrated a strong association between the appearance of anaplastic clones and TP53 mutations. Synchronous ganglioneuroma was diagnosed in one case. Our cases are unique as they represent a long disease history and demonstrate the difficulties in managing rare cases of bilateral WT with anaplasia. These cases also emphasize the practical importance of modern molecular-genetic techniques and their clinical application. Moreover, they highlight the issue of the adequate sampling needed in order to gather comprehensive, efficient, and sufficient information about genetic events in a single tumor. PMID:23387809

  13. Wilms Tumor 1 protein is not expressed in oral lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Netto, Ana Carolina de Mesquita; de Oliveira, Mariana Batista; Bernardes, Vanessa Fátima; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are benign hamartomatous lesions of lymphatic vessels. Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor that is activated in some human neoplasias. WT1 protein expression is observed in endothelial cells during angiogenesis and is a useful marker to distinguish between vascular proliferations and vascular malformations. The purpose of the present study is to report a case series of oral lymphangiomas together with an immunohistochemical investigation of WT1. Seventeen cases of oral lymphangioma were retrieved and reviewed. Immunohistochemical analysis of WT1 protein was performed and pyogenic granuloma samples were used as positive controls. The male/female ratio was 1.125 and most of the lesions occurred in young subjects. While pyogenic granuloma showed positive staining for WT1, the endothelial cells lining the thin-walled dilated lymphatic vessels of lymphangiomas were negative for this protein. The findings strengthen the idea that oral lymphangioma is a vascular malformation characterized by lymphatic dilatation without significant endothelial proliferation. PMID:23338265

  14. END STAGE RENAL DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH WILMS TUMOR: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL WILMS TUMOR STUDY GROUP AND THE U.S. RENAL DATA SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Norman E.; Grigoriev, Yevgeny A.; Peterson, Susan M.; Collins, Allan J.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the full spectrum of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in Wilms tumor survivors by combining the unique resources of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) and the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS), and to confirm preliminary reports of an increased incidence of ESRD in those with the Wilms tumor-aniridia (WAGR) syndrome. Material and Methods: ESRD was ascertained for 5,910 patients enrolled on NWTSG studies during 1969-1994 both by record linkage to USRDS and by direct follow-up. Cumulative ESRD incidence was estimated accounting for inter-current mortality. Results: Ten of 115 cases of ESRD (9%) were ascertained by NWTSG alone, 13 (11%) by USRDS alone and 92 (80%) by both. Cumulative incidence of ESRD at 20 years from diagnosis of unilateral Wilms tumor (WT) was 74% for 17 patients with Deny-Drash syndrome (DDS), 36% for 37 patients with WAGR syndrome, 7% for 125 male patients with hypospadias or cryptorchism (GU anomalies) and 0.6% for 5,347 patients with none of these conditions. The incidence for bilateral Wilms tumor was 50% for DDS (n=6), 90% for WAGR (n=10), 25% for GU anomaly (n=25) and 12% for other patients (n=409). ESRD for patients with WAGR syndrome or GU anomalies tended to occur relatively late, often during or after adolescence. Conclusions: The risk of ESRD is remarkably low for the majority of WT patients. Those with WAGR syndrome or associated GU anomalies, however, are at higher risk and should be screened indefinitely to facilitate prospective management of impaired renal function. PMID:16217371

  15. A rodent model for Wilms tumors: embryonal kidney neoplasms induced by N-nitroso-N'-methylurea.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, P M; Bowman, M; Yu, B F; Sukumar, S

    1994-01-01

    Embryonal kidney cell tumors develop in rats given the alkylating agent N-nitroso-N'-methylurea as neonates. These tumors resemble the childhood Wilms tumors in their histopathology. Deletions and mutations in the Wilms tumor suppressor gene, WT1, are present in up to 6% of childhood nephroblastomas. To investigate the role of WT1 in rat kidney tumorigenesis, we studied the genetic alterations in WT1 and its target genes. Point mutations were found in WT1 cDNA in 7 of 18 kidney tumors. Mesenchymal tumors contained G-->A transition mutations in codons 128, 364, and 372, typical of the methylating action of N-nitroso-N'-methylurea on DNA. Each of the four nephroblastomas contained the same T-->A mutation at codon 111 of WT1, reflective of transversion mutagenesis by N-nitroso-N'-methylurea in vivo. Like Wilms tumors, mRNA levels of WT1, IGF2, Pax-2, and MK genes were higher than newborn kidney in the majority of the tumors. The histopathology of the rat kidney tumors and the genetic alterations are reminiscent of those observed in Wilms tumors, establishing this as a relevant model system for the human disease. Images PMID:7937920

  16. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  17. Follow-up of Wilms tumor: comparison of CT with other imaging procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Randel, S.B.; Gould, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    In a retrospective review, computed tomography (CT) was compared to a ''routine'' combination of other diagnostic imaging procedures used for follow-up evaluations of 13 children being treated for Wilms tumor. The examined variables were diagnostic accuracy, expense, and duration of examination. Results from 13 patients indicated that CT most accurately answers diagnostic queries pertinent to follow-up evaluation of Wilms tumors: the presence and extent of bilateral renal tumors, local recurrence, contralateral renal hypertrophy, and metastasis to liver or lungs. For diagnosing pulmonary metastases, CT was superior to conventional chest radiography both in sensitivity (4/4 vs. 2/4) and specificity (9/9 vs. 6/9). In depiction of liver metastases, CT (3/3) was superior to liver scintigraphy (2/3). The extent of bilateral Wilms tumors was better defined by CT than by urography. In no instances were the alternative diagnostic imaging studies found to be more accurate than CT for the detection of recurrent tumor. Average cost for a CT examination ($344) is considerably less than the cost for a routine combination of the other imaging studies ($594). Examination time and diagnostic radiation doses are also reduced using CT. Pending larger comparison studies, CT is recommended as the primary diagnostic method for follow-up evaluation of patients with Wilms tumor.

  18. Focal versus diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumor--new definitions with prognostic significance: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Faria, P; Beckwith, J B; Mishra, K; Zuppan, C; Weeks, D A; Breslow, N; Green, D M

    1996-08-01

    Anaplasia, defined by the presence of extreme nuclear and mitotic atypia, is a potent marker of adverse prognosis in Wilms tumor (WT). Anaplastic WT cells apparently have increased resistance to therapy rather than increased aggressiveness. The distribution of anaplasia should therefore have critical prognostic relevance. The original definitions for focal anaplasia (FA) and diffuse anaplasia (DA) were based on quantitative rather than topographical criteria and lacked prognostic significance. A new definition was developed based on the distribution of anaplastic changes within the tumor: FA applies only to tumors with anaplasia confined to one or a few discrete loci within the primary tumor, with no anaplasia or marked nuclear atypia elsewhere. This revised definition was evaluated in 165 cases with anaplastic WT entered on the third and fourth National Wilms Tumor Study. Only three relapses and one death occurred among 39 cases with FA, regardless of tumor stage, a result comparable to that for nonanaplastic WT. Eight children with metastases at diagnosis and FA in the primary tumor were alive and free of relapse; 22 of 23 children with stage IV DA WT died of tumor. This new definition reinforces the importance of carefully documenting the exact site from which each tumor section is obtained. PMID:8712292

  19. The Drosophila Wilms׳ Tumor 1-Associating Protein (WTAP) homolog is required for eye development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Abigail M; Weasner, Brandon P; Weasner, Bonnie M; Kumar, Justin P

    2014-06-15

    Sine Oculis (So), the founding member of the SIX family of homeobox transcription factors, binds to sequence specific DNA elements and regulates transcription of downstream target genes. It does so, in part, through the formation of distinct biochemical complexes with Eyes Absent (Eya) and Groucho (Gro). While these complexes play significant roles during development, they do not account for all So-dependent activities in Drosophila. It is thought that additional So-containing complexes make important contributions as well. This contention is supported by the identification of nearly two-dozen additional proteins that complex with So. However, very little is known about the roles that these additional complexes play in development. In this report we have used yeast two-hybrid screens and co-immunoprecipitation assays from Kc167 cells to identify a biochemical complex consisting of So and Fl(2)d, the Drosophila homolog of human Wilms׳ Tumor 1-Associating Protein (WTAP). We show that Fl(2)d protein is distributed throughout the entire eye-antennal imaginal disc and that loss-of-function mutations lead to perturbations in retinal development. The eye defects are manifested behind the morphogenetic furrow and result in part from increased levels of the pan-neuronal RNA binding protein Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (Elav) and the RUNX class transcription factor Lozenge (Lz). We also provide evidence that So and Fl(2)d interact genetically in the developing eye. Wilms׳ tumor-1 (WT1), a binding partner of WTAP, is required for normal eye formation in mammals and loss-of-function mutations are associated with some versions of retinoblastoma. In contrast, WTAP and its homologs have not been implicated in eye development. To our knowledge, the results presented in this report are the first description of a role for WTAP in the retina of any seeing animal. PMID:24690230

  20. Intra-Tumor Genetic Heterogeneity in Wilms Tumor: Clonal Evolution and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, George D; Apps, John R; Chagtai, Tasnim; Mifsud, Borbala; Bentley, Christopher C; Maschietto, Mariana; Popov, Sergey D; Weeks, Mark E; Olsen, Øystein E; Sebire, Neil J; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Williams, Richard D; Mifsud, William

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of pediatric solid tumors is poorly understood. There is conflicting evidence of intra-tumor genetic homogeneity vs. heterogeneity (ITGH) in a small number of studies in pediatric solid tumors. A number of copy number aberrations (CNA) are proposed as prognostic biomarkers to stratify patients, for example 1q+ in Wilms tumor (WT); current clinical trials use only one sample per tumor to profile this genetic biomarker. We multisampled 20 WT cases and assessed genome-wide allele-specific CNA and loss of heterozygosity, and inferred tumor evolution, using Illumina CytoSNP12v2.1 arrays, a custom analysis pipeline, and the MEDICC algorithm. We found remarkable diversity of ITGH and evolutionary trajectories in WT. 1q+ is heterogeneous in the majority of tumors with this change, with variable evolutionary timing. We estimate that at least three samples per tumor are needed to detect >95% of cases with 1q+. In contrast, somatic 11p15 LOH is uniformly an early event in WT development. We find evidence of two separate tumor origins in unilateral disease with divergent histology, and in bilateral WT. We also show subclonal changes related to differential response to chemotherapy. Rational trial design to include biomarkers in risk stratification requires tumor multisampling and reliable delineation of ITGH and tumor evolution. PMID:27333041

  1. Amplification and expression of EGFR and ERBB2 in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Vasei, Mohammad; Modjtahedi, Helmout; Ale-Booyeh, Oreineb; Mosallaei, Ahmad; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol Mohammad; Shahriari, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Abbas Ali; Soleymanpour, Hossein; Kosari, Farid; Moch, Holger; Sauter, Guido

    2009-10-15

    Wilms tumor is one of the most common solid tumors in children. We evaluated expression and amplification of a number of genes and their prognostic significance in 45 patients with Wilms tumor, using tissue microarray technology. The expression of EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1, MLH1, MSH2, TP53, and ABCB1 (alias MDR1) was studied by immunohistochemistry. Amplification of the EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1, CTTN (previously EMS1), RAF1, MYC, FGF3 (previously INT2), WNT1, GLI1, CDK4, and NCOA3 (alias AIB1) genes was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression of EGFR was seen in 17 of the 45 cases (38%) but was not associated with gene amplification. The ERBB2 gene was neither overexpressed nor amplified in any case. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry analyses for ERBB2 in whole-tumor sections were also negative in all cases. Strong p53 reactivity was noted in blastemal cells in two cases with an unfavorable outcome. ABCB1 reactivity was seen in five cases with favorable histology and outcome. Only one case showed nuclear cyclin D1 positivity. All tumors showed MLH1 and MSH2 expression. All examined genes showed normal copy numbers. Unfavorable histology correlated with poor prognosis (P=0.03). There was no significant association between gene expression and prognosis. Overexpression of the EGFR gene in many Wilms tumor cases warrants further study to determine the therapeutic benefit of EGFR inhibitors in combination with other therapies in Wilms tumor patients. PMID:19781441

  2. Atypical variant of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in Wilms tumor: is hyaluronic acid secreted by nephroblastoma cells the cause?

    PubMed

    Michiels, J; Schroyens, W; Berneman, Z; van der Planken, M

    2001-04-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) has been reported in eight children with Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma in four boys and four girls) at a mean age of 3.3 years (range, 0.33-9 years). Only three of eight patients with AvWS in Wilms tumor presented with mild mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The AvWS in seven children with Wilms tumor featured either undetectable or very low von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF.Ag) levels (mean, 3%) and decreased values for vWF ristocetin cofactor (RCF) activity (mean, 20%) and factor VIII coagulant (VIIIc) activity (mean, 16%). The response to 1-desamino-8-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was good in two and poor in one patient. Multimeric analysis of the vWF showed a normal pattern of type I von Willebrand disease (vWD) in three patients and an absence of multimers consistent with type III vWD in two patients. The higher functional levels, as compared with antigen levels, with increased ratios for factor VIIIc/vWFAg (mean, 5.3) and vWF.RCF/vWF.Ag (mean, 6.6) in seven patients with Wilms tumor are unexplained physiologically and are not consistent with type I vWF deficiency. The absence of vWD in the patient's family, and the return of factor VIII-vWF parameters to normal after chemotherapy or surgical removal of the Wilms tumor, support the diagnosis of AvWS causally related to the Wilms tumor. The causative agent is thought to be hyaluronic acid secreted by nephroblastoma cells of the Wilms tumor. Prospective studies to determine the nature of AvWS in children with Wilms tumor are warranted. PMID:11292185

  3. Radiation therapy for favorable histology Wilms tumor: Prevention of flank recurrence did not improve survival on National Wilms Tumor Studies 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, Norman E. . E-mail: norm@u.washington.edu; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Haase, Gerald M.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Thomas, Patrick; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) of patients with Wilms tumor of favorable histology prevented flank recurrence and thereby improved the survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: Recurrence and mortality risks were compared among groups of patients with Stage I-IV/favorable histology Wilms tumor enrolled in the third (n = 1,640) and fourth (n = 2,066) National Wilms Tumor Study Group studies. Results: Proportions of patients with flank recurrence were 0 of 513 = 0.0% for 20 Gy, 12 of 805 = 1.5% for 10 Gy, and 44 of 2,388 = 1.8% for no flank RT (p trend 0.001 adjusted for stage and doxorubicin); for intra-abdominal (including flank) recurrence they were 5 of 513 = 1.0%, 30 of 805 = 3.7%, and 58 of 2,388 = 2.4%, respectively (p trend = 0.02 adjusted). Survival percentages at 8 years after intra-abdominal recurrence were 0 of 5 = 0% for 20 Gy, 10 of 30 = 33% for 10 Gy, and 34 of 58 = 56% for no RT (p trend = 0.0001). NWTS-4 discontinued use of 20 Gy RT, and the 8-year flank recurrence risk increased to 2.1% from 1.0% on NWTS-3 (p = 0.013). However, event-free survival was unaltered (88% vs. 86%, p = 0.39), and overall survival was better (93.8% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.036) on NWTS-4. Conclusions: Partly because of lower postrecurrence mortality among nonirradiated patients, prevention of flank recurrence by RT did not improve survival. It is important to evaluate entire treatment policies with regard to long-term outcomes.

  4. DNA recognition by splicing variants of the Wilms' tumor suppressor, WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, I A; Rupprecht, H D; Rohwer-Nutter, P; Lopez-Guisa, J M; Madden, S L; Rauscher, F J; Sukhatme, V P

    1994-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor suppressor, WT1, is a zinc finger transcriptional regulator which exists as multiple forms owing to alternative mRNA splicing. The most abundant splicing variants contain a nine-nucleotide insertion encoding lysine, threonine, and serine (KTS) in the H-C link region between the third and fourth WT1 zinc fingers which disrupts binding to a previously defined WT1-EGR1 binding site. We have identified WT1[+KTS] binding sites in the insulin-like growth factor II gene and show that WT1[+KTS] represses transcription from the insulin-like growth factor II P3 promoter. The highest affinity WT1[+KTS] DNA binding sites included nucleotide contacts involving all four WT1 zinc fingers. We also found that different subsets of three WT1 zinc fingers could bind to distinct DNA recognition elements. A tumor-associated, WT1 finger 3 deletion mutant was shown to bind to juxtaposed nucleotide triplets for the remaining zinc fingers 1, 2, and 4. The characterization of novel WT1 DNA recognition elements adds a new level of complexity to the potential gene regulatory activity of WT1. The results also present the possibility that altered DNA recognition by the dominant WT1 zinc finger 3 deletion mutant may contribute to tumorigenesis. Images PMID:8196623

  5. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  6. Development of anaplastic Wilms tumor and subsequent relapse in a child with diaphanospondylodysostosis.

    PubMed

    Tasian, Sarah K; Kim, Grace E; Miniati, Douglas N; DuBois, Steven G

    2012-10-01

    Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia syndrome resulting from disordered mesenchymal differentiation. Children with DSD generally die in utero or during the first month of life from severe thoracic insufficiency syndrome. An association of DSD with nephroblastomatosis has been observed, but the natural history of such nephroblastomatosis remains poorly characterized due to the rarity of the underlying condition. We describe a patient with DSD who developed bilateral hyperplastic nephroblastomatosis that ultimately evolved into therapy-resistant anaplastic Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma). PMID:22469945

  7. Development of Anaplastic Wilms Tumor and Subsequent Relapse in a Child with Diaphanospondylodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Tasian, Sarah K.; Kim, Grace E.; Miniati, Douglas N.; DuBois, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia syndrome resulting from disordered mesenchymal differentiation. Children with DSD generally die in utero or during the first month of life from severe thoracic insufficiency syndrome. An association of DSD with nephroblastomatosis has been observed, but the natural history of such nephroblastomatosis remains poorly characterized due to the rarity of the underlying condition. We describe a patient with DSD who developed bilateral hyperplastic nephroblastomatosis that ultimately evolved into therapy-resistant anaplastic Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma). PMID:22469945

  8. Maturation of pulmonary metastases of Wilms' tumor after therapy: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shimmoto, K.; Ushigome, S.; Nikaido, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamazaki, Y. )

    1991-04-01

    A case is reported of Wilms' tumor associated with multiple pulmonary metastases histologically showing maturation of the tumor cells at 9 years after the resection of the primary tumor and intensive therapy. A huge tumor of a 22-month-old patient's right kidney was resected. The tumor was diagnosed as Wilms' tumor of mesenchymal type (stage 1), which consisted of predominantly immature mesenchymal tissue including rhabdomyoblasts, smooth muscle and fibrous tissue, and few blastemal and epithelial components. Intensive preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with actinomycin D and vincristine and postoperative irradiation therapy totaling 16 Gy were carried out. The patient was regularly followed up uneventfully until 9 years after the surgery. On routine chest x ray at the age of 10 years 11 months, multiple pulmonary nodules were found. The excised nodules from the bilateral lungs disclosed similar histology, exclusively composed of dense collagen bundles and fibrocytes intermingled with mature striated muscle bundles. No immature tumor components were detected. The possible effect of intensive therapy in this maturation was stressed, although spontaneous benign differentiation of tumor cells cannot be excluded.

  9. Genomic characterization of Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 targets in nephron progenitor cells during kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Sunny; Ho, Jacqueline; Pandey, Priyanka; MacIsaac, Kenzie; Taglienti, Mary; Xiang, Michael; Alterovitz, Gil; Ramoni, Marco; Fraenkel, Ernest; Kreidberg, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 (WT1) gene encodes a DNA- and RNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in nephron progenitor differentiation during renal development. To identify WT1 target genes that might regulate nephron progenitor differentiation in vivo, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled to mouse promoter microarray (ChIP-chip) using chromatin prepared from embryonic mouse kidney tissue. We identified 1663 genes bound by WT1, 86% of which contain a previously identified, conserved, high-affinity WT1 binding site. To investigate functional interactions between WT1 and candidate target genes in nephron progenitors, we used a novel, modified WT1 morpholino loss-of-function model in embryonic mouse kidney explants to knock down WT1 expression in nephron progenitors ex vivo. Low doses of WT1 morpholino resulted in reduced WT1 target gene expression specifically in nephron progenitors, whereas high doses of WT1 morpholino arrested kidney explant development and were associated with increased nephron progenitor cell apoptosis, reminiscent of the phenotype observed in Wt1−/− embryos. Collectively, our results provide a comprehensive description of endogenous WT1 target genes in nephron progenitor cells in vivo, as well as insights into the transcriptional signaling networks controlled by WT1 that might direct nephron progenitor fate during renal development. PMID:20215353

  10. Germline mutations in DIS3L2 cause the Perlman syndrome of overgrowth and Wilms tumor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Dewi; Morris, Mark R; Cooper, Wendy N; Staals, Raymond H J; Wake, Naomi C; Fews, Graham A; Gill, Harmeet; Gentle, Dean; Shuib, Salwati; Ricketts, Christopher J; Cole, Trevor; van Essen, Anthonie J; van Lingen, Richard A; Neri, Giovanni; Opitz, John M; Rump, Patrick; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Müller, Ferenc; Pruijn, Ger J M; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R

    2012-03-01

    Perlman syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive manner that is associated with Wilms tumor susceptibility. We mapped a previously unknown susceptibility locus to 2q37.1 and identified germline mutations in DIS3L2, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 gene, in individuals with Perlman syndrome. Yeast dis3 mutant strains have mitotic abnormalities. Yeast Dis3 and its human homologs, DIS3 and DIS3L1, have exoribonuclease activity and bind to the core RNA exosome complex. DIS3L2 has a different intracellular localization and lacks the PIN domain found in DIS3 and DIS3L1; nevertheless, we show that DIS3L2 has exonuclease activity. DIS3L2 inactivation was associated with mitotic abnormalities and altered expression of mitotic checkpoint proteins. DIS3L2 overexpression suppressed the growth of human cancer cell lines, and knockdown enhanced the growth of these cells. We also detected evidence of DIS3L2 mutations in sporadic Wilms tumor. These observations suggest that DIS3L2 has a critical role in RNA metabolism and is essential for the regulation of cell growth and division. PMID:22306653

  11. Combining miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Wilms Tumor Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Nicole; Werner, Tamara V.; Backes, Christina; Trampert, Patrick; Gessler, Manfred; Keller, Andreas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Graf, Norbert; Meese, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood renal cancer. Recent findings of mutations in microRNA (miRNA) processing proteins suggest a pivotal role of miRNAs in WT genesis. We performed miRNA expression profiling of 36 WTs of different subtypes and four normal kidney tissues using microarrays. Additionally, we determined the gene expression profile of 28 of these tumors to identify potentially correlated target genes and affected pathways. We identified 85 miRNAs and 2107 messenger RNAs (mRNA) differentially expressed in blastemal WT, and 266 miRNAs and 1267 mRNAs differentially expressed in regressive subtype. The hierarchical clustering of the samples, using either the miRNA or mRNA profile, showed the clear separation of WT from normal kidney samples, but the miRNA pattern yielded better separation of WT subtypes. A correlation analysis of the deregulated miRNA and mRNAs identified 13,026 miRNA/mRNA pairs with inversely correlated expression, of which 2844 are potential interactions of miRNA and their predicted mRNA targets. We found significant upregulation of miRNAs-183, -301a/b and -335 for the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs-181b, -223 and -630 for the regressive subtype. We found marked deregulation of miRNAs regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, especially in the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs influencing chemosensitivity, especially in regressive subtypes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the miRNA and mRNA patterns in WT. PMID:27043538

  12. [Wilms' tumor in Cantabria. Review of our cases (1974-1990)].

    PubMed

    Asensio Lahoz, L A; Sandoval González, F; Abaitua Bilbao, J; Palazuelos, C M; del Valle Schaan, J I; García Montesinos, M; de La Torriente Oria, J I; García de Tuñon, A; Lanzas Prieto, J M

    1991-10-01

    We reviewed the records of patients with genitourinary tumors that had been diagnosed and treated at the Section of Pediatric Surgery of Marqués de Valdecilla Hospital from 1974 to 1990. There were 14 such tumors. Of these, 12 (85.7%) were Wilm's tumor. This tumor type is the subject of the present study. Regarding its clinical features, 33.3% of the cases consulted for hematuria and an abdominal mass was the most common finding in the course of the disease (83%). We underscore the usefulness of CT and ultrasound in making the diagnosis. In the cases where these noninvasive imaging techniques were used, their efficacy rate was 100%. Together with IVP, these constitute the fundamental diagnostic tools. With regard to treatment, radical nephrectomy was performed in all cases and combined with radio and chemotherapy according to protocol. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Wilms' tumor in all the cases. Following the NWTS classification, there were 2 stage I,5 stage II, 2 stage III and 3 stage IV. Apart from tumor stage, the histological features significantly influenced the diagnosis. The survival rates for those with favourable or unfavourable histologic features were 70% and 36%, respectively. PMID:1665690

  13. Array CGH Analysis of Paired Blood and Tumor Samples from Patients with Sporadic Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Crespo, María; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares-Bralo, María; Martin-Arenas, Rubén; Rueda-Arenas, Inmaculada; Silvestre de Faria, Paulo Antonio; García-Miguel, Purificación; Lapunzina, Pablo; Regla Vargas, Fernando; Seuanez, Hector N.; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT), the most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children, has a complex etiology that is still poorly understood. Identification of genomic copy number variants (CNV) in tumor genomes provides a better understanding of cancer development which may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. In paired blood and tumor DNA samples from 14 patients with sporadic WT, analyzed by aCGH, 22% of chromosome abnormalities were novel. All constitutional alterations identified in blood were segmental (in 28.6% of patients) and were also present in the paired tumor samples. Two segmental gains (2p21 and 20q13.3) and one loss (19q13.31) present in blood had not been previously described in WT. We also describe, for the first time, a small, constitutive partial gain of 3p22.1 comprising 2 exons of CTNNB1, a gene associated to WT. Among somatic alterations, novel structural chromosomal abnormalities were found, like gain of 19p13.3 and 20p12.3, and losses of 2p16.1-p15, 4q32.5-q35.1, 4q35.2-q28.1 and 19p13.3. Candidate genes included in these regions might be constitutively (SIX3, SALL4) or somatically (NEK1, PIAS4, BMP2) operational in the development and progression of WT. To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in paired blood and tumor samples in sporadic WT. PMID:26317783

  14. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Amy L.; Ooms, Ariadne; Gadd, Samantha; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Chen, Qing-Rong; Hsu, Chih Hao; Yan, Chunhua; Nguyen, Cu; Hu, Ying; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Schein, Jacqueline; Marra, Marco A.; Huff, Vicki; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Ross, Nicole; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the most common single nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors (FHWT) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPG) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations. Significantly decreased expression of mature Let-7a and the miR-200 family (responsible for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition) in miRNAPG-mutant tumors is associated with an undifferentiated blastemal histology. The combination of SIX and miRNAPG mutations in the same tumor is associated with evidence of RAS activation and a higher rate of relapse and death. PMID:25670082

  15. Pregnancy Outcome After Treatment for Wilms Tumor: A Report From the National Wilms Tumor Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Daniel M.; Lange, Jane M.; Peabody, Eve M.; Grigorieva, Natalia N.; Peterson, Susan M.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Breslow, Norman E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of prior treatment with radiation therapy or chemotherapy for unilateral Wilms tumor (WT) diagnosed during childhood on pregnancy complications, birth weight, and the frequency of congenital malformations in live-born offspring. Patients and Methods We reviewed pregnancy outcomes among female survivors and partners of male survivors of WT treated on National Wilms Tumor Studies 1, 2, 3, and 4 by using a maternal questionnaire and a review of both maternal and offspring medical records. Results We received reports of 1,021 pregnancies with duration of 20 weeks or longer, including 955 live-born singletons, for whom 700 sets of maternal and offspring medical records were reviewed. Rates of hypertension complicating pregnancy (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] code 642), early or threatened labor (ICD-644) and malposition of the fetus (ICD-652) increased with increasing radiation dose in female patients. The percentages of offspring weighing less than 2,500 g at birth and of those having less than 37 weeks of gestation also increased with dose. There was no significant trend with radiation dose in the number of congenital anomalies recorded in offspring of female patients. Conclusion Women who receive flank radiation therapy as part of the treatment for unilateral WT are at increased risk of hypertension complicating pregnancy, fetal malposition, and premature labor. The offspring of these women are at risk for low birth weight and premature (ie, < 37 weeks gestation) birth. These risks must be considered in the obstetrical management of female survivors of WT. PMID:20458053

  16. Wilms tumor 1 mutations in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rampal, Raajit; Figueroa, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) has long been implicated in acute myeloid leukemia. It has been described to be both overexpressed and mutated in different forms of acute myeloid leukemia, and overexpression has been reported to play a prognostic role in this disease. However, the precise mechanism through which WT1 may play a role in leukemogenesis has remained elusive. In recent years, new evidence has emerged that points towards a novel role of WT1 mutations in the deregulation of epigenetic programs in leukemic cells through its interaction with TET proteins. Herein we review the current status of the field and its therapeutic and prognostic implications in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:27252512

  17. Familial occurrence of the aniridia-Wilms tumor syndrome with deletion 11p13-14.1.

    PubMed

    Yunis, J J; Ramsay, N K

    1980-06-01

    A report of a family with two half-brothers and a maternal aunt affected with the aniridia-Wilms tumor syndrome is presented. The proband showed a deletion of most of band 11p13 and of subband 11p14.1 of one chromosome 11, and the proband's mother and an older brother, both phenotypically normal, showed a balanced chromosomal rearrangement. This family demonstrates that deletion of a small chromosome segment (11p13-14.1) is responsible for the aniridia-Wilms tumor syndrome and, that in some cases, the syndrome can be familial. PMID:6246230

  18. The Transcription Factor Wilms Tumor 1 Confers Resistance in Myeloid Leukemia Cells against the Proapoptotic Therapeutic Agent TRAIL (Tumor Necrosis Factor α-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand) by Regulating the Antiapoptotic Protein Bcl-xL*

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Hima; Seifert, Theresea; Bachier, Carlos; Rao, Manjeet; Tomlinson, Gail; Iyer, Swaminathan Padmanabhan; Bansal, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered a promising cancer therapeutic agent due to its ability to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. However, many human tumors including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are partially or completely resistant to monotherapy with TRAIL, limiting its therapeutic utility. Therefore, identification of factors that contribute to TRAIL resistance may facilitate future development of more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapies. Here, we report a previously unknown role for WT1 in mediating TRAIL resistance in leukemia. Knockdown of WT1 with shRNA rendered TRAIL-resistant myeloid leukemia cells sensitive to TRAIL-induced cell death, and re-expression of shRNA-resistant WT1 restored TRAIL resistance. Notably, TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in WT1-silenced cells was largely due to down-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Moreover, WT1 expression strongly correlated with overexpression of Bcl-xL in AML cell lines and blasts from AML patients. Furthermore, we found that WT1 transactivates Bcl-xL by directly binding to its promoter. We previously showed that WT1 is a novel client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Consistent with this, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in reduced WT1 and Bcl-xL expression leading to increased sensitivity of leukemia cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggest that WT1-dependent Bcl-xL overexpression contributes to TRAIL resistance in myeloid leukemias. PMID:22898820

  19. Intraoperative Spillage of Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor Cells: Influence of Irradiation and Chemotherapy Regimens on Abdominal Recurrence. A Report From the National Wilms Tumor Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Li, Sierra M.; Breslow, Norman E.; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Haase, Gerald M.; Thomas, Patrick R.M.; Grundy, Paul; Green, Daniel M.; D'Angio, Giulio J.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: We undertook this study to determine (1) the frequency with which spilled tumor cells of favorable histology produced intra-abdominal disease in patients treated with differing chemotherapy regimens and abdominal radiation therapy (RT) and (2) the patterns of relapse and outcomes in such patients. Methods and Materials: The influence of RT dose (0, 10, and 20 Gy), RT fields (flank, whole abdomen), and chemotherapy with dactinomycin and vincristine (2 drugs) vs. added doxorubicin (three drugs) on intra-abdominal tumor recurrence rates was analyzed by logistic regression in 450 patients. Each patient was considered at risk for two types of failure: flank and subdiaphragmatic beyond-flank recurrence, with the correlation between the two outcomes accounted for in the analyses. Results: The crude odds ratio for the risk of recurrence relative to no RT was 0.35 (0.15-0.78) for 10Gy and 0.08 (0.01-0.58) for 20Gy. The odds ratio for the risk of recurrence for doxorubicin to two drugs after adjusting for RT was not significant. For Stage II patients (NWTS-4), the 8-year event rates with and without spillage, respectively, were 79% and 87% for relapse-free survival (p = 0.07) and 90% and 95% for overall survival (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Irradiation (10 Gy or 20 Gy) reduced abdominal tumor recurrence rates after tumor spillage. Tumor spillage in Stage II patients reduced relapse-free survival and overall survival, but only the latter was of statistical significance. These data provide a basis for assessing the risks vs. benefits when considering treatment for children with favorable histology Wilms tumor and surgical spillage.

  20. Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

  1. Identifying the role of Wilms tumor 1 associated protein in cancer prediction using integrative genomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Sheng; Qian, Jia-Yi; Wang, Minghai; Yang, Haiwei

    2016-09-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor, WT1 was first identified due to its essential role in the normal development of the human genitourinary system. Wilms tumor 1 associated protein (WTAP) was subsequently revealed to interact with WT1 using yeast two-hybrid screening. The present study identified 44 complete WTAP genes in the genomes of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. The vertebrate WTAP proteins clustered into the primate, rodent and teleost lineages using phylogenetic tree analysis. From 1,347 available SNPs in the human WTAP gene, 19 were identified to cause missense mutations. WTAP was expressed in bladder, blood, brain, breast, colorectal, esophagus, eye, head and neck, lung, ovarian, prostate, skin and soft tissue cancers. A total of 17 out of 328 microarrays demonstrated an association between WTAP gene expression and cancer prognosis. However, the association between WTAP gene expression and prognosis varied in distinct types of cancer, and even in identical types of cancer from separate microarray databases. By searching the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database, 65 somatic mutations were identified in the human WTAP gene from the cancer tissue samples. These results suggest that the function of WTAP in tumor formation may be multidimensional. Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, forkhead box protein O1, interferon regulatory factor 1, glucocorticoid receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transcription factor binding sites were identified in the upstream (promoter) region of the human WTAP gene, suggesting that these transcription factors may be involved in WTAP functions in tumor formation. PMID:27430156

  2. Management of a Wilms' tumor with intracardiac extension using extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erginel, Basak; Ugurlucan, Murat; Basaran, Murat; Buget, Mehmet; Yuksel, Secil; Celik, Alaattin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-01

    Wilms' tumor is a relatively common malignancy among childhood cancers. However, intracardiac extension of the lesion is rare and challenging. In this report, the authors present a successful management of intracardiac extension of Wilms' tumor in a 3-year-old child using cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The authors also reviewed the published literature on Wilms' tumor with cardiac extension, which were managed by cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest to provide an optimum management plan in this challenging condition. PMID:26901125

  3. Fine structure analysis of the WT1 gene in sporadic Wilms tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Varanasi, R; Bardeesy, N; Ghahremani, M; Petruzzi, M J; Nowak, N; Adam, M A; Grundy, P; Shows, T B; Pelletier, J

    1994-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies indicate that the etiology of Wilms tumor (WT) is complex, involving at least three loci. Germ-line mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, WT1, have been documented in children with WTs and urogenital developmental anomalies. Sporadic tumors constitute the majority (> 90%) of WT cases and previous molecular analyses of the WT1 gene have focused only on the DNA-binding domain. Using the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) assay, we analyzed the structural integrity of the entire WT1 gene in 98 sporadic WTs. By PCR-SSCP we find that mutations in the WT1 gene are rare, occurring in only six tumors analyzed. In one sample, two independent intragenic mutations inactivated both WT1 alleles, providing a singular example of two different somatic alterations restricted to the WT1 gene. This case is consistent with the existence of only one tumor suppressor gene at 11p13 involved in the pathogenesis of WTs. Our data, together with the previously ascertained occurrence of large deletions/insertions in WT1, define the frequency at which the WT1 gene is altered in sporadic tumors. Images PMID:8170946

  4. The effect of abdominal radiation on spleen function: A study in children with Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.; Brown, E.; Zipursky, A. )

    1986-01-01

    Reports of splenic dysfunction in patients with Hodgkin's disease who received radiation therapy to the spleen raise questions concerning impairment of splenic function and the long-term risk of bacterial sepsis in children who receive abdominal radiation for other diseases. Splenic function was studied in 20 children with Wilms' tumor using a quantitative assessment of vacuolated (pitted) red cells as a measure of reticuloendothelial function. Fourteen children had received abdominal radiation to a field involving the spleen at a median dose of 2000 rads. Their pitted red cells counts were no different from those of 6 children who received therapy without radiation to the spleen or to those of a group of normal children and adults. We conclude that there is no demonstrable long-term impairment of spleen function with radiation doses at or below 2200 rads.

  5. Perlman Syndrome: Overgrowth, Wilms Tumor Predisposition and DIS3L2.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark R; Astuti, Dewi; Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-04-01

    Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23576526

  6. Perlman syndrome: overgrowth, Wilms tumor predisposition and DIS3L2.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark R; Astuti, Dewi; Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-05-01

    Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. PMID:23613427

  7. Laparoscopic nephron-sparing resection of synchronous Wilms tumors in a case of hyperplasticperilobarnephroblastomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Rauth, Thomas P.; Slone, Jeremy; Crane, Gabriella; Correa, Hernan; Friedman, Debra L.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse hyperplasticperilobarnephroblastomatosis (DHPLN) is a rare precursor lesion of Wilms tumor (WT). Because of the increased risk to develop WT in either kidney, current management algorithms of DHPLN meritnephron-sparing strategies, beginning with chemotherapy and close radiographic monitoring into late childhood. After resolution of DHPLN, subsequent detection of a renal nodule mandates resection to exclude WT. Here, we report the case of a 4 year-old girl who developed two synchronous nodules in the right kidney more than two years after completion of therapy for DHPLN. Because of the early detection and peripheral location of these two nodules, laparoscopic nephron-sparing resection of each was performed using ultrasonic dissection. Both nodules were determined on pathology to be favorable histology WT with negative surgical margins. The child was placed onvincristine and actinomycin-D therapy for 18 weeks. PMID:21616266

  8. Brain metastasis of Wilms tumor with diffuse anaplasia and complex cytogenetic phenotype in a child with neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Bassani, Luigi; Mikolaenko, Irina; Wisoff, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    The authors report the first case of a Wilms tumor (WT) with diffuse anaplasia metastatic to the brain in a 13-year-old girl with a history of neurofibromatosis Type 1. At presentation, the metastatic tumor had radiological features that suggested a meningioma. Histologically it was characterized by striking anaplasia and features similar to the patient's previously resected WT with diffuse anaplasia. PMID:21961578

  9. Screening and identification of post-traumatic stress-related serum factors in children with Wilms' tumors

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUNJIE; HU, QIAN; GUO, FEI; WANG, LEI; ZHAO, WEI; ZHANG, DA; YANG, HEYING; YU, JIEKAI; NIU, LILI; YANG, FUQUAN; ZHENG, SHU; WANG, JIAXIANG

    2016-01-01

    Wilms' tumors are one of the most common malignant, solid intra-abdominal tumors observed in children. Although potential tumor markers have been found, inflammatory cytokines interfere with the process of specific protein identification. The present study was undertaken to identify post-traumatic stress-related factors of Wilms' tumors and to verify the accuracy of early-stage tumor-specific serum protein markers. Serum samples were screened for differentially-expressed proteins using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Potential markers were isolated and purified using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and SDS-PAGE. Following enzymatic digestion of the protein samples, the peptide fragments were detected with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The obtained peptide mass fingerprint was searched in the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database via the Mascot search engine. Differentially-expressed proteins were verified using western blot analysis. Differentially-expressed proteins with a mass/charge of 5,816 were screened out using SELDI-TOF-MS, and significant differences between the tumor and control groups, and the trauma and control groups were observed. Target proteins were isolated and purified using SPE and SDS-PAGE. Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) was found to be differentially expressed. In the serum of children with Wilms' tumors, there was an increase in the level of the post-traumatic stress-related inflammatory factor, Trx1, as compared with the normal control group. Thus, the results of this study indicate that Trx1 presents a potential post-traumatic stress-related factor of Wilms' tumors. PMID:26893734

  10. CTNNB1 mutations and overexpression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes in WT1-mutant Wilms' tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Ming; Kim, Connie E; Margolin, Adam A; Guo, Meirong; Zhu, Jimmy; Mason, Jacqueline M; Hensle, Terrence W; Murty, Vundavalli V V S; Grundy, Paul E; Fearon, Eric R; D'Agati, Vivette; Licht, Jonathan D; Tycko, Benjamin

    2004-12-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in exon 3 of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) are specific for Wilms' tumors that have lost WT1, but 50% of WT1-mutant cases lack such "hot spot" mutations. To ask whether stabilization of beta-catenin might be essential after WT1 loss, and to identify downstream target genes, we compared expression profiles in WT1-mutant versus WT1 wild-type Wilms' tumors. Supervised and nonsupervised hierarchical clustering of the expression data separated these two classes of Wilms' tumor. The WT1-mutant tumors overexpressed genes encoding myogenic and other transcription factors (MOX2, LBX1, SIM2), signaling molecules (TGFB2, FST, BMP2A), extracellular Wnt inhibitors (WIF1, SFRP4), and known beta-catenin/TCF targets (FST, CSPG2, CMYC). Beta-Catenin/TCF target genes were overexpressed in the WT1-mutant tumors even in the absence of CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations, and complete sequencing revealed gain-of-function mutations elsewhere in the CTNNB1 gene in some of these tumors, increasing the overall mutation frequency to 75%. Lastly, we identified and validated a novel direct beta-catenin target gene, GAD1, among the WT1-mutant signature genes. These data highlight two molecular classes of Wilms' tumor, and indicate strong selection for stabilization of beta-catenin in the WT1-mutant class. Beta-Catenin stabilization can initiate tumorigenesis in other systems, and this mechanism is likely critical in tumor formation after loss of WT1. PMID:15579438

  11. Genetic variation frequencies in Wilms' tumor: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deng, Changkai; Dai, Rong; Li, Xuliang; Liu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few decades, numerous biomarkers in Wilms' tumor have been confirmed and shown variations in prevalence. Most of these studies were based on small sample sizes. We carried out a meta-analysis of the research published from 1992 to 2015 to obtain more precise and comprehensive outcomes for genetic tests. In the present study, 70 out of 5175 published reports were eligible for the meta-analysis, which was carried out using Stata 12.0 software. Pooled prevalence for gene mutations WT1, WTX, CTNNB1, TP53, MYCN, DROSHA, and DGCR8 was 0.141 (0.104, 0.178), 0.147 (0.110, 0.184), 0.140 (0.100, 0.190), 0.410 (0.214, 0.605), 0.071 (0.041, 0.100), 0.082 (0.048, 0.116), and 0.036 (0.026, 0.046), respectively. Pooled prevalence of loss of heterozygosity at 1p, 11p, 11q, 16q, and 22q was 0.109 (0.084, 0.133), 0.334 (0.295, 0.373), 0.199 (0.146, 0.252), 0.151 (0.129, 0.172), and 0.148 (0.108, 0.189), respectively. Pooled prevalence of 1q and chromosome 12 gain was 0.218 (0.161, 0.275) and 0.273 (0.195, 0.350), respectively. The limited prevalence of currently known genetic alterations in Wilms' tumors indicates that significant drivers of initiation and progression remain to be discovered. Subgroup analyses indicated that ethnicity may be one of the sources of heterogeneity. However, in meta-regression analyses, no study-level characteristics of indicators were found to be significant. In addition, the findings of our sensitivity analysis and possible publication bias remind us to interpret results with caution. PMID:26892980

  12. Detection of Preoperative Wilms Tumor Rupture with CT: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Arlene; Hoffer, Fredric; Mullen, Elizabeth; Geller, James; Gratias, Eric J.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Rosen, Nancy; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the presence or absence of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture. Materials and Methods: The cohort was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children’s Oncology Group. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained before enrollment. The diagnosis of Wilms tumor rupture was established by central review of notes from surgery and/or pathologic examination. Seventy Wilms tumor cases with rupture were matched to 70 Wilms tumor controls without rupture according to age and tumor weight (within 6 months and 50 g, respectively). CT scans were independently reviewed by two radiologists, and the following CT findings were assessed: poorly circumscribed mass, perinephric fat stranding, peritumoral fat planes obscured, retroperitoneal fluid (subcapsular vs extracapsular), ascites beyond the cul-de-sac, peritoneal implants, ipsilateral pleural effusion, and intratumoral hemorrhage. All fluids were classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic by using a cutoff of 30 HU. The relationship between CT findings and rupture was assessed with logistic regression models. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detecting Wilms tumor rupture were 54% (36 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 1 and 70% (47 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 2. Interobserver agreement was substantial (ĸ = 0.76). All imaging signs tested, except peritoneal implants, intratumoral hemorrhage, and subcapsular fluid, showed a significant association with rupture (P ≤ .02). The attenuation of ascitic fluid did not have a significant correlation with rupture (P = .9990). Ascites beyond the cul-de-sac was the single best indicator of rupture for both reviewers, followed by perinephric fat stranding and retroperitoneal fluid for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively (P

  13. Clinical management of patients with ASXL1 mutations and Bohring-Opitz syndrome, emphasizing the need for Wilms tumor surveillance.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bianca; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kramer, Nancy; Pickart, Angela; Rhead, William; Tan, Wen-Hann; Brownstein, Catherine A; Kate Clarkson, L; Dobson, Amy; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Vergano, Samantha A Schrier; Helm, Benjamin M; Harrison, Rachel E; Graham, John M

    2015-09-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by distinctive facial features, variable microcephaly, hypertrichosis, nevus flammeus, severe myopia, unusual posture (flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation, and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints), severe intellectual disability, and feeding issues. Nine patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have been identified as having a mutation in ASXL1. We report on eight previously unpublished patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome caused by an apparent or confirmed de novo mutation in ASXL1. Of note, two patients developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Somatic mutations in ASXL1 are associated with myeloid malignancies, and these reports emphasize the need for Wilms tumor screening in patients with ASXL1 mutations. We discuss clinical management with a focus on their feeding issues, cyclic vomiting, respiratory infections, insomnia, and tumor predisposition. Many patients are noted to have distinctive personalities (interactive, happy, and curious) and rapid hair growth; features not previously reported. PMID:25921057

  14. Stage IV Wilms Tumor Treated by Korean Medicine, Hyperthermia and Thymosin-α1: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Sung Su; Seong, Shin; Cho, Wonjun; Yu, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wilms tumor is one of general solid cancers that occur in children, which carries a death rate of 7–8 in a million. The cure rate of Wilms tumor in the recent 30 years has dramatically been improved, but a proper remedy is still not prepared enough in terms of application in tumor therapy upon recurrence after radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. We present an integrative medical remedy – hyperthermia and thymosin-α1 treatment focused on herbal remedy – since there have been cases in which this remedy contributed to remission in the liver-transferred part in the 4th phase of Wilms tumor and stable maintenance of metastatic lung lesion. Case Presentation Our patient, a female Korean mongoloid outpatient, was treated from October 25, 2014, to July 22, 2015. The herbal remedy consisted of 8 ml inhalation of Soram nebulizer solution q.d., Soramdan S 8 g p.o., Hangamdan S 1 g p.o., t.i.d., Cheongjangtang 10–30 ml, and Spiam HC 8 g p.o. The integrative medical therapy was done with hyperthermia therapy (oncothermia) and 1.6 mg of thymosin-α1 treatment (Zadaxin) i.m. According to the CT result on July 15th, 2015, the liver metastasis was not seen anymore, while the lung metastasis was maintained stably without tumor progress. Conclusions Accompanying integrative medical therapy with herbal remedy in the treatment of Wilms tumor showing progress patterns after surgery and chemotherapy can be meaningful as a new remedy. PMID:27293398

  15. In Vivo Assays for Assessing the Role of the Wilms' Tumor Suppressor 1 (Wt1) in Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Richard J; Ogley, R; Hadoke, Pwf; Hastie, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1) is widely expressed during neovascularization, but it is almost entirely absent in quiescent adult vasculature. However, in vessels undergoing angiogenesis, WT1 is dramatically upregulated. Studies have shown Wt1 has a role in both tumor and ischemic angiogenesis, but the mechanism of Wt1 action in angiogenic tissue remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe two methods for induction of in vivo angiogenesis (subcutaneous sponge implantation, femoral artery ligation) that can be used to assess the influence of Wt1 on new blood vessel formation. Subcutaneously implanted sponges stimulate an inflammatory and fibrotic response including cell infiltration and angiogenesis. Femoral artery ligation creates ischemia in the distal hindlimb and produces an angiogenic response to reperfuse the limb which can be quantified in vivo by laser Doppler flowmetry. In both of these models, the role of Wt1 in the angiogenic process can be assessed using histological/immunohistochemical staining, molecular analysis (qPCR) and flow cytometry. Furthermore, combined with suitable genetic modifications, these models can be used to explore the causal relationship between Wt1 expression and angiogenesis and to trace the lineage of cells expressing Wt1. This approach will help to clarify the importance of Wt1 in regulating neovascularization in the adult, and its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:27417962

  16. Outcome After Pulmonary Radiotherapy in Wilms' Tumor Patients With Pulmonary Metastases at Diagnosis: A UK Children's Cancer Study Group, Wilms' Tumour Working Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolin, Gary Taylor, Roger; Baughan, Chris; Shannon, Rosemary; Kelsey, Anna; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of whole lung radiotherapy on event-free and overall survival of children with Stage IV Wilms' tumor with pulmonary metastases at diagnosis and to ascertain factors that may have led to the decision to withhold radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We compared recurrence and mortality risks of patients with pulmonary metastases at diagnosis enrolled in the UKW2 and UKW3 clinical trials (1986-2001) according to treatment with pulmonary radiotherapy. Results: Of 102 eligible patients (43 patients in UKW2 and 59 patients in UKW3), 72 (71%) received pulmonary radiotherapy; 30 (29%) did not. After a median follow-up of 9.3 years (range, 0.6-14.1 years), event-free survival was 79.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.8-86.9%) in patients who received pulmonary radiotherapy compared with 53.3% (95% CI, 34.3-69.1%) in patients who did not receive it (p = 0.006), with a hazard ratio of 2.66 (95% CI, 1.28-5.52; p = 0.009). There was no difference in overall survival (84.7% [95% CI, 74.1-91.2%] vs. 73.2% [95% CI, 53.4-85.6%], respectively; p = 0.157). Pulmonary radiotherapy reduced the chance of lung relapse (8.3% vs. 23.3%; p = 0.039). The omission of radiotherapy did not seem to be consistently associated with any specific clinical or radiologic features. Conclusions: Outcome may be compromised if pulmonary radiotherapy is omitted in children with Wilms' tumor with pulmonary metastases. There was a significant effect on event-free survival; the risk of an event, particularly lung recurrence, was increased nearly threefold. Strategies for selection of children for avoidance of pulmonary irradiation need to be developed in a controlled fashion.

  17. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX homeodomain mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    We report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates that tumors with SIX1/2 and/or miRNAPG mutations show a pre-induction metanephric mesenchyme gene expression pattern and are significantly associated with both perilobar nephrogenic rests and 11p15 imprinting aberrations.

  18. Advances in Wilms Tumor Treatment and Biology: Progress Through International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Graf, Norbert; Geller, James I; Fernandez, Conrad V; Mullen, Elizabeth A; Spreafico, Filippo; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-09-20

    Clinical trials in Wilms tumor (WT) have resulted in overall survival rates of greater than 90%. This achievement is especially remarkable because improvements in disease-specific survival have occurred concurrently with a reduction of therapy for large patient subgroups. However, the outcomes for certain patient subgroups, including those with unfavorable histologic and molecular features, bilateral disease, and recurrent disease, remain well below the benchmark survival rate of 90%. Therapy for WT has been advanced in part by an increasingly complex risk-stratification system based on patient age; tumor stage, histology, and volume; response to chemotherapy; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. A consequence of this system has been the apportionment of patients into such small subgroups that only collaboration between large international WT study groups will support clinical trials that are sufficiently powered to answer challenging questions that move the field forward. This article gives an overview of the Children's Oncology Group and International Society of Pediatric Oncology approaches to WT and focuses on four subgroups (stage IV, initially inoperable, bilateral, and relapsed WT) for which international collaboration is pressing. In addition, biologic insights resulting from collaborative laboratory research are discussed. A coordinated expansion of international collaboration in both clinical trials and laboratory science will provide real opportunity to improve the treatment and outcomes for children with renal tumors on a global level. PMID:26304882

  19. Transcriptional regulation of human retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-{alpha}) by Wilms` tumour gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyer, P.R.; Torban, E.; Dehbi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The Wilms` tumor gene encodes a 47-49 kDa transcription factor expressed in kidney, gonads and mesothelium during embryogenesis. Inherited mutations of WT1 lead to aberrant urogenital development and Wilms` tumor, but the role of WT1 in development is not fully understood. Since the human RAR-{alpha} gene contains a potential WT1 binding site at its 5{prime} end, we studied the effect of WT1 co-transfection on expression of an RAR-{alpha} promoter/CAT reporter construct in COS cells. COS cells were plated at 5X10{sup 5} cells/dish in DMEM with 10% FBS and transfected by the Ca/PO4 method with an expression plasmid containing the full-length WT1 (-/-) cDNA under the control of the CMV promoter, plasmid containing the RAR-{alpha} promoter (-519 to +36)/CAT reporter and TK/growth hormone plasmid to control for efficiency of transfection. CAT/GH activity at 48 hours was inhibited by co-transfection with increasing amounts of WT1 (-/-); maximum inhibition = 5% of control. WT1 co-transfection did not affect expression of TKGH, nor of a CMV-CAT vector. Expression of WT1 protein in tranfected COS cells was demonstrated by Western blotting. Minimal inhibiton of RAR-{alpha}/CAT activity was seen when cells were co-transfected with vectors containing WT1 deletion mutants, alternate WT1 splicing variants, or WT1 (-/-) cDNA bearing a mutation identified in a patient with Drash syndrome. Gel shift assays indicated binding of WT1 to RAR-{alpha} cDNA but not to an RAR-{alpha} deletion mutant lacking the GCGGGGGGCG site. These observations suggest that WT1 may function to regulate RAR-{alpha} expression during normal development.

  20. Inhibition of cellular proliferation by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 is associated with suppression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, H; Shen-Orr, Z; Rauscher, F J; Morris, J F; Roberts, C T; LeRoith, D

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-I-R) gene promoter by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 in intact cells. The levels of endogenous IGF-I-R mRNA and the activity of IGF-I-R gene promoter fragments in luciferase reporter constructs were found to be significantly higher in G401 cells (a Wilms' tumor-derived cell line lacking detectable WT1 mRNA) than in 293 cells (a human embryonic kidney cell line which expresses significant levels of WT1 mRNA). To study whether WT1 could suppress the expression of the endogenous IGF-I-R gene, WT1-negative G401 cells were stably transfected with a WT1 expression vector. Expression of WT1 mRNA in G401 cells resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of cellular proliferation, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of IGF-I-R mRNA, promoter activity, and ligand binding and with a reduction in IGF-I-stimulated cellular proliferation, thymidine incorporation, and anchorage-independent growth. These data suggest that a major aspect of the action of the WT1 tumor suppressor is the repression of IGF-I-R gene expression. PMID:7791758

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Wilms' Tumor 1-Controlled Gene Expression in Podocytes Reveals Key Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kann, Martin; Ettou, Sandrine; Jung, Youngsook L; Lenz, Maximilian O; Taglienti, Mary E; Park, Peter J; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Kreidberg, Jordan A

    2015-09-01

    The transcription factor Wilms' tumor suppressor 1 (WT1) is key to podocyte development and viability; however, WT1 transcriptional networks in podocytes remain elusive. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the genome-wide WT1 transcriptional network in podocytes in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIPseq) and RNA sequencing techniques. Our data show a specific role for WT1 in regulating the podocyte-specific transcriptome through binding to both promoters and enhancers of target genes. Furthermore, we inferred a podocyte transcription factor network consisting of WT1, LMX1B, TCF21, Fox-class and TEAD family transcription factors, and MAFB that uses tissue-specific enhancers to control podocyte gene expression. In addition to previously described WT1-dependent target genes, ChIPseq identified novel WT1-dependent signaling systems. These targets included components of the Hippo signaling system, underscoring the power of genome-wide transcriptional-network analyses. Together, our data elucidate a comprehensive gene regulatory network in podocytes suggesting that WT1 gene regulatory function and podocyte cell-type specification can best be understood in the context of transcription factor-regulatory element network interplay. PMID:25636411

  2. Expression of Wilms' tumor suppressor in the liver with cirrhosis: relation to hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 and hepatocellular function.

    PubMed

    Berasain, Carmen; Herrero, José-Ignacio; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Avila, Matías A; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Mato, José M; Prieto, Jesús

    2003-07-01

    The Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 is a transcriptional regulator present in the fetal but not in the mature liver. Its expression and functional role in liver diseases remains unexplored. In this study, we analyzed WT1 expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry in normal and diseased livers. In addition, we performed in vitro studies in isolated rat hepatocytes to investigate WT1 regulation and function. We detected WT1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in 18% of normal livers, 17% of chronic hepatitis with minimal fibrosis, 49% of chronic hepatitis with bridging fibrosis, and 71% of cirrhotic livers. In cirrhosis, WT1 immunoreactivity was localized to the nucleus of hepatocytes. WT1 mRNA abundance correlated inversely with prothrombin time (P =.04) and directly with serum bilirubin (P =.002) and with the MELD score (P =.001) of disease severity. In rats, WT1 expression was present in fetal hepatocytes and in the cirrhotic liver but not in normal hepatic tissue. In vitro studies showed that isolated primary hepatocytes express WT1 when stimulated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) or when the cells undergo dedifferentiation in culture. Moreover, we found that WT1 down-regulates hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4), a factor that is essential to maintain liver function and metabolic regulation in the mature organ. Hepatic expression of HNF-4 was impaired in advanced human cirrhosis and negatively correlated with WT1 mRNA levels (P =.001). In conclusion, we show that WT1 is induced by TGF-beta and down-regulates HNF-4 in liver cells. WT1 is reexpressed in the cirrhotic liver in relation to disease progression and may play a role in the development of hepatic insufficiency in cirrhosis. PMID:12829997

  3. Structural chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from children previously treated for Wilms' tumor or Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brogger, A.; Kolmannskog, S.; Nicolaysen, R.B.; Wesenberg, F.; Nygaard, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen children treated for Wilms' tumor (thirteen cases) or Hodgkin's disease (six cases) with cytostatic agents and/or radiotherapy were studied cytogenetically on lymphocytes cultivated from blood samples drawn after at least 1 year of complete remission after end of therapy. A reference group of children was matched for age, sex, and residence. The frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (5.4 versus 5.6 SCE/cell), and chromosome damage type gaps (6.6 versus 7.1%) and breaks (1.9 versus 1.9%) were not different in the two groups, but exchange type aberrations were more frequent in the patients (0.9 versus 0.06%). Fifty karyotypes were analyzed in all but two cases of Hodgkin's disease. The overall frequency of stable (3.1 versus 3.8%) and unstable (1.7 versus 1.4%) structural chromosome changes such as translocations, deletions, chromatid exchanges, and dicentrics were not different in the patient and the control groups. If the chromosome data reflect a general cancer risk, this risk cannot be considerably higher among the cancer-treated children.

  4. Association between Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Methylation and Relative Telomere Length in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Bo; Zou, Ji-Zhen; He, Cai; Zeng, Rui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Fei-Fei; Liu, Zhuo; Ye, Hui; Wu, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT. Methods: We investigated LINE-1 methylation and relative TL using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 20 WT tissues, 10 normal kidney tissues and a WT cell line. Significant changes were analyzed by t-tests. Results: LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and relative TLs were significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in WT compared with normal kidney. There was a significant positive relationship between LINE-1 methylation and relative TL in WT (r = 0.671, P = 0.001). LINE-1 Methylation levels were significantly associated with global DNA methylation (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). In addition, relative TL was shortened and LINE-1 methylation was decreased in a WT cell line treated with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine compared with untreated WT cell line. Conclusion: These results suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is common and may be linked to telomere shortening in WT. PMID:26608986

  5. Wilms' tumor gene 1 expression: an independent acute leukemia prognostic indicator following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X-S; Jin, S; Zhu, H-H; Xu, L-P; Liu, D-H; Chen, H; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression for monitoring minimal residual disease and predicting relapse in patients with acute leukemia (AL) following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT), the WT1 expression levels of 138 AL patients were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR at designed time points after allo-HSCT. All patients were divided into four groups based on the HSCT outcomes and intervention application. A low level of WT1 expression following HSCT indicated a low risk of relapse, whereas WT1 expression >1.05% was indicative of a higher probability of relapse. Only the advanced stage of disease (hazard ratio (HR)=2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.337-5.573, P=0.006) and a WT1 expression ≥ 0.60% (HR=4.774; 95% CI=2.410-9.459, P=0.000) were associated with lower disease-free survival. Relapse (HR=0.119; 95% CI=0.056-0.250, P=0.000) and a WT1 expression 0.60% (HR=2.771; 95% CI=1.316-5.834, P=0.007) were associated with lower OS. In conclusion, the WT1 expression level is an independent prognostic factor that can predict clinical outcomes for AL patients after HSCT and provide a guide for suitable interventions. PMID:21643023

  6. Urinary exosomal Wilms' tumor-1 as a potential biomarker for podocyte injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Hu, Xuzhen; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Vento, Suzanne; Frank, Rachel; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Trachtman, Howard; Star, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Renal Wilms' tumor-1 (WT-1) staining is used to detect podocyte loss in kidney biopsies. We aimed to determine if urinary exosomal WT-1 could serve as a noninvasive biomarker of podocyte injury. We examined WT-1 by Western blot in a human podocyte-like cell line, a mouse model of podocyte injury, and human subjects with podocyte disorders. WT-1 was detected in exosomal fraction of the conditioned media from podocytes and increased 48 h after hTGF-β1 stimulation. Cellular WT-1 decreased in podocytes following hTGF-β1 incubation. In mice with induced podocyte injury, urinary exosomal WT-1 was detected 1 wk earlier than albuminuria and also tracked the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment. In addition, urinary exosomal WT-1 levels at 1 wk post-injury correlated with the severity of glomerular injury at 3 wk later. In human subjects, urinary exosomal WT-1 was significantly increased in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients compared with healthy volunteers or steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) patients. Urinary exosomal WT-1 was also significantly decreased in patients in remission for either FSGS or SSNS or following steroid treatment in six SSNS subjects. We conclude that urinary exosomal WT-1 is a promising noninvasive biomarker with apparent podocyte specificity that can detect early progression and treatment-induced regression of podocyte injury in FSGS or SSNS. These results warrant longitudinal, prospective studies in a large cohort with a range of podocyte diseases. PMID:23761678

  7. Urinary exosomal Wilms' tumor-1 as a potential biomarker for podocyte injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Hu, Xuzhen; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Vento, Suzanne; Frank, Rachel; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Trachtman, Howard; Star, Robert A; Yuen, Peter S T

    2013-08-15

    Renal Wilms' tumor-1 (WT-1) staining is used to detect podocyte loss in kidney biopsies. We aimed to determine if urinary exosomal WT-1 could serve as a noninvasive biomarker of podocyte injury. We examined WT-1 by Western blot in a human podocyte-like cell line, a mouse model of podocyte injury, and human subjects with podocyte disorders. WT-1 was detected in exosomal fraction of the conditioned media from podocytes and increased 48 h after hTGF-β1 stimulation. Cellular WT-1 decreased in podocytes following hTGF-β1 incubation. In mice with induced podocyte injury, urinary exosomal WT-1 was detected 1 wk earlier than albuminuria and also tracked the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment. In addition, urinary exosomal WT-1 levels at 1 wk post-injury correlated with the severity of glomerular injury at 3 wk later. In human subjects, urinary exosomal WT-1 was significantly increased in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients compared with healthy volunteers or steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) patients. Urinary exosomal WT-1 was also significantly decreased in patients in remission for either FSGS or SSNS or following steroid treatment in six SSNS subjects. We conclude that urinary exosomal WT-1 is a promising noninvasive biomarker with apparent podocyte specificity that can detect early progression and treatment-induced regression of podocyte injury in FSGS or SSNS. These results warrant longitudinal, prospective studies in a large cohort with a range of podocyte diseases. PMID:23761678

  8. Association of Wilms' tumor 1 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism rs16754 with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SANGKHATHAT, SURASAK; MANEECHAY, WANWISA; CHAIYAPAN, WELAWEE; KANNGERN, SAMORNMAS; BOONPIPATTANAPONG, TEERANUT

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Our recent study demonstrated that the expression of Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) is associated with surgical outcome in CRC patients. The present study aimed to investigate the genetic association of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs16754 in the WT1 gene with the occurrence of CRC, using an age-matched case-control study design. In addition, the correlation between genotype and WT1 expression was investigated. Genomic DNA samples from 104 CRC cases, aged 15–65 years, and 208 healthy controls, were genotyped for rs16754 using the TaqMan genotyping method. The genotype distribution conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=0.80). The overall minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs16754 (allele A) was 0.33. The MAF among CRC cases was significantly higher compared with that in controls (0.39 vs. 0.31, respectively; P=0.03). The AA genotype was significantly associated with the disease (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–5.07, P=0.01). Cases with the AA genotype exhibited a significantly poorer 3-year overall survival (60%), compared with those with the GG or GA genotypes (80%) (log-rank test, P<0.01). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of WT1 in tumor tissues was higher compared with that in normal tissue; however, there were no significant differences in its expression among different genotypes. Therefore, rs16754 was found to be associated with the occurrence and prognosis of CRC in our subjects. PMID:26807256

  9. Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Jun, Lu; Gang, Li; Lan, Cao; Na-Na, Wang; Xiao-Juan, Du; Li-Chao, Sun; Wen-Li, Zhao; Pei-Fang, Xiao; He, Zhao; Guang-Hao, Su; Yan-Hong, Li; Yi-Ping, Li; Yun-Yun, Xu; Hui-Ting, Zhou; Yi, Wu; Mei-Fang, Jin; Lin, Liu; Jian, Ni; Shao-Yan, Hu; Xue-Ming, Zhu; Xing, Feng; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC. Conclusions LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new “network” of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators

  10. Effect of abdominal irradiation on growth in boys treated for a Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Swindell, R.; Gattamaneni, H.R. )

    1990-01-01

    To study the effect of abdominal irradiation on spinal growth in childhood we have measured final height, sitting height, and leg length in 30 male survivors of a Wilms' tumor. Twenty-one patients received whole abdominal irradiation by either megavoltage therapy (MV: n = 11) or orthovoltage therapy (OV: n = 10); the remainder received flank irradiation. To examine the effect of the adolescent growth spurt on the irradiated spine we have followed prospectively seven patients who received whole abdominal irradiation and nine patients who received flank irradiation through puberty. Compared to a normal population there is a modest reduction in median final standing height SDS (H.SDS: -1.15) accompanied by a marked reduction in median final sitting height SDS (S.HT SDS: -2.41) with no apparent effect on median subischial leg length SDS (SILL.SDS: 0.04). This reduction in spinal growth is reflected by a strongly positive disproportion score (DPS; (SILL SDS-S.HT SDS) + 2.81). The incidence of scoliosis after abdominal irradiation has been low (10%). During puberty there is a significant fall in median sitting height SDS after both whole abdominal (median fall: -0.9, P = 0.02) and flank irradiation (median fall: -1.85, P = 0.01), and this is reflected in a significant increase in disproportion (DPS: whole abdominal; median rise +1.4, P = 0.02: flank, median rise +1.34, P = 0.01). After MV irradiation there is a significant correlation between the degree of disproportion and the age at treatment (P less than 0.0005). The younger the patient is at treatment the more severe is the restriction on spinal growth and the shorter and more disproportionate they become as an adult. The estimated eventual loss in potential height from abdominal irradiation at the age of one is 10 cm and at five years is 7 cm.

  11. Evaluation of Late Adverse Events in Long-Term Wilms' Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Dijk, Irma van; Oldenburger, Foppe; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Geenen, Maud M.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in long-term Wilms' tumor (WT) survivors, with special attention to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The single-center study cohort consisted of 185 WT survivors treated between 1966 and 1996, who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. All survivors were invited to a late-effects clinic for medical assessment of AEs. AEs were graded for severity in a standardized manner. Detailed radiotherapy data enabled us to calculate the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) to compare radiation doses in a uniform way. Risk factors were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Medical follow-up was complete for 98% of survivors (median follow-up, 18.9 years; median attained age, 22.9 years); 123 survivors had 462 AEs, of which 392 had Grade 1 or 2 events. Radiotherapy to flank/abdomen increased the risk of any AE (OR, 1.08 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.04-1.13]). Furthermore, radiotherapy to flank/abdomen was associated with orthopedic events (OR, 1.09 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.05-1.13]) and second tumors (OR, 1.11 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.03-1.19]). Chest irradiation increased the risk of pulmonary events (OR, 1.14 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.06-1.21]). Both flank/abdominal and chest irradiation were associated with cardiovascular events (OR, 1.05 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.00-1.10], OR, 1.06 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.01-1.12]) and tissue hypoplasia (OR, 1.17 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.10-1.24], OR 1.10 Gy{sup -1} [CI, 1.03-1.18]). Conclusion: The majority of AEs, overall as well as in irradiated survivors, were mild to moderate. Nevertheless, the large amount of AEs emphasizes the importance of follow-up programs for WT survivors.

  12. Generation and Cryopreservation of Clinical Grade Wilms' Tumor 1 mRNA-Loaded Dendritic Cell Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smits, Evelien L J M; Stein, Barbara; Nijs, Griet; Lion, Eva; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F; Willemen, Yannick; Anguille, Sébastien; Berneman, Zwi N

    2016-01-01

    First described in the 1970s, dendritic cells (DC) are currently subjects of intense investigation to exploit their unique antigen-presenting and immunoregulatory capacities. In cancer, DC show promise to elicit or amplify immune responses directed against cancer cells by activating natural killer (NK) cells and tumor antigen-specific T cells. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) protein is a tumor-associated antigen that is expressed in a majority of cancer types and has been designated as an antigen of major interest to be targeted in clinical cancer immunotherapy trials. In this chapter, we describe the generation, cryopreservation, and thawing of clinical grade autologous monocyte-derived DC vaccines that are loaded with WT1 by messenger RNA (mRNA) electroporation. This in-house-developed transfection method gives rise to presentation of multiple antigen epitopes and can be used for all patients without restriction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. PMID:27033213

  13. Heterogeneity of Disease Classified as Stage III in Wilms Tumor: A Report From the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Spreafico, Filippo; Gandola, Lorenza; Terenziani, Monica; Collini, Paola; Bianchi, Maurizio; Provenzi, Massimo; Indolfi, Paolo; Pession, Andrea; Nantron, Marilina; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Marchiano, Alfonso; Piva, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed whether the prognosis can differ among Wilms tumors (WT) labeled as Stage III according to currently adopted classification systems. Methods and Materials: Patients with nonanaplastic Stage III WT consecutively registered in two Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) trials (CNR-92, TW-2003) were the subjects in the present analysis. The steady mainstay of therapy was primary nephrectomy, followed by three-drug chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, and abdominal radiotherapy (RT). Results: Ninety-nine WT patients met the criteria for classification as Stage III according to a revised version of the National Wilms Tumor Study-3 staging system (51 patients in CNR-92, 48 patients in TW-2003). Regional lymph nodes (LN) were not biopsied in 16 patients. After a median follow-up of 66 months, the 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 85% {+-} 4% and 92% {+-} 3%, respectively, for the whole group. For 38 children with positive LN, the 4-year DFS rate was 73% {+-} 7%, as opposed to 98% {+-} 2% for the 45 children with Stage III WT according to the other criteria but with negative biopsied LN (p = 0.001). The subgroup with the worst prognosis consisted of children more than 2 years old with positive LN (DFS 67% {+-} 8%). A delay between surgery and RT > 30 days had an adverse impact on the abdominal tumor relapse rate. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that Stage III tumors with LN metastases might be distinguished from WTs meeting the other criteria for classification as Stage III. The worse outcome of the former may warrant a prospective study on the effects of intensified therapy. A subclassification of Stage III tumors is discussed.

  14. Synthetic peptides derived from the Wilms' tumor 1 protein sensitize human T lymphocytes to recognize chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ludmila; Knights, Ashley; Pawelec, Graham

    2003-01-01

    The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) molecule was screened in silico for the presence of 15-mer sequences predicted to bind HLA-DRB1(*)0401 (www.syfpeithi.de). Two peptides with the highest binding scores were synthesized (WT12e, PQQMGSDVRDLNALL and WT331, NKRYFKLSHLQMHSR). In vitro sensitization experiments using PBMC and the 15-mer peptides yielded peptide-specific responses against both WT12e and WT331 from six of seven healthy donors. Moreover, four of four different primary CML cell preparations were directly recognized by five different T cell lines, as assessed by IFN-gamma release. These responses were to a great extent blocked by anti-DR monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that WT1 peptides can be selected that are immunogenic for class II-restricted T-cell responses to native tumor cells, and indicate that they may find application in active immunotherapy of CML. PMID:12692522

  15. Expression profile of Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) isoforms in undifferentiated and all-trans retinoic acid differentiated neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Rasà, Daniela Maria; Reitano, Rita; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Parenti, Rosalba; Magro, Gaetano; D'Agata, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) is a tumor suppressor gene originally identified in nephroblastoma. It is also expressed in neuroblastoma which represents the most aggressive extracranial pediatric tumor. Many evidences have shown that neuroblastoma may undergo maturation, by transforming itself in a more differentiated tumors such as ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma, or progressing into a highly aggressive metastatic malignancy. To date, 13 WT1 mRNA alternative splice variants have been identified. However, most of the studies have focused their attention only on isoform of ∼49 kDa. In the present study, it has been investigated the expression pattern of WT1 isoforms in an in vitro model of neuroblastoma consisting in undifferentiated or all-trans retinoic acid (RA) differentiated cells. These latter representing the less malignant phenotype of this tumor. Results have demonstrated that WT1.1-WT1.5, WT1.6-WT1.9, WT1.10 WT1.11-WT1.12 and WT1.13 isoforms are expressed in both groups of cells, but their levels are significantly increased after RA treatment. These data have also been confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. Moreover, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK, that represent two signalling pathway specifically involved in NB differentiation, induces an overexpression of WT1 isoforms. These data suggest that WT1 isoforms might be involved in differentiation of neuroblastic into mature ganglion cells. PMID:27014421

  16. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-mediated silencing of KCNQ1OT1 expression induces cell death in Wilms' tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Sugito, Kiminobu; Uekusa, Shota; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Reina; Watanabe, Yosuke; Hirano, Takayuki; Furuya, Takeshi; Masuko, Takayuki; Ueno, Takahiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Soma, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Toshinori; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-07-01

    KvDMR (an intronic CpG island within the KCNQ1 gene) is one of the imprinting control regions on human chromosome 11p15.5. Since KvDMR exists within the promoter region of KCNQ1OT1 (antisense transcript of KCNQ1), it is likely that genomic alterations of this region including deletion, paternal uniparental disomy and de-methylation in maternal allele lead to aberrant overexpression of KCNQ1OT1. Indeed, de-methylation of KvDMR accompanied by uncontrolled overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 occurs frequently in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), and around 10% of BWS patients developed embryonal tumors (Wilms' tumor or hepatoblastoma). These observations strongly suggest that silencing of KCNQ1OT1 expression might suppress its oncogenic potential. In the present study, we designed two pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides, termed PI-a and PI-b, which might have the ability to bind to CCAAT boxes of the KCNQ1OT1 promoter region, and investigated their possible antitumor effect on Wilms' tumor-derived G401 cells. Gel retardation assay demonstrated that PI-a and PI-b specifically bind to their target sequences. Microscopic observations showed the efficient nuclear access of these PI polyamides. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of KCNQ1OT1 was significantly decreased when treated with PI-a and PI-b simultaneously but not with either PI-a or PI-b single treatment. Consistent with these results, the combination of PI-a and PI-b resulted in a significant reduction in viability of G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, FACS analysis demonstrated that combinatory treatment with PI-a and PI-b induces cell death as compared with control cells. Taken together, our present observations strongly suggest that the combinatory treatment with PI polyamides targeting KCNQ1OT1 might be a novel therapeutic strategy to cure patients with tumors over-expressing KCNQ1OT1. PMID:25998555

  17. Expression of Wilms tumor gene in high risk neuroblastoma: complementary marker to tyrosine hydroxylase for detection of minimal residual disease

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Pauline M.; Olszewski, Marie; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Khan, Sana

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) is an enigmatic tumor that often presents with metastatic disease at diagnosis and it is this aggressive propensity which places it among the deadliest pediatric tumors despite intensive multimodal therapy including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have previously demonstrated that Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) is a surrogate marker of proliferation in leukemia. To determine the potential association between WT1 and a known marker of NB, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in this high risk group of patients. Methods A total of 141 random samples from 34 patients were obtained, at diagnosis (n=27), during therapy (n=95), in clinical remission (n=13), and at the time of relapse (n=6). Quantitative RT-PCR was used for the evaluation of the level of gene expression using specific primers. Results Although similar gene expressions were demonstrated in both controls when evaluating both genes, significant difference was found at each clinical time point. Furthermore, when comparing patient samples from diagnosis to clinical remission and diagnosis to clinical relapse, individual gene expression varied. WT1 demonstrated significance (P=0.0002) and insignificance (P=0.06) whereas TH remained non-significant (P=0.2, P=0.09) respectively. Conclusions WT1 gene is indicative of cellular proliferation in NB and for this reason it can be adjuvant to TH for the detection minimal residual disease (MRD). PMID:26835379

  18. Chromosomal anomalies at 1q, 3, 16q, and mutations of SIX1 and DROSHA genes underlie Wilms tumor recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Beatrice; Torri, Federica; Terenziani, Monica; Collini, Paola; Macciardi, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of children suffering from recurrent Wilms tumor (WT) develop resistance to salvage therapies. Hence the importance to disclose events driving tumor progression/recurrence. Future therapeutic trials, conducted in the setting of relapsing patients, will need to prioritize targets present in the recurrent lesions. Different studies identified primary tumor-specific signatures associated with poor prognosis. However, given the difficulty in recruiting specimens from recurrent WTs, little work has been done to compare the molecular profile of paired primary/recurrent diseases. We studied the genomic profile of a cohort of eight pairs of primary/recurrent WTs through whole-genome SNP arrays, and investigated known WT-associated genes, including SIX1, SIX2 and micro RNA processor genes, whose mutations have been recently proposed as associated with worse outcome. Through this approach, we sought to uncover anomalies characterizing tumor recurrence, either acquired de novo or already present in the primary disease, and to investigate whether they overlapped with known molecular prognostic signatures. Among the aberrations that we disclosed as potentially acquired de novo in recurrences, some had been already recognized in primary tumors as associated with a higher risk of relapse. These included allelic imbalances of chromosome 1q and of chromosome 3, and CN losses on chromosome 16q. In addition, we found that SIX1 and DROSHA mutations can be heterogeneous events (both spatially and temporally) within primary tumors, and that their co-occurrence might be positively selected in the progression to recurrent disease. Overall, these results provide new insights into genomic and genetic events underlying WT progression/recurrence. PMID:26802027

  19. Chromosomal anomalies at 1q, 3, 16q, and mutations of SIX1 and DROSHA genes underlie Wilms tumor recurrences.

    PubMed

    Spreafico, Filippo; Ciceri, Sara; Gamba, Beatrice; Torri, Federica; Terenziani, Monica; Collini, Paola; Macciardi, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela

    2016-02-23

    Approximately half of children suffering from recurrent Wilms tumor (WT) develop resistance to salvage therapies. Hence the importance to disclose events driving tumor progression/recurrence. Future therapeutic trials, conducted in the setting of relapsing patients, will need to prioritize targets present in the recurrent lesions. Different studies identified primary tumor-specific signatures associated with poor prognosis. However, given the difficulty in recruiting specimens from recurrent WTs, little work has been done to compare the molecular profile of paired primary/recurrent diseases. We studied the genomic profile of a cohort of eight pairs of primary/recurrent WTs through whole-genome SNP arrays, and investigated known WT-associated genes, including SIX1, SIX2 and micro RNA processor genes, whose mutations have been recently proposed as associated with worse outcome. Through this approach, we sought to uncover anomalies characterizing tumor recurrence, either acquired de novo or already present in the primary disease, and to investigate whether they overlapped with known molecular prognostic signatures. Among the aberrations that we disclosed as potentially acquired de novo in recurrences, some had been already recognized in primary tumors as associated with a higher risk of relapse. These included allelic imbalances of chromosome 1q and of chromosome 3, and CN losses on chromosome 16q. In addition, we found that SIX1 and DROSHA mutations can be heterogeneous events (both spatially and temporally) within primary tumors, and that their co-occurrence might be positively selected in the progression to recurrent disease. Overall, these results provide new insights into genomic and genetic events underlying WT progression/recurrence. PMID:26802027

  20. Affinity maturation of T-cell receptor-like antibodies for Wilms tumor 1 peptide greatly enhances therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Tassev, Dimiter V.; Hasan, Aisha; Kuo, Tzu-Yun; Guo, Hong-fen; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    WT1126 (RMFPNAPYL) is a human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2) restricted peptide derived from Wilms tumor protein (WT1), which is widely expressed in a broad spectrum of leukemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. A novel T-cell-receptor (TCR)-like single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody specific for the T cell epitope consisting of the WT1/HLA-A2 complex was isolated from a human scFv phage library. This scFv was affinity-matured by mutagenesis combined with yeast display, and structurally analyzed using a homology model. This monovalent scFv showed a 100-fold affinity improvement (dissociation constant [KD]= 3nM) and exquisite specificity towards its targeted epitope or HLA-A2+/WT1+ tumor cells. Bivalent scFv-huIgG1-Fc fusion protein demonstrated an even higher avidity (KD = 2pM) binding to the T cell epitope and to tumor targets, and was capable of mediating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or tumor lysis by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing human T or NK-92-MI transfected cells. This antibody demonstrated specific and potent cytotoxicity in vivo towards WT1-positive leukemia xenograft that was HLA-A2 restricted. In summary, T cell epitopes can provide novel targets for antibody-based therapeutics. By combining phage and yeast displays and scFv-Fc fusion platforms, a strategy for developing high affinity TCR-like antibodies could be rapidly explored for potential clinical development. PMID:25987253

  1. Influence of Pulmonary Nodules on Chest Computed Tomography and Risk of Recurrence in Stage IV Wilms Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, Robert S.; Nanda, Ronica H.; Alazraki, Adina; Esiashvili, Natia

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Chest computed tomography (CT) is currently accepted as the main modality for initial disease staging and response assessment in Wilms tumor (WT). However, there is great variability in the number and size of lung metastases at the time of diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy. There is a lack of clinical evidence as to how this variability in tumor burden affects choice of therapy and disease outcome. This study sought to evaluate a previously proposed lung metastases risk stratification system based on CT findings and clinical outcomes in stage IV WT patients. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five pediatric patients with a diagnosis of stage IV WT with evaluable pre- and postdiagnosis CT scans between 1997 and 2012 were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories based on the size and number of pulmonary metastases before and after 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Association of the lung risk groups with lung recurrence-free survival and overall survival at each time point was analyzed with relevant covariates. Results: Risk group distribution both at diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy was not influenced by tumor histology. Initial risk grouping suggested an association with disease-free survival at 5 years (P=.074); however, the most significant correlation was with postinduction chemotherapy disease status (P=.027). In patients with an intermediate or high burden of disease after 6 weeks of chemotherapy, despite receiving whole-lung and boost irradiation, survival outcomes were poorer. Conclusions: Pulmonary tumor burden in stage IV WT on chest CT can predict disease outcome. Patients with intermediate- or low-risk disease, especially after induction therapy, have a higher risk for recurrence. After prospective validation, this method may become a valuable tool in adaptation of therapy to improve outcome.

  2. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  3. Alternative splicing of Wilms tumor suppressor 1 (Wt1) exon 4 results in protein isoforms with different functions.

    PubMed

    Schnerwitzki, Danny; Perner, Birgit; Hoppe, Beate; Pietsch, Stefan; Mehringer, Rebecca; Hänel, Frank; Englert, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene Wt1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that is essential for development of multiple organs including kidneys, gonads, spleen and heart. In mammals Wt1 comprises 10 exons with two characteristic splicing events: inclusion or skipping of exon 5 and alternative usage of two splice donor sites between exons 9 and 10. Most fish including zebrafish and medaka possess two wt1 paralogs, wt1a and wt1b, both lacking exon 5. Here we have characterized wt1 in guppy, platyfish and the short-lived African killifish Nothobranchius furzeri. All fish except zebrafish show alternative splicing of exon 4 of wt1a but not of wt1b with the wt1a(-exon 4) isoform being the predominant splice variant. With regard to function, Wt1a(+exon 4) showed less dimerization but stimulated transcription more effectively than the Wt1a(-exon 4) isoform. A specific knockdown of wt1a exon 4 in zebrafish was associated with anomalies in kidney development demonstrating a physiological function for Wt1a exon 4. Interestingly, alternative splicing of exon 4 seems to be an early evolutionary event as it is observed in the single wt1 gene of the sturgeon, a species that has not gone through teleost-specific genome duplication. PMID:25014653

  4. G1 phase arrest induced by Wilms tumor protein WT1 is abrogated by cyclin/CDK complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Kudoh, T; Ishidate, T; Moriyama, M; Toyoshima, K; Akiyama, T

    1995-01-01

    WT1, the Wilms tumor-suppressor gene, maps to the human chromosomal region 11p13 and encodes a transcriptional repressor, WT1, implicated in controlling normal urogenital development. Microinjection of the WT1 cDNA into quiescent cells or cells in early to mid G1 phase blocked serum-induced cell cycle progression into S phase. The activity of WT1 varied significantly depending on the presence or absence of an alternatively spliced region located upstream of the zinc finger domain. The inhibitory activity of WT1 was abrogated by the overexpression of cyclin E/CDK2 as well as cyclin D1/CDK4. Furthermore, both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activities were downregulated in cells overexpressing WT1, whereas the levels of CDK4, CDK2, and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged. These findings suggest that inhibition of the activity of cyclin/CDK complexes may be involved in mediating the WT1-induced cell cycle block. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7753836

  5. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Newly Diagnosed Sarcomas, Wilms Tumor, or Other Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Childhood Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Ewing Sarcoma; Hepatoblastoma; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Relapsed Solid Neoplasm; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor

  6. Social and biological factors influencing the outcomes of children with Wilms tumors in Kenya and other Sub-Saharan countries.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Kazuko; Kaneko, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is a common pediatric solid tumor, and the 5-year event-free survival rate of patients with this tumor has reached 85-90% in developed countries, whereas those in developing countries were reported to be less than 50%. To overcome these disparities, physicians and investigators in developed and developing countries are currently performing research with the aim of the better management of children with WT in Kenya and other Sub-Saharan countries. Axt and colleagues published a study that increased understanding of clinicopathology of WT in Kenya on the basis of a comprehensive web-based WT registry. The study revealed that patients enrolled in the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) showed better completion rate of therapy and better event-free survival than those not enrolled, indicating insufficient health coverage for those not enrolled in the NHIF. Approximately 20-30% of Kenyan population is estimated to be covered by some forms of health insurance, mostly by the NHIF. This could be improved through various approaches. The report described that 2-year event-free survival rate was 52.7% for all patients, although loss to follow up was 50%; the findings indicate large problems both in the study results and also in the completion of treatment. It is crucial to determine at which point patients stopped their treatment and why. The development of standardized treatment protocol for WT is an urgent agenda. We hope that researchers in developed countries and health providers in Kenya can work together in future to conquer disparities in the outcomes of children with WT. PMID:26835323

  7. Molecular cytogenetic anomalies and phenotype alterations in a newly established cell line from Wilms tumor with diffuse anaplasia.

    PubMed

    Faussillon, Marine; Murakami, Ichiro; Bichat, Magalie; Telvi, Louise; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Nezelof, Christian; Jaubert, Francis; Gogusev, Jean

    2008-07-01

    The novel continuous cell line WT-Pe.1 was established in vitro from Wilms tumor with histological features of diffuse anaplasia. The cultures grew as poorly differentiated epithelial-like cells with pleomorphic polygonal shapes and formation of typical monolayers. WT-Pe.1 cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin, vimentin, laminin, villin, CD10, and CD24 proteins. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by RHG-banding revealed a hypotriploid karyotype with numerous abnormalities including ring chromosomes, double-minutes, homogeneous staining regions, radial structures, dicentrics, and several marker chromosomes. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed DNA copy numbers losses on chromosome segments 1p, 3p, 6q, 9q34.1 approximately q34.3, 11q24 approximately q25, 14q12 approximately qter, 16q, 18q, and 22q11 approximately q13; gain of genomic material was localized on chromosome arms 1q, 4p, 6q, and 7p and the entire chromosome 12. With DNA from the original tumor, copy number losses were detected on chromosomes 1p, 14q, 16q, 17q, and 22q and gains were observed on 1q, 4p, 8q, 12p, 12q, and chromosome 14p. Copy number amplifications of distinct loci were found on 1q21.1 and 4p15.3, as well as an elevated copy number of cyclin D2 (CCND2) and cyclin D associated kinase (CDK4) genes on chromosome 12 (confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization). PMID:18558285

  8. A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, R W; See, R H; Sells, S F; Wang, J; Muthukkumar, S; Englert, C; Haber, D A; Licht, J D; Sugrue, S P; Roberts, T; Rangnekar, V M; Shi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The tumor suppressor WT1 represses and activates transcription. The loss and/or imbalance of the dual transcriptional activity of WT1 may contribute to Wilms' tumor. In this study, we identified par-4 (for prostate apoptosis response) as a WT1-interacting protein that itself functions as a transcriptional repressor. par-4 contains a putative leucine zipper domain and is specifically upregulated during apoptosis of prostate cells (S. F. Sells, D. P. Wood, Jr., S. S. Joshi-Barve, S. Muthukkumar, R. J. Jacob, S. A. Crist, S. Humphreys, and V. M. Rangnekar, Cell Growth Differ. 5:457-466, 1994). The leucine repeat domain of par-4 was shown to interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of WT1. Immunoprecipitation-Western blot (immunoblot) analyses demonstrated in vivo WT1-par-4 interactions. par-4 was ubiquitously expressed, and the protein was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Functionally, par-4 inhibited transcription activated by WT1, but not by the related protein EGR1. Inhibition of WT1-mediated transcription was dependent on the domain of par-4 that mediates its physical association with WT1. In addition, par-4 augmented WT1-mediated repression, possibly by contributing an additional repression domain. Consistent with these results, par-4 functioned as a transcriptional repressor when brought to a promoter via a heterologous DNA binding domain. Significantly, par-4, but not a mutant unable to interact with WT1, rescued growth suppression caused by WT1. Thus, we identified a novel repressor that modulates transcription as well as growth suppression functions of WT1. PMID:8943350

  9. Epigenetic changes encompassing the IGF2/H19 locus associated with relaxation of IGF2 imprinting and silencing of H19 in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, T; Sullivan, M J; Ogawa, O; Reeve, A E

    1995-01-01

    In most tissues IGF2 is expressed from the paternal allele while H19 is expressed from the maternal allele. We have previously shown that in some Wilms tumors the maternal IGF2 imprint is relaxed such that the gene is expressed biallelically. We have now investigated this subset of tumors further and found that biallelic expression of IGF2 was associated with undetectable or very low levels of H19 expression. The relaxation of IGF2 imprinting in Wilms tumors also involved a concomitant reversal in the patterns of DNA methylation of the maternally inherited IGF2 and H19 alleles. Furthermore, the only specific methylation changes that occurred in tumors with relaxation of IGF2 imprinting were solely restricted to the maternal IGF2 and H19 alleles. These data suggest that there has been an acquisition of a paternal epigenotype in these tumors as the result of a pathologic disruption in the normal imprinting of the IGF2 and H19 genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7534414

  10. Advantages of Whole-liver Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Children With Wilms Tumor and Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Pokhrel, Damodar; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Zhang, Yunkai

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in children with Wilms tumor (WT) undergoing whole-liver (WL) RT. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography simulation scans of 10 children, either 3 (3D) or 4-dimensional (4D), were used for this study. The WL PTV was determined by the 3D or 4D liver volumes, with a margin of 1 cm. A total of 40 WL RT plans were performed: 10 each for left- and right-sided WT with IMRT and anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) techniques. The radiation dose-volume coverage of the WL planning target volume (PTV), remaining kidney, and other organs were analyzed and compared. Results: The 95% dose coverage to WL PTV for left and right WT were as follows: 97% ± 4% (IMRT), 83% ± 8% (AP-PA) (P<.01) and 99% ± 1% (IMRT), 94% ± 5% (AP-PA) (P<.01), respectively. When 3D WL PTV was used for RT planning, the AP-PA technique delivered 95% of dose to only 78% ± 13% and 88% ± 8% of 4D liver volume. For left WT, the right kidney V15 and V10 for IMRT were 29% ± 7% and 55% ± 8%, compared with 61% ± 29% (P<.01) and 78% ± 25% (P<.01) with AP-PA. For right WT, the left kidney V15 and V10 were 0 ± 0 and 2% ± 3% for IMRT, compared with 25% ± 19% (P<.01) and 40% ± 31% (P<.01) for AP-PA. Conclusions: The use of IMRT and 4D treatment planning resulted in the delivery of a higher RT dose to the liver compared with the standard AP-PA technique. Whole-liver IMRT also delivered a significantly lower dose to the remaining kidney.

  11. Emotional Functioning and School Contentment in Adolescent Survivors of Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Infratentorial Astrocytoma, and Wilms Tumor.

    PubMed

    Jóhannsdóttir, Inga M; Moum, Torbjørn; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Wesenberg, Finn; Hjorth, Lars; Schrøder, Henrik; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Jónmundsson, Gudmundur; Loge, Jon H

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Cancer in childhood may disrupt normal developmental processes and cause psychosocial problems in adolescent survivors of childhood cancers (ACCSs). Previous studies report inconsistent findings. Study aims were to assess subjective well-being (SWB), psychological distress, and school contentment in survivors of three dissimilar childhood cancers. Patients and methods: Nordic patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), infratentorial astrocytoma (IA), and Wilms tumor (WT) in childhood from 1985 to 2001, aged ≥1 year at diagnosis, and aged 13-18 years at the time of study were eligible for this questionnaire-based survey that included items on SWB, psychological distress, school contentment, self-esteem, and personality traits; 65% (151/231) responded. An age-equivalent group from a Norwegian health survey (n=7910) served as controls. Results: The median age of ACCSs was 16 years; 52% were males. ACCSs reported better SWB (p=0.004) and self-esteem (p<0.001). They had fewer social problems in school (p=0.004) and their school contentment tended to be higher than controls. SWB and school contentment were positively influenced by self-esteem. However, ACCSs reported higher levels of psychological distress (p=0.002), mostly attributable to general worrying. No significant differences in outcomes were found across diagnoses, and time since diagnosis did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: The overall emotional functioning of ACCSs was good, possibly due to changes in their perception of well-being after having survived a life-threatening disease. However, they seemed more worried than their peers. This may cause an additional strain at a vulnerable period in life. PMID:23610734

  12. TARGET Researchers Identify Mutations in SIX1/2 and microRNA Processing Genes in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    TARGET researchers molecularly characterized favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT), a pediatric renal cancer. Comprehensive genome and transcript analyses revealed single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in microRNA processing genes (15% of FHWT patients) and Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1/2 (SIX1/2) genes (7% of FHWT patients). SIX1/2 genes play a critical role in renal development and were not previously associated with FHWT, thus presenting a novel role for SIX1/2 pathway aberrations in this disease.

  13. Establishment of a Conditionally Immortalized Wilms Tumor Cell Line with a Homozygous WT1 Deletion within a Heterozygous 11p13 Deletion and UPD Limited to 11p15

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Artur; Löhers, Katharina; Beier, Manfred; Leube, Barbara; de Torres, Carmen; Mora, Jaume; Arora, Parineeta; Jat, Parmjit S.; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    We describe a stromal predominant Wilms tumor with focal anaplasia and a complex, tumor specific chromosome 11 aberration: a homozygous deletion of the entire WT1 gene within a heterozygous 11p13 deletion and an additional region of uniparental disomy (UPD) limited to 11p15.5-p15.2 including the IGF2 gene. The tumor carried a heterozygous p.T41A mutation in CTNNB1. Cells established from the tumor carried the same chromosome 11 aberration, but a different, homozygous p.S45Δ CTNNB1 mutation. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 3p21.3pter lead to the homozygous CTNNB1 mutation. The tumor cell line was immortalized using the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT) in conjunction with a novel thermolabile mutant (U19dl89-97tsA58) of SV40 large T antigen (LT). This cell line is cytogenetically stable and can be grown indefinitely representing a valuable tool to study the effect of a complete lack of WT1 in tumor cells. The origin/fate of Wilms tumors with WT1 mutations is currently poorly defined. Here we studied the expression of several genes expressed in early kidney development, e.g. FOXD1, PAX3, SIX1, OSR1, OSR2 and MEIS1 and show that these are expressed at similar levels in the parental and the immortalized Wilms10 cells. In addition the limited potential for muscle/ osteogenic/ adipogenic differentiation similar to all other WT1 mutant cell lines is also observed in the Wilms10 tumor cell line and this is retained in the immortalized cells. In summary these Wilms10 cells are a valuable model system for functional studies of WT1 mutant cells. PMID:27213811

  14. Outcomes of Patients With Revised Stage I Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies 1-5

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Seibel, Nita L.; Ritchey, Michael; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Grundy, Paul E.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of children with revised stage I clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) using the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTS)-5 staging criteria after multimodality treatment on NWTS 1-5 protocols. Methods and Materials: All CCSK patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study Group protocols had their pathology slides reviewed, and only those determined to have revised stage I tumors according to the NWTS-5 staging criteria were included in the present analysis. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS 1-5 protocols. Results: A total of 53 children were identified as having stage I CCSK. All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The chemotherapy regimens used were as follows: regimen A, C, F, or EE in 4 children (8%); regimen DD or DD4A in 33 children (62%); regimen J in 4 children (8%); and regimen I in 12 children (22%). Forty-six patients (87%) received flank radiation therapy (RT). Seven children (13%) did not receive flank RT. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days (range, 3-61). The median RT dose was 10.8 Gy (range, 10-36). The flank RT doses were as follows: 10.5 or 10.8 Gy in 25 patients (47%), 11-19.9 Gy in 2 patients (4%), 20-29.9 Gy in 9 patients (17%), and 30-40 Gy in 10 patients (19%). The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years (range, 2-36). The relapse-free and cancer-specific survival rate was 100% at the last follow-up examination. Conclusions: The present results have demonstrated that children with revised stage I CCSK using the NWTS-5 staging criteria have excellent survival rates despite the use of varying RT doses and chemotherapy regimens in the NWTS 1-5 protocols.

  15. Stages of Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste products and ... bacteria . Ultrasound exam : A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues ...

  16. Impriniting of human H19: Allele-specific CpG methylation, loss of the active allele in Wilms tumor, and potential for somatic allele switching

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Shields, T.; Crenshaw, T.; Hao, Y.; Moulton, T.; Tycko, B. )

    1993-07-01

    Genomic imprinting and monoallelic gene expression appear to play a role in human genetic disease and tumorigenesis. The human H19 gene, at chromosome 11p15, has previously been shown to be monoallelically expressed. Since CpG methylation has been implicated in imprinting, the authors analyzed methylation of H19 DNA. In fetal and adult organs the transcriptionally silent H19 allele was extensively hypermethylated through the entire gene and its promoter, and, consistent with a functional role for DNA methylation, expression of an H19 promoter-reporter construct was inhibited by in vitro methylation. Gynogenetic ovarian teratomas were found to contain only hypomethylated H19 DNA, suggesting that the expressed H19 allele might be maternal. This was confirmed by analysis of 11p15 polymorphisms in a patient with Wilms tumor. The tumor had lost the maternal 11p15, and H19 expression in the normal kidney was exclusively from this allele. Imprinting of human H19 appears to be susceptible to tissue-specific modulation in somatic development; in one individual, cerebellar cells were found to express only the otherwise silent allele. Implications of these findings for the role of DNA methylation in imprinting and for H19 as a candidate imprinted tumor-suppressor gene are discussed. 57 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Generation of a cord blood-derived Wilms Tumor 1 dendritic cell vaccine for AML patients treated with allogeneic cord blood transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de Haar, Colin; Plantinga, Maud; Blokland, Nina JG; van Til, Niek P; Flinsenberg, Thijs WH; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F; Smits, Evelien L; Boon, Louis; Spel, Lotte; Boes, Marianne; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Nierkens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The poor survival rates of refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) requires the development of additional immune therapeutic strategies. As the elicitation of tumor-antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is associated with reduced relapses and enhanced survival, enhanced priming of these CTLs using an anti-AML vaccine may result in long-term immunity against AML. Cord blood (CB), as allogeneic HCT source, may provide a unique setting for such post-HCT vaccination, considering its enhanced graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects and population of highly responsive naïve T cells. It is our goal to develop a powerful and safe immune therapeutic strategy composed of CB-HCT followed by vaccination with CB CD34+-derived dendritic cells (DCs) presenting the oncoprotein Wilms Tumor-1 (WT1), which is expressed in AML-blasts in the majority of patients. Here, we describe the optimization of a clinically applicable DC culture protocol. This two-step protocol consisting of an expansion phase followed by the differentiation toward DCs, enables us to generate sufficient cord blood-derived DCs (CBDCs) in the clinical setting. At the end of the culture, the CBDCs exhibit a mature surface phenotype, are able to migrate, express tumor antigen (WT1) after electroporation with mRNA encoding the full-length WT1 protein, and stimulate WT1-specific T cells. PMID:26451309

  18. A CTCF-binding silencer regulates the imprinted genes AWT1 and WT1-AS and exhibits sequential epigenetic defects during Wilms' tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Anne L; Brown, Keith W; Moorwood, Kim; Moon, Hanlim; Holmgren, Claes; Mardikar, Sudhanshu H; Dallosso, Anthony R; Klenova, Elena; Loukinov, Dmitri; Ohlsson, Rolf; Lobanenkov, Victor V; Malik, Karim

    2007-02-01

    We have shown previously that AWT1 and WT1-AS are functionally imprinted in human kidney. In the adult kidney, expression of both transcripts is restricted to the paternal allele, with the silent maternal allele retaining methylation at the WT1 antisense regulatory region (WT1 ARR). Here, we report characterization of the WT1 ARR differentially methylated region and show that it contains a transcriptional silencer element acting on both the AWT1 and WT1-AS promoters. DNA methylation of the silencer results in increased transcriptional repression, and the silencer is also shown to be an in vitro and in vivo target site for the imprinting regulator protein CTCF. Binding of CTCF is methylation-sensitive and limited to the unmethylated silencer. Potentiation of the silencer activity is demonstrated after CTCF protein is knocked down, suggesting a novel silencer-blocking activity for CTCF. We also report assessment of WT1 ARR methylation in developmental and tumour tissues, including the first analysis of Wilms' tumour precursor lesions, nephrogenic rests. Nephrogenic rests show increases in methylation levels relative to foetal kidney and reductions relative to the adult kidney, together with biallelic expression of AWT1 and WT1-AS. Notably, the methylation status of CpG residues within the CTCF target site appears to distinguish monoallelic and biallelic expression states. Our data suggest that failure of methylation spreading at the WT1 ARR early in renal development, followed by imprint erasure, occurs during Wilms' tumourigenesis. We propose a model wherein imprinting defects at chromosome 11p13 may contribute to Wilms' tumourigenesis. PMID:17210670

  19. Association of chromosome arm 16q loss with loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Stephanie K; Lobanenkov, Victor A; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2005-06-01

    The most common known molecular defect in Wilms tumor (WT) of the kidney, the most frequent solid tumor of childhood, is loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2), which involves activation of the normally silent maternal allele of the gene and hypermethylation of a differentially methylated region upstream of the H19 gene. Hypermethylation impairs binding of the insulator protein CTCF, allowing activation of IGF2 by an enhancer shared between IGF2 and H19. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 16q22.1 is found in 15% of WTs, and 16q22.1 harbors CTCF, raising the possibility that reduced CTCF could lead to LOI of IGF2 in some cases. We hypothesized that there is an association between LOH of 16q and LOI of IGF2 in WT. In 40 WTs examined, LOH of 16q was found in five, one of which also showed LOH of 11p15. All of the remaining four tumors showed LOI of IGF2, compared to 13 of 32 WTs without LOH of 16q or 11p (P = 0.040). When published data not previously analyzed in this manner were included, 6 of 6 tumors with 16q LOH (and without LOH of 11p) showed LOI of IGF2, compared to 24 of 52 without LOH (P = 0.015). Thus, a genetic (16q LOH) and an epigenetic (LOI of IGF2) alteration in WT are linked, the first such association described. Finally, haploinsufficiency of CTCF may be the basis of this association, given that CTCF expression in tumors with 16q LOH was 48% that of tumors without LOH. PMID:15761865

  20. Coding mutations in p57KIP2 are present in some cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome but are rare or absent in Wilms tumors.

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, D; Dao, D; Zhao, L; Sanderson, R; Warburton, D; Weiss, L; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Tycko, B

    1997-01-01

    The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is marked by fetal organ overgrowth and conveys a predisposition to certain childhood tumors, including Wilms tumor (WT). The genetics of BWS have implicated a gene that maps to chromosome 11p15 and is paternally imprinted, and the gene encoding the cyclin-cdk inhibitor p57KIP2 has been a strong candidate. By complete sequencing of the coding exons and intron/exon junctions, we found a maternally transmitted coding mutation in the cdk-inhibitor domain of the KIP2 gene in one of five cases of BWS. The BWS mutation was an in-frame three-amino-acid deletion that significantly reduced but did not fully abrogate growth-suppressive activity in a transfection assay. In contrast, no somatic coding mutations in KIP2 were found in a set of 12 primary WTs enriched for cases that expressed KIP2 mRNA, including cases with and without 11p15.5 loss of heterozygosity. Two other 11p15.5 loci, the linked and oppositely imprinted H19 and IGF2 genes, have been previously implicated in WT pathogenesis, and several of the tumors with persistent KIP2 mRNA expression and absence of KIP2 coding mutations showed full inactivation of H19. These data suggest that KIP2 is a BWS gene but that it is not uniquely equivalent to the 11p15.5 "WT2" tumor-suppressor locus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9311733

  1. A clinical and immunologic phase 2 trial of Wilms tumor gene product 1 (WT1) peptide vaccination in patients with AML and MDS.

    PubMed

    Keilholz, Ulrich; Letsch, Anne; Busse, Antonia; Asemissen, Anne Marie; Bauer, Sandra; Blau, Igor Wolfgang; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Uharek, Lutz; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2009-06-25

    This study investigated the immunogenicity of Wilms tumor gene product 1 (WT1)-peptide vaccination in WT1-expressing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients without curative treatment option. Vaccination consisted of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor subcutaneously days 1 to 4, and WT1.126-134 peptide and 1 mg keyhole limpet hemocyanin on day 3. The initial 9 patients received 4 vaccinations biweekly, then monthly, and the subsequent 10 patients received continual biweekly vaccination. Seventeen AML patients and 2 refractory anemia with excess blasts patients received a median of 11 vaccinations. Treatment was well tolerated. Objective responses in AML patients were 10 stable diseases (SDs) including 4 SDs with more than 50% blast reduction and 2 with hematologic improvement. An additional 4 patients had clinical benefit after initial progression, including 1 complete remission and 3 SDs. WT1 mRNA levels decreased at least 3-fold from baseline in 35% of patients. In 8 of 18 patients, WT1-tetramer(+) T cells increased in blood and in 8 of 17 patients in bone marrow, with a median frequency in bone marrow of 0.18% at baseline and 0.41% in week 18. This WT1 vaccination study provides immunologic, molecular, and preliminary evidence of potential clinical efficacy in AML patients, warranting further investigations. PMID:19389880

  2. CD8 T-cell responses to Wilms tumor gene product WT1 and proteinase 3 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Letsch, Anne; Thiel, Eckhard; Schmittel, Alexander; Mailaender, Volker; Baerwolf, Steffi; Nagorsen, Dirk; Keilholz, Ulrich

    2002-09-15

    Wilms tumor gene product WT1 and proteinase 3 are overexpressed antigens in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), against which cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be elicited in vitro and in murine models. We performed this study to investigate whether WT1- and proteinase 3-specific CD8 T cells spontaneously occur in AML patients. T cells recognizing HLA-A2.1-binding epitopes from WT1 or proteinase 3 could be detected ex vivo in 5 of 15 HLA-A2-positive AML patients by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and flow cytometry for intracellular IFN-gamma and in 3 additional patients by flow cytometry only. T cells producing IFN-gamma in response to proteinase 3 were further characterized in one patient by 4-color flow cytometry, identifying them as CD3(+)CD8(+)CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) T cells, resembling cytotoxic effector T cells. In line with this phenotype, most of the WT1- and proteinase-reactive T cells were granzyme B(+). These results provide for the first time evidence for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against defined antigens in AML patients. These data therefore support the immunogenicity of WT1 and proteinase 3 in acute leukemia patients and the potential usefulness of these antigens for leukemia vaccines. PMID:12200377

  3. Phase I pilot study of Wilms tumor gene 1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination combined with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Shuhei; Kitago, Minoru; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Tatsuo; Fujita, Tomonobu; Higuchi, Hajime; Taguchi, Junichi; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Itano, Osamu; Aiura, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yasuo; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Okamoto, Masato; Sunamura, Makoto; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of and immune response to Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination combined with gemcitabine (DCGEM) as a first-line therapy among patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Ten HLA-A*2402 patients were treated with WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccination (1 × 10(7) cells) on days 8 and 22 and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) ) on days 1, 8 and 15. Induction of a WT1-specific immune response was evaluated using the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test, interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and HLA tetramer assays, along with assays for various immunological factors. DCGEM was well-tolerated, and the relative dose intensity of gemcitabine was 87%. Disease control associated with a low neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was observed in all three patients with DTH positivity; it was also correlated with a low percentage of granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells in the pretreatment peripheral blood (P = 0.017). Patients with liver metastases and high levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-8 (IL-8) showed poor survival even though a WT1-specific immune response was induced in them. WT1 peptide-pulsed DCGEM is feasible and effective for inducing anti-tumor T-cell responses. Our results support future investigations for pancreatic cancer patients with non-liver metastases and favorable immunological conditions. This trial was registered with the University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ number: UMIN-000004855). PMID:25614082

  4. Wilms Tumor 1 Expression and Pre-emptive Immunotherapy in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing an Allogeneic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Di Grazia, Carmen; Pozzi, Sarah; Geroldi, Simona; Grasso, Raffaella; Miglino, Maurizio; Colombo, Nicoletta; Tedone, Elisabetta; Luchetti, Silvia; Lamparelli, Teresa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ibatici, Adalberto; Bregante, Stefania; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Dominietto, Alida; Varaldo, Riccardo; Galaverna, Federica; Ghiso, Anna; Sica, Simona; Bacigalupo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) was monitored by Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) expression in 207 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after an allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as a trigger to initiate pre-emptive immunotherapy (IT) with cyclosporin discontinuation and/or donor lymphocyte infusion. The trigger for IT was WT1 ≥ 180 copies/10(4) Abelson cells in marrow cells in the first group of 122 patients (WT1-180) and ≥ 100 copies in a subsequent group of 85 patients (WT1-100). Forty patients received IT. The cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse was 76% in WT1-180 (n = 17) versus 29% in WT1-100 patients (n = 23) receiving IT (P = .006); the leukemia-free survival from MRD positivity was 23% versus 74%, respectively (P = .003). We then looked at the entire AML patient population (n = 207). WT1-180 and WT1-100 patients were comparable for disease phase and age. The overall 4-year CI of transplantation-related mortality was 13% in both groups; the CI of leukemia relapse was 38% in the WT1-180 and 28% in the WT1-100 patients (P = .05) and leukemia-free survival was 56% versus 48%, respectively (P = .07). In conclusion, we suggests that WT1-based pre-emptive immunotherapy is feasible in patients with undergoing an allogeneic HSCT. The protective effect on relapse is greater when IT is triggered at lower levels of WT1. PMID:26970379

  5. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study12

    PubMed Central

    Gadd, Samantha; Huff, Vicki; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Ruteshouser, E Cristy; Dome, Jeffrey S; Grundy, Paul E; Breslow, Norman; Jennings, Lawrence; Green, Daniel M; Beckwith, J Bruce; Perlman, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Wilms tumors (WT) have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs. PMID:22952427

  6. A recessive syndrome of intellectual disability, moderate overgrowth, and renal dysplasia predisposing to Wilms tumor is caused by a mutation in FIBP gene.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Nadia; Ben-Salem, Salma; Lahti, Laura; Partanen, Juha; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-08-01

    Clinical classification of overgrowth syndromes represents a challenge since a wide spectrum of disorders result in marked overgrowth. Therefore, there is a continuous effort to identify the genetic basis of these disorders that will eventually facilitate their molecular classification. Here, we have identified the genetic etiology and the pathogenetic mechanism underlying a rare autosomal recessive overgrowth syndrome in three affected siblings. The overgrowth phenotype in the patients was accompanied by developmental delay, learning disabilities, and variable congenital abnormalities. To elucidate the genetic etiology of the disorder, whole-genome genotyping and whole-exome sequencing were used. The disease was mapped to 3p21.1-p14.2 and 11q13.1-q13.4, where an in-frame insertion (c.175_176insTAA) in FIBP gene was revealed. The resulting indel (p.H59LN) was predicted to change the protein conformation with likely deleterious effect on its function as one of the fibroblast growth factor signaling mediators. In vitro cellular proliferation assay and in situ hypridization in vivo were then performed to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The patients' skin fibroblasts showed an increased proliferation capacity compared to the controls' explaining the observed overgrowth phenotype. In addition, we detected Fibp expression most notably in the brains of mice embryos suggesting a possible effect on cognitive functions early in development. To date, only one patient has been reported with a homozygous nonsense mutation in FIBP exhibiting an overgrowth syndrome with multiple congenital abnormalities. Taken all together, these findings provide convincing evidence implicating FIBP aberrations in the newly recognized overgrowth syndrome and expand the associated phenotypes to include possible Wilms tumor predisposition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27183861

  7. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Patients With High-Risk Kidney Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Renal Wilms Tumor

  8. C2H2 zinc finger proteins of the SP/KLF, Wilms tumor, EGR, Huckebein, and Klumpfuss families in metazoans and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-11-15

    Specificity proteins (SPs) and Krüppel-Like Factors (KLFs) are C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors that play essential roles in differentiation, development, proliferation and cell death. SP/KLF proteins, similarly to Wilms tumor protein 1 (WT1), Early Growth Response (EGR), Huckebein, and Klumpfuss, prefer to bind GC-rich sequences such as GC-box and CACCC-box (GT-box). We searched various genomes and transcriptomes of metazoans and single-cell holozoans for members of these families. Seven groups of KLFs (KLFA-G) and three groups of SPs (SPA-C) were identified in the three lineages of Bilateria (Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa). The last ancestor of jawed vertebrates was inferred to have at least 18 KLFs (group A: KLF1/2/4/17, group B: KLF3/8/12; group C: KLF5/5l; group D: KLF6/7; group E: KLF9/13/16; group F: KLF10/KLF11; group G: KLF15/15l) and 10 SPs (group A: SP1/2/3/4; group B: SP5/5l; group C: SP6/7/8/9), since they were found in both cartilaginous and boned fishes. Placental mammals have added KLF14 (group E) and KLF18 (group A), and lost KLF5l (KLF5-like) and KLF15l (KLF15-like). Multiple KLF members were found in basal metazoans (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, and Cnidaria). Ctenophora has the least number of KLFs and no SPs, which could be attributed to its proposed sister group relationship to other metazoans or gene loss. While SP, EGR and Klumpfuss were only detected in metazoans, KLF, WT1, and Huckebein are present in nonmetazoan holozoans. Of the seven metazoan KLF groups, only KLFG, represented by KLF15 in human, was found in nonmetazoans. In addition, two nonmetazoan groups of KLFs are present in Choanoflagellatea and Filasterea. WT1 could be evolutionarily the earliest among these GC/GT-box-binding families due to its sole presence in Ichthyosporea. PMID:26187067

  9. How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the radioactivity and creates a picture of the skeleton. Younger children may be given medicine to help ... changes will appear as hot spots on the skeleton. These areas may suggest cancer in an area, ...

  10. MedlinePlus: Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Multilocular Cystic Nephroma: A Systematic ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  11. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal ultrasound. An ultrasound transducer connected to a computer is pressed against the skin of the abdomen. ... tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture). CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that ...

  12. Safety and tolerability of allogeneic dendritic cell vaccination with induction of Wilms tumor 1-specific T cells in a pediatric donor and pediatric patient with relapsed leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoji; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Higuchi, Yumiko; Koya, Terutsugu; Yoshizawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Miyuki; Sakashita, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kurata, Takashi; Hirabayashi, Koichi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Shiohara, Masaaki; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Masato; Sugiyama, Haruo; Koike, Kenichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka

    2015-03-01

    A 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received allogeneic dendritic cell vaccination, pulsed with Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptide, after her third hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The vaccines were generated from the third HSCT donor, who was her younger sister, age 12 years. The patient received 14 vaccines and had no graft-versus-host disease or systemic adverse effect, aside from grade 2 skin reaction at the injection site. WT1-specific immune responses were detected after vaccination by both WT1-tetramer analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. This strategy may be safe, tolerable and even feasible for patients with a relapse after HSCT. PMID:25484308

  13. A Study of CD45RA+ Depleted Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Children With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors and Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-15

    Ewing Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Tumor; Germ Cell Tumor; Hepatic Tumor; Lymphoma; Wilms Tumor; Rhabdoid Tumor; Clear Cell Carcinoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Melanoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Non-rhabdomyosarcoma

  14. "Wilms Tumor Protein 1" (WT1) peptide vaccination-induced complete remission in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia is accompanied by the emergence of a predominant T-cell clone both in blood and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Fusi, Alberto; Busse, Antonia; Bauer, Sandra; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Stather, David; Thiel, Eckhard; Keilholz, Ulrich; Letsch, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Within the last few years, the first peptide vaccination trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been initiated. Athough the presence of epitope-specific T cells could be seen both in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB), nothing is known about their clonal composition. In this study, we analyzed material from a patient with recurrent AML vaccinated with "Wilms Tumor Protein 1" (WT1) peptide, who achieved a complete remission (CR) lasting for 12 months. For identification of expanded WT1-specific T-cell clones, enrichment by tetramer and IFNγ secretion were followed by comparative quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qRT PCR) quantification of all TCR Vβ-families. Vβ-families with increase in the enriched fraction were cloned and sequenced. A predominant clone was quantified by clonotypic qRT PCR from PB and BM. Quantity and functionality of WT1-specific cells were assessed by tetramer analyses and intracellular IFNγ staining. A specific predominant clone was identified during clinical remission. Clone-specific qRT PCR showed an increase both in PB and BM after 8 vaccinations. Six months after achieving CR, the transcript levels in BM decreased. Relapse was accompanied by secondary rise of the WT1-specific clone in PB but not in BM. In parallel, a lack of vaccine-induced WT1 specific IFNγ production was observed at that timepoint. In conclusion, we provide first data regarding evolution and compartmentalization of a peptide vaccine-induced T-cell clone in PB and BM of an AML patient. At the time of relapse, the same clone reappeared spontaneously in PB but not in BM showing impaired functionality. PMID:21150716

  15. Simvastatin With Topotecan and Cyclophosphamide in Relapsed and/or Refractory Pediatric Solid and CNS Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Germ Cell Tumors; Ewings Sarcoma; Non-rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Regulators of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kessenbrock, Kai; Plaks, Vicki; Werb, Zena

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular proteolysis mediates tissue homeostasis. In cancer, altered proteolysis leads to unregulated tumor growth, tissue remodeling, inflammation, tissue invasion, and metastasis. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis. Recent technological developments have markedly advanced our understanding of MMPs as modulators of the tumor microenvironment. In addition to their role in extracellular matrix turnover and cancer cell migration, MMPs regulate signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, or angiogenesis and may even work in a nonproteolytic manner. These aspects of MMP function are reorienting our approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:20371345

  17. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  18. Myeloid cell-driven angiogenesis and immune regulation in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Lee B.; Bergers, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer as its induction is indispensable to fuel an expanding tumor. The tumor microenvironment contributes to tumor vessel growth, and distinct myeloid cells recruited by the tumor have been shown to not only support angiogenesis but to foster an immune suppressive environment that supports tumor expansion and progression. Recent findings suggest that the intertwined regulation of angiogenesis and immune modulation can offer therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of cancer. Here we review the mechanisms by which distinct myeloid cell populations contribute to tumor angiogenesis, discuss current approaches in the clinic that are targeting both angiogenic and immune suppressive pathways, and highlight important areas of future research. PMID:25770923

  19. Mitochondrial Akt Regulation of Hypoxic Tumor Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Chan; Vaira, Valentina; Caino, M Cecilia; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Seo, Jae Ho; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Ottobrini, Luisa; Martelli, Cristina; Lucignani, Giovanni; Bertolini, Irene; Locatelli, Marco; Bryant, Kelly G; Ghosh, Jagadish C; Lisanti, Sofia; Ku, Bonsu; Bosari, Silvano; Languino, Lucia R; Speicher, David W; Altieri, Dario C

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia is a universal driver of aggressive tumor behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Using a phosphoproteomics screen, we now show that active Akt accumulates in the mitochondria during hypoxia and phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) on Thr346 to inactivate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In turn, this pathway switches tumor metabolism toward glycolysis, antagonizes apoptosis and autophagy, dampens oxidative stress, and maintains tumor cell proliferation in the face of severe hypoxia. Mitochondrial Akt-PDK1 signaling correlates with unfavorable prognostic markers and shorter survival in glioma patients and may provide an "actionable" therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:27505672

  20. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Quail, DF; Joyce, JA

    2014-01-01

    Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend upon for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable, and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that reeducation of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here, we will discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, and recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24202395

  1. Sox2: regulation of expression and contribution to brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Sheila; Nejad, Romina; Karabork, Merve; Ekinci, Can; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Aldape, Kenneth D; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-07-01

    Tumors of the CNS are composed of a complex mixture of neoplastic cells, in addition to vascular, inflammatory and stromal components. Similar to most other tumors, brain tumors contain a heterogeneous population of cells that are found at different stages of differentiation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that all tumors are composed of subpopulation of cells with stem-like properties, which are capable of self-renewal, display resistance to therapy and lead to tumor recurrence. One of the most important transcription factors that regulate cancer stem cell properties is SOX2. In this review, we focus on SOX2 and the complex network of signaling molecules and transcription factors that regulate its expression and function in brain tumor initiating cells. We also highlight important findings in the literature about the role of SOX2 in glioblastoma and medulloblastoma, where it has been more extensively studied. PMID:27230973

  2. Aberrant epigenetic regulation in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney featuring distinct DNA hypermethylation and EZH2 overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Caroline; O'Sullivan, Maureen J.; Mengelbier, Linda Holmquist; Gisselsson, David

    2016-01-01

    The global methylation profile and the mutational status of 633 specific epigenetic regulators were analyzed in the pediatric tumor clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK). Methylation array analyses of 30 CCSKs revealed CCSK tumor DNA to be globally hypermethylated compared to Wilms tumor, normal fetal kidney, and adult kidney. The aberrant methylation pattern of CCSKs was associated with activation of genes involved in embryonic processes and with silencing of genes linked to normal kidney function. No epigenetic regulator was recurrently mutated in our cohort, but a mutation in the key epigenetic regulator EZH2 was discovered in one case. EZH2 mRNA was significantly higher in CCSK compared to Wilms tumor and normal kidney, and the EZH2 protein was strongly expressed in more than 90 % of CCSK tumor cells in 9/9 tumors analyzed. This was in striking contrast to the lack of EZH2 protein expression in Wilms tumor stromal elements, indicating that EZH2 could be explored further as a diagnostic marker and a potential drug target for CCSK. PMID:26848979

  3. Microbial Regulation of p53 Tumor Suppressor.

    PubMed

    Zaika, Alexander I; Wei, Jinxiong; Noto, Jennifer M; Peek, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    p53 tumor suppressor has been identified as a protein interacting with the large T antigen produced by simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Subsequent research on p53 inhibition by SV40 and other tumor viruses has not only helped to gain a better understanding of viral biology, but also shaped our knowledge of human tumorigenesis. Recent studies have found, however, that inhibition of p53 is not strictly in the realm of viruses. Some bacterial pathogens also actively inhibit p53 protein and induce its degradation, resulting in alteration of cellular stress responses. This phenomenon was initially characterized in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that commonly infects the human stomach and is strongly linked to gastric cancer. Besides H. pylori, a number of other bacterial species were recently discovered to inhibit p53. These findings provide novel insights into host-bacteria interactions and tumorigenesis associated with bacterial infections. PMID:26379246

  4. Microbial Regulation of p53 Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Zaika, Alexander I.; Wei, Jinxiong; Noto, Jennifer M.; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    p53 tumor suppressor has been identified as a protein interacting with the large T antigen produced by simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Subsequent research on p53 inhibition by SV40 and other tumor viruses has not only helped to gain a better understanding of viral biology, but also shaped our knowledge of human tumorigenesis. Recent studies have found, however, that inhibition of p53 is not strictly in the realm of viruses. Some bacterial pathogens also actively inhibit p53 protein and induce its degradation, resulting in alteration of cellular stress responses. This phenomenon was initially characterized in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that commonly infects the human stomach and is strongly linked to gastric cancer. Besides H. pylori, a number of other bacterial species were recently discovered to inhibit p53. These findings provide novel insights into host–bacteria interactions and tumorigenesis associated with bacterial infections. PMID:26379246

  5. The perivascular niche regulates breast tumor dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R.; Evason, Kimberley J.; Brazier, Hélène; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Chen, Emily I.; Lyden, David

    2013-01-01

    In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what ‘wakes them up’, are fundamental problems in tumor biology. To address these questions, we utilized metastasis assays in mice to show that dormant DTCs reside upon microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-β1 and periostin as tumor-promoting, endothelial tip cell-derived factors. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a ‘dormant niche,’ whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste products and ... bacteria . Ultrasound exam : A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues ...

  7. General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste products and ... bacteria . Ultrasound exam : A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues ...

  8. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Christopher J.; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M.; Worboys, Jonathan D.; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C.; Miller, Crispin J.; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRASG12D) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRASG12D signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRASG12D engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRASG12D. Consequently, reciprocal KRASG12D produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRASG12D alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. Video Abstract PMID:27087446

  9. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Tape, Christopher J; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M; Worboys, Jonathan D; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C; Miller, Crispin J; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRAS(G12D) signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRAS(G12D) engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D). Consequently, reciprocal KRAS(G12D) produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D) alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27087446

  10. RASSF tumor suppressor gene family: biological functions and regulation.

    PubMed

    Volodko, Natalia; Gordon, Marilyn; Salla, Mohamed; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Baksh, Shairaz

    2014-08-19

    Genetic changes through allelic loss and nucleic acid or protein modifications are the main contributors to loss of function of tumor suppressor proteins. In particular, epigenetic silencing of genes by promoter hypermethylation is associated with increased tumor severity and poor survival. The RASSF (Ras association domain family) family of proteins consists of 10 members, many of which are tumor suppressor proteins that undergo loss of expression through promoter methylation in numerous types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, breast, prostate, neck, lung, brain, colorectal and kidney cancers. In addition to their tumor suppressor function, RASSF proteins act as scaffolding agents in microtubule stability, regulate mitotic cell division, modulate apoptosis, control cell migration and cell adhesion, and modulate NFκB activity and the duration of inflammation. The ubiquitous functions of these proteins highlight their importance in numerous physiological pathways. In this review, we will focus on the biological roles of the RASSF family members and their regulation. PMID:24607545

  11. Classification of a frameshift/extended and a stop mutation in WT1 as gain-of-function mutations that activate cell cycle genes and promote Wilms tumour cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Maike; Schwindt, Heinrich; Brandt, Artur; Beier, Manfred; Görldt, Nicole; Romaniuk, Paul; Toska, Eneda; Roberts, Stefan; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The WT1 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor important for normal kidney development. WT1 is a suppressor for Wilms tumour development and an oncogene for diverse malignant tumours. We recently established cell lines from primary Wilms tumours with different WT1 mutations. To investigate the function of mutant WT1 proteins, we performed WT1 knockdown experiments in cell lines with a frameshift/extension (p.V432fsX87 = Wilms3) and a stop mutation (p.P362X = Wilms2) of WT1, followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis. We also expressed wild-type and mutant WT1 proteins in human mesenchymal stem cells and established gene expression profiles. A detailed analysis of gene expression data enabled us to classify the WT1 mutations as gain-of-function mutations. The mutant WT1Wilms2 and WT1Wilms3 proteins acquired an ability to modulate the expression of a highly significant number of genes from the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and WT1 knockdown experiments showed that they are required for Wilms tumour cell proliferation. p53 negatively regulates the activity of a large number of these genes that are also part of a core proliferation cluster in diverse human cancers. Our data strongly suggest that mutant WT1 proteins facilitate expression of these cell cycle genes by antagonizing transcriptional repression mediated by p53. We show that mutant WT1 can physically interact with p53. Together the findings show for the first time that mutant WT1 proteins have a gain-of-function and act as oncogenes for Wilms tumour development by regulating Wilms tumour cell proliferation. PMID:24619359

  12. Regulation of Transport Pathways in Tumor Vessels: Role of Tumor Type and Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Susan K.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Yuan, Fan; Roberts, W. Gregory; Griffith, Linda; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1998-04-01

    Novel anti-neoplastic agents such as gene targeting vectors and encapsulated carriers are quite large (approximately 100-300 nm in diameter). An understanding of the functional size and physiological regulation of transvascular pathways is necessary to optimize delivery of these agents. Here we analyze the functional limits of transvascular transport and its modulation by the microenvironment. One human and five murine tumors including mammary and colorectal carcinomas, hepatoma, glioma, and sarcoma were implanted in the dorsal skin-fold chamber or cranial window, and the pore cutoff size, a functional measure of transvascular gap size, was determined. The microenvironment was modulated: (i) spatially, by growing tumors in subcutaneous or cranial locations and (ii) temporally, by inducing vascular regression in hormone-dependent tumors. Tumors grown subcutaneously exhibited a characteristic pore cutoff size ranging from 200 nm to 1.2 μ m. This pore cutoff size was reduced in tumors grown in the cranium or in regressing tumors after hormone withdrawal. Vessels induced in basic fibroblast growth factor-containing gels had a pore cutoff size of 200 nm. Albumin permeability was independent of pore cutoff size. These results have three major implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents: (i) delivery may be less efficient in cranial tumors than in subcutaneous tumors, (ii) delivery may be reduced during tumor regression induced by hormonal ablation, and (iii) permeability to a molecule is independent of pore cutoff size as long as the diameter of the molecule is much less than the pore diameter.

  13. RSUME inhibits VHL and regulates its tumor suppressor function.

    PubMed

    Gerez, J; Tedesco, L; Bonfiglio, J J; Fuertes, M; Barontini, M; Silberstein, S; Wu, Y; Renner, U; Páez-Pereda, M; Holsboer, F; Stalla, G K; Arzt, E

    2015-09-10

    Somatic mutations or loss of von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) happen in the majority of VHL disease tumors, which present a constitutively active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), essential for tumor growth. Recently described mechanisms for pVHL modulation shed light on the open question of the HIF/pVHL pathway regulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which RSUME stabilizes HIFs, by studying RSUME effect on pVHL function and to determine the role of RSUME on pVHL-related tumor progression. We determined that RSUME sumoylates and physically interacts with pVHL and negatively regulates the assembly of the complex between pVHL, Elongins and Cullins (ECV), inhibiting HIF-1 and 2α ubiquitination and degradation. We found that RSUME is expressed in human VHL tumors (renal clear-cell carcinoma (RCC), pheochromocytoma and hemangioblastoma) and by overexpressing or silencing RSUME in a pVHL-HIF-oxygen-dependent degradation stability reporter assay, we determined that RSUME is necessary for the loss of function of type 2 pVHL mutants. The functional RSUME/pVHL interaction in VHL-related tumor progression was further confirmed using a xenograft assay in nude mice. RCC clones, in which RSUME was knocked down and express either pVHL wt or type 2 mutation, have an impaired tumor growth, as well as HIF-2α, vascular endothelial growth factor A and tumor vascularization diminution. This work shows a novel mechanism for VHL tumor progression and presents a new mechanism and factor for targeting tumor-related pathologies with pVHL/HIF altered function. PMID:25500545

  14. VISTA regulates the development of protective anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    LeMercier, Isabelle; Chen, Wenna; Lines, Janet L.; Day, Maria; Li, Jiannan; Sergent, Petra; Noelle, Randolph J.; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint ligand that is homologous to PD-L1 and suppresses T cell activation. This study demonstrates the multiple mechanisms whereby VISTA relieves negative regulation by hematopoietic cells and enhances protective anti-tumor immunity. VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells and Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory cells, but not on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). VISTA monoclonal antibody (mab) treatment increased the number of tumor-specific T cells in the periphery, and enhanced the infiltration, proliferation and effector function of tumor-reactive T cells within the TME. VISTA blockade altered the suppressive feature of the TME, by decreasing the presence of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increasing the presence of activated DCs within the TME. In addition, VISTA blockade impaired the suppressive function and reduced the emergence of tumor-specific Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells. Consequently, VISTA mab administration as a monotherapy significantly suppressed the growth of both transplantable and inducible melanoma. Initial studies explored a combinatorial regimen using VISTA blockade and a peptide-based cancer vaccine with TLR agonists as adjuvants. VISTA blockade synergized with the vaccine to effectively impair the growth of established tumors. Our study therefore establishes a foundation for designing VISTA-targeted approaches either as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-targeted strategies for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24691994

  15. Testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by modifying tumor suppressor genes and tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa J.; Xiong, Yin; Nilubol, Naris; He, Mei; Bommareddi, Swaroop; Zhu, Xuguang; Jia, Li; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Jeong-Won; Xu, Xia; Patel, Dhaval; Willingham, Mark C.; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    Cancer gender disparity has been observed for a variety of human malignancies. Thyroid cancer is one such cancer with a higher incidence in women, but more aggressive disease in men. There is scant evidence on the role of sex hormones on cancer initiation/progression. Using a transgenic mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), we found castration led to lower rates of cancer in females and less advanced cancer in males. Mechanistically, less advanced cancer in castrated males was due to increased expression of tumor suppressor (Glipr1, Sfrp1) and immune-regulatory genes and higher tumor infiltration with M1 macrophages and CD8 cells. Functional study showed that GLIPR1 reduced cell growth and increased chemokine secretion (Ccl5) that activates immune cells. Our data demonstrate that testosterone regulates thyroid cancer progression by reducing tumor suppressor gene expression and tumor immunity. PMID:25576159

  16. Regulation of osteoprotegerin pro- or anti-tumoral activity by bone tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, F; Moriceau, G; Picarda, G; Rousseau, J; Trichet, V; Rédini, F

    2010-01-01

    Tumor development in bone is often associated with fractures, bone loss and bone pain, and improvement is still needed in therapeutic approaches. Bone tumors are related to the existence of a vicious cycle between bone resorption and tumor proliferation in which the molecular triad osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role. RANKL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is one of the main inducers of bone resorption. Its soluble receptor OPG represents a promising therapeutic candidate as it prevents bone lesions and inhibits associated tumor growth. However, its therapeutic use in bone tumors remains controversial due to its ability to bind and inhibit another member of the TNF superfamily, TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis. Through its heparin binding domain, OPG is also able to bind proteoglycans present in the bone matrix. This paper is an overview of the involvement of the micro-environment, as represented by the balance of RANKL/TRAIL and the presence of proteoglycans in the regulation of OPG biological activity in bone tumors. PMID:19733222

  17. renal tumors and tumor-like lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kissane, J M; Dehner, L P

    1992-07-01

    Renal enlargement presenting as an abdominal mass(es) is attended by a lengthly differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions with a range in serious connotations and consequences. Simple compensatory hypertrophy and unilateral multicystic dysplasia are relatively innocuous and easily recognized with appropriate imaging studies; they are also related in the sense that the normal contralateral kidney hypertrophies in the absence of a non-functioning dysplastic kidney. Bilateral nephromegaly in a neonate is generally a sign of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease or multicystic dysplasia secondary to distal obstructive uropathy. Primary neoplasms of kidney in the pediatric population in the past were traditionally classified as Wilms' tumors, but that erroneous practice has been eliminated with the recognition of several distinctive neoplasms in addition to classic Wilms' tumor. Separating a typical Wilms' tumor from mesoblastic nephroma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and the malignant rhabdoid tumor, for treatment and prognostic purposes, has become the accepted norm in the past 12-13 years. Another important advance at the cellular level is the recognition of a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 in the cultured cells of Wilms' tumor and in the germ cell line in certain clinical settings of Wilms' tumors. A dramatic expansion in the understanding and management of childhood renal neoplasms has occurred through the multimodality approach of laboratory investigation and applied clinical research. PMID:1323320

  18. Reprimo (RPRM) Is a Novel Tumor Suppressor in Pituitary Tumors and Regulates Survival, Proliferation, and Tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mei; Knox, Aaron J.; Michaelis, Katherine A.; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K.; Lillehei, Kevin O.

    2012-01-01

    Reprimo (RPRM), initially identified as a downstream effector of p53-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M, is a putative tumor suppressor silenced in some types of cancer. In microarrays, the RPRM transcript was repressed 26-fold in gonadotrope (null cell) human pituitary tumors compared with normal pituitary but in the absence of changes in p53. Inhibition of RPRM mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR in all gonadotrope tumors, most GH samples, and variably in other tumor types. Human pituitary tumors showed no evidence of abnormal promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism of RPRM repression. RPRM stable expression in gonadotrope (LβT2) and GH (GH3) pituitary cells resulted in decreased rates of cell proliferation by 55 and 30%, respectively; however, RPRM reexpression did not alter G2/M transition. In addition, RPRM increased rates of apoptosis in response to growth factor deprivation as assessed by caspase-3 cleavage and nuclear condensation. Clonagenic assays showed a 5.3- and 3.7-fold suppression of colony growth in RPRM-overexpressing LβT2 and GH3 cells, respectively, supporting its role as a tumor suppressor. In cells stably expressing RPRM mRNA, protein levels were actively suppressed due to rapid degradation through ubiquitination and proteasomal targeting. Growth factor withdrawal, as a model of cellular stress, stabilized RPRM protein levels. Together these data suggest that RPRM is transiently up-regulated at a posttranscriptional level in times of cellular stress to restrict cell survival, proliferation, and tumor formation. When RPRM is silenced as in human pituitary tumors, unrestrained growth and tumor progression may occur. PMID:22562171

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factors as key regulators of tumor inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Soulafa; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-06-15

    Low levels of oxygen or hypoxia is often an obstacle in health, particularly in pathological disorders like cancer. The main family of transcription factors responsible for cell survival and adaptation under strenuous conditions of hypoxia are the "hypoxia-inducible factors" (HIFs). Together with prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs), HIFs regulates tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, in addition to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Additionally, the entire HIF transcription cascade is involved in the "seventh" hallmark of cancer; inflammation. Studies have shown that hypoxia can influence tumor associated immune cells toward assisting in tumor proliferation, differentiation, vessel growth, distant metastasis and suppression of the immune response via cytokine expression alterations. These changes are not necessarily analogous to HIF's role in non-cancer immune responses, where hypoxia often encourages a strong inflammatory response. PMID:23055435

  20. Biophysical regulation of tumor cell invasion: moving beyond matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-04-01

    Invasion of cancer cells into the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key step in tumor infiltration and metastasis. While the strong influence of ECM stiffness in governing tumor cell migration has been well established in two-dimensional culture paradigms, investigation of this parameter in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has proven considerably more challenging, in part because perturbations that change 3D ECM stiffness often concurrently change microscale matrix parameters that critically regulate cell migration, such as pore size, fiber architecture, and local material deformability. Here we review the potential importance of these parameters in the context of tumor cell migration in 3D ECMs. We begin by discussing biophysical mechanisms of cell motility in 3D ECMs, with an emphasis on the cell-matrix mechanical interactions that underlie this process and key signatures of mesenchymal and amoeboid modes of motility. We then consider microscale matrix physical properties that are particularly relevant to 3D culture and would be expected to regulate motility, including matrix microstructure and nonlinear elasticity. We also discuss how changes in 3D matrix properties might be expected to trigger transitions in subcellular mechanisms, which in turn contribute to mesenchymal-amoeboid transition (MAT) by imposing restrictions on 3D motility. We expect that the field will gain valuable insight into invasion and metastasis by deepening its understanding of microscale, biophysical interactions between tumor cells and matrix elements and by creating new 3D scaffolds that permit orthogonal manipulation of specific matrix parameters. PMID:21210057

  1. TRF2 acts as a transcriptional regulator in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maï, Mounir El; Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Michiels, Jean-François; Gilson, Eric; Wagner, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) regulates gene expression to promote angiogenesis. We found that TRF2 is highly expressed in tumor vessels and transcriptionally activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor β to promote endothelial cell angiogenic properties independently of its function in telomere protection. This work identifies TRF2 as a promising dual target for cancer therapy. PMID:27308469

  2. Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis and Choroidal Neovascularization by Endogenous Angioinhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Venugopal; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from parent blood vessels, which is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions and is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators or angiogenic factors. Imbalance between angioinhibitors and angioactivators is associated with neovascularization capacity during progression of tumor development and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). Normalization of pathological angiogenesis is considered as an alternative strategy to prevent the tumor growth in cancer progression or retinal damage in CNV. Various angioinhibitors are being identified and evaluated for their pathological angiogenesis regulation, of which endogenous angioinhibitors are one class derived either from extra cellular matrix or from non-extra cellular matrix of human origin. Endogenous angioinhibitors are gaining much significance as they interact with proliferating endothelial cells by binding to distinct integrins and non-integrin receptors, regulating different intracellular signaling mechanisms leading to inhibition of choroidal neovascularization and tumor growth. This review will focus on endogenous angioinhibitors and their receptor(s) mediated angioinhibitory signaling, which are of major concern in angiogenesis and their clinical and pharmaceutical implications. PMID:25258675

  3. Fine-tuning Tumor Immunity with Integrin Trans-regulation.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Joseph M; Rose, David M; Slepak, Marina; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Inefficient T-cell homing to tissues limits adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of solid tumors. αLβ2 and α4β1 integrins mediate trafficking of T cells into tissues via engagement of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively. Inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of α4 integrin in cells results in an increase in αLβ2-mediated migration on mixed ICAM-1-VCAM-1 substrates in vitro, a phenomenon termed "integrin trans-regulation." Here, we created an α4(S988A)-bearing mouse, which precludes PKA-mediated α4 phosphorylation, to examine the effect of integrin trans-regulation in vivo. The α4(S988A) mouse exhibited a dramatic and selective increase in migration of lymphocytes, but not myeloid cells, to sites of inflammation. Importantly, we found that the α4(S988A) mice exhibited a marked increase in T-cell entry into and reduced growth of B16 melanomas, consistent with antitumor roles of infiltrating T cells and progrowth functions of tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, increased α4 trans-regulation of αLβ2 integrin function biases leukocyte emigration toward lymphocytes relative to myeloid cells and enhances tumor immunity. PMID:25600437

  4. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  5. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  6. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  7. Larynx carcinoma regulates tumor-associated macrophages through PLGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xu; Qi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Cancer neovascularization plays an essential role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma (LC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recently, we reported that placental growth factor (PLGF) regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in LC. Here, we show that MMP9 upregulated in LC, and appeared to be mainly produced by M2 macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)). In a transwell co-culture system, PLGF secreted by LC cells triggered macrophage polarization to a TAM subtype that releases MMP9. Moreover, MMP9 was found to be activated in the PLGF-polarized TAM via transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling activation. Furthermore, PLGF in LC cells induced macrophage polarization in vivo, and significantly promoted the growth of LC. Thus, together with our previous work, our study highlights a pivotal role of cross-talk between TAM and LC in regulating the metastasis of LC. PMID:25961789

  8. Larynx carcinoma regulates tumor-associated macrophages through PLGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Qi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Cancer neovascularization plays an essential role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma (LC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recently, we reported that placental growth factor (PLGF) regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in LC. Here, we show that MMP9 upregulated in LC, and appeared to be mainly produced by M2 macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)). In a transwell co-culture system, PLGF secreted by LC cells triggered macrophage polarization to a TAM subtype that releases MMP9. Moreover, MMP9 was found to be activated in the PLGF-polarized TAM via transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling activation. Furthermore, PLGF in LC cells induced macrophage polarization in vivo, and significantly promoted the growth of LC. Thus, together with our previous work, our study highlights a pivotal role of cross-talk between TAM and LC in regulating the metastasis of LC. PMID:25961789

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of the p16 Tumor Suppressor Gene.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yojiro; Naemura, Madoka; Murasaki, Chihiro; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna

    2015-08-01

    The p16 tumor suppressor gene encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 and is found altered in a wide range of human cancers. p16 plays a pivotal role in tumor suppressor networks through inducing cellular senescence that acts as a barrier to cellular transformation by oncogenic signals. p16 protein is relatively stable and its expression is primary regulated by transcriptional control. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins associate with the p16 locus in a long non-coding RNA, ANRIL-dependent manner, leading to repression of p16 transcription. YB1, a transcription factor, also represses the p16 transcription through direct association with its promoter region. Conversely, the transcription factors Ets1/2 and histone H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1 directly bind to the p16 locus and mediate p16 induction during replicative and premature senescence. In the present review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these factors regulate p16 transcription. PMID:26168478

  10. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  11. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  12. Tissue Elasticity Regulated Tumor Gene Expression: Implication for Diagnostic Biomarkers of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Long T.; Keschrumrus, Vic; Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Jiang F.; Su, Qingning; Kabeer, Mustafa H.; Loudon, William G.; Li, Shengwen Calvin

    2015-01-01

    Background The tumor microenvironment consists of both physical and chemical factors. Tissue elasticity is one physical factor contributing to the microenvironment of tumor cells. To test the importance of tissue elasticity in cell culture, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) stem cells were cultured on soft polyacrylamide (PAA) hydrogel plates that mimics the elasticity of brain tissue compared with PNET on standard polystyrene (PS) plates. We report the molecular profiles of PNET grown on either PAA or PS. Methodology/Principal Findings A whole-genome microarray profile of transcriptional expression between the two culture conditions was performed as a way to probe effects of substrate on cell behavior in culture. The results showed more genes downregulated on PAA compared to PS. This led us to propose microRNA (miRNA) silencing as a potential mechanism for downregulation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a greater number of miRNA binding sites from the 3' UTR of downregulated genes and identified as specific miRNA binding sites that were enriched when cells were grown on PAA—this supports the hypothesis that tissue elasticity plays a role in influencing miRNA expression. Thus, Dicer was examined to determine if miRNA processing was affected by tissue elasticity. Dicer genes were downregulated on PAA and had multiple predicted miRNA binding sites in its 3' UTR that matched the miRNA binding sites found enriched on PAA. Many differentially regulated genes were found to be present on PS but downregulated on PAA were mapped onto intron sequences. This suggests expression of alternative polyadenylation sites within intron regions that provide alternative 3' UTRs and alternative miRNA binding sites. This results in tissue specific transcriptional downregulation of mRNA in humans by miRNA. We propose a mechanism, driven by the physical characteristics of the microenvironment by which downregulation of genes occur. We found that tissue elasticity-mediated cytokines

  13. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  14. Microenvironmental Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis: Biological and Engineering Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanger, David W.; Pathi, Siddharth P.; Fischbach, Claudia

    Tumor angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis, and antiangiogenic therapies have been developed to target this process. However, the clinical success of these treatments has been limited, which may be due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of cell-microenvironment interactions and their role in tumor angiogenesis. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches have been used to study tumor progression in vitro, but these systems fail to faithfully recreate tumor microenvironmental conditions contributing to tumor angiogenesis in vivo. By integrating cancer biology with tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches, the development of biologically inspired tumor models has emerged. Such 3D model systems allow studying the specific role of soluble factor signaling, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell-cell interactions, mechanical cues, and metabolic stress. This chapter discusses specific biological and engineering design considerations for tissue-engineered tumor models and highlights their application for defining the underpinnings of tumor angiogenesis.

  15. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  16. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails.

  17. Speed-accuracy strategy regulations in prefrontal tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Skrap, Miran; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The ability to flexibly switch between fast and accurate decisions is crucial in everyday life. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested that left lateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in switching from a quick response strategy to an accurate one. However, the causal role of the left prefrontal cortex in this particular, non-verbal, strategy switch has never been demonstrated. To fill this gap, we administered a perceptual decision-making task to neuro-oncological prefrontal patients, in which the requirement to be quick or accurate changed randomly on a trial-by-trial basis. To directly assess hemispheric asymmetries in speed-accuracy regulation, patients were tested a few days before and a few days after surgical excision of a brain tumor involving either the left (N=13) or the right (N=12) lateral frontal brain region. A group of age- and education-matched healthy controls was also recruited. To gain more insight on the component processes implied in the task, performance data (accuracy and speed) were not only analyzed separately but also submitted to a diffusion model analysis. The main findings indicated that the left prefrontal patients were impaired in appropriately adopting stricter response criteria in speed-to-accuracy switching trials with respect to healthy controls and right prefrontal patients, who were not impaired in this condition. This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex in the left hemisphere is necessary for flexible behavioral regulations, in particular when setting stricter response criteria is required in order to successfully switch from a speedy strategy to an accurate one. PMID:26772144

  18. Speed-accuracy strategy regulations in prefrontal tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Skrap, Miran; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-02-01

    The ability to flexibly switch between fast and accurate decisions is crucial in everyday life. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested that left lateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in switching from a quick response strategy to an accurate one. However, the causal role of the left prefrontal cortex in this particular, non-verbal, strategy switch has never been demonstrated. To fill this gap, we administered a perceptual decision-making task to neuro-oncological prefrontal patients, in which the requirement to be quick or accurate changed randomly on a trial-by-trial basis. To directly assess hemispheric asymmetries in speed-accuracy regulation, patients were tested a few days before and a few days after surgical excision of a brain tumor involving either the left (N=13) or the right (N=12) lateral frontal brain region. A group of age- and education-matched healthy controls was also recruited. To gain more insight on the component processes implied in the task, performance data (accuracy and speed) were not only analyzed separately but also submitted to a diffusion model analysis. The main findings indicated that the left prefrontal patients were impaired in appropriately adopting stricter response criteria in speed-to-accuracy switching trials with respect to healthy controls and right prefrontal patients, who were not impaired in this condition. This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex in the left hemisphere is necessary for flexible behavioral regulations, in particular when setting stricter response criteria is required in order to successfully switch from a speedy strategy to an accurate one. PMID:26772144

  19. B cell regulation of anti-tumor immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Morgan, Richard; Podack, Eckhard R; Rosenblatt, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory has been investigating the role of B cells on tumor immunity. We have studied the immune response in mice that are genetically lacking in B cells (BCDM) using a variety of syngeneic mouse tumors and compared immune responses in BCDM with those seen in wild type (WT) immunocompetent mice (ICM). A variety of murine tumors are rejected or inhibited in their growth in BCDM, compared with ICM, including the EL4 thymoma, and the MC38 colon carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice, as well as the EMT-6 breast carcinoma in BALB/c mice. In all three murine models, tumors show reduced growth in BCDM which is accompanied by increased T cell and NK cell infiltration, and a more vigorous Th1 cytokine response, and increased cytolytic T cell response in the absence of B cells. Reconstitution of the mice with B cells results in augmented tumor growth due to a diminished anti-tumor immune response and in reduction in CD8+ T cell and NK cell infiltration. Studies involving BCR transgenic mice indicated that B cells inhibit anti-tumor T cell responses through antigen non-specific mechanisms. More recent studies using the EMT-6 model demonstrated that both the number and function of Treg cells in ICM was increased relative to that seen in BCDM. Increased expansion of Treg cells was evident following EMT-6 implantation in ICM relative to that seen in non-tumor-bearing mice or BCDM. The percentage and number of Tregs in spleen, tumor draining lymph nodes, and the tumor bed are increased in ICM compared with BCDM. Treg functional capacity as measured by suppression assays appears to be reduced in BCDM compared with ICM. In contrast to other described types of B regulatory activity, adoptive transfer of B cells can rescue tumor growth independently of the ability of B cells to secrete IL-10, and also independently of MHC-II expression. In experiments using the MC38 adenocarcinoma model, BCDM reconstituted with WT B cells support tumor growth while tumor growth continues to be inhibited

  20. Tumor Protein (TP)-p53 Members as Regulators of Autophagy in Tumor Cells upon Marine Drug Exposure.

    PubMed

    Ratovitski, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting autophagic pathways might play a critical role in designing novel chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of human cancers, and the prevention of tumor-derived chemoresistance. Marine compounds were found to decrease tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Some of them were shown to induce autophagic flux in tumor cells. In this study, we observed that the selected marine life-derived compounds (Chromomycin A2, Psammaplin A, and Ilimaquinone) induce expression of several autophagic signaling intermediates in human squamous cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, and colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro through a transcriptional regulation by tumor protein (TP)-p53 family members. These conclusions were supported by specific qPCR expression analysis, luciferase reporter promoter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation of promoter sequences bound to the TP53 family proteins, and silencing of the TP53 members in tumor cells. PMID:27537898

  1. Tumor Protein (TP)-p53 Members as Regulators of Autophagy in Tumor Cells upon Marine Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ratovitski, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting autophagic pathways might play a critical role in designing novel chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of human cancers, and the prevention of tumor-derived chemoresistance. Marine compounds were found to decrease tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Some of them were shown to induce autophagic flux in tumor cells. In this study, we observed that the selected marine life-derived compounds (Chromomycin A2, Psammaplin A, and Ilimaquinone) induce expression of several autophagic signaling intermediates in human squamous cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, and colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro through a transcriptional regulation by tumor protein (TP)-p53 family members. These conclusions were supported by specific qPCR expression analysis, luciferase reporter promoter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation of promoter sequences bound to the TP53 family proteins, and silencing of the TP53 members in tumor cells. PMID:27537898

  2. Regulation of prostate cancer progression by the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Stephen L; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Chung, Leland W K

    2016-09-28

    Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in North America, and despite recent advances in treatment patients with metastatic disease continue to have poor five-year survival rates. Recent studies in prostate cancer have revealed the critical role of the tumor microenvironment in the initiation and progression to advanced disease. Experimental data have uncovered a reciprocal relationship between the cells in the microenvironment and malignant tumor cells in which early changes in normal tissue microenvironment can promote tumorigenesis and in turn tumor cells can promote further pro-tumor changes in the microenvironment. In the tumor microenvironment, the presence of persistent immune infiltrates contributes to the recruitment and reprogramming of other non-immune stromal cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts and a unique recently identified population of metastasis-initiating cells (MICs). These MICs, which can also be found as part of the circulating tumor cell (CTC) population in PC patients, promote cancer cell transformation, enhance metastatic potential and confer therapeutic resistance. MICs act can on other cells within the tumor microenvironment in part by secreting exosomes that reprogram adjacent stromal cells to create a more favorable tumor microenvironment to support continued cancer growth and progression. We review here the current data on the intricate relationship between inflammation, reactive stroma, tumor cells and disease progression in prostate cancer. PMID:26828013

  3. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Adrian C.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2011-02-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals.

  4. Ixabepilone in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-13

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Alveolar Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Embryonal Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  5. Cixutumumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-18

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive; Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Retinoblastoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  6. Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Regulating Tumor Immunosuppressive Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important complementary strategy for treating cancer in China. The mechanism is related to regulating the internal environment and remodeling the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment (TIM). Herein we illustrate how TIM is reformed and its protumor activity on promoting tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, tumor invasion, and the oncogenicity of cancer stem cells. Furthermore we summarize the effects and mechanism of TCM on regulating TIM via enhancing antitumor immune responses (e.g., regulating the expression of MHC molecules and Fas/FasL, attenuating cancerigenic ability of cancer stem cells) and remolding immunosuppressive cells (e.g., reversing immune phenotypes of T lymphocytes and tumor associated macrophages, promoting dendritic cells mature, restraining myeloid derived suppressor cells function, and regulating Th1/Th2 factors). We also reveal the bidirectional and multitargeting functions of TCM on regulating TIM. Hopefully, it provides new theoretical basis for TCM clinical practice in cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:26161392

  7. Regulation of brain tumor dispersal by NKCC1 through a novel role in focal adhesion regulation.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Schiapparelli, Paula; ap Rhys, Colette; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Smith, Christopher; Kim, Deok-Ho; Kone, Lyonell; Farber, Harrison; Lee, Danielle Y; An, Steven S; Levchenko, Andre; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is a highly invasive and lethal brain tumor due to its universal recurrence. Although it has been suggested that the electroneutral Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) can play a role in glioma cell migration, the precise mechanism by which this ion transporter contributes to GB aggressiveness remains poorly understood. Here, we focused on the role of NKCC1 in the invasion of human primary glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. NKCC1 expression levels were significantly higher in GB and anaplastic astrocytoma tissues than in grade II glioma and normal cortex. Pharmacological inhibition and shRNA-mediated knockdown of NKCC1 expression led to decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, knockdown of NKCC1 in glioma cells resulted in the formation of significantly larger focal adhesions and cell traction forces that were approximately 40% lower than control cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which promotes migration of glioma cells, increased the phosphorylation of NKCC1 through a PI3K-dependant mechanism. This finding is potentially related to WNK kinases. Taken together, our findings suggest that NKCC1 modulates migration of glioma cells by two distinct mechanisms: (1) through the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and cell contractility and (2) through regulation of cell volume through ion transport. Due to the ubiquitous expression of NKCC1 in mammalian tissues, its regulation by WNK kinases may serve as new therapeutic targets for GB aggressiveness and can be exploited by other highly invasive neoplasms. PMID:22570591

  8. Synergistic Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Regulating Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuo; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment is like a relationship between the “seeds” and “soil,” which is a hotspot in recent cancer research. Targeting at tumor microenvironment as well as tumor cells has become a new strategy for cancer treatment. Conventional cancer treatments mostly focused on single targets or single mechanism (the seeds or part of the soil); few researches intervened in the whole tumor microenvironment and achieved ideal therapeutic effect as expected. Traditional Chinese medicine displays a broad range of biological effects, and increasing evidence has shown that it may relate with synergistic effect on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Based on literature review and our previous studies, we summarize the synergistic effect and the molecular mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. PMID:27042656

  9. Role of curcumin-dependent modulation of tumor microenvironment of a murine T cell lymphoma in altered regulation of tumor cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-05-01

    Using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, in the present study, we report that tumor growth retarding action of curcumin involves modulation of some crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment regulating tumor progression. Curcumin-administration to tumor-bearing host caused an altered pH regulation in tumor cells associated with alteration in expression of cell survival and apoptosis regulatory proteins and genes. Nevertheless, an alteration was also observed in biophysical parameters of tumor microenvironment responsible for modulation of tumor growth pertaining to hypoxia, tumor acidosis, and glucose metabolism. The study thus sheds new light with respect to the antineoplastic action of curcumin against a tumor-bearing host with progressively growing tumor of hematological origin. This will help in optimizing application of the drug and anticancer research and therapy. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  10. Regulation of hematogenous tumor metastasis by acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Carpinteiro, Alexander; Becker, Katrin Anne; Japtok, Lukasz; Hessler, Gabriele; Keitsch, Simone; Požgajovà, Miroslava; Schmid, Kurt W; Adams, Constantin; Müller, Stefan; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J; Grassmé, Heike; Helfrich, Iris; Gulbins, Erich

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is the ultimate hallmark of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90% of human cancer deaths. We investigated the role of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in the hematogenous metastasis of melanoma cells. Intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells into wild-type mice resulted in multiple lung metastases, while Asm-deficient mice (Smpd1(-/-) mice) were protected from pulmonary tumor spread. Transplanting wild-type platelets into Asm-deficient mice reinstated tumor metastasis. Likewise, Asm-deficient mice were protected from hematogenous MT/ret melanoma metastasis to the spleen in a mouse model of spontaneous tumor metastasis. Human and mouse melanoma cells triggered activation and release of platelet secretory Asm, in turn leading to ceramide formation, clustering, and activation of α5β1 integrins on melanoma cells finally leading to adhesion of the tumor cells. Clustering of integrins by applying purified Asm or C16 ceramide to B16F10 melanoma cells before intravenous injection restored trapping of tumor cells in the lung in Asm-deficient mice. This effect was revertable by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides, which are known inhibitors of integrins, and by antibodies neutralizing β1 integrins. These findings indicate that melanoma cells employ platelet-derived Asm for adhesion and metastasis. PMID:25851537

  11. Regulation of hematogenous tumor metastasis by acid sphingomyelinase

    PubMed Central

    Carpinteiro, Alexander; Becker, Katrin Anne; Japtok, Lukasz; Hessler, Gabriele; Keitsch, Simone; Požgajovà, Miroslava; Schmid, Kurt W; Adams, Constantin; Müller, Stefan; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J; Grassmé, Heike; Helfrich, Iris; Gulbins, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is the ultimate hallmark of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90% of human cancer deaths. We investigated the role of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in the hematogenous metastasis of melanoma cells. Intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells into wild-type mice resulted in multiple lung metastases, while Asm-deficient mice (Smpd1−/− mice) were protected from pulmonary tumor spread. Transplanting wild-type platelets into Asm-deficient mice reinstated tumor metastasis. Likewise, Asm-deficient mice were protected from hematogenous MT/ret melanoma metastasis to the spleen in a mouse model of spontaneous tumor metastasis. Human and mouse melanoma cells triggered activation and release of platelet secretory Asm, in turn leading to ceramide formation, clustering, and activation of α5β1 integrins on melanoma cells finally leading to adhesion of the tumor cells. Clustering of integrins by applying purified Asm or C16 ceramide to B16F10 melanoma cells before intravenous injection restored trapping of tumor cells in the lung in Asm-deficient mice. This effect was revertable by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides, which are known inhibitors of integrins, and by antibodies neutralizing β1 integrins. These findings indicate that melanoma cells employ platelet-derived Asm for adhesion and metastasis. PMID:25851537

  12. Glucocorticoids Regulate Tristetraprolin Synthesis and Posttranscriptionally Regulate Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inflammatory Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Smoak, Kathleen; Cidlowski, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used to treat various inflammatory disorders, but the mechanisms underlying these actions are incompletely understood. The zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes several proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs by binding to AU-rich elements within their 3′ untranslated regions, targeting them for degradation. Here we report that glucocorticoids induce the synthesis of TTP mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial cells and in rat tissues. Dexamethasone treatment leads to a sustained induction of TTP mRNA expression that is abrogated by RU486. Glucocorticoid induction of TTP mRNA is also blocked by actinomycin D but not by cycloheximide, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism which has been confirmed by transcription run-on experiments. The most widely characterized TTP-regulated gene is the AU-rich tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene. Dexamethasone represses TNF-α mRNA in A549 cells and decreases luciferase expression of a TNF-α 3′ untranslated region reporter plasmid in an orientation-dependent manner. Small interfering RNAs to TTP significantly prevent this effect, and a cell line stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA to TTP conclusively establishes that TTP is critical for dexamethasone inhibition of TNF-α mRNA expression. These studies provide the molecular evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of human TTP and reflect a novel inductive anti-inflammatory signaling pathway for glucocorticoids that acts via posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:16982682

  13. Molecular regulation of vasculogenic mimicry in tumors and potential tumor-target therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yue-Zu; Sun, Wei

    2010-01-01

    “Vasculogenic mimicry (VM)”, is a term that describes the unique ability of highly aggressive tumor cells to express a multipotent, stem cell-like phenotype, and form a pattern of vasculogenic-like networks in three-dimensional culture. As an angiogenesis-independent pathway, VM and/or periodic acid-schiff-positive patterns are associated with poor prognosis in tumor patients. Moreover, VM is resistant to angiogenesis inhibitors. Here, we will review the advances in research on biochemical and molecular signaling pathways of VM in tumors and on potential anti-VM therapy strategy. PMID:21160860

  14. Nav1.5 regulates breast tumor growth and metastatic dissemination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michaela; Yang, Ming; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Brackenbury, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) mediate action potential firing and regulate adhesion and migration in excitable cells. VGSCs are also expressed in cancer cells. In metastatic breast cancer (BCa) cells, the Nav1.5 α subunit potentiates migration and invasion. In addition, the VGSC-inhibiting antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional activity of Nav1.5 and its specific contribution to tumor progression in vivo has not been delineated. Here, we found that Nav1.5 is up-regulated at the protein level in BCa compared with matched normal breast tissue. Na+ current, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, was retained in cancer cells in tumor tissue slices, thus directly confirming functional VGSC activity in vivo. Stable down-regulation of Nav1.5 expression significantly reduced tumor growth, local invasion into surrounding tissue, and metastasis to liver, lungs and spleen in an orthotopic BCa model. Nav1.5 down-regulation had no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis within the in tumors, but increased apoptosis. In vitro, Nav1.5 down-regulation altered cell morphology and reduced CD44 expression, suggesting that VGSC activity may regulate cellular invasion via the CD44-src-cortactin signaling axis. We conclude that Nav1.5 is functionally active in cancer cells in breast tumors, enhancing growth and metastatic dissemination. These findings support the notion that compounds targeting Nav1.5 may be useful for reducing metastasis. PMID:26452220

  15. Multiple mechanisms of MYCN dysregulation in Wilms tumour.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard D; Chagtai, Tasnim; Alcaide-German, Marisa; Apps, John; Wegert, Jenny; Popov, Sergey; Vujanic, Gordan; van Tinteren, Harm; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Kool, Marcel; de Kraker, Jan; Gisselsson, David; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-03-30

    Genomic gain of the proto-oncogene transcription factor gene MYCN is associated with poor prognosis in several childhood cancers. Here we present a comprehensive copy number analysis of MYCN in Wilms tumour (WT), demonstrating that gain of this gene is associated with anaplasia and with poorer relapse-free and overall survival, independent of histology. Using whole exome and gene-specific sequencing, together with methylation and expression profiling, we show that MYCN is targeted by other mechanisms, including a recurrent somatic mutation, P44L, and specific DNA hypomethylation events associated with MYCN overexpression in tumours with high risk histologies. We describe parallel evolution of genomic copy number gain and point mutation of MYCN in the contralateral tumours of a remarkable bilateral case in which independent contralateral mutations of TP53 also evolve over time. We report a second bilateral case in which MYCN gain is a germline aberration. Our results suggest a significant role for MYCN dysregulation in the molecular biology of Wilms tumour. We conclude that MYCN gain is prognostically significant, and suggest that the novel P44L somatic variant is likely to be an activating mutation. PMID:25749049

  16. Multiple mechanisms of MYCN dysregulation in Wilms tumour

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard D.; Chagtai, Tasnim; Alcaide-German, Marisa; Apps, John; Wegert, Jenny; Popov, Sergey; Vujanic, Gordan; van Tinteren, Harm; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Kool, Marcel; de Kraker, Jan; Gisselsson, David; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Genomic gain of the proto-oncogene transcription factor gene MYCN is associated with poor prognosis in several childhood cancers. Here we present a comprehensive copy number analysis of MYCN in Wilms tumour (WT), demonstrating that gain of this gene is associated with anaplasia and with poorer relapse-free and overall survival, independent of histology. Using whole exome and gene-specific sequencing, together with methylation and expression profiling, we show that MYCN is targeted by other mechanisms, including a recurrent somatic mutation, P44L, and specific DNA hypomethylation events associated with MYCN overexpression in tumours with high risk histologies. We describe parallel evolution of genomic copy number gain and point mutation of MYCN in the contralateral tumours of a remarkable bilateral case in which independent contralateral mutations of TP53 also evolve over time. We report a second bilateral case in which MYCN gain is a germline aberration. Our results suggest a significant role for MYCN dysregulation in the molecular biology of Wilms tumour. We conclude that MYCN gain is prognostically significant, and suggest that the novel P44L somatic variant is likely to be an activating mutation. PMID:25749049

  17. DT-13 inhibits cancer cell migration by regulating NMIIA indirectly in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongzhi; Huang, Yue; Hou, Xiaoyin; Yu, Xiaowen; Lin, Sensen; Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Ruiming; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Yuan, Shengtao; Sun, Li

    2016-08-01

    Tumor metastasis is one of the main causes of mortality among patients with malignant tumors. Previous studies concerning tumor metastasis have merely focused on the cancer cells in the tumor. However, an increasing number of studies show that the tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in the progression of cancer, particularly in tumor metastasis. Since fibroblasts and adipocytes are two of the most representative mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment, we established a hypoxia-induced cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) model and a chemically induced adipocyte model to reveal the effect of the microenvironment on cancer development. In these models, the conditioned medium from the tumor microenvironment was found to significantly promote the migration of human lung cancer cell line 95D and regulate the expression of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA), which is consistent with results in the published literature. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that the tumor microenvironment can regulate NMIIA in cancer cells and facilitate migration by using the non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Thus, this is the first report that the tumor microenvironment can promote cancer cell migration by regulating the expression of NMIIA. Our present data also indicated that DT-13, the saponin monomer 13 of dwarf lilyturf tuber, inhibited cancer cell migration in the tumor microenvironment model. Further results showed that DT-13 exhibited anti-migratory effects by inhibiting the c-raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Consequently, our research confirmed that DT-13 significantly inhibited 95D cell migration in vitro, indicating the potential anti-metastatic effect of DT-13 on lung cancer and the scientific basis for drug development. PMID:27350172

  18. Epigenetic regulation of human hedgehog interacting protein in glioma cell lines and primary tumor samples

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehdi H.; Zazpe, Idoya; Afzal, Mohammad; Sinha, Subrata; Rebhun, Robert B.; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma constitutes one of the most common groups of brain tumors, and its prognosis is influenced by different genetic and epigenetic modulations. In this study, we demonstrated low or no expression of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) in most of the cell lines and primary glioma tumor samples. We further proceeded to promoter methylation study of this gene in the same cell lines and primary tumor samples and found 87 % (7/8) HHIP methylation in glioblastoma cell lines and 75 % (33/44) in primary tumor samples. These methylation pattern correlates with low or unexpressed HHIP in both cell lines and primary tumor samples. Our results suggest the possibility of epigenetic regulation of this gene in glioma, similarly to medulloblastoma, gastric, hepatic, and pancreatic cancers. Also, HHIP might be a diagnostic or prognostic marker in glioma and help to the detection of these tumors in early stages of disease. PMID:25416442

  19. Macrophage-tumor cell interactions regulate the function of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cell-macrophage interactions change as the tumor progresses, and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a major role in this interplay. In early stages, macrophages employ their killing mechanisms, particularly the generation of high concentrations of NO and its derivative reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to initiate tumor cell apoptosis and destroy emerging transformed cells. If the tumor escapes the immune system and grows, macrophages that infiltrate it are reprogramed in situ by the tumor microenvironment. Low oxygen tensions (hypoxia) and immunosuppressive cytokines inhibit iNOS activity and lead to production of low amounts of NO/RNS, which are pro-angiogenic and support tumor growth and metastasis by inducing growth factors (e.g., VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We review here the different roles of NO/RNS in tumor progression and inhibition, and the mechanisms that regulate iNOS expression and NO production, highlighting the role of different subtypes of macrophages and the microenvironment. We finally claim that some tumor cells may become resistant to macrophage-induced death by increasing their expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which leads to inhibition of iNOS translation. This implies that some cooperation between tumor cells and macrophages is required to induce tumor cell death, and that tumor cells may control their fate. Thus, in order to induce susceptibility of tumors cells to macrophage-induced death, we suggest a new therapeutic approach that couples manipulation of miR-146a levels in tumors with macrophage therapy, which relies on ex vivo stimulation of macrophages and their re-introduction to tumors. PMID:23785333

  20. Macrophage-tumor cell interactions regulate the function of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Rahat, Michal A; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cell-macrophage interactions change as the tumor progresses, and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a major role in this interplay. In early stages, macrophages employ their killing mechanisms, particularly the generation of high concentrations of NO and its derivative reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to initiate tumor cell apoptosis and destroy emerging transformed cells. If the tumor escapes the immune system and grows, macrophages that infiltrate it are reprogramed in situ by the tumor microenvironment. Low oxygen tensions (hypoxia) and immunosuppressive cytokines inhibit iNOS activity and lead to production of low amounts of NO/RNS, which are pro-angiogenic and support tumor growth and metastasis by inducing growth factors (e.g., VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We review here the different roles of NO/RNS in tumor progression and inhibition, and the mechanisms that regulate iNOS expression and NO production, highlighting the role of different subtypes of macrophages and the microenvironment. We finally claim that some tumor cells may become resistant to macrophage-induced death by increasing their expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which leads to inhibition of iNOS translation. This implies that some cooperation between tumor cells and macrophages is required to induce tumor cell death, and that tumor cells may control their fate. Thus, in order to induce susceptibility of tumors cells to macrophage-induced death, we suggest a new therapeutic approach that couples manipulation of miR-146a levels in tumors with macrophage therapy, which relies on ex vivo stimulation of macrophages and their re-introduction to tumors. PMID:23785333

  1. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Hansen, Jean M; Dalton, Heather J; Stone, Rebecca L; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M; Nagaraja, Archana S; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Wu, Sherry Y; Pecot, Chad V; Burns, Alan R; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  2. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L.; Hansen, Jean M.; Dalton, Heather J.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Pecot, Chad V.; Burns, Alan R.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  3. Pediatric tumors in north west Pakistan and Afghan refugees.

    PubMed

    Khan, S M; Gillani, J; Nasreen, S; Zai, S

    1997-01-01

    All patients referred to the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in Peshawar (IRNUM) during 1990 to 1994 were analyzed. There were 1655 children with biopsy-proven cancers; 1290 were from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and the remaining 365 were Afghan refugees. Male children from the NWFP were 67% and females were 33%. Among Afghan children, 69% were males and 31% were females. Patients whose histopathologies were doubtful or not available were excluded from the study. The most common tumors in children in the NWFP were lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, Wilms tumor, tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), soft tissue sarcoma, bone tumors, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, and testicular tumors. Among Afghan children the most common cancers were lymphoma, lymphoid leukemia, myeloid leukemia, Wilms tumor, retinoblastoma, tumors of soft tissue, bone tumors, CNS tumors, testicular tumors, and neuroblastoma. PMID:9185211

  4. Folliculin Contributes to VHL Tumor Suppressing Activity in Renal Cancer through Regulation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Emily; Mikhaylova, Olga; Yi, Ying; Sartor, Maureen A.; Medvedovic, Mario; Biesiada, Jacek; Meller, Jarek; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) is lost in the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor suppressor whose function is lost in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a disorder characterized by renal cancer of multiple histological types including clear cell carcinoma, cutaneous fibrofolliculoma, and pneumothorax. Here we explored whether there is connection between VHL and FLCN in clear cell renal carcinoma cell lines and tumors. We demonstrate that VHL regulates expression of FLCN at the mRNA and protein levels in RCC cell lines, and that FLCN protein expression is decreased in human ccRCC tumors with VHL loss, as compared with matched normal kidney tissue. Knockdown of FLCN results in increased formation of tumors by RCC cells with wild-type VHL in orthotopic xenografts in nude mice, an indication that FLCN plays a role in the tumor-suppressing activity of VHL. Interestingly, FLCN, similarly to VHL, is necessary for the activity of LC3C-mediated autophagic program that we have previously characterized as contributing to the tumor suppressing activity of VHL. The results show the existence of functional crosstalk between two major tumor suppressors in renal cancer, VHL and FLCN, converging on regulation of autophagy. PMID:23922894

  5. Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells or Tumor-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mi Jeong; Shin, Young Kee

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (CSC/TICs), which can undergo self-renewal and differentiation, are thought to play critical roles in tumorigenesis, therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. Tumor recurrence and chemoresistance are major causes of poor survival rates of ovarian cancer patients, which may be due in part to the existence of CSC/TICs. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the ovarian CSC/TICs is required to develop a cure for this malignancy. Recent studies have indicated that the properties of CSC/TICs can be regulated by microRNAs, genes and signaling pathways which also function in normal stem cells. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironments surrounding CSC/TICs are crucial for the maintenance of these cells. Similarly, efforts are now being made to unravel the mechanism involved in the regulation of ovarian CSC/TICs, although much work is still needed. This review considers recent advances in identifying the genes and pathways involved in the regulation of ovarian CSC/TICs. Furthermore, current approaches targeting ovarian CSC/TICs are described. Targeting both CSC/TICs and bulk tumor cells is suggested as a more effective approach to eliminating ovarian tumors. Better understanding of the regulation of ovarian CSC/TICs might facilitate the development of improved therapeutic strategies for recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:23528891

  6. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Gadd, Samantha; Arold, Stefan T.; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Jennings, Lawrence; Huff, Vicki; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Hsu, Chih Hao; Nguyen, Cu; Anderson, James; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Marra, Marco A.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Ross, Nicole; Smith, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour. PMID:26635203

  7. Nutrient regulation of tumor and vascular endothelial cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific bioactive dietary components, such as the steroid receptor superfamily ligands vitamins A and D, have been studied extensively as potential cancer preventive and therapeutic agents due to their ability to regulate key processes in a variety of cell types that are dysregulated in neoplastic ...

  8. Effects of Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide on the immune regulation and tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Qiu, Limin; Li, Yiquan; Li, Lu; Wang, Xingyun; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Wang, Haotian

    2016-02-10

    One water-soluble polysaccharide (Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide, MTP), with an average molecular weight of 4.9 × 10(4) Da, was isolated from the dried rattan of M. tenacissima. MTP contained 93.8% carbohydrates, 5.6% proteins and 21.3% uronic acid, and were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid at a molar ratio of 9.1, 17.7, 30.2, 22.4 and 20.6. The experiments on the animals showed that MTP could increase the serum hemolysin, promote the formation of antibody-forming cells and improve the phagocytosis of mononuclear macrophage in normal mice. Meanwhile, MTP could also inhibit the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice dose-dependently, and increase the spleen index, thymus index and serum albumin level in the mice. In addition, MTP could elevate the serum level of TNF-α and IL-2, increase the activity of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in the liver tissue, and reduce the content of VEGF and MDA. These results suggest that MTP can regulate the immune function in mice and suppress the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice, and its antitumor activity may be related to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26686104

  9. Marine Drugs Regulating Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)

    PubMed Central

    Elmallah, Mohammed I. Y.; Micheau, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine biomass diversity is a tremendous source of potential anticancer compounds. Several natural marine products have been described to restore tumor cell sensitivity to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cell death. TRAIL is involved during tumor immune surveillance. Its selectivity for cancer cells has attracted much attention in oncology. This review aims at discussing the main mechanisms by which TRAIL signaling is regulated and presenting how marine bioactive compounds have been found, so far, to overcome TRAIL resistance in tumor cells. PMID:26580630

  10. Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition by tumor-associated macrophages in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yao, Hongmei; Song, Ge; Liao, Xia; Xian, Yao; Li, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    It should be urgently better understood of the mechanism that contributes cancer aggressiveness. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role in tumor progression and metastasis formation by invasion, resistance to cell death and senescence, resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy, immune surveillance, immunosuppression and inflammation, confers stem cell properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key orchestrators and a set of macrophages in tumor microenvironment. They are major players in the connection between inflammation and cancer. TAMs could promote proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, stimulate tumor angiogenesis, and inhibit anti-tumor immune response mediated by T cell followed by promoting tumor progression. Recently, studies showed that TAMs played critical role in the regulation of EMT in cancer, although the underlying mechanism of TAMs-mediated acquisition of EMT has been largely unclear. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of TAMs in the regulation of EMT during tumorigenesis and summarize the recent ongoing experimental and pre-clinical TAMs targeted studies. PMID:26692918

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and oxidoreductases: critical regulators of tumor cell survival and immunorecognition.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomás; Simmen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed "bulk flow," ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER by their substrates. Solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response upregulate their target genes. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the folding of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an "eat-me" signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25386408

  12. Signaling Circuits and Regulation of Immune Suppression by Ovarian Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Martin J.; Ghosh, Debopam; Gujja, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    The barriers presented by immune suppression in the ovarian tumor microenvironment present one of the biggest challenges to development of successful tumor vaccine strategies for prevention of disease recurrence and progression following primary surgery and chemotherapy. New insights gained over the last decade have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune regulation, with ovarian tumor-associated macrophages/DC likely to fulfill a central role in creating a highly immunosuppressive milieu that supports disease progression and blocks anti-tumor immunity. This review provides an appraisal of some of the key signaling pathways that may contribute to immune suppression in ovarian cancer, with a particular focus on the potential involvement of the c-KIT/PI3K/AKT, wnt/β-catenin, IL-6/STAT3 and AhR signaling pathways in regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in tumor-associated macrophages. Knowledge of intercellular and intracellular circuits that shape immune suppression may afford insights for development of adjuvant treatments that alleviate immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and enhance the clinical efficacy of ovarian tumor vaccines. PMID:26343197

  13. Identification of recurrent regulated alternative splicing events across human solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Eisenberg, Eli; Meir, Keren; Karni, Rotem; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that involves aberrant gene expression regulation. Discriminating the modified expression patterns driving tumor biology from the many that have no or little contribution is important for understanding cancer molecular basis. Recurrent deregulation patterns observed in multiple cancer types are enriched for such driver events. Here, we studied splicing alterations in hundreds of matched tumor and normal RNA-seq samples of eight solid cancer types. We found hundreds of cassette exons for which splicing was altered in multiple cancer types and identified a set of highly frequent altered splicing events. Specific splicing regulators, including RBFOX2, MBNL1/2 and QKI, appear to account for many splicing alteration events in multiple cancer types. Together, our results provide a first global analysis of regulated splicing alterations in cancer and identify common events with a potential causative role in solid tumor development. PMID:25908786

  14. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J.; Reis, Celso A.; Rutteman, Gerard R.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26222311

  15. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J; Reis, Celso A; Rutteman, Gerard R; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26222311

  16. Tumor-associated macrophages and stromal TNF-α regulate collagen structure in a breast tumor model as visualized by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ryan M.; Madden, Kelley S.; Perry, Seth W.; Zettel, Martha L.; Brown, Edward B.

    2013-08-01

    Collagen fibers can be imaged with second harmonic generation (SHG) and are associated with efficient tumor cell locomotion. Preferential locomotion along these fibers correlates with a more aggressively metastatic phenotype, and changes in SHG emission properties accompany changes in metastatic outcome. We therefore attempted to elucidate the cellular and molecular machinery that influences SHG in order to understand how the microstructure of tumor collagen fibers is regulated. By quantifying SHG and immunofluorescence (IF) from tumors grown in mice with and without stromal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and in the presence or absence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), we determined that depletion of TAMs alters tumor collagen fibrillar microstructure as quantified by SHG and IF. Furthermore, we determined that abrogation of TNF-α expression by tumor stromal cells also alters fibrillar microstructure and that subsequent depletion of TAMs has no further effect. In each case, metastatic burden correlated with optical readouts of collagen microstructure. Our results implicate TAMs and stromal TNF-α as regulators of breast tumor collagen microstructure and suggest that this regulation plays a role in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, these results indicate that quantification of SHG represents a useful strategy for evaluating the cells and molecular pathways responsible for manipulating fibrillar collagen in breast tumor models.

  17. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  18. The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway regulates intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Phillip; Perez, Jessica; Perrimon, Norbert

    2010-12-01

    Identification of the signaling pathways that control the proliferation of stem cells (SCs), and whether they act in a cell or non-cell autonomous manner, is key to our understanding of tissue homeostasis and cancer. In the adult Drosophila midgut, the Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in damaged enterocyte cells (ECs) following injury. This leads to the production of Upd cytokines from ECs, which in turn activate the Janus kinase (JAK)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in Intestinal SCs (ISCs), stimulating their proliferation. In addition, the Hippo pathway has been recently implicated in the regulation of Upd production from the ECs. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway target, Yorkie (Yki), also plays a crucial and cell-autonomous role in ISCs. Activation of Yki in ISCs is sufficient to increase ISC proliferation, a process involving Yki target genes that promote division, survival and the Upd cytokines. We further show that prior to injury, Yki activity is constitutively repressed by the upstream Hippo pathway members Fat and Dachsous (Ds). These findings demonstrate a cell-autonomous role for the Hippo pathway in SCs, and have implications for understanding the role of this pathway in tumorigenesis and cancer stem cells. PMID:21098564

  19. Hereditary Hyperparathyroidism–Jaw Tumor Syndrome: The Endocrine Tumor Gene HRPT2 Maps to Chromosome 1q21-q31

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, József; Heath, Brett; Hill, Virginia M.; Jackson, Charles E.; Zarbo, Richard J.; Mallette, Lawrence E.; Chew, Shern L.; Besser, Gordon M.; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Huff, Vicki; Leppert, Mark F.; Heath, Hunter

    1995-01-01

    The syndrome of hereditary hyperparathyroidism and jaw tumors (HPT-JT) is characterized by inheritance, in an autosomal dominant pattern, of recurrent parathyroid adenomas, fibro-osseous tumors of the mandible and/or maxilla, Wilms tumor, and parathyroid carcinoma. This syndrome is clinically and genetically distinct from other endocrine neoplasia syndromes and appears to result from mutation of an endocrine tumor gene designated “HRPT2.” We studied five HPT-JT families (59 persons, 20 affected); using PCR-based markers, we instituted a genomewide linkage search after excluding several candidate genes. Lod scores were calculated at various recombination fractions (θ), penetrance 90%. We mapped HRPT2 to the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21-q31). The maximal lod score was 6.10 at θ = .0 with marker D1S212, or >106 odds in favor of linkage. In six hereditary Wilms tumor families (96 persons, 29 affected), we found no linkage to 1q markers closely linked with HRPT2 (lod scores −15.6 [D1S191] and −17.8 [D1S196], θ = .001). Nine parathyroid adenomas and one Wilms tumor from nine members of three HPT-JT families were examined for loss of heterozygosity at linked loci. The parathyroid adenomas and Wilms tumor showed no loss of heterozygosity for these DNA markers. Our data establish that HRPT2, an endocrine tumor gene on the long arm of chromosome 1, is responsible for the HPT-JT syndrome but not for the classical hereditary Wilms tumor syndrome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7717405

  20. Hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: the endocrine tumor gene HRPT2 maps to chromosome 1q21-q31

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, J.; Heath, B.; Hill, V.M.; Heath, H. III; Leppert, M.F.; Jackson, C.E.; Zarbo, R.J.; Mallette, L.E.; Huff, V.; Chew, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    The syndrome of hereditary hyperparathyroidism and jaw tumors (HPT-JT) is characterized by inheritance, in an autosomal dominant pattern, of recurrent parathyroid adenomas, fibro-osseous tumors of the mandible and/or maxilla, Wilms tumor, and parathyroid carcinoma. This syndrome is clinically and genetically distinct from other endocrine neoplasia syndromes and appears to result from mutation of an endocrine tumor gene designated {open_quotes}HRPT2{close_quotes}. We studied five HPT-JT families (59 persons, 20 affected); using PCR-based markers, we instituted a genome-wide linkage search after excluding several candidate genes. Lod scores were calculated at various recombination fractions ({theta}), penetrance 90%. We mapped HRPT2 to the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21-q31). The maximal lod score was 6.10 at {theta} = .0 with marker D1S212, or >10{sup 6} odds in favor of linkage. In six hereditary Wilms tumor families (96 persons, 29 affected), we found no linkage to 1q markers closely linked with HRPT2 (lod scores -15.6 [D1S191] and -17.8 [D1S196], {theta} = .001). Nine parathyroid adenomas and one Wilms tumor from nine members of three HPT-JT families were examined for loss of heterozygosity at linked loci. The parathyroid adenomas and Wilms tumor showed no loss of heterozygosity for these DNA markers. Our data establish that HRPT2, an endocrine tumor gene on the long arm of chromosome 1, is responsible for the HPT-JT syndrome but not for the classical hereditary Wilms tumor syndrome. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Tumor Therapeutics Work as Stress Inducers to Enhance Tumor Sensitivity to Natural Killer (NK) Cell Cytolysis by Up-regulating NKp30 Ligand B7-H6.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoshuai; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang; Sun, Rui

    2015-12-11

    Immune cells are believed to participate in initiating anti-tumor effects during regular tumor therapy such as chemotherapy, radiation, hyperthermia, and cytokine injection. One of the mechanisms underlying this process is the expression of so-called stress-inducible immunostimulating ligands. Although the activating receptor NKG2D has been proven to play roles in tumor therapy through targeting its ligands, the role of NKp30, another key activating receptor, is seldom addressed. In this study, we found that the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 was widely expressed in tumor cells and closely correlated to their susceptibility to NK cell lysis. Further studies showed that treatment of tumor cells with almost all standard tumor therapeutics, including chemotherapy (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil), radiation therapy, non-lethal heat shock, and cytokine therapy (TNF-α), could up-regulate the expression of B7-H6 in tumor cells and enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis. B7-H6 shRNA treatment effectively dampened sensitization of tumor cells to NK-mediated lysis. Our study not only reveals the possibility that tumor therapeutics work as stress inducers to enhance tumor sensitivity to NK cell cytolysis but also suggests that B7-H6 could be a potential target for tumor therapy in the future. PMID:26472927

  2. Mitochondrial dynamics protein Drp1 is overexpressed in oncocytic thyroid tumors and regulates cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1--a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line--and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells' migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype. PMID:25822260

  3. Mitochondrial Dynamics Protein Drp1 Is Overexpressed in Oncocytic Thyroid Tumors and Regulates Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1 - a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line—and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells’ migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype. PMID:25822260

  4. PI3K{gamma} activation by CXCL12 regulates tumor cell adhesion and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Monterrubio, Maria; Mellado, Mario; Carrera, Ana C.

    2009-10-16

    Tumor dissemination is a complex process, in which certain steps resemble those in leukocyte homing. Specific chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs have important roles in both processes. CXCL12/CXCR4 is the most commonly expressed chemokine/chemokine receptor pair in human cancers, in which it regulates cell adhesion, extravasation, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, and proliferation. All of these processes require activation of signaling pathways that include G proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), JAK kinases, Rho GTPases, and focal adhesion-associated proteins. We analyzed these pathways in a human melanoma cell line in response to CXCL12 stimulation, and found that PI3K{gamma} regulates tumor cell adhesion through mechanisms different from those involved in cell invasion. Our data indicate that, following CXCR4 activation after CXCL12 binding, the invasion and adhesion processes are regulated differently by distinct downstream events in these signaling cascades.

  5. Congenital renal tumor: metanephric adenoma, nephrogenic rest, or malignancy?

    PubMed

    Yin, Minzhi; Cai, Jiaoyang; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-01-01

    We report a renal tumor detected by prenatal ultrasound and resected at 2 months of age. This 9-cm, solid mass was composed of tubular and papillary structures lined by small, uniform epithelial cells. There was local invasion into renal parenchyma and a tumor deposit in a hilar lymph node. The tumor was immunopositive for WT1, pankeratin, and CD10; focally positive for CK7; and negative for EMA and TFE3. Based on morphology and immunophenotype, the favored diagnosis was metanephric adenoma over Wilms tumor, renal cell carcinoma, and nephrogenic rest. However, metanephric adenoma only occasionally occurs in children and has never been reported prenatally. Alternatively, this tumor might be a congenital Wilms tumor that differentiated completely. Although the nature of the tumor remains unconfirmed, resection appears to have been curative; the patient remains disease-free 18 months following surgery alone. PMID:25734608

  6. STAT3 in Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammation and Tumor Progression to Malignant State in Colon1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Andrew V; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Donghai; Nguyen, Stephanie; Loh, Ricky; Pang, Joey; Friedman, Kenneth; Orlofsky, Amos; Augenlicht, Leonard; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Lin, Elaine Y

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine. PMID:24027425

  7. AMPK is a negative regulator of the Warburg Effect and suppresses tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Brandon; Boily, Gino; Izreig, Said; Griss, Takla; Samborska, Bozena; Dong, Zhifeng; Dupuy, Fanny; Chambers, Christopher; Fuerth, Benjamin J.; Viollet, Benoit; Mamer, Orval A.; Avizonis, Daina; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Siegel, Peter M.; Jones, Russell G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary AMPK is a metabolic sensor that helps maintain cellular energy homeostasis. Despite evidence linking AMPK with tumor suppressor functions, the role of AMPK in tumorigenesis and tumor metabolism is unknown. Here we show that AMPK negatively regulates aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) in cancer cells, and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Genetic ablation of the α1 catalytic subunit of AMPK accelerates Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Inactivation of AMPKα in both transformed and non-transformed cells promotes a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis, increased allocation of glucose carbon into lipids, and biomass accumulation. These metabolic effects require normoxic stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), as silencing HIF-1α reverses the shift to aerobic glycolysis and the biosynthetic and proliferative advantages conferred by reduced AMPKα signaling. Together our findings suggest that AMPK activity opposes tumor development, and its loss fosters tumor progression in part by regulating cellular metabolic pathways that support cell growth and proliferation. PMID:23274086

  8. Molecular chaperone Hsp27 regulates the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Vahid, Sepideh; Thaper, Daksh; Gibson, Kate F; Bishop, Jennifer L; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone highly expressed in aggressive cancers, where it is involved in numerous pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. Using functional genomics we identified for the first time that Hsp27 regulates the gene signature of transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are negatively regulated by the Hippo Tumor Suppressor pathway. The Hippo pathway inactivates YAP by phosphorylating and increasing its cytoplasmic retention with the 14.3.3 proteins. Gain and loss of function experiments in prostate, breast and lung cancer cells showed that Hsp27 knockdown induced YAP phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization while overexpression of Hsp27 displayed opposite results. Mechanistically, Hsp27 regulates the Hippo pathway by accelerating the proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated MST1, the core Hippo kinase, resulting in reduced phosphorylation/activity of LATS1 and MOB1, its downstream effectors. Importantly, our in vitro results were supported by data from human tumors; clinically, high expression of Hsp27 in prostate tumors is correlated with increased expression of YAP gene signature and reduced phosphorylation of YAP in lung and invasive breast cancer clinical samples. This study reveals for the first time a link between Hsp27 and the Hippo cascade, providing a novel mechanism of deregulation of this tumor suppressor pathway across multiple cancers. PMID:27555231

  9. Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihara, Takashi; Collado, Denise; Hamaguchi, Masaaki . E-mail: hamaguchi@fordham.edu

    2007-07-13

    The expression of tumor suppressor gene DBC2 causes certain breast cancer cells to stop growing [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. Recently, DBC2 was found to participate in diverse cellular functions such as protein transport, cytoskeleton regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle control [V. Siripurapu, J.L. Meth, N. Kobayashi, M. Hamaguchi, DBC2 significantly influences cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeleton, and membrane trafficking pathways. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 83-89]. Its tumor suppression mechanism, however, remains unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that DBC2 suppresses breast cancer proliferation through down-regulation of Cyclin D1 (CCND1). Additionally, the constitutional overexpression of CCND1 prevented the negative impact of DBC2 expression on their growth. Under a CCND1 promoter, the expression of CCNE1 exhibited the same protective effect. Our results indicate that the down-regulation of CCND1 is an essential step for DBC2's growth suppression of cancer cells. We believe that this discovery contributes to a better understanding of DBC2's tumor suppressor function.

  10. Molecular chaperone Hsp27 regulates the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vahid, Sepideh; Thaper, Daksh; Gibson, Kate F.; Bishop, Jennifer L.; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone highly expressed in aggressive cancers, where it is involved in numerous pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. Using functional genomics we identified for the first time that Hsp27 regulates the gene signature of transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are negatively regulated by the Hippo Tumor Suppressor pathway. The Hippo pathway inactivates YAP by phosphorylating and increasing its cytoplasmic retention with the 14.3.3 proteins. Gain and loss of function experiments in prostate, breast and lung cancer cells showed that Hsp27 knockdown induced YAP phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization while overexpression of Hsp27 displayed opposite results. Mechanistically, Hsp27 regulates the Hippo pathway by accelerating the proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated MST1, the core Hippo kinase, resulting in reduced phosphorylation/activity of LATS1 and MOB1, its downstream effectors. Importantly, our in vitro results were supported by data from human tumors; clinically, high expression of Hsp27 in prostate tumors is correlated with increased expression of YAP gene signature and reduced phosphorylation of YAP in lung and invasive breast cancer clinical samples. This study reveals for the first time a link between Hsp27 and the Hippo cascade, providing a novel mechanism of deregulation of this tumor suppressor pathway across multiple cancers. PMID:27555231

  11. Modulation of junction tension by tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes regulates cell-cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Floris; Guirao, Boris; Wang, Zhimin; Rivière, Mathieu; Bonnet, Isabelle; Graner, François; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2016-02-15

    Tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes play crucial roles in tissue proliferation. Furthermore, de-regulation of their functions is deleterious to tissue architecture and can result in the sorting of somatic rounded clones minimizing their contact with surrounding wild-type (wt) cells. Defects in the shape of somatic clones correlate with defects in proliferation, cell affinity, cell-cell adhesion, oriented cell division and cortical contractility. Combining genetics, live-imaging, laser ablation and computer simulations, we aim to analyze whether distinct or similar mechanisms can account for the common role of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes in cell-cell contact regulation. In Drosophila epithelia, the tumor suppressors Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds) regulate cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, planar cell polarity and junction tension. By analyzing the evolution over time of ft mutant cells and clones, we show that ft clones reduce their cell-cell contacts with the surrounding wt tissue in the absence of concomitant cell divisions and over-proliferation. This contact reduction depends on opposed changes of junction tensions in the clone bulk and its boundary with neighboring wt tissue. More generally, either clone bulk or boundary junction tension is modulated by the activation of Yorkie, Myc and Ras, yielding similar contact reductions with wt cells. Together, our data highlight mechanical roles for proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor pathways in cell-cell interactions. PMID:26811379

  12. Familial predisposition to Wilms' tumour does not map to the short arm of chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P; Koufos, A; Morgan, K; Li, F P; Meadows, A T; Cavenee, W K

    1988-11-24

    Wilms' tumour of the kidney usually occurs sporadically, but can also segregate as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. Patients with the WAGR syndrome of aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and high risk of Wilms' tumour have overlapping deletions of chromosome 11p13 which has suggested a possible location for a Wilms' tumour locus. Moreover, many sporadic tumours have lost a portion of chromosome 11p. A second locus at 11p15 is implicated by association of the tumour with the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and by tumour-specific losses of chromosome 11 confined to 11p15. Here we report a multipoint linkage analysis of a family segregating for Wilms' tumour, using polymorphic DNA markers mapped to chromosome 11p. The results exclude the predisposing mutation from both locations. In a second family, the 11p15 alleles lost in the tumour were derived from the affected parent, thus precluding this region as the location of the inherited mutation. These findings imply an aetiological heterogeneity for Wilms' tumour and raise questions concerning the general applicability of the carcinogenesis model that has been useful in the understanding of retinoblastoma. PMID:2848199

  13. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

    2014-11-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

  14. Chronophin is a glial tumor modifier involved in the regulation of glioblastoma growth and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Fedorchenko, O; Zink, T G; Knobbe-Thomsen, C B; Kraus, S; Schwinn, S; Beilhack, A; Reifenberger, G; Monoranu, C M; Sirén, A-L; Jeanclos, E; Gohla, A

    2016-06-16

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Although the rapid recurrence of glioblastomas after treatment is a major clinical challenge, the relationships between tumor growth and intracerebral spread remain poorly understood. We have identified the cofilin phosphatase chronophin (gene name: pyridoxal phosphatase, PDXP) as a glial tumor modifier. Monoallelic PDXP loss was frequent in four independent human astrocytic tumor cohorts and increased with tumor grade. We found that aberrant PDXP promoter methylation can be a mechanism leading to further chronophin downregulation in glioblastomas, which correlated with shorter glioblastoma patient survival. Moreover, we observed an inverse association between chronophin protein expression and cofilin phosphorylation levels in glioma tissue samples. Chronophin-deficient glioblastoma cells showed elevated cofilin phosphorylation, an increase in polymerized actin, a higher directionality of cell migration, and elevated in vitro invasiveness. Tumor growth of chronophin-depleted glioblastoma cells xenografted into the immunodeficient mouse brain was strongly impaired. Our study suggests a mechanism whereby the genetic and epigenetic alterations of PDXP resulting in altered chronophin expression may regulate the interplay between glioma cell proliferation and invasion. PMID:26549022

  15. Role of TGFβ in regulation of the tumor microenvironment and drug delivery (Review)

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGEORGIS, PANAGIOTIS; STYLIANOPOULOS, TRIANTAFYLLOS

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of cell signaling homeostasis is a predominant feature of cancer initiation and progression. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which regulates numerous biological processes of various tissues in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Aberrant activity of TGFβ signaling is well known to play dual roles in cancer, depending on tumor stage and cellular context. The crucial roles of TGFβ in modulating the tumor microenvironment, its contribution to the accumulation of mechanical forces within the solid constituents of a tumor and its effects on the effective delivery of drugs are also becoming increasingly clear. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in the efforts to unravel the effects of TGFβ signaling in various components of the tumor microenvironment and how these influence the generation of forces and the efficacy of drugs. We also report the implications of tumor mechanics in cancer therapy and the potential usage of anti-TGFβ agents to enhance drug delivery and augment existing therapeutic approaches. These findings provide new insights towards the significance of targeting TGFβ pathway to enhance personalized tumor treatment. PMID:25573346

  16. Flavonoid-related regulation of auxin accumulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumors.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Katja; Aloni, Roni; Langhans, Markus; Heller, Werner; Stich, Susanne; Ullrich, Cornelia I

    2003-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumors accumulate considerable concentrations of free auxin. To determine possible mechanisms by which high auxin concentrations are maintained, we examined the pattern of auxin and flavonoid distribution in plant tumors. Tumors were induced in transformants of Trifolium repens (L.), containing the beta-glucuronidase ( GUS)-fused auxin-responsive promoter ( GH3) or chalcone synthase ( CHS2) genes, and in transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., containing the GUS-fused synthetic auxin response element DR5. Expression of GH3::GUS and DR5::GUS was strong in proliferating metabolically active tumors, thus suggesting high free-auxin concentrations. Immunolocalization of total auxin with indole-3-acetic acid antibodies was consistent with GH3::GUS expression indicating the highest auxin concentration in the tumor periphery. By in situ staining with diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethyl ester, by thin-layer chromatography, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and two-photon laser-scanning microscopy spectrometry, tumor-specific flavones, isoflavones and pterocarpans were detected, namely 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), formononetin, and medicarpin. DHF was the dominant flavone in high free-auxin-accumulating stipules of Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Flavonoids were localized at the sites of strongest auxin-inducible CHS2::GUS expression in the tumor that was differentially modulated by auxin in the vascular tissue. CHS mRNA expression changes corresponded to the previously analyzed auxin concentration profile in tumors and roots of tumorized Ricinus plants. Application of DHF to stems, apically pretreated with alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, inhibited GH3::GUS expression in a fashion similar to 1-N-naphthyl-phthalamic acid. Tumor, root and shoot growth was poor in inoculated tt4(85) flavonoid-deficient CHS mutants of Arabidopsis. It is concluded that CHS-dependent flavonoid aglycones are possibly endogenous regulators

  17. Real-time tracking of respiratory-induced tumor motion by dose-rate regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han-Oh, Yeonju Sarah

    We have developed a novel real-time tumor-tracking technology, called Dose-Rate-Regulated Tracking (DRRT), to compensate for tumor motion caused by breathing. Unlike other previously proposed tumor-tracking methods, this new method uses a preprogrammed dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) sequence in combination with real-time dose-rate control. This new scheme circumvents the technical challenge in MLC-based tumor tracking, that is to control the MLC motion in real time, based on real-time detected tumor motion. The preprogrammed MLC sequence describes the movement of the tumor, as a function of breathing phase, amplitude, or tidal volume. The irregularity of tumor motion during treatment is handled by real-time regulation of the dose rate, which effectively speeds up or slows down the delivery of radiation as needed. This method is based on the fact that all of the parameters in dynamic radiation delivery, including MLC motion, are enslaved to the cumulative dose, which, in turn, can be accelerated or decelerated by varying the dose rate. Because commercially available MLC systems do not allow the MLC delivery sequence to be modified in real time based on the patient's breathing signal, previously proposed tumor-tracking techniques using a MLC cannot be readily implemented in the clinic today. By using a preprogrammed MLC sequence to handle the required motion, the task for real-time control is greatly simplified. We have developed and tested the pre- programmed MLC sequence and the dose-rate regulation algorithm using lung-cancer patients breathing signals. It has been shown that DRRT can track the tumor with an accuracy of less than 2 mm for a latency of the DRRT system of less than 0.35 s. We also have evaluated the usefulness of guided breathing for DRRT. Since DRRT by its very nature can compensate for breathing-period changes, guided breathing was shown to be unnecessary for real-time tracking when using DRRT. Finally, DRRT uses the existing dose-rate control

  18. Expression quantitative trait analysis reveals fine germline transcript regulation in mouse lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Cotroneo, Chiara E; Dassano, Alice; Colombo, Francesca; Pettinicchio, Angela; Lecis, Daniele; Dugo, Matteo; De Cecco, Loris; Dragani, Tommaso A; Manenti, Giacomo

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression modulates cellular functions in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Herein, we carried out a genetic linkage study on the transcriptome of lung tumors induced by urethane in an (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 intercross population, whose individual lung tumor multiplicity (Nlung) is linked to the genotype at the Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus. We found that expression levels of 1179 and 1579 genes are modulated by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in cis and in trans, respectively (LOD score > 5). Of note, the genomic area surrounding and including the Pas1 locus regulated 14 genes in cis and 857 genes in trans. In lung tumors of the same (A/J x C57BL/6)F4 mice, we found 1124 genes whose transcript levels associated with Nlung (FDR < 0.001). The expression levels of about a third of these genes (n = 401) were regulated by the genotype at the Pas1 locus. Pathway analysis of the sets of genes associated with Nlung and regulated by Pas1 revealed a set of 14 recurrently represented genes that are components or targets of the Ras-Erk and Pi3k-Akt signaling pathways. Altogether our results illustrate the architecture of germline control of gene expression in mouse lung cancer: they highlight the importance of Pas1 as a tumor-modifier locus, attribute to it a novel role as a major regulator of transcription in lung tumor nodules and strengthen the candidacy of the Kras gene as the effector of this locus. PMID:26966001

  19. Cell motility and ECM proteolysis regulate tumor growth and tumor relapse by altering the fraction of cancer stem cells and their spatial scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Rahul; Sen, Shamik

    2016-06-01

    Tumors consist of multiple cell sub-populations including cancer stem cells (CSCs), transiently amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells (TDCs), with the CSC fraction dictating the aggressiveness of the tumor and drug sensitivity. In epithelial cancers, tumor growth is influenced greatly by properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), with cancer progression associated with an increase in ECM density. However, the extent to which increased ECM confinement induced by an increase in ECM density influences tumor growth and post treatment relapse dynamics remains incompletely understood. In this study, we use a cellular automata-based discrete modeling approach to study the collective influence of ECM density, cell motility and ECM proteolysis on tumor growth, tumor heterogeneity, and tumor relapse after drug treatment. We show that while increased confinement suppresses tumor growth and the spatial scattering of CSCs, this effect can be reversed when cells become more motile and proteolytically active. Our results further suggest that, in addition to the absolute number of CSCs, their spatial positioning also plays an important role in driving tumor growth. In a nutshell, our study suggests that, in confined environments, cell motility and ECM proteolysis are two key factors that regulate tumor growth and tumor relapse dynamics by altering the number and spatial distribution of CSCs.

  20. Cell motility and ECM proteolysis regulate tumor growth and tumor relapse by altering the fraction of cancer stem cells and their spatial scattering.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Rahul; Sen, Shamik

    2016-01-01

    Tumors consist of multiple cell sub-populations including cancer stem cells (CSCs), transiently amplifying cells and terminally differentiated cells (TDCs), with the CSC fraction dictating the aggressiveness of the tumor and drug sensitivity. In epithelial cancers, tumor growth is influenced greatly by properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), with cancer progression associated with an increase in ECM density. However, the extent to which increased ECM confinement induced by an increase in ECM density influences tumor growth and post treatment relapse dynamics remains incompletely understood. In this study, we use a cellular automata-based discrete modeling approach to study the collective influence of ECM density, cell motility and ECM proteolysis on tumor growth, tumor heterogeneity, and tumor relapse after drug treatment. We show that while increased confinement suppresses tumor growth and the spatial scattering of CSCs, this effect can be reversed when cells become more motile and proteolytically active. Our results further suggest that, in addition to the absolute number of CSCs, their spatial positioning also plays an important role in driving tumor growth. In a nutshell, our study suggests that, in confined environments, cell motility and ECM proteolysis are two key factors that regulate tumor growth and tumor relapse dynamics by altering the number and spatial distribution of CSCs. PMID:27125980

  1. Tumor-Recruited Neutrophils and Neutrophil TIMP-Free MMP-9 Regulate Coordinately the Levels of Tumor Angiogenesis and Efficiency of Malignant Cell Intravasation

    PubMed Central

    Bekes, Erin M.; Schweighofer, Bernhard; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A.; Zajac, Ewa; Ardi, Veronica C.; Quigley, James P.; Deryugina, Elena I.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-associated neutrophils contribute to neovascularization by supplying matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a protease that has been genetically and biochemically linked to induction of angiogenesis. Specific roles of inflammatory neutrophils and their distinct proMMP-9 in the coordinate regulation of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell dissemination, however, have not been addressed. We demonstrate that the primary tumors formed by highly disseminating variants of human fibrosarcoma and prostate carcinoma recruit elevated levels of infiltrating MMP-9-positive neutrophils and concomitantly exhibit enhanced levels of angiogenesis and intravasation. Specific inhibition of neutrophil influx by interleukin 8 (IL-8) neutralization resulted in the coordinated diminishment of tumor angiogenesis and intravasation, both of which were rescued by purified neutrophil proMMP-9. However, if neutrophil proMMP-9, naturally devoid of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), was delivered in complex with TIMP-1 or in a mixture with TIMP-2, the protease failed to rescue the inhibitory effects of anti-IL8 therapy, indicating that the TIMP-free status of proMMP-9 is critical for facilitating tumor angiogenesis and intravasation. Our findings directly link tumor-associated neutrophils and their TIMP-free proMMP-9 with the ability of aggressive tumor cells to induce the formation of new blood vessels that serve as conduits for tumor cell dissemination. Thus, treatment of cancers associated with neutrophil infiltration may benefit from specific targeting of neutrophil MMP-9 at early stages to prevent ensuing tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. PMID:21741942

  2. Negative Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p53 by microRNA miR-504

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenwei; Chan, Chang S.; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Cen; Sun, Yvonne; Song, Jun S.; Tang, Laura H.; Levine, Arnold J.; Feng, Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    Summary Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. p53 protein levels and activity are under a tight and complex regulation in cells to maintain the proper function of p53. microRNAs play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report the regulation of p53 through microRNA miR-504. miR-504 acts as a negative regulator of human p53 through its direct binding to two sites in p53 3′-UTR. Overexpression of miR-504 decreases p53 protein levels and functions in cells, including p53 transcriptional activity, p53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to stress, and furthermore, promotes tumorigenecity of cells in vivo. These results demonstrate the direct negative regulation of p53 by miR-504 as a mechanism for p53 regulation in cells, which highlights the importance of microRNAs in tumorigenesis. PMID:20542001

  3. Interleukin-8 Promotes Canine Hemangiosarcoma Growth by Regulating the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C.; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. PMID:24582862

  4. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M; Anderson, Katie L; Graef, Ashley J; Scott, Milcah C; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C; O'Brien, Timothy D; Dickerson, Erin B; Modiano, Jaime F

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into "IL-8 high" and "IL-8 low" groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the "IL-8 high" tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a "reactive microenvironment," including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. PMID:24582862

  5. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C.; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C.; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  6. The Tumor-Promoting Flow of Cells Into, Within and Out of the Tumor Site: Regulation by the Inflammatory Axis of TNFα and Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2012-08-01

    Tumors are dynamic organs, in which active processes of cell motility affect disease course by regulating the composition of cells at the tumor site. While sub-populations of tumor-promoting leukocytes are recruited inward and endothelial cell migration stands in the basis of vascular branching throughout the tumor, cancer cells make their way out of the primary site towards specific metastatic sites. This review describes the independent and cross-regulatory roles of inflammatory chemokines and of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in determining cell motility processes that eventually have profound effects on tumor growth and metastasis. First, the effects of inflammatory chemokines such as CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL8 (IL-8) are described, regulating the inward flow of leukocyte sub-populations with pro-tumoral activities, such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN), Th17 cells and Tregs. Then, the ability of inflammatory chemokines to induce endothelial cell migration, sprouting and tube formation is discussed, with its implications on tumor angiogenesis. This part is followed by an in depth description of the manners by which TNFα potentiates the above activities of the inflammatory chemokines, alongside with its ability to directly induce migratory processes in the tumor cells thus promoting metastasis. Note worthy is the ability of TNFα to induce in the tumor cells the important process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emphasis is given to the ability of TNFα to establish an inflammatory network with the chemokines, and in parallel to form a cell re-modeling network together with transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The review concludes by discussing the implications of such networks on disease course, and on the future design of therapeutic measures in cancer. PMID:22190050

  7. Inverse regulation of human ERBB2 and epidermal growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, H; Roeder, C; Gieseking, J; Humburg, I; Schmiegel, W

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha decreased the expression of ERBB2 mRNA by stimulating p55 TNF receptors of pancreatic tumor cells. This decrease contrasts with an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. Both effects were selectively achieved by TNF-alpha or -beta, whereas interferon alpha or gamma or transforming growth factor beta showed no such effects. The inverse regulatory effects of TNF on ERBB2 and EGFR mRNA levels were evoked by different signaling pathways of p55 TNF receptors. The TNF-mediated ERBB2 mRNA decrease was followed by a reduction in protein. Four of five pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibited this down-regulation. This decrease of ERBB2 is a singular example of a modulation of this growth factor receptor by TNF. Overexpression of ERBB2 has been reported to cause resistance to TNF and other cytotoxic cytokines. In our study we show that the TNF-mediated down-regulation of ERBB2 in pancreatic tumor cells is accompanied by an increase in growth inhibition at low doses of TNF. The simultaneous alteration of the ERBB2/EGFR balance by TNF represents a striking model of cytokine receptor transregulation in the growth control of malignant pancreatic epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105469

  8. microRNA-199a-3p functions as tumor suppressor by regulating glucose metabolism in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowen; Duan, Hongyan; Zhou, Shihua; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Daobing; Zhao, Ting; Xu, Shan; Yang, Lifang; Li, Dan

    2016-09-01

    microRNA (miR)-199a-3p serves critical roles in cancer development and progression. In order to improve knowledge of the functional mechanism of miR‑199a‑3p in testicular tumors, the present study characterized the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by miR‑199a‑3p and its impact on metabolism. Using 3‑4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl‑2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, wound healing and flow cytometry assays, it was determined that overexpression of miR‑199a‑3p in Ntera‑2 cells caused suppression of cell growth and migration. Further biochemical methods and high‑throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction array of metabolic genes showed that inhibition of miR‑199a‑3p markedly elevated lactate production and 12 differentially expressed genes, including 2 upregulated and 10 downregulated genes, were identified following treatment with miR‑199a‑3p in Ntera‑2 cells. In clinical samples, four selected genes, lactate dehydrogenase A, monocarboxylate transporter 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and TP53‑inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator, were significantly overexpressed in malignant testicular germ cell tumor, and their expression inversely correlated with the expression of miR‑199a‑3p, suggesting that these four genes may be affected by miR‑199a‑3p. Using bioinformatics analysis, the transcription factor Sp1 binding site was identified in the promoter region of the four selected genes. In addition, miR‑199a‑3p was predicted to bind to conservative target sequences in the 3'‑untranslated region of Sp1 mRNA, suggesting that miR-199a-3p may downregulate these four metabolic genes through Sp1. It was demonstrated the dysregulated expression and activation of miR‑199a‑3p may serve important roles in aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis in patients with testicular cancer. Therefore, miR-199a-3p may be a potential biomarker in the prognosis and treatment of testicular tumors. PMID:27432288

  9. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  10. Confirmation of FWT1 as a Wilms' tumour susceptibility gene and phenotypic characteristics of Wilms' tumour attributable to FWT1.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N; Abidi, F; Ford, D; Arbour, L; Rapley, E; Tonin, P; Barton, D; Batcup, G; Berry, J; Cotter, F; Davison, V; Gerrard, M; Gray, E; Grundy, R; Hanafy, M; King, D; Lewis, I; Ridolfi Luethy, A; Madlensky, L; Mann, J; O'Meara, A; Oakhill, T; Skolnick, M; Strong, L; Stratton, M R

    1998-11-01

    A susceptibility gene for Wilms' tumour (WT), designated FWT1, was previously mapped to chromosome 17q12-q21 by linkage analysis of a single family. We now confirm the existence of this gene by analysis of additional cases in the original family (3-point LOD score=5.69), and by detecting strong evidence of linkage to this region in an unrelated pedigree with seven cases of WT (3-point LOD score=2.56). Analysis of 11 smaller WT families confirms that there is genetic heterogeneity in familial WT, as three families exhibit strong evidence against linkage to FWT1. One of these was subsequently found to have a predisposing WT1 mutation. However, the other two families show evidence against both FWT1 and WT1, suggesting that at least one further familial WT gene exists. Analysis of the phenotype of 16 WT cases from the families linked to FWT1 demonstrates that they present at a significantly older age and a significantly later stage than both sporadic WT and the six cases from two families unlinked to either FWT1 or WT1. The results confirm the role of FWT1 in susceptibility to WT, provide strong evidence for genetic heterogeneity in familial WT and suggest there are phenotypic differences between familial WT due to FWT1, familial WT due to other genes and non-familial WT. PMID:9860296

  11. Huaier extract suppresses breast cancer via regulating tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaming; Qi, Wenwen; Song, Xiaojin; Lv, Shangge; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in tumor microenvironment are mostly M2-polarized - and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, we examined the regulatory effects of Huaier extract on TAMs using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our data demonstrated that Huaier extract could inhibit the infiltration of macrophages into tumor microenvironment in a dose-dependent manner. By performing RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and phagocytosis assay, we were able to find that Huaier extract could regulate the polarization of macrophages, with decreased M2-polarization and increased phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, we identified that Huaier extract could suppress macrophages-induced angiogenesis by using HUVEC migration assay, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane assay. Additionally, western blotting showed decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and VEGF with the use of Huaier extract. Finally, we found that Huaier extract could inhibit M2-macrophages infiltration and angiogenesis through treating 4T1 tumor bearing mice with Huaier extract. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of Huaier extract which inhibited angiogenesis by targeting TAMs. These findings provided that Huaier was a promising drug for clinical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26831282

  12. Tumor regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Younos, Ibrahim H; Dafferner, Alicia J; Gulen, Dumrul; Britton, Holly C; Talmadge, James E

    2012-07-01

    A stress response can induce myeloid progenitor cell (MPC) proliferation, mobilization, and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) within lymphoid and parenchymal organs. Our studies using in vivo BrdU labeling, Ki-67 IHC staining, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) adoptive cell transfer revealed that spleens, rather than bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB), from 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing (TB) mice were the primary site of MPC proliferation. The resultant increase in MPCs was associated with tumor hematopoietic growth factor (GF) transcription, decreased apoptosis, as well as, prolonged survival of splenic MPCs. In naïve mice, i.v. injected CFSE-labeled MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells) initially accumulated in the lungs, while in TB mice, they rapidly sequestered in the spleen. In contrast, a few of the injected MDSCs and leukocytes arrested, proliferated, or accumulated in the marrow, tumor, or PB of TB mice. However, BrdU labeling revealed a significant demargination of proliferating splenic MPCs into the PB. In tumors, despite high GF transcript levels, we found that a high frequency of MDSCs was apoptotic. In summary, tumor growth and cytokines regulate MPC proliferation, trafficking, accumulation, apoptosis, and survival. PMID:22609473

  13. Angiogenin expression in human kidneys and Wilms' tumours: relationship with hypoxia and angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Pramila; Headford, Alison; Sowa-Avugrah, Emile; Hunt, Linda P

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenin (ANG) is a potent angiogenic factor that is up-regulated by hypoxia. ANG expression is well documented in normal tissues and in common tumours, but its expression has not been reported in the normal human kidney or in Wilms' tumours (WT). We examined ANG expression in WTs, human fetal kidney (FK) and childhood kidney (NK) samples and studied its relationship with microvascular density (MVD) and with three other hypoxia-induced angiogenic factors: lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) and BHLHE40 (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E40). Total ANG protein levels were significantly lower in WTs when compared with those in 15 matched-paired NKs. ANG immunoreactivity was observed in the glomeruli, proximal tubules and vessels in the FKs and NKs, indicating that ANG plays a physiological role in the human kidney. ANG cellular localization and distribution in 27 WTs reflected the pattern observed in the FKs. ANG colocalized with LDHA in the perinecrotic areas of untreated WTs suggesting up-regulation by hypoxia. There was a significant correlation between CD31-MVD and ANG-MVD. ANG, CD31, VEGFA and BHLHE40 mRNA levels were significantly lower in 15 WTs compared with matched-paired NKs. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses showed significant correlations between ANG and CD31, ANG and BHLHE40 mRNAs and a weaker relationship between ANG and VEGFA mRNAs. ANG expression in WTs recapitulates that seen during nephrogenesis, and correlation with CD31-MVDs and mRNAs is consistent with a contribution to angiogenesis in WTs. Our study contributes to the understanding of angiogenesis during development and in WTs. PMID:23419171

  14. Analysis of marker-defined HNSCC subpopulations reveals a dynamic regulation of tumor initiating properties.

    PubMed

    Bragado, Paloma; Estrada, Yeriel; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Cannan, David; Genden, Eric; Teng, Marita; Ranganathan, Aparna C; Wen, Huei-Chi; Kapoor, Avnish; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors carry dismal long-term prognosis and the role of tumor initiating cells (TICs) in this cancer is unclear. We investigated in HNSCC xenografts whether specific tumor subpopulations contributed to tumor growth. We used a CFSE-based label retentions assay, CD49f (α6-integrin) surface levels and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity to profile HNSCC subpopulations. The tumorigenic potential of marker-positive and -negative subpopulations was tested in nude (Balb/c nu/nu) and NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ) mice and chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Here we identified in HEp3, SQ20b and FaDu HNSCC xenografts a subpopulation of G0/G1-arrested slow-cycling CD49f(high)/ALDH1A1(high)/H3K4/K27me3(low) subpopulation (CD49f+) of tumor cells. A strikingly similar CD49f(high)/H3K27me3(low) subpopulation is also present in primary human HNSCC tumors and metastases. While only sorted CD49f(high)/ALDH(high), label retaining cells (LRC) proliferated immediately in vivo, with time the CD49f(low)/ALDH(low), non-LRC (NLRC) tumor cell subpopulations were also able to regain tumorigenic capacity; this was linked to restoration of CD49f(high)/ALDH(high), label retaining cells. In addition, CD49f is required for HEp3 cell tumorigenicity and to maintain low levels of H3K4/K27me3. CD49f+ cells also displayed reduced expression of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This suggests that although transiently quiescent, their unique chromatin structure is poised for rapid transcriptional activation. CD49f- cells can "reprogram" and also achieve this state eventually. We propose that in HNSCC tumors, epigenetic mechanisms likely driven by CD49f signaling dynamically regulate HNSCC xenograft phenotypic heterogeneity. This allows multiple tumor cell subpopulations to drive tumor growth suggesting that their dynamic nature renders them a "moving target" and their eradication might

  15. Analysis of Marker-Defined HNSCC Subpopulations Reveals a Dynamic Regulation of Tumor Initiating Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bragado, Paloma; Estrada, Yeriel; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Cannan, David; Genden, Eric; Teng, Marita; Ranganathan, Aparna C.; Wen, Huei-Chi; Kapoor, Avnish; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors carry dismal long-term prognosis and the role of tumor initiating cells (TICs) in this cancer is unclear. We investigated in HNSCC xenografts whether specific tumor subpopulations contributed to tumor growth. We used a CFSE-based label retentions assay, CD49f (α6-integrin) surface levels and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity to profile HNSCC subpopulations. The tumorigenic potential of marker-positive and -negative subpopulations was tested in nude (Balb/c nu/nu) and NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice and chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Here we identified in HEp3, SQ20b and FaDu HNSCC xenografts a subpopulation of G0/G1-arrested slow-cycling CD49fhigh/ALDH1A1high/H3K4/K27me3low subpopulation (CD49f+) of tumor cells. A strikingly similar CD49fhigh/H3K27me3low subpopulation is also present in primary human HNSCC tumors and metastases. While only sorted CD49fhigh/ALDHhigh, label retaining cells (LRC) proliferated immediately in vivo, with time the CD49flow/ALDHlow, non-LRC (NLRC) tumor cell subpopulations were also able to regain tumorigenic capacity; this was linked to restoration of CD49fhigh/ALDHhigh, label retaining cells. In addition, CD49f is required for HEp3 cell tumorigenicity and to maintain low levels of H3K4/K27me3. CD49f+ cells also displayed reduced expression of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 and ERK1/2phosphorylation. This suggests that although transiently quiescent, their unique chromatin structure is poised for rapid transcriptional activation. CD49f− cells can “reprogram” and also achieve this state eventually. We propose that in HNSCC tumors, epigenetic mechanisms likely driven by CD49f signaling dynamically regulate HNSCC xenograft phenotypic heterogeneity. This allows multiple tumor cell subpopulations to drive tumor growth suggesting that their dynamic nature renders them a “moving target” and their eradication might require more

  16. Tumor suppressive microRNA-137 negatively regulates Musashi-1 and colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amber R.; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Tsao, Wei-Chung; Pathak, Surajit; Roy, Alexandria; Ping, Jie; Wilkerson, Bailey; Lan, Lan; Meng, Wenjian; Neufeld, Kristi L.; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell marker, Musashi-1 (MSI1) is over-expressed in many cancer types; however the molecular mechanisms involved in MSI1 over-expression are not well understood. We investigated the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of MSI1 and the implications this regulation plays in colorectal cancer. MicroRNA miR-137 was identified as a MSI1-targeting microRNA by immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays. MSI1 protein was found to be highly expressed in 79% of primary rectal tumors (n=146), while miR-137 expression was decreased in 84% of the rectal tumor tissues (n=68) compared to paired normal mucosal samples. In addition to reduced MSI1 protein, exogenous expression of miR-137 inhibited cell growth, colony formation, and tumorsphere growth of colon cancer cells. Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated that induction of miR-137 can decrease growth of human colon cancer xenografts. Our results demonstrate that miR-137 acts as a tumor-suppressive miRNA in colorectal cancers and negatively regulates oncogenic MSI1. PMID:25940441

  17. miR-221/222 control luminal breast cancer tumor progression by regulating different targets

    PubMed Central

    Dentelli, Patrizia; Traversa, Matteo; Rosso, Arturo; Togliatto, Gabriele; Olgasi, Cristina; Marchiò, Caterina; Provero, Paolo; Lembo, Antonio; Bon, Giulia; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Falcioni, Rita; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2014-01-01

    α6β4 integrin is an adhesion molecule for laminin receptors involved in tumor progression. We present a link between β4 integrin expression and miR-221/222 in the most prevalent human mammary tumor: luminal invasive carcinomas (Lum-ICs). Using human primary tumors that display different β4 integrin expression and grade, we show that miR-221/222 expression inversely correlates with tumor proliferating index, Ki67. Interestingly, most high-grade tumors express β4 integrin and low miR-221/222 levels. We ectopically transfected miR-221/222 into a human-derived mammary tumor cell line that recapitulates the luminal subtype to investigate whether miR-221/222 regulates β4 expression. We demonstrate that miR-221/222 overexpression results in β4 expression downregulation, breast cancer cell proliferation, and invasion inhibition. The role of miR-221/222 in driving β4 integrin expression is also confirmed via mutating the miR-221/222 seed sequence for β4 integrin 3′UTR. Furthermore, we show that these 2 miRNAs are also key breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion regulators, via the post-transcriptional regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) and of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM-17). We further confirm these data by silencing ADAM-17, using a dominant-negative or an activated STAT5A form. miR-221/222-driven β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 did not occur in MCF-10A cells, denoted “normal” breast epithelial cells, indicating that the mechanism is cancer cell-specific.   These results provide the first evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 expression, thus controlling breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Pre-miR-221/222 use in the aggressive luminal subtype may be a powerful therapeutic anti-cancer strategy. PMID:24736554

  18. Regulation of transcription factors by nitric oxide in neurons and in neural-derived tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a diffusible molecule acting as an intercellular and intracellular messenger in many tissues, plays multiple roles in the nervous system. In addition to regulating proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons, NO is also involved in synaptic activity, neural plasticity and memory formation. Long-lasting effects of NO, a simple and unstable molecule, occur through regulation of transcription factors and modulation of gene expression. cAMP-response-element-binding (CREB) protein is an important transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in survival and neuroprotection as well as in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Nitric oxide promotes survival and differentiation of neural cells, both activating through cGMP signaling CREB phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activity and promoting S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins that favor CREB binding to its promoters on target genes. Among oncogenic transcription factors, N-Myc is important in neurogenesis and in regulating proliferation of neural-derived tumor cells, such as neuroblastomas and medulloblastomas. Nitric oxide negatively regulates the proliferation of neuronal precursors, as well as the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells, by downregulating N-Myc expression through cGMP signaling. Other oncogenic transcription factors, such as c-fos and c-jun, zinc-finger transcription factors, such as egr-1, and NF-kappaB are regulated by NO signaling in cGMP-dependent way or through nitrosative conformational changes. The present survey of how NO signaling influences neural cells through regulation of transcription factors allows us to predict that better knowledge of these interactions will provide a better understanding of the physiological role of NO in the nervous system in order to conceive novel therapies for neural-derived tumors. PMID:18308460

  19. Progesterone-induced blocking factor differentially regulates trophoblast and tumor invasion by altering matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Halasz, Melinda; Polgar, Beata; Berta, Gergely; Czimbalek, Livia; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Invasiveness is a common feature of trophoblast and tumors; however, while tumor invasion is uncontrolled, trophoblast invasion is strictly regulated. Both trophoblast and tumor cells express high levels of the immunomodulatory progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), therefore, we aimed to test the possibility that PIBF might be involved in invasion. To this aim, we used PIBF-silenced or PIBF-treated trophoblast (HTR8/Svneo, and primary trophoblast) and tumor (HT-1080, A549, HCT116, PC3) cell lines. Silencing of PIBF increased invasiveness as well as MMP-2,-9 secretion of HTR8/SVneo, and decreased those of HT-1080 cells. PIBF induced immediate STAT6 activation in both cell lines. Silencing of IL-4Rα abrogated all the above effects of PIBF, suggesting that invasion-related signaling by PIBF is initiated through the IL-4Rα/PIBF-receptor complex. In HTR-8/SVneo, PIBF induced fast, but transient Akt and ERK phosphorylation, whereas in tumor cells, PIBF triggered sustained Akt, ERK, and late STAT3 activation. The late signaling events might be due to indirect action of PIBF. PIBF induced the expression of EGF and HB-EGF in HT-1080 cells. The STAT3-activating effect of PIBF was reduced in HB-EGF-deficient HT-1080 cells, suggesting that PIBF-induced HB-EGF contributes to late STAT3 activation. PIBF binds to the promoters of IL-6, EGF, and HB-EGF; however, the protein profile of the protein/DNA complex is different in the two cell lines. We conclude that in tumor cells, PIBF induces proteins, which activate invasion signaling, while-based on our previous data-PIBF might control trophoblast invasion by suppressing proinvasive genes. PMID:23807209

  20. Regulation of Differentiation by Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Normal and Tumoral Developing Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; García, Marta; Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos J.; de Torres, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    During normal development of the nervous system (NS), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) produce specialized populations of neurons and glial cells upon cell fate restriction and terminal differentiation. These sequential processes require the dynamic regulation of thousands of genes. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is temporally and spatially regulated in both neurons and glial cells during development of the NS. In particular, CaSR expression and function have been shown to play a significant role during differentiation of NPCs toward the oligodendrocyte lineage and also in maturation of cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs). Moreover, CaSR regulates axonal and dendritic growth in both central and peripheral nervous systems (PNSs), a process necessary for proper construction of mature neuronal networks. On the other hand, several lines of evidence support a role for CaSR in promotion of cell differentiation and inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma, a tumor arising from precursor cells of developing PNS. Thus, among the variety of NS functions in which the CaSR participates, this mini-review focuses on its role in differentiation of normal and tumoral cells. Current knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for CaSR regulation and function in these contexts is also discussed, together with the therapeutic opportunities provided by CaSR allosteric modulators. PMID:27242543

  1. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. PMID:26083935

  2. MiR-34a regulates blood–tumor barrier function by targeting protein kinase Cε

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Ping; Ma, Jun; Liu, Yun-Hui; Li, Zhen; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Liang-Yu; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) functions to regulate protein expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding the 3′ UTR of target genes and regulates functions of vascular endothelial cells. However, the role of miR-34a in regulating blood–tumor barrier (BTB) permeability remains unknown. In this study, we show that miR-34a overexpression leads to significantly increased permeability of BTB, whereas miR-34a silencing reduces the permeability of the BTB. In addition, miR-34a overexpression significantly down-regulates the expression and distribution of tight junction–related proteins in glioma endothelial cells (GECs), paralleled by protein kinase Cε (PKCε) reduction. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene analysis shows that PKCε is the target gene of miR-34a. We also show that cotransfection of miR-34a and PKCε inversely coregulates BTB permeability and protein expression levels of tight junction–related proteins. Pretreatment of ψεRACK, a PKCε-specific activator, decreases BTB permeability in miR-34a–overexpressed GECs and up-regulates expression levels of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pretreatment of εV1-2, a specific PKCε inhibitor, gives opposite results. Collectively, our findings indicate that miR-34a regulates BTB function by targeting PKCε; after phosphorylation, PKCε is activated and contributes to regulation of the expression of tight junction–related proteins, ultimately altering BTB permeability. PMID:25788289

  3. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a tumor is cancer , possible treatments may include: Chemotherapy Radiation Surgery Targeted cancer therapy Biologic therapy Other treatment options

  4. Overcoming Hypoxia-Mediated Tumor Progression: Combinatorial Approaches Targeting pH Regulation, Angiogenesis and Immune Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Chafe, Shawn C.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important contributor to the heterogeneity of the microenvironment of solid tumors and is a significant environmental stressor that drives adaptations which are essential for the survival and metastatic capabilities of tumor cells. Critical adaptive mechanisms include altered metabolism, pH regulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, migration/invasion, diminished response to immune cells and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In particular, pH regulation by hypoxic tumor cells, through the modulation of cell surface molecules such as extracellular carbonic anhydrases (CAIX and CAXII) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT-1 and MCT-4) functions to increase cancer cell survival and enhance cell invasion while also contributing to immune evasion. Indeed, CAIX is a vital regulator of hypoxia mediated tumor progression, and targeted inhibition of its function results in reduced tumor growth, metastasis, and cancer stem cell function. However, the integrated contributions of the repertoire of hypoxia-induced effectors of pH regulation for tumor survival and invasion remain to be fully explored and exploited as therapeutic avenues. For example, the clinical use of anti-angiogenic agents has identified a conundrum whereby this treatment increases hypoxia and cancer stem cell components of tumors, and accelerates metastasis. Furthermore, hypoxia results in the infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), regulatory T cells (Treg) and Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), and also stimulates the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells, which collectively suppress T-cell mediated tumor cell killing. Therefore, combinatorial targeting of angiogenesis, the immune system and pH regulation in the context of hypoxia may lead to more effective strategies for curbing tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, thereby increasing therapeutic efficacy and leading to more effective strategies for the treatment of patients with

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate T Cell Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinfeng; Song, Mengjia; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism play an important role as signaling messengers in immune system. ROS elevated in the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor-induced immunosuppression. T cell-based therapy has been recently approved to be effective for cancer treatment. However, T cells often become dysfunctional after reaching the tumor site. It has been reported that ROS participate extensively in T cells activation, apoptosis, and hyporesponsiveness. The sensitivity of T cells to ROS varies among different subsets. ROS can be regulated by cytokines, amino acid metabolism, and enzymatic activity. Immunosuppressive cells accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and induce apoptosis and functional suppression of T cells by producing ROS. Thus, modulating the level of ROS may be important to prolong survival of T cells and enhance their antitumor function. Combining T cell-based therapy with antioxidant treatment such as administration of ROS scavenger should be considered as a promising strategy in cancer treatment, aiming to improve antitumor T cells immunity. PMID:27547291

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate T Cell Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinfeng; Song, Mengjia

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism play an important role as signaling messengers in immune system. ROS elevated in the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor-induced immunosuppression. T cell-based therapy has been recently approved to be effective for cancer treatment. However, T cells often become dysfunctional after reaching the tumor site. It has been reported that ROS participate extensively in T cells activation, apoptosis, and hyporesponsiveness. The sensitivity of T cells to ROS varies among different subsets. ROS can be regulated by cytokines, amino acid metabolism, and enzymatic activity. Immunosuppressive cells accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and induce apoptosis and functional suppression of T cells by producing ROS. Thus, modulating the level of ROS may be important to prolong survival of T cells and enhance their antitumor function. Combining T cell-based therapy with antioxidant treatment such as administration of ROS scavenger should be considered as a promising strategy in cancer treatment, aiming to improve antitumor T cells immunity. PMID:27547291

  7. Protein 4.1 tumor suppressors: getting a FERM grip on growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chun-Xiao; Robb, Victoria A; Gutmann, David H

    2002-11-01

    Members of the Protein 4.1 superfamily have highly conserved FERM domains that link cell surface glycoproteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Within this large and constantly expanding superfamily, at least five subgroups have been proposed. Two of these subgroups, the ERM and prototypic Protein 4.1 molecules, include proteins that function as tumor suppressors. The ERM subgroup member merlin/schwannomin is inactivated in the tumor-predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and the prototypic 4.1 subgroup member, Protein 4.1B, has been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of breast, lung and brain cancers. This review focuses on what is known of mechanisms of action and critical protein interactions that may mediate the unique growth inhibitory signals of these two Protein 4.1 tumor suppressors. On the basis of insights derived from studying the NF2 tumor suppressor, we propose a model for merlin growth regulation in which CD44 links growth signals from plasma membrane to the nucleus by interacting with ERM proteins and merlin. PMID:12356905

  8. Regulation of Glioblastoma Tumor-Propagating Cells by the Integrin Partner Tetraspanin CD15112

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, Jessica; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lal, Bachuchu; Ying, Mingyao; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Xia, Shuli; Laterra, John

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) represent tumor-propagating cells with stem-like characteristics (stemness) that contribute disproportionately to GBM drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Understanding the mechanisms supporting GSC stemness is important for developing therapeutic strategies for targeting GSC-dependent oncogenic mechanisms. Using GBM-derived neurospheres, we identified the cell surface tetraspanin family member CD151 as a novel regulator of glioma cell stemness, GSC self-renewal capacity, migration, and tumor growth. CD151 was found to be overexpressed in GBM tumors and GBM neurospheres enriched in GSCs. Silencing CD151 inhibited neurosphere forming capacity, neurosphere cell proliferation, and migration and attenuated the expression of markers and transcriptional drivers of the GSC phenotype. Conversely, forced CD151 expression promoted neurosphere self-renewal, cell migration, and expression of stemness-associated transcription factors. CD151 was found to complex with integrins α3, α6, and β1 in neurosphere cells, and blocking CD151 interactions with integrins α3 and α6 inhibited AKT phosphorylation, a downstream effector of integrin signaling, and impaired sphere formation and neurosphere cell migration. Additionally, targeting CD151 in vivo inhibited the growth of GBM neurosphere-derived xenografts. These findings identify CD151 and its interactions with integrins α3 and α6 as potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting stemness-driving mechanisms and stem cell populations in GBM. PMID:26992919

  9. NFAT1 Directly Regulates IL8 and MMP3 to Promote Melanoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shoshan, Einav; Braeuer, Russell R; Kamiya, Takafumi; Mobley, Aaron K; Huang, Li; Vasquez, Mayra E; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Chakravarti, Nitin; Ivan, Cristina; Prieto, Victor; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT1, NFATC2) is a transcription factor that binds and positively regulates IL2 expression during T-cell activation. NFAT1 has important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses, but its involvement in cancer is not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that NFAT1 contributes to melanoma growth and metastasis by regulating the autotaxin gene (Enpp2). Here, we report a strong correlation between NFAT1 expression and metastatic potential in melanoma cell lines and tumor specimens. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying NFAT1 overexpression during melanoma progression, we conducted a microarray on a highly metastatic melanoma cell line in which NFAT1 expression was stably silenced. We identified and validated two downstream targets of NFAT1, IL8, and MMP3. Accordingly, NFAT1 depletion in metastatic melanoma cell lines was associated with reduced IL8 and MMP3 expression, whereas NFAT1 overexpression in a weakly metastatic cell line induced expression of these targets. Restoration of NFAT1 expression recovered IL8 and MMP3 expression levels back to baseline, indicating that both are direct targets of NFAT1. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that NFAT1 and MMP3 promoted melanoma tumor growth and lung metastasis. Collectively, our findings assign a new role for NFAT1 in melanoma progression, underscoring the multifaceted functions that immunomodulatory factors may acquire in an unpredictable tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3145-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27013197

  10. Role of IL-21 in immune-regulation and tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    di Carlo, Emma; de Totero, Daniela; Piazza, Tiziana; Fabbi, Marina; Ferrini, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    IL-21, the most recently discovered member of the IL-2 cytokine family, is an attractive subject for research due to its involvement in experimental models of autoimmunity, its ability to down-regulate IgE production, and its anti-tumor properties. Its interest for cancer immunotherapy stems from its physiological immune-enhancing functions. These include regulation of T, B and NK cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and effector functions. IL-21's functional activities partially overlap those of IL-2. Both cytokines display similar structural features and use the common gamma-chain receptor and its downstream signaling pathways. Besides its activities on normal lymphoid cells, IL-21 is an in vitro growth factor for myeloma and acute-T cell leukemia cells, whereas it induces the apoptosis of B-CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) cells. These findings indicate that the IL-21/IL-21R system exerts opposite functions in different lymphoid neoplasias, and suggest its employment in B-CLL therapy. Since IL-2, but not IL-21, is specifically required for the development of regulatory T (Treg) cell immune-suppressive functions, IL-21 may be a new tool for cancer immunotherapy. It is, in fact, a powerful anti-tumor agent in a variety of murine experimental tumor models through its activation of specific or innate immune responses against neoplastic cells. The preliminary data from phase-I clinical studies suggest that the use of IL-21 is feasible and may result in immune-enhancing effects. PMID:17447063

  11. Versatile in vivo regulation of tumor phenotypes by dCas9-mediated transcriptional perturbation.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian J; Bruno, Peter M; Horlbeck, Max A; Gilbert, Luke A; Weissman, Jonathan S; Hemann, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Targeted transcriptional regulation is a powerful tool to study genetic mediators of cellular behavior. Here, we show that catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) targeted to genomic regions upstream or downstream of the transcription start site allows for specific and sustainable gene-expression level alterations in tumor cells in vitro and in syngeneic immune-competent mouse models. We used this approach for a high-coverage pooled gene-activation screen in vivo and discovered previously unidentified modulators of tumor growth and therapeutic response. Moreover, by using dCas9 linked to an activation domain, we can either enhance or suppress target gene expression simply by changing the genetic location of dCas9 binding relative to the transcription start site. We demonstrate that these directed changes in gene-transcription levels occur with minimal off-target effects. Our findings highlight the use of dCas9-mediated transcriptional regulation as a versatile tool to reproducibly interrogate tumor phenotypes in vivo. PMID:27325776

  12. PIM1 regulates glycolysis and promotes tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leung, Carmen Oi-ning; Wong, Carmen Chak-lui; Fan, Dorothy Ngo-yin; Kai, Alan Ka-lun; Tung, Edmund Kwok-kwan; Xu, Iris Ming-jing; Ng, Irene Oi-lin; Lo, Regina Cheuk-lam

    2015-05-10

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characteristically one of the most rapidly proliferating tumors which outgrows functional blood supply and results in regional oxygen deprivation. Overexpression of PIM1, a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified recently in human cancers. Knowledge on PIM1 in HCC is however, scarce. By immunohistochemical analysis on 56 human primary HCC samples, we observed overexpression of PIM1 in 39% of the cases. In two independent cohorts of paired primary and extra-hepatic metastatic HCC tissues, PIM1 expression was higher (p=0.002) in the extra-hepatic metastatic HCC tissues as compared with the corresponding primary HCCs. PIM1 was markedly up-regulated in multiple HCC cell lines in hypoxic condition (1% O2) versus normoxia (20% O2). Silencing of PIM1 suppressed HCC cell invasion in vitro as compared to non-target control, and decreased HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. Knockdown of PIM1 significantly reduced glucose uptake by HCC cells and was associated with decreased levels of p-AKT and key molecules in the glycolytic pathway. Taken together, PIM1 is up-regulated by hypoxia in HCC and promotes tumor growth and metastasis through facilitating cancer cell glycolysis. Targeting PIM1 may have potential role in the management of HCC. PMID:25834102

  13. [NEGATIVE REGULATORS OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR P53 IN THE CONTEXT OF ANTICANCER THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Shuvalov, O Yu; Fedorova, O A; Petukhov, A V; Daks, A A; Vasilieva, E A; Grigorieva, T A; Ivanov, G S; Barlev, N A

    2015-01-01

    P53 protein is considered to be the major tumor suppressor in human cells. Cancer cells do not survive if the p53-mediated signaling pathways function properly. However, about half of all malignancies still express wild type p53. One of the explanations to this is that p53 is suppressed by overexpression of p53-specific E3-ubiquitin ligases: Mdm2, MdmX, Pirh2 and Cop1. Pharmacological inhibition of protein-protein interactions between p53 and these negative regulators is a promising therapeutic approach to treat cancers retaining wild type p53. To date, a series of chemical inhibitors of p53 interactions with Mdm2 and MdmX E3-ubiquitin ligases have been discovered and characterized. Several of them are in the early stages of clinical trials. Despite this fact, their clinical efficacy may be hampered by a number of reasons, including tumor-specific expression of multiple isoforms of the target E3-ligases, which become inert to treatment with small molecules. This and other biochemical mechanisms of possible resistance of tumor cells with wild type p53 to small molecules against its negative regulators will be discussed in this review. PMID:26995961

  14. High affinity binding sites for the Wilms' tumour suppressor protein WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T B; Barilla, K C; Romaniuk, P J

    1995-01-01

    The Wilms' tumour suppressor protein (WT1) is a putative transcriptional regulatory protein with four zinc fingers, the last three of which have extensive sequence homology to the early growth response-1 (EGR-1) protein. Although a peptide encoding the zinc finger domain of WT1[-KTS] can bind to a consensus 9 bp EGR-1 binding site, current knowledge about the mechanisms of zinc finger-DNA interactions would predict a more extended recognition site for WT1. Using a WT1[-KTS] zinc finger peptide (WT1-ZFP) and the template oligonucleotide GCG-TGG-GCG-NNNNN in a binding site selection assay, we have determined that the highest affinity binding sites for WT1[-KTS] consist of a 12 bp sequence GCG-TGG-GCG-(T/G)(G/A/T)(T/G). The binding of WT1-ZFP to a number of the selected sequences was measured by a quantitative nitrocellulose filter binding assay, and the results demonstrated that these sequences have a 4-fold higher affinity for the protein than the nonselected sequence GCG-TGG-GCG-CCC. The full length WT1 protein regulates transcription of reporter genes linked to these high affinity sequences. A peptide lacking the first zinc finger of WT1[-KTS], but containing the three zinc fingers homologous to EGR-1 failed to select any specific sequences downstream of the GCG-TGG-GCG consensus sequence in the binding site selection assay. DNA sequences in the fetal promoter of the insulin-like growth factor II gene that confer WT1 responsiveness in a transient transfection assay bind to the WT1-ZFP with affinities that vary according to the number of consensus bases each sequence possesses in the finger 1 subsite. PMID:7862533

  15. MicroRNA-383 Regulates the Apoptosis of Tumor Cells through Targeting Gadd45g

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junyu; Wang, Daliang; Chen, Su; Yang, Xiaomei; Qian, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Gadd45g (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 gamma) is a stress-response protein, which has been implicated in several biological processes, including DNA repair, the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Results In this work, we found that miR-383 is a negative regulator of Gadd45g. Forced expression of miR-383 decreased the expression of Gadd45g through binding to the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR), whereas inhibition of miR-383 increased Gadd45g expression. The presence of miR-383 increased the cellular sensitivity to DNA damage in breast cancer cells, which was rescued by ectopic expression of Gadd45g without the 3′-UTR. miR-383 also regulates the expression of Gadd45g in embryonic stem (ES) cells, but not their apoptosis under genotoxic stress. miR-383 was further showed to negatively regulate ES cell differentiation via targeting Gadd45g, which subsequently modulates the pluripotency-associated genes. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-383 is a negative regulator of Gadd45g in both tumor cells and ES cells, however, has distinct function in regulating cell apoptosis. miR-383 may be used as antineoplastic agents in cancer chemotherapy. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that miR-383 can specifically regulates the expression of Gadd45g by directly targeting to the 3-UTR region of Gadd45g mRNA, a regulatory process conserved in human tumor cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. These two compotents can be potentially used as antineoplastic agents in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25415264

  16. Systems Analysis of a Mouse Xenograft Model Reveals Annexin A1 as a Regulator of Gene Expression in Tumor Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Annexin A1 is a multi functional molecule which is involved in inflammation, innate and adaptive immune systems, tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously showed the impaired tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing in annexin A1 knockout mice. While tumor is a piece of heterogeneous mass including not only malignant tumor cells but also the stroma, the importance of the tumor stroma for tumor progression and metastasis is becoming increasingly clear. The tumor stroma is comprised by various components including extracellular matrix and non-malignant cells in the tumor, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, immune cells, inflammatory cells. Based on our previous finding of pro-angiogenic functions for annexin A1 in vascular endothelial cell sprouting, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis, and the previously known properties for annexin A1 in immune cells and inflammation, this study hypothesized that annexin A1 is a key functional player in tumor development, linking the various components in tumor stroma by its actions in endothelial cells and immune cells. Using systems analysis programs commercially available, this paper further compared the gene expression between tumors from annexin A1 wild type mice and annexin A1 knockout mice and found a list of genes that significantly changed in the tumor stroma that lacked annexin A1. This revealed annexin A1 to be an effective regulator in tumor stroma and suggested a mechanism that annexin A1 affects tumor development and metastasis through interaction with the various components in the microenvironment surrounding the tumor cells. PMID:23077482

  17. PML tumor suppressor is regulated by HIPK2-mediated phosphorylation in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gresko, E; Ritterhoff, S; Sevilla-Perez, J; Roscic, A; Fröbius, K; Kotevic, I; Vichalkovski, A; Hess, D; Hemmings, B A; Schmitz, M L

    2009-02-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) tumor suppressor protein, a central regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis, is frequently fused to the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha) in acute PML. Here we show the interaction of PML with another tumor suppressor protein, the serine/threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (HIPK2). In response to DNA damage, HIPK2 phosphorylates PML at serines 8 and 38. Although HIPK2-mediated phosphorylation of PML occurs early during the DNA damage response, the oncogenic PML-RARalpha fusion protein is phosphorylated with significantly delayed kinetics. DNA damage or HIPK2 expression leads to the stabilization of PML and PML-RARalpha proteins. The N-terminal phosphorylation sites contribute to the DNA damage-induced PML SUMOylation and are required for the ability of PML to cooperate with HIPK2 for the induction of cell death. PMID:19015637

  18. Coding-independent regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by competing endogenous mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Yvonne; Kats, Lev; Salmena, Leonardo; Weiss, Dror; Tan, Shen Mynn; Ala, Ugo; Karreth, Florian; Poliseno, Laura; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Lieberman, Judy; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Here we demonstrate that protein-coding RNA transcripts can crosstalk by competing for common microRNAs, with microRNA response elements as the foundation of this interaction. We have termed such RNA transcripts as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). We tested this hypothesis in the context of PTEN, a key tumor suppressor whose abundance determines critical outcomes in tumorigenesis. By a combined computational and experimental approach, we identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling and possess growth and tumor suppressive properties. Notably, we also show that these genes display concordant expression patterns with PTEN and copy number loss in cancers. Our study presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks, and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein-coding mRNAs. PMID:22000013

  19. Tumor-Induced Osteoclast miRNA Changes as Regulators and Biomarkers of Osteolytic Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Brian; Mercatali, Laura; Ibrahim, Toni; Campbell, Neil; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Pantel, Klaus; Amadori, Dino; Kang, Yibin

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mechanism by which tumor cells influence osteoclast differentiation is crucial for improving treatment of osteolytic metastasis. Here, we report broad microRNA (miRNA) expression changes in differentiating osteoclasts after exposure to tumor-conditioned media, in part through activation of NFκB signaling by soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM1) secreted from bone-metastatic cancer cells. Ectopic expression of multiple miRNAs down-regulated during osteoclastogenesis suppresses osteoclast differentiation by targeting important osteoclast genes. Intravenous delivery of these miRNAs in vivo inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces osteolytic bone metastasis. Importantly, serum levels of sICAM1 and two osteoclast miRNAs, miR-16 and miR-378, which are elevated in osteoclast differentiation, correlate with bone metastasis burden. These findings establish miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers of bone metastasis. PMID:24135284

  20. Extensive regulation of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) expression in human tissues and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Pereira, Sara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Silva, Sarah S.; Correia, Mariana Gonçalves; Neto, Célia; da Costa, Luís Teixeira; Amorim, António; Silva, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor in redox reactions and a substrate for NAD-consuming enzymes, such as PARPs and sirtuins. As cancer cells have increased NAD requirements, the main NAD salvage enzymes in humans, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), are involved in the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Knowledge of the expression patterns of both genes in tissues and tumors is critical for the use of nicotinic acid (NA) as cytoprotective in therapies using NAMPT inhibitors. Herein, we provide a comprehensive study of NAPRT and NAMPT expression across human tissues and tumor cell lines. We show that both genes are widely expressed under normal conditions and describe the occurrence of novel NAPRT transcripts. Also, we explore some of the NAPRT gene expression mechanisms. Our findings underline that the efficiency of NA in treatments with NAMPT inhibitors is dependent on the knowledge of the expression profiles and regulation of both NAMPT and NAPRT. PMID:26675378

  1. Early embryonic and endometrial regulation of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 in the cattle uterus.

    PubMed

    Correia-Álvarez, E; Gómez, E; Martín, D; Carrocera, S; Pérez, S; Peynot, N; Giraud-Delville, C; Caamaño, J N; Balseiro, A; Sandra, O; Duranthon, V; Muñoz, M

    2015-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha likely mediates embryomaternal communication in mammals. In bovine, we have previously found that the uterine fluid of heifers that carried early embryos shows downregulation in the TNF and nuclear factor κB system. In this work, we assessed the expression of TNF and its receptor TNFR2 in the bovine endometrium and embryos during blastocyst development. Moreover, to explore the endometrial immune response to early embryos, we analyzed the number of CD45 leukocytes in the bovine endometrium. Day 8 endometrium and blastocyst recovered from animals after transfer of Day 5 embryos showed TNF and TNFR2 mRNA transcription and protein colocalization. The presence of embryos increased endometrial TNF and TNFR2 protein, whereas endometrial leukocytes decreased. Blastocysts exposed to the uterine tract had undetectable levels of TNF and lower levels of TNFR2 mRNA. These results suggest that the endometrium might lower the TNF concentration in the blastocyst by (1) regulating TNF secretion into the uterine fluid and (2) inducing decreased TNF and TNFR2 mRNA transcription in the embryo. Thus, TNF and TNFR2 might participate in early embryomaternal communication. PMID:25589228

  2. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  3. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; Ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Bernardi, Rosa

    2016-04-21

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  4. ELK1 is up-regulated by androgen in bladder cancer cells and promotes tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Aljarah, Ali Kadhim; Ide, Hiroki; Li, Yi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Netto, George J.; Zheng, Yichun; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about biological significance of ELK1, a transcriptional factor that activates downstream targets including c-fos proto-oncogene, in bladder cancer. Recent preclinical evidence also suggests the involvement of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in bladder cancer progression. In this study, we aim to investigate the functions of ELK1 in bladder cancer growth and their regulation by AR signals. Immunohistochemistry in bladder tumor specimens showed that the levels of phospho-ELK1 (p-ELK1) expression were significantly elevated in urothelial neoplasms, compared with non-neoplastic urothelium tissues, and were also correlated with AR positivity. Patients with p-ELK1-positive non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive tumors had significantly higher risks for tumor recurrence and progression, respectively. In AR-positive bladder cancer cell lines, dihydrotestosterone treatment increased ELK1 expression (mRNA, protein) and its nuclear translocation, ELK1 transcriptional activity, and c-fos expression, which was restored by an anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide. ELK1 silencing via short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in decreases in cell viability/colony formation, and cell migration/invasion as well as an increase in apoptosis. Importantly, ELK1 appears to require activated AR to regulate bladder cancer cell proliferation, but not cell migration. Androgen also failed to significantly induce AR transactivation in ELK1-knockdown cells. In accordance with our in vitro findings, ELK1-shRNA expression considerably retarded tumor formation as well as its growth in xenograft-bearing male mice. Our results suggest that ELK1 plays an important role in bladder tumorigenesis and cancer progression, which is further induced by AR activation. Accordingly, ELK1 inhibition, together with AR inactivation, has the potential of being a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer. PMID:26342199

  5. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  6. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  7. Cryptotanshinone targets tumor-initiating cells through down-regulation of stemness genes expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; CABARCAS, STEPHANIE M.; ZHENG, JI; SUN, LEI; MATHEWS, LESLEY A.; ZHANG, XIAOHU; LIN, HONGSHENG; FARRAR, WILLIAM L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor initiation and progression, therefore representing an important cell population that may be used as a target for the development of future anticancer therapies. In the present study, Cryptotanshinone (CT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was demonstrated to regulate the behaviors of LNCaP prostate cells and prostate LNCaP TICs. The results demonstrate that treatment with CT alters cellular proliferation, cell cycle status, migration, viability, colony formation and notably, sphere formation and down-regulation of stemness genes (Nanog, OCT4, SOX2, β-catenin, CXCR4) in TICs. The present study demonstrates that CT targets the LNCaP CD44+CD24- population that is representative of prostate TICs and also affects total LNCaP cells as well via down-regulation of stemness genes. The strong effect with which CT has on prostate TICs suggests that CT may potentially function as a novel natural anticancer agent that specifically targets TICs. PMID:27313698

  8. Tumor-produced, active Interleukin-1 {beta} regulates gene expression in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, Jozsef; Fullar, Alexandra; Bitsche, Mario; Schartinger, Volker; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2011-09-10

    Recently we described a co-culture model of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and SCC-25 lingual squamous carcinoma cells, which resulted in conversion of normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of SCC-25 cells. We have found a constitutive high interleukin-1{beta} (IL1-{beta}) expression in SCC-25 cells in normal and in co-cultured conditions. In our hypothesis a constitutive IL1-{beta} expression in SCC-25 regulates gene expression in fibroblasts during co-culture. Co-cultures were performed between PDL fibroblasts and SCC-25 cells with and without dexamethasone (DEX) treatment; IL1-{beta} processing was investigated in SCC-25 cells, tumor cells and PDL fibroblasts were treated with IL1-{beta}. IL1-{beta} signaling was investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry. IL1-{beta}-regulated genes were analyzed by real-time qPCR. SCC-25 cells produced 16 kD active IL1-{beta}, its receptor was upregulated in PDL fibroblasts during co-culture, which induced phosphorylation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), and nuclear translocalization of NF{kappa}B{alpha}. Several genes, including interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) were induced in CAFs during co-culture. The most enhanced induction was found for IL-6 and COX-2. Treatment of PDL fibroblasts with IL1-{beta} reproduced a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of IL1-receptor, IL-6 and COX-2. A further proof was achieved by DEX inhibition for IL1-{beta}-stimulated IL-6 and COX-2 gene expression. Constitutive expression of IL1-{beta} in the tumor cells leads to IL1-{beta}-stimulated gene expression changes in tumor-associated fibroblasts, which are involved in tumor progression. -- Graphical abstract: SCC-25 cells produce active, processed IL1-{beta}. PDL fibroblasts possess receptor for IL1-{beta}, and its expression is increased 4.56-times in the

  9. Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Is a Key Regulator in Tumor Promoter–Induced Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yao, Ke; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Kang, Bong Seok; Zheng, Duo; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    The ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), a member of the p90RSK (RSK) family of proteins, is a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase that is activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 in response to many growth factors and peptide hormones. Its activation signaling enhances cell survival. However, the roles of RSK2 in cell transformation have not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that RSK2 is a critical serine/threonine kinase for the regulation of cell transformation. When cells were stimulated with tumor promoters, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylation of RSK was increased within 5 min. Cell proliferation was suppressed in RSK2–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) compared with RSK2+/+ MEFs. Moreover, RSK2–/– MEFs accumulated at the G1 phase of the cell cycle under normal cell culture conditions as well as after stimulation with EGF or TPA. In the anchorage-independent cell transformation assay (soft agar), stable expression of RSK2 in JB6 cells significantly enhanced colony formation in either the presence or absence of tumor promoters. Furthermore, knockdown of RSK2 with small interfering RNA-RSK2 suppressed constitutively active Ras (RasG12V)-induced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, kaempferol, an inhibitor of RSK2, suppressed EGF-induced colony formation of JB6 Cl41 cells in soft agar, which was associated with inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation (Ser10). These results showed that RSK2 is a key regulator for cell transformation induced by tumor promoters such as EGF and TPA. PMID:17804722

  10. Tumoral indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 is regulated by monocytes and T lymphocytes collaboration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiyi; Wang, Pei-pei; Huang, Zhan-lian; Peng, Liang; Lin, Chaoshuang; Gao, Zhiliang; Su, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in cancer cells plays a critical role in tumor immunosuppression. However, the precise mechanisms regulating tumoral IDO1 expression in tumor milieus remain unclear. Here, we reported that IDO1 expression in tumor cells of hepatocelluar carcinomas (HCC), displayed a discrete rather than uniform pattern. In vitro culture, human hepatoma cell lines did not constitutively express IDO1. Interestingly, co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) significantly induced and maintained IDO1 expression in these tumor cells, predominantly through IFN-γ. Mechanistically, we showed that IDO1 expression in tumor cells was only induced when co-cultured with both T lymphocytes and monocytes. Moreover, the cooperation between T lymphocytes and monocytes played an indispensable role on the tumoral IDO1 expression in immunocompromised mice. Taken together, our data supported the notion that IDO1 expression in tumor cells might serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism regulated by immune system, and provided new insights into the collaborative action of different inflammatory cells in tumor immunosuppression. PMID:26895379

  11. Tumoral indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 is regulated by monocytes and T lymphocytes collaboration in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiyi; Wang, Pei-Pei; Huang, Zhan-Lian; Peng, Liang; Lin, Chaoshuang; Gao, Zhiliang; Su, Shicheng

    2016-03-22

    Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in cancer cells plays a critical role in tumor immunosuppression. However, the precise mechanisms regulating tumoral IDO1 expression in tumor milieus remain unclear. Here, we reported that IDO1 expression in tumor cells of hepatocelluar carcinomas (HCC), displayed a discrete rather than uniform pattern. In vitro culture, human hepatoma cell lines did not constitutively express IDO1. Interestingly, co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) significantly induced and maintained IDO1 expression in these tumor cells, predominantly through IFN-γ. Mechanistically, we showed that IDO1 expression in tumor cells was only induced when co-cultured with both T lymphocytes and monocytes. Moreover, the cooperation between T lymphocytes and monocytes played an indispensable role on the tumoral IDO1 expression in immunocompromised mice. Taken together, our data supported the notion that IDO1 expression in tumor cells might serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism regulated by immune system, and provided new insights into the collaborative action of different inflammatory cells in tumor immunosuppression. PMID:26895379

  12. Regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by the Lgl neoplastic tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Marta; Parsons, Linda M; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Richardson, Helena E

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved neoplastic tumor suppressor protein, Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl), plays roles in cell polarity and tissue growth via regulation of the Hippo pathway. In our recent study, we showed that in the developing Drosophila eye epithelium, depletion of Lgl leads to increased ligand-dependent Notch signaling. lgl mutant tissue also exhibits an accumulation of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, early-multivesicular body markers and acidic vesicles. We showed that elevated Notch signaling in lgl− tissue can be rescued by feeding larvae the vesicle de-acidifying drug chloroquine, revealing that Lgl attenuates Notch signaling by limiting vesicle acidification. Strikingly, chloroquine also rescued the lgl− overgrowth phenotype, suggesting that the Hippo pathway defects were also rescued. In this extraview, we provide additional data on the regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by Lgl, and discuss possible mechanisms by which Lgl depletion contributes to signaling pathway defects and tumorigenesis. PMID:25789785

  13. EPAS-1 Mediates SP-1-Dependent FBI-1 Expression and Regulates Tumor Cell Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  14. Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in thymus and thymic epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra; Barbouti, Alexandra; Galani, Vassiliki; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Kanavaros, Panagiotis

    2016-05-01

    The human thymus supports the production of self-tolerant T cells with competent and regulatory functions. Various cellular components of the thymic microenvironment such as thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and dendritic cells play essential roles in thymic T cell differentiation. The multiple cellular events occurring during thymic T cell and TEC differentiation involve proteins regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Dysregulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis networks is involved in the pathogenesis of thymic epithelial tumors (TET) which are divided into two broad categories, thymomas and thymic carcinomas. The present review focuses on the usefulness of the analysis of the expression patterns of major cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in order to gain insight in the histophysiology of thymus and the histopathology, the clinical behavior and the biology of TET. PMID:25794494

  15. Regulated Delivery of Molecular Cargo to Invasive Tumor-derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, James W.; Sedgwick, Alanna; Rosse, Carine; Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Raposo, Graca; Method, Michael; Chavrier, Philippe; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2015-01-01

    Cells release multiple, distinct, forms of extracellular vesicles including structures known as microvesicles which are known to alter the extracellular environment. Despite growing understanding of microvesicle biogenesis, function, and contents, mechanisms regulating cargo delivery and enrichment remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in amoeboid-like invasive tumor cell lines, the v-SNARE, VAMP3, regulates delivery of microvesicle cargo such as the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) to shedding microvesicles. MT1-MMP delivery to nascent microvesicles depends on the association of VAMP3 with the tetraspanin CD9 and facilitates the maintenance of amoeboid cell invasion. VAMP3-shRNA expression depletes shed vesicles of MT1-MMP and decreases cell invasiveness when embedded in cross-linked collagen matrices. Finally, we describe functionally similar microvesicles isolated from bodily fluids of ovarian cancer patients. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of microvesicle cargo sorting in matrix degradation and disease progression. PMID:25897521

  16. Control of antioxidative response by the tumor suppressor protein PML through regulating Nrf2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Xiwen; Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Yu; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a consequence of an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the cytoprotective system to detoxify the reactive intermediates. The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) functions as a stress sensor. Loss of PML results in impaired mitochondrial complex II activity, increased ROS, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidative pathway. We also demonstrate that sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant, regulates Nrf2 activity by controlling abundance and subcellular distribution of PML and that PML is essential for SFN-mediated ROS increase, Nrf2 activation, antiproliferation, antimigration, and antiangiogenesis. Taking the results together, we have uncovered a novel antioxidative mechanism by which PML regulates cellular oxidant homeostasis by controlling complex II integrity and Nrf2 activity and identified PML as an indispensable mediator of SFN activity. PMID:24943846

  17. EPAS-1 mediates SP-1-dependent FBI-1 expression and regulates tumor cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  18. [TUMOR SUPPRESSOR p63 REGULATES EXPRESSION OF UBIQUITIN LIGASE Pirh2].

    PubMed

    Daks, A A; Petukhov, A V; Shuvalov, O Yu; Vasilieva, E A; Melino, G; Barlev, N A; Fedorova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor p63 is a member of the p53 protein family. Due to the high degree of structural similarity p53, p63, and p73 are known to have overlapping functions relating to cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and tumor transformation. Furthermore, p63 plays crucial role in epidermal tissue development and differentiation. Pirh2 (product of RCHY1 gene) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase modifying all three members of the p53 family resulting in their subsequent proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate that p63, similar to p53, is able to regulate expression levels of Pirh2. Importantly, Pirh2 expression is activated only by transcriptionally active isoform of p63--TAp63, but not the N-terminally truncated ΔNp63. PMID:26995965

  19. Aurora-A acts as a tumor suppressor and regulates self-renewal of Drosophila neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Somers, Gregory W.; Bashirullah, Arash; Heberlein, Ulrike; Yu, Fengwei; Chia, William

    2006-01-01

    The choice of self-renewal versus differentiation is a fundamental issue in stem cell and cancer biology. Neural progenitors of the Drosophila post-embryonic brain, larval neuroblasts (NBs), divide asymmetrically in a stem cell-like fashion to generate a self-renewing NB and a Ganglion Mother Cell (GMC), which divides terminally to produce two differentiating neuronal/glial daughters. Here we show that Aurora-A (AurA) acts as a tumor suppressor by suppressing NB self-renewal and promoting neuronal differentiation. In aurA loss-of-function mutants, supernumerary NBs are produced at the expense of neurons. AurA suppresses tumor formation by asymmetrically localizing atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), an NB proliferation factor. Numb, which also acts as a tumor suppressor in larval brains, is a major downstream target of AurA and aPKC. Notch activity is up-regulated in aurA and numb larval brains, and Notch signaling is necessary and sufficient to promote NB self-renewal and suppress differentiation in larval brains. Our data suggest that AurA, aPKC, Numb, and Notch function in a pathway that involved a series of negative genetic interactions. We have identified a novel mechanism for controlling the balance between self-renewal and neuronal differentiation during the asymmetric division of Drosophila larval NBs. PMID:17182870

  20. Metformin inhibits tumor growth by regulating multiple miRNAs in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingming; Ma, Ning; Wang, Dayong; Li, Fuyuan; He, Rongzhang; Li, Dongliang; Zhao, Ruiqi; Zhou, Qingxin; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Fumin; Wan, Ming; Kang, Pengcheng; Gao, Xu; Cui, Yunfu

    2015-02-20

    The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies, however the effect of metformin on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated that metformin treatment was closely associated with the clinicopathologic characteristics and improved postoperative survival of CCA patients. Metformin inhibited CCA tumor growth by cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. We explored that the expression of six miRNAs (mir124, 182, 27b, let7b, 221 and 181a), which could directly target cell-cycle-regulatory genes, was altered by metformin in vitro and in vivo. These miRNAs were dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and promoted the CCA genesis and metformin exactly modulated these carcinogenic miRNAs expression to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit the proliferation. Meanwhile, these miRNAs expression changes correlated with the tumor volume and postoperative survival of CCA patients and could be used to predict the prognosis. Further we confirmed that metformin upregulated Drosha to modulate these miRNAs expression. Our results elucidated that metformin inhibited CCA tumor growth via the regulation of Drosha-mediated multiple carcinogenic miRNAs expression and comprehensive evaluation of these miRNAs expression could be more efficient to predict the prognosis. Moreover, metformin might be a quite promising strategy for CCA prevention and treatment. PMID:25605008

  1. Nestin regulates proliferation and invasion of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells by altering mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Cai, J; Huang, Y; Ke, Q; Wu, B; Wang, S; Han, X; Wang, T; Wang, Y; Li, W; Lao, C; Song, W; Xiang, A P

    2016-06-16

    Nestin is widely expressed in numerous tumors and has become a diagnostic and prognostic indicator. However, the exact mechanism by which nestin contributes to tumor malignancy remains poorly understood. Here, we found marked upregulation of nestin expression in highly proliferative and invasive gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) specimens. Nestin knockdown in GIST cells reduced the proliferative and invasive activity owing to a decrease of mitochondrial intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, nestin was co-localized with mitochondria, and knockdown of nestin increased mitochondrial elongation and influenced the mitochondrial function, including oxygen consumption rates, ATP generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and so on. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we demonstrated nestin knockdown inhibited the mitochondrial recruitment of Dynamin-related protein1 and induced the change of mitochondrial dynamics. Thus, nestin may have an important role in GIST malignancy by regulating mitochondrial dynamics and altering intracellular ROS levels. The findings provide new clues to reveal mechanisms by which nestin mediates the proliferation and invasion of GISTs. PMID:26434586

  2. WT1 interacts with the splicing protein RBM4 and regulates its ability to modulate alternative splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Markus, M. Andrea; Heinrich, Bettina; Raitskin, Oleg; Adams, David J.; Mangs, Helena; Goy, Christine; Ladomery, Michael; Sperling, Ruth; Stamm, Stefan; Morris, Brian J. . E-mail: brianm@medsci.usyd.edu.au

    2006-10-15

    Wilm's tumor protein 1 (WT1), a protein implicated in various cancers and developmental disorders, consists of two major isoforms: WT1(-KTS), a transcription factor, and WT1(+KTS), a post-transcriptional regulator that binds to RNA and can interact with splicing components. Here we show that WT1 interacts with the novel splicing regulator RBM4. Each protein was found to colocalize in nuclear speckles and to cosediment with supraspliceosomes in glycerol gradients. RBM4 conferred dose-dependent and cell-specific regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs transcribed from several reporter genes. We found that overexpressed WT1(+KTS) abrogated this effect of RBM4 on splice-site selection, whereas WT1(-KTS) did not. We conclude that the (+KTS) form of WT1 is able to inhibit the effect of RBM4 on alternative splicing.

  3. Keratin 8 phosphorylation regulates keratin reorganization and migration of epithelial tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Tobias; Armacki, Milena; Eiseler, Tim; Joodi, Golsa; Temme, Claudia; Jansen, Julia; von Wichert, Götz; Omary, M. Bishr; Spatz, Joachim; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion are largely dependent on the complex organization of the various cytoskeletal components. Whereas the role of actin filaments and microtubules in cell motility is well established, the role of intermediate filaments in this process is incompletely understood. Organization and structure of the keratin cytoskeleton, which consists of heteropolymers of at least one type 1 and one type 2 intermediate filament, are in part regulated by post-translational modifications. In particular, phosphorylation events influence the properties of the keratin network. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a bioactive lipid with the exceptional ability to change the organization of the keratin cytoskeleton, leading to reorganization of keratin filaments, increased elasticity, and subsequently increased migration of epithelial tumor cells. Here we investigate the signaling pathways that mediate SPC-induced keratin reorganization and the role of keratin phosphorylation in this process. We establish that the MEK–ERK signaling cascade regulates both SPC-induced keratin phosphorylation and reorganization in human pancreatic and gastric cancer cells and identify Ser431 in keratin 8 as the crucial residue whose phosphorylation is required and sufficient to induce keratin reorganization and consequently enhanced migration of human epithelial tumor cells. PMID:22344252

  4. Regulation of protein translation and c-Jun expression by prostate tumor overexpressed 1.

    PubMed

    Marqués, N; Sesé, M; Cánovas, V; Valente, F; Bermudo, R; de Torres, I; Fernández, Y; Abasolo, I; Fernández, P L; Contreras, H; Castellón, E; Celià-Terrassa, T; Méndez, R; Ramón Y Cajal, S; Thomson, T M; Paciucci, R

    2014-02-27

    Prostate tumor overexpressed-1 (PTOV1), a modulator of the Mediator transcriptional regulatory complex, is expressed at high levels in prostate cancer and other neoplasias in association with a more aggressive disease. Here we show that PTOV1 interacts directly with receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1), a regulator of protein kinase C and Jun signaling and also a component of the 40S ribosome. Consistent with this interaction, PTOV1 was associated with ribosomes and its overexpression promoted global protein synthesis in prostate cancer cells and COS-7 fibroblasts in a mTORC1-dependent manner. Transfection of ectopic PTOV1 enhanced the expression of c-Jun protein without affecting the levels of c-Jun or RACK1 mRNA. Conversely, knockdown of PTOV1 caused significant declines in global protein synthesis and c-Jun protein levels. High levels of PTOV1 stimulated the motility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells, which required c-Jun, whereas knockdown of PTOV1 strongly inhibited the tumorigenic and metastatic potentials of PC-3 prostate cancer cells. In human prostate cancer samples, the expression of high levels of PTOV1 in primary and metastatic tumors was significantly associated with increased nuclear localization of active c-Jun. These results unveil new functions of PTOV1 in the regulation of protein translation and in the progression of prostate cancer to an invasive and metastatic disease. PMID:23455324

  5. The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.

    PubMed

    Sablina, Anna A; Chen, Wen; Arroyo, Jason D; Corral, Laura; Hector, Melissa; Bulmer, Sara E; DeCaprio, James A; Hahn, William C

    2007-06-01

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA. PMID:17540176

  6. MK2: an unrecognized regulator of tumor promoting macrophages in colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Eliseo F.; Ray, Anita L.; Beswick, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and is associated closely with inflammation before and after development. Macrophages promote colitis and colitis-associated CRC. M1 macrophages contribute to colitis directly through the production of proinflammatory cytokines and through activation of proinflammatory immune cell phenotypes. In cancer, both M1 and M2 macrophages participate in tumor development and progression through cytokine production, changes in cell signaling and activation of T cells. We have identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) as a regulator of macrophages during colitis-associated CRC (CAC). MK2 is a proinflammatory kinase that promotes production of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. MK2−/− mice have decreases in macrophages, macrophage-associated chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokines. Most significantly, MK2−/− mice do not develop neoplasms in an inflammatory model of CRC. However, addition of MK2+/+ macrophages to MK2−/− mice increases production of proinflammatory cytokines. In wild type mice, both cytokines and tumor burdens increase upon addition of additional macrophages. These data support the importance of MK2 in macrophage regulation during inflammation-associated CRC. PMID:26998523

  7. CXCL12 is a key regulator in tumor microenvironment of cervical cancer: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suresh Singh; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Prasad, Chandra Bhushan; Pandey, Lakshmi Kant; Pradhan, Satyajit; Singh, Sunita; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2016-06-01

    CXCL12 is a small pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant cytokine which signals through chemokine receptor CXCR4. The importance of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is coming to the fore in several divergent signaling pathway-initiating signals related to cell survival and/or proliferation and cancer metastasis. In the present study we have investigated whether deregulation in CXCR4 signaling (as a consequence of deregulated expression of CXCL12) modulate the metastatic potential of cervical carcinoma cells. We demonstrate that CXCL12 is frequently down regulated and its promoter is hypermethylated in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumor biopsies. Exogenous treatment of cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and C-33A) with recombinant CXCL12 inhibited the metastasis promoting cell migration, cell invasion and anchorage independent cell growth events. Although this study will need further in vivo validation, our observations suggest that (a) silencing of CXCL12 in cervical cancer cells may be critical in migration and invasion, the key events in cancer cell metastases; (b) cervical cancer cells having down regulated CXCL12 are more prone to being attracted to CXCL12 expressed at secondary sites of metastases; and (c) CXCL12 inhibits anchorage independent cell growth via anoikis. These findings suggest the tumor suppressor functions of CXCL12 in cervical cancer. PMID:26970955

  8. HOXB1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Regulated by miR-3175 in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liang; Liu, Dehua; Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Nan; Han, Ziwu; Wang, Guang; Fu, Yao; Guo, Zhigang; Zhu, Zifeng

    2015-01-01

    The HOXB1 gene plays a critical role as an oncogene in diverse tumors. However, the functional role of HOXB1 and the mechanism regulating HOXB1 expression in glioma are not fully understood. A preliminary bioinformatics analysis showed that HOXB1 is ectopically expressed in glioma, and that HOXB1 is a possible target of miR-3175. In this study, we investigated the function of HOXB1 and the relationship between HOXB1 and miR-3175 in glioma. We show that HOXB1 expression is significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and that its expression may be closely associated with the degree of malignancy. Reduced HOXB1 expression promoted the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and inhibited their apoptosis in vitro, and the downregulation of HOXB1 was also associated with worse survival in glioma patients. More importantly, HOXB1 was shown experimentally to be a direct target of miR-3175 in this study. The downregulated expression of miR-3175 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, and promoted apoptosis in glioma. The oncogenicity induced by low HOXB1 expression was prevented by an miR-3175 inhibitor in glioma cells. Our results suggest that HOXB1 functions as a tumor suppressor, regulated by miR-3175 in glioma. These results clarify the pathogenesis of glioma and offer a potential target for its treatment. PMID:26565624

  9. [Cell death in malignant tumors. Relevance of cell death regulation for metastasis].

    PubMed

    Roth, W

    2015-11-01

    Defects in the regulation of cell death are important causes for both the development and therapy resistance of malignant tumors. Several distinct, molecularly defined types of cell death are known, such as apoptosis, anoikis, and necroptosis. Moreover, the specific triggering of cell death plays an important role in the prevention of metastasis. The results of recent studies have shown that various types of cell death are pivotal at different steps of the metastasis cascade, in order to prevent cellular detachment, migration, invasion, intravasation, extravasation and the establishment of micrometastasis and macrometastasis. At the subcellular level, numerous links exist between cell death regulation and metastasis, specifically regarding signaling pathways and individual proteins with dual or multiple functions. As an example, the decoy receptor 3 protein (DcR3) functions both as an anti-apoptotic protein and as a direct promotor of invasion and migration of tumor cells. In summary, the specific triggering of cell death plays a pivotal role for the prevention of metastasis. On the other hand, the stepwise process of metastasis represents a mechanism of selection resulting in established metastases with a multiresistant phenotype which corresponds to the clinical observation that many metastasized cancers are therapy resistant. In the future, innovative diagnostic tests to individually predict the resistance pattern and possibilities to overcome resistance are urgently needed. PMID:26400565

  10. Tumor suppressor Lzap regulates cell cycle progression, doming and zebrafish epiboly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Wen-Der; Melville, David B.; Cha, Yong I.; Yin, Zhirong; Issaeva, Natalia; Knapik, Ela W.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    Initial stages of embryonic development rely on rapid, synchronized cell divisions of the fertilized egg followed by a set of morphogenetic movements collectively called epiboly and gastrulation. Lzap is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in 30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Lzap activities include regulation of cell cycle progression and response to therapeutic agents. Here we explore developmental roles of the lzap gene during zebrafish morphogenesis. Lzap is highly conserved among vertebrates and is maternally deposited. Expression is initially ubiquitous during gastrulation, and later becomes more prominent in the pharyngeal arches, digestive tract and brain. Antisense morpholino-mediated depletion of Lzap resulted in delayed cell divisions and apoptosis during blastomere formation, resulting in fewer, larger cells. Cell cycle analysis suggested that Lzap loss in early embryonic cells resulted in a G2/M arrest. Furthermore, the Lzap-deficient embryos failed to initiate epiboly – the earliest morphogenetic movement in animal development – which has been shown to be dependent on cell adhesion and migration of epithelial sheets. Our results strongly implicate Lzap in regulation of cell cycle progression, adhesion and migratory activity of epithelial cell sheets during early development. These functions provide further insight into Lzap activity that may contribute not only to development, but also to tumor formation. PMID:21523853

  11. Regulated recruitment of tumor suppressor BRCA1 to the p21 gene by coactivator methylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ho; Bedford, Mark T.; Stallcup, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor suppression by p53 and BRCA1 involves regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA repair and is influenced by transcriptional coactivators and post-translational modifications. Here we show that coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) methylates Arg 754 in the KIX region of coactivator p300. Methylated p300 and p300 protein fragments are preferentially recognized by BRCT domains of BRCA1, identifying the BRCT domain as a novel methylarginine-binding module. CARM1 and p300 cooperate with BRCA1 and p53 to induce expression of the critical cell cycle and proliferation regulator p21WAF1/CIP1 in response to DNA damage. This induction was severely attenuated by elimination of CARM1 or its methyltransferase activity, or by mutation of Arg 754 of p300. Absence of CARM1 methyltransferase activity led to failure of cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle in response to DNA damage. CARM1 methyltransferase activity was required for induction of some p53 target genes (p21 and Gadd45) but not others (Bax) by DNA damage. Recruitment of BRCA1 to the p53-binding region of the p21 promoter in response to DNA damage required methylation of Arg 754 of p300 by CARM1. Thus, coactivator methylation may be crucial for fine-tuning the tumor suppressor function of BRCA1 and other BRCT domain proteins. PMID:21245169

  12. YAP Regulates Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Steroidogenesis in Adult Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, David; Lv, Xiangmin; Hua, Guohua; He, Chunbo; Dong, Jixin; Lele, Subodh M.; Li, David Wan-Cheng; Zhai, Qiongli; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated as a conserved regulator of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Yes associated protein (YAP), the central component of the Hippo signaling cascade, functions as an oncogene in several malignancies. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by enlargement of ovary, excess production of estrogen, high frequency of recurrence and potential of malignancy and metastasis. Whether the Hippo pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of GCT is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the expression of YAP in human adult GCTs and to determine the role of YAP in the proliferation and steroidogenesis of GCT cells. Compared with age-matched normal human ovaries, GCT tissues exhibited higher levels of YAP expression. YAP protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of tumor cells, whereas the non-tumor ovarian stromal cells expressed very low levels of YAP. YAP was also expressed in cultured primary human granulosa cells and in KGN and COV434 GCT cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP in KGN cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation (P<0.001). Conversely, overexpression of wild-type YAP or a constitutively active YAP mutant resulted in a significant increase in KGN cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, YAP knockdown reduced FSH-induced aromatase (CYP19A1) protein expression and estrogen production in KGN cells. These results demonstrate that YAP plays an important role in regulating GCT cell proliferation, migration and steroidogenesis. Targeting the Hippo/YAP pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for GCT. PMID:24389730

  13. Fbxw7 Tumor Suppressor: A Vital Regulator Contributes to Human Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun; Ge, Ming-Hua; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rapidly accumulating data indicate that F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (Fbxw7) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers and regulates a network of crucial oncoproteins. These studies have generated important new insights into tumorigenesis and may soon enable therapies targeting the Fbxw7 pathway. We searched PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science databases (1973–2015, especially recent 5 years) for articles published in the English language using the key words “Fbxw7,” “Fbw7,” “hCDC4,” and “Sel-10,” and we reviewed recent developments in the search for Fbxw7. Fbxw7 coordinates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several critical cellular regulators, thereby controlling essential processes, such as cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis. Fbxw7 contains 3 isoforms (Fbxw7α, Fbxw7β, and Fbxw7γ), and they are differently regulated in subtract recognition. Besides those, Fbxw7 activity is controlled at different levels, resulting in specific and tunable regulation of the abundance and activity of its substrates in a variety of human solid tumor types, including glioma malignancy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma as well as colorectal, lung, breast, gastric, liver, pancreatic, renal, prostate, endometrial, and esophageal cancers. Fbxw7 is strongly associated with tumorigenesis, and the mechanisms and consequences of Fbxw7 deregulation in cancers may soon enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26886596

  14. Fbxw7 Tumor Suppressor: A Vital Regulator Contributes to Human Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Ge, Ming-Hua; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Rapidly accumulating data indicate that F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (Fbxw7) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers and regulates a network of crucial oncoproteins. These studies have generated important new insights into tumorigenesis and may soon enable therapies targeting the Fbxw7 pathway. We searched PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science databases (1973-2015, especially recent 5 years) for articles published in the English language using the key words "Fbxw7," "Fbw7," "hCDC4," and "Sel-10," and we reviewed recent developments in the search for Fbxw7. Fbxw7 coordinates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several critical cellular regulators, thereby controlling essential processes, such as cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis. Fbxw7 contains 3 isoforms (Fbxw7α, Fbxw7β, and Fbxw7γ), and they are differently regulated in subtract recognition. Besides those, Fbxw7 activity is controlled at different levels, resulting in specific and tunable regulation of the abundance and activity of its substrates in a variety of human solid tumor types, including glioma malignancy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma as well as colorectal, lung, breast, gastric, liver, pancreatic, renal, prostate, endometrial, and esophageal cancers. Fbxw7 is strongly associated with tumorigenesis, and the mechanisms and consequences of Fbxw7 deregulation in cancers may soon enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26886596

  15. An Ectopic Network of Transcription Factors Regulated by Hippo Signaling Drives Growth and Invasion of a Malignant Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Mardelle; Potier, Delphine; Romanelli, Lucia; Jacobs, Jelle; Mach, Jana; Hamaratoglu, Fisun; Aerts, Stein; Halder, Georg

    2016-08-22

    Cancer cells have abnormal gene expression profiles; however, to what degree these are chaotic or driven by structured gene regulatory networks is often not known. Here we studied a model of Ras-driven invasive tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues and combined in vivo genetics with next-generation sequencing and computational modeling to decipher the regulatory logic of tumor cells. Surprisingly, we discovered that the bulk of the tumor-specific gene expression is controlled by an ectopic network of a few transcription factors that are overexpressed and/or hyperactivated in tumor cells. These factors are Stat, AP-1, the bHLH proteins Myc and AP-4, the nuclear hormone receptor Ftz-f1, the nuclear receptor coactivator Taiman/SRC3, and Mef2. Notably, many of these transcription factors also are hyperactivated in human tumors. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that these factors directly regulate the majority of the tumor-specific gene expression, that they are interconnected by extensive cross-regulation, and that they show a high degree of co-regulation of target genes. Indeed, the factors of this network were required in multiple epithelia for tumor growth and invasiveness, and knockdown of several factors caused a reversion of the tumor-specific expression profile but had no observable effect on normal tissues. We further found that the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie was strongly activated in tumor cells and initiated cellular reprogramming by activating several transcription factors of this network. Thus, modeling regulatory networks identified an ectopic and ordered network of master regulators that control a large part of tumor cell-specific gene expression. PMID:27476594

  16. MicroRNA-155 regulates inflammatory cytokine production in tumor-associated macrophages via targeting C/EBPbeta.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Xu, Zhenqun; Ding, Tong; Kuang, Dong-Ming; Zheng, Limin

    2009-10-01

    Macrophages (Mphi) are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. We have recently found that tumors can alter the normal developmental process of Mphi to trigger transient activation of monocytes, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the protein expression of transcription factor C/EBPbeta was markedly elevated in tumor-associated Mphi both in vitro and human tumors in situ. The expression of C/EBP protein correlated with cytokine production in tumor-activated monocytes. Moreover, we found that C/EBPbeta expression was regulated at the post-transcriptional level and correlated with sustained reduction of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in tumor-activated monocytes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that C/EBPbeta is a potential target of miR-155 and luciferase assay confirmed that C/EBPbeta translation is suppressed by miR-155 through interaction with the 3'UTR of C/EBPbeta mRNA. Further analysis showed that induction of miR-155 suppressed C/EBPbeta protein expression as well as cytokine production in tumor-activated monocytes, an effect which could be mimicked by silencing of C/EBPbeta. These results indicate that tumor environment causes a sustained reduction of miR-155 in monocytes/Mphi, which in turn regulates the functional activities of monocytes/Mphi by releasing the translational inhibition of transcription factor C/EBPbeta. PMID:19887047

  17. Differential regulation and function of tumor-infiltrating T cells in different stages of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiguang; Lin, Jun; Qiao, Guangdong; Xu, Yanping; Zou, Haidong

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer survival was associated with higher frequencies of CD8(+) T cytotoxic T cells in infiltrating lymphocytes. On the other hand, the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells was inversely correlated with clinical outcomes of breast cancer. The regulation and interaction of different types of tumor-infiltrating T cells in different stages of breast cancer patients are still unclear. In this study, we examined the functions and regulations of CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells from resected tumors from 12 stage I, 24 stage II, and 20 stage III untreated breast cancer patients. We found that tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells from stage III patients were more refractory to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation than those from stage I and stage II patients in terms of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production and proliferation. On the other hand, tumor-infiltrating CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells had higher proliferation in stage III tumors than in stage I and stage II tumors. In addition, we found that tumor-infiltrating CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells can suppress CD8(+) T cell inflammation ex vivo. Altogether, our data demonstrated that stage III tumors in breast cancer patients had a more immunosuppressive microenvironment. PMID:25953262

  18. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  19. The axon guidance molecule semaphorin 3F is a negative regulator of tumor progression and proliferation in ileal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vercherat, Cécile; Blanc, Martine; Lepinasse, Florian; Gadot, Nicolas; Couderc, Christophe; Poncet, Gilles; Walter, Thomas; Joly, Marie-Odile; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, frequently metastatic, raising difficult clinical and therapeutic challenges due to a poor knowledge of their biology. As neuroendocrine cells express both epithelial and neural cell markers, we studied the possible involvement in GI-NETs of axon guidance molecules, which have been shown to decrease tumor cell proliferation and metastatic dissemination in several tumor types. We focused on the role of Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) in ileal NETs, one of the most frequent subtypes of GI-NETs. SEMA3F expression was detected in normal neuroendocrine cells but was lost in most of human primary tumors and all their metastases. SEMA3F loss of expression was associated with promoter gene methylation. After increasing endogenous SEMA3F levels through stable transfection, enteroendocrine cell lines STC-1 and GluTag showed a reduced proliferation rate in vitro. In two different xenograft mouse models, SEMA3F-overexpressing cells exhibited a reduced ability to form tumors and a hampered liver dissemination potential in vivo. This resulted, at least in part, from the inhibition of mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. This study demonstrates an anti-tumoral role of SEMA3F in ileal NETs. We thus suggest that SEMA3F and/or its cellular signaling pathway could represent a target for ileal NET therapy. PMID:26447612

  20. The tumor suppressor, p53 regulates the γA-crystallin gene during mouse lens development.

    PubMed

    Hu, X-H; Nie, Q; Yi, M; Li, T-T; Wang, Z-F; Huang, Z-X; Gong, X-D; Zhou, L; Ji, W-K; Hu, W-F; Liu, J-F; Wang, L; Woodward, Z; Zhu, J; Liu, W-B; Nguyen, Q D; Li, D W-C

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53 regulates a large number of target genes to control cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it is also implicated in the regulation of cell differentiation in muscle, the circulatory system and various carcinoma tissues. We have recently shown that p53 also controls lens differentiation. Regarding the mechanism, we reveal that p53 directly regulates several genes including c-Maf and Prox1, two important transcription factors for lens differentiation, and αA and βA3/A1, the lens differentiation markers. In the present study, we present evidence to show that the γA-crystallin gene distal promoter and the first intron also contain p53 binding sites and are capable of mediating p53 control during mouse lens development. First, gel mobility shifting assays revealed that the p53 protein in nuclear extracts from human lens epithelial cells (HLE) directly binds to the p53 binding sites present in the γA-crystallin gene. Second, the exogenous wild type p53 induces the dose-dependent expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by the basic promoter containing the γA-crystallin gene p53 binding site. In contrast, the exogenous dominant negative mutant p53 causes a dose-dependent inhibition of the same promoter. Third, ChIP assays revealed that p53 binds to the γA-crystallin gene promoter in vivo. Finally, in the p53 knockout mouse lenses, the expression level of the γAcrystallin gene was found attenuated in comparison with that in the wild type mouse lenses. Together, our results reveal that p53 regulates γA-crystallin gene expression during mouse lens development. Thus, p53 directly regulates all 3 types of crystallin genes to control lens differentiation. PMID:25336329

  1. BRD7, a tumor suppressor, interacts with p85alpha and regulates PI3K activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Jennifer Y.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is important for regulating cell growth, survival and motility. We report here the identification of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) as a p85α-interacting protein that negatively regulates PI3K signaling. BRD7 binds to the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85 through an evolutionarily conserved region located at the C-terminus of BRD7. Via this interaction, BRD7 facilitates nuclear translocation of p85α. The BRD7-dependent depletion of p85 from the cytosol impairs formation of p85/p110 complexes in the cytosol, leading to a decrease in p110 proteins and in PI3K pathway signaling. In contrast, silencing of endogenous BRD7 expression by RNAi increases the steady state level of p110 proteins and enhances Akt phosphorylation after stimulation. These data suggest that BRD7 and p110 compete for the interaction to p85. The unbound p110 protein is unstable, leading to the attenuation of PI3K activity. Therefore, BRD7 functions as a potential tumor suppressor to regulate cell growth. PMID:24657164

  2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulates in vivo intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, M. S.; Vaporciyan, A. A.; Miyasaka, M.; Tamatani, T.; Ward, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Lung injury following deposition of IgG immune complexes is neutrophil-dependent and requires both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and CD18. In the current studies, we have evaluated the relationship between TNF alpha and expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro and in vivo. In both rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, TNF alpha induced an early (within 60 minutes) increase in ICAM-1 expression, followed by a peak at 6 to 8 hours, with relatively stable expression at 24 hours. Expression of E-selectin did not show the early phase (within 60 minutes) of up-regulation, peaked at 4 hours, and then declined thereafter. Using a radioimmunochemical assay in vivo, it was demonstrated that intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes caused a progressive increase in ICAM-1 expression in lung over an 8-hour period. In animals pretreated with antibody to TNF alpha, the intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1 was significantly reduced. These results were confirmed by immunoperoxidase analysis of lung tissue. It was also shown that airway instillation of TNF alpha caused up-regulation of ICAM-1 in lung. These data support the concept that deposition of IgG immune complexes in lung induces intrapulmonary up-regulation of ICAM-1 in a manner that is TNF alpha-dependent. Images Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:7685152

  3. Nuclear receptor CAR-regulated expression of the FAM84A gene during the development of mouse liver tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Saito, Kosuke; Takizawa, Daichi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR is a phenobarbital (PB)-activated transcription factor. Using a mouse model of two-step liver tumorigenesis, in which tumor growth was initiated by diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and promoted by chronic treatment with PB, we previously demonstrated that tumors developed only in the presence of CAR. Here, we have identified the FAM84A (family with sequence similarity 84, member A) gene as a CAR-regulated gene that is over-expressed during development of phenobarbital-promoted mouse liver tumors. FAM84A mRNA was induced in the liver of DEN/PB-treated mice prior to the development of liver tumors and this induction continued in the non-tumor as well as tumor tissues of a tumor-bearing liver. Western blotting demonstated that FAM84A protein expression increased in mouse liver after PB treatment; however, the FAM84A protein in liver and liver tumors was not phosphorylated at the serine 38 residue, which has been reported to correlate with morphological changes in cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed the cytoplasmic localization of FAM84A protein and its expression during tumor development in normal tissues (especially in hepatocytes around the central vein), eosinophilic foci, adenomas and carcinomas. HepG2 cell-based reporter assays indicated that CAR activated the FAM84A promoter. Exogenous over-expression of FAM84A in HepG2 cells resulted in increased cell migration. The physiological function of FAM84A remains unknown, but our results suggest that FAM84A is up-regulated by CAR during the development of liver tumors, and may play an important role in the progression of liver cancer by increasing cell migration. PMID:21424122

  4. Post-translational regulation of the 54K cellular tumor antigen in normal and transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oren, M; Maltzman, W; Levine, A J

    1981-01-01

    The 54K cellular tumor antigen has been translated in vitro, using messenger ribonucleic acids from simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cells or 3T3 cells. The in vitro 54K product could be immunoprecipitated with SV40 tumor serum and had a peptide map that was similar, but not identical, to the in vivo product. The levels of this 54K protein in SV3T3 cells were significantly higher than those detected in 3T3 cells (D. I. H. Linzer, W. Maltzman, and A. J. Levine, Virology 98:308-318, 1979). In spite of this, the levels of translatable 54K messenger ribonucleic acid from 3T3 and SV3T3 cells were roughly equivalent or often greater in 3T3 cells. Pulse-chase experiments with the 54K protein from 3T3 or SV3T3 cells demonstrated that this protein, once synthesized, was rapidly degraded in 3T3 cells but was extremely stable in SV3T3 cells. Similarly, in an SV40 tsA-transformed cell line, temperature sensitive for the SV40 T-antigen, the 54K protein was rapidly turned over at the nonpermissive temperature and stable at the permissive temperature, whereas the levels of translatable 54K messenger ribonucleic acid at each temperature were roughly equal. These results demonstrate a post-translational regulation of the 54K cellular tumor antigen and suggest that this control is mediated by the SV40 large T-antigen. Images PMID:6100960

  5. Hypoxia-inducible miR-210 regulates the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Buart, Stéphanie; Romero, Pedro; Ketari, Sami; Janji, Bassam; Mari, Bernard; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Chouaib, Salem

    2012-09-15

    Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment plays a central role in the evolution of immune escape mechanisms by tumor cells. In this study, we report the definition of miR-210 as a miRNA regulated by hypoxia in lung cancer and melanoma, documenting its involvement in blunting the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). miR-210 was induced in hypoxic zones of human tumor tissues. Its attenuation in hypoxic cells significantly restored susceptibility to autologous CTL-mediated lysis, independent of tumor cell recognition and CTL reactivity. A comprehensive approach using transcriptome analysis, argonaute protein immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assay revealed that the genes PTPN1, HOXA1, and TP53I11 were miR-210 target genes regulated in hypoxic cells. In support of their primary importance in mediating the immunosuppressive effects of miR-210, coordinate silencing of PTPN1, HOXA1, and TP53I11 dramatically decreased tumor cell susceptibility to CTL-mediated lysis. Our findings show how miR-210 induction links hypoxia to immune escape from CTL-mediated lysis, by providing a mechanistic understanding of how this miRNA mediates immunosuppression in oxygen-deprived regions of tumors where cancer stem-like cells and metastatic cellular behaviors are known to evolve. PMID:22962263

  6. YB-1 regulates stress granule formation and tumor progression by translationally activating G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Leprivier, Gabriel; Cheng, Hongwei; Hajee, Shamil; Grunewald, Thomas G.P.; Zhang, Fan; Ng, Tony; Delattre, Olivier; Evdokimova, Valentina; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Under cell stress, global protein synthesis is inhibited to preserve energy. One mechanism is to sequester and silence mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as stress granules (SGs), which contain translationally silent mRNAs, preinitiation factors, and RNA-binding proteins. Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) localizes to SGs, but its role in SG biology is unknown. We now report that YB-1 directly binds to and translationally activates the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of G3BP1 mRNAs, thereby controlling the availability of the G3BP1 SG nucleator for SG assembly. YB-1 inactivation in human sarcoma cells dramatically reduces G3BP1 and SG formation in vitro. YB-1 and G3BP1 expression are highly correlated in human sarcomas, and elevated G3BP1 expression correlates with poor survival. Finally, G3BP1 down-regulation in sarcoma xenografts prevents in vivo SG formation and tumor invasion, and completely blocks lung metastasis in mouse models. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for YB-1 in SG formation through translational activation of G3BP1, and highlight novel functions for SGs in tumor progression. PMID:25800057

  7. Safeguarding genome stability: RASSF1A tumor suppressor regulates BRCA2 at stalled forks

    PubMed Central

    Pefani, Dafni Eleftheria; O'Neill, Eric

    2015-01-01

    While it has been widely established that defective fork restart after exposure to stress results in increased genomic instability, the importance of fork protection during stalling for safeguarding genomic integrity has recently been fully appreciated. BRCA2, Breast tumor suppressor, has dual functionality promoting not only DNA repair but also preventing DNA lesions at stalled forks. In response to replication stress, BRCA2 recruits RAD51 onto nascent DNA at stalled forks, protecting nascent DNA from nucleolitic cleavage. Phosphorylation of the BRCA2 C-terminal RAD51 binding site by CDK2 promotes RAD51 filament disassembly, leading to nucleolitic cleavage of newly synthesized DNA and compromised fork integrity. Recently we uncovered how the core Hippo pathway components RASSF1A, MST2 and LATS1 regulate CDK2 activity towards BRCA2, in response to fork stalling. In complex with LATS1, CDK2 exhibits reduced kinase activity which results in low levels of pBRCA2-S3291 and stable RAD51 filaments protecting nascent DNA from MRE11 cleavage. In the absence of the RASSF1A/MST2/LATS1/CDK2 pathway increased resection of newly synthesized DNA leads to chromosomal instability and malignant transformation. This function of RASSF1A in stalled replication fork protection adds to the role of RASSF1A as a tumor suppressor and builds up evidence for RASSF1A status and its prognostic and predictive value in cancer. PMID:25927241

  8. PRMT1 regulates tumor growth and metastasis of human melanoma via targeting ALCAM.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ma, Tengxiao; Huo, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Overexpression of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is associated with various types of cancer. The present study aimed to determine the expression level of PRMT1 in human melanoma and investigate its biological function. The clinical significance of PRMT1 was determined by screening the Oncomine database, and the increased expression of PRMT in melanoma was confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that PRMT1 was overexpressed in melanoma cell lines compared with human immortalized keratinocytes and PIG1 immortalized human melanocytes. Silencing PRMT1 in A375 and Hs294T cells significantly suppressed tumor growth and metastatic ability of the melanoma cell line compared with the negative control. These changes were in accordance with the upregulation of the cadherin 1 level and downregulation of several metastatic‑associated genes determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array. Liquid chromatography‑mass spectrometry demonstrated that activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) may be a direct target of PRMT1, and the interaction was confirmed by co‑immunoprecipitation. Compared with negative controls, the protein level of ALCAM was decreased following the silencing of PRMT1, and re‑expression of ALCAM in A375/shPRMT1 or Hs294T/shPRMT1 cells using an expression vector restored the colony formation and metastatic ability of the cells. In conclusion, the current results indicated that PRMT1 is overexpressed in human melanoma, and may regulate tumor growth and metastasis via targeting ALCAM. PMID:27175582

  9. TUSC4 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating BRCA1 stability.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yang; Dai, Hui; Wang, Edward; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Mo, Wei; Peng, Guang; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2015-01-15

    BRCA1 expression is lost frequently in breast cancers in which it promotes malignant development. In the present study, we performed a global expression analysis of breast cancer cells in which the tumor-suppressor candidate gene TUSC4 was silenced to gain insights into its function. TUSC4 silencing affected genes involved in cell cycle and cell death, which have broad reaching influence on cancer development. Most importantly, we found a cluster pattern of gene-expression profiles in TUSC4-silenced cells that defined a homologous recombination (HR) repair defect signature. Mechanistic investigations indicated that TUSC4 protein could physically interact with the E3 ligase Herc2, which prevents BRCA1 degradation through the ubiquitination pathway. TUSC4 silencing enhanced BRCA1 polyubiquitination, leading to its degradation and a marked reduction in HR repair efficiency. Notably, ectopic expression of TUSC4 suppressed the proliferation, invasion, and colony formation of breast cancer cells in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, TUSC4 silencing was sufficient to transform normal mammary epithelial cells and to enhance sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Our results provide a set of genetic and biologic proofs that TUSC4 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor by regulating the protein stability and function of BRCA1 in breast cancer. PMID:25480944

  10. Regulation of Early Endosomal Entry by the Drosophila Tumor Suppressors Rabenosyn and Vps45

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Holly A.; Dionne, Heather; Rusten, Tor Erik; Brech, Andreas; Fisher, William W.; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Celniker, Susan E.; Stenmark, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 has emerged as an important regulator of animal development, and it is essential for endocytic trafficking. However, the mechanisms that link Rab5 activation to cargo entry into early endosomes remain unclear. We show here that Drosophila Rabenosyn (Rbsn) is a Rab5 effector that bridges an interaction between Rab5 and the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps45, and we further identify the syntaxin Avalanche (Avl) as a target for Vps45 activity. Rbsn and Vps45, like Avl and Rab5, are specifically localized to early endosomes and are required for endocytosis. Ultrastructural analysis of rbsn, Vps45, avl, and Rab5 null mutant cells, which show identical defects, demonstrates that all four proteins are required for vesicle fusion to form early endosomes. These defects lead to loss of epithelial polarity in mutant tissues, which overproliferate to form neoplastic tumors. This work represents the first characterization of a Rab5 effector as a tumor suppressor, and it provides in vivo evidence for a Rbsn–Vps45 complex on early endosomes that links Rab5 to the SNARE fusion machinery. PMID:18685079

  11. Tumor marker nucleoporin 88 kDa regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nozomi Kilsdonk, Jeroen W.J. van; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Smeets, Ruben; Bruggeman, Sophia W.M.; Alonso, Angel; Loo, Fons van de; Schneider, Matthias; Berg, Wim B. van den; Swart, Guido W.M.

    2008-09-26

    Nucleoporin 88 kDa (Nup88) is a tumor marker, overexpressed in various types of cancer. In Drosophila Nup88 (mbo) was reported to selectively mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B, an ubiquitous transcription factor involved in immune responses, apoptosis, and cancer. We addressed the function of Nup88 in mammalian cells. Selective depletion of Nup88 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent reporter gene activation and the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B without affecting the upstream activation pathway in NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor was not reduced by the depletion of Nup88. In metastatic melanoma cells overexpressing Nup88, constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B was found both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Nup88 depletion in these cells reduced TNF-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B subunits. We conclude that Nup88 regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B at the level of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Overexpression of Nup88 in tumor cells may, thus be involved in the constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation.

  12. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  13. Mechanism of endogenous myc gene down-regulation in E mu-N-myc tumors.

    PubMed

    Ma, A; Smith, R K; Tesfaye, A; Achacoso, P; Dildrop, R; Rosenberg, N; Alt, F W

    1991-01-01

    Transgenic mouse lines carrying the N-myc oncogene deregulated by the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer spontaneously develop B-lymphoid tumors (R. Dildrop, A. Ma, K. Zimmerman, E. Hsu, A. Tesfaye, R. DePinho, and F. W. Alt, EMBO J. 8:1121-1128, 1989; H. Rosenbaum, E. Webb, J. M. Adams, S. Cory, and A. W. Harris, EMBO J. 8:749-755). Permanent cell lines derived from these tumors (E mu-N-myc cell lines) express extremely high levels of the N-myc transgene but little or no detectable endogenous N-myc or c-myc. We have employed nuclear run-on assays to show that down-regulation of endogenous N- and c-myc expression occurs at the transcriptional level. To determine whether the lack of endogenous myc gene transcription is a direct effect of high-level N-myc transgene expression, we have generated Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV)-transformed cell lines from prelymphomatous E mu-N-myc mice (A-MuLV/E mu-N-myc cell lines). Although these A-MuLV/E mu-N-myc lines express very high levels of the N-myc transgene, they continue to transcribe the endogenous c-myc gene. These findings demonstrate that high-level N-myc gene expression alone does not necessarily lead to down-regulation of endogenous myc gene expression and suggest that events associated with transformation by N-myc may be critical to this process. PMID:1986238

  14. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  15. Extensive tumor thrombus in a case of carcinoma lung detected by F18-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, Mj; Pandit, Ag; Jora, Charu

    2011-04-01

    Tumor thrombus is a rare complication of solid cancers, mainly seen in cases of renal cell carcinoma, wilm's tumor, testicular carcinoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.[1] Tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava is a rare complication of primary carcinoma lung. It should be identified so as to rule out venous thromboembolism and avoiding unnecessary anticoagulant therapy. We describe a case where F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) helped to identify extensive tumor thrombus. PMID:22174524

  16. Extensive tumor thrombus in a case of carcinoma lung detected by F18-FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, MJ; Pandit, AG; Jora, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor thrombus is a rare complication of solid cancers, mainly seen in cases of renal cell carcinoma, wilm's tumor, testicular carcinoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.[1] Tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava is a rare complication of primary carcinoma lung. It should be identified so as to rule out venous thromboembolism and avoiding unnecessary anticoagulant therapy. We describe a case where F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) helped to identify extensive tumor thrombus. PMID:22174524

  17. The drs tumor suppressor regulates glucose metabolism via lactate dehydrogenase-B.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Yukihiro; Hasebe, Masahiro; Kim, Chul Jang; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Inoue, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that drs contributes to suppression of malignant tumor formation in drs-knockout (KO) mice. In this study, we demonstrate the regulation of glucose metabolism by drs using comparisons of drs-KO and wild-type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Extracellular acidification, lactate concentration, and glucose consumption in drs-KO cells were significantly greater than those in WT cells. Metabolomic analyses also confirmed enhanced glycolysis in drs-KO cells. Among glycolysis-regulating proteins, expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-B was upregulated at the post-transcriptional level in drs-KO cells and increased LDH-B expression, LDH activity, and acidification of culture medium in drs-KO cells were suppressed by retroviral rescue of drs, indicating that LDH-B plays a critical role for glycolysis regulation mediated by drs. In WT cells transformed by activated K-ras, expression of endogenous drs mRNA was markedly suppressed and LDH-B expression was increased. In human cancer cell lines with low drs expression, LDH-B expression was increased. Database analyses also showed the correlation between downregulation of drs and upregulation of LDH-B in human colorectal cancer and lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, an LDH inhibitor suppressed anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cells and MEF cells transformed by activated K-ras. These results indicate that drs regulates glucose metabolism via LDH-B. Downregulating drs may contribute to the Warburg effect, which is closely associated with malignant progression of cancer cells. PMID:25620379

  18. MTUS1 tumor suppressor and its miRNA regulators in fibroadenoma and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kara, Murat; Kaplan, Mehmet; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Onder; Celik, Ozgur Ilhan; Bozgeyik, Esra; Yumrutas, Onder

    2016-08-10

    Breast cancer is major public health problem predominantly effects female population. Current therapeutic approaches to deal with breast cancer are still lack of effectiveness. Thus, identifying/developing novel strategies to fight against breast cancer is very important. The frequent deletions at 8p21.3-22 chromosomal location nearby D8S254 marker enabled the discovery of a novel tumor suppressor gene, MTUS1. Subsequently, MTUS1 was demonstrated to be less expressed in a variety cancer types including breast cancer. Also, it is obvious that gene expression is widely regulated by miRNAs. Here, we aimed to report differential expression of MTUS1 and its regulatory miRNAs in breast cancer and fibroadenoma tissues. Dynamic analysis of MTUS1 expression levels and its miRNAs regulators were attained by Fluidigm 96×96 Dynamic Array Expression chips and reactions were performed in Fluidigm BioMark™ HD System qPCR. Consequently, MTUS1 mRNA levels were significantly diminished in breast cancer tissues and elevated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, among MTUS1 targeting miRNAs, miR-183-5p was identified to be overexpressed in breast cancer and down-regulated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, expression levels of MTUS1 and miR-183-5p were well correlated with clinical parameters. In particular, MTUS1 expression was found to be diminished and miR-183-5p expression was elevated with the advancing stage. In conclusion, as a potential therapeutic target, miR-183-5p can be a chief regulator of MTUS1 and MTUS1-miR-183-5p axis may have significant influence in the pathology of breast cancer. PMID:27155522

  19. C6-ceramide nanoliposome suppresses tumor metastasis by eliciting PI3K and PKCζ tumor-suppressive activities and regulating integrin affinity modulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pu; Fu, Changliang; Hu, Yijuan; Dong, Cheng; Song, Yang; Song, Erqun

    2015-01-01

    Nanoliposomal formulation of C6-ceramide, a proapoptotic sphingolipid metabolite, presents an effective way to treat malignant tumor. Here, we provide evidence that acute treatment (30 min) of melanoma and breast cancer cells with nanoliposomal C6-ceramide (NaL-C6) may suppress cell migration without inducing cell death. By employing a novel flow migration assay, we demonstrated that NaL-C6 decreased tumor extravasation under shear conditions. Compared with ghost nanoliposome, NaL-C6 triggered phosphorylation of PI3K and PKCζ and dephosphorylation of PKCα. Concomitantly, activated PKCζ translocated into cell membrane. siRNA knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PKCζ or PI3K rescued NaL-C6-mediated suppression of tumor migration. By inducing dephosphorylation of paxillin, PKCζ was responsible for NaL-C6-mediated stress fiber depolymerization and focal adhesion disassembly in the metastatic tumor cells. PKCζ and PI3K regulated cell shear-resistant adhesion in a way that required integrin αvβ3 affinity modulation. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of acute nanoliposomal ceramide treatment in reducing integrin affinity and inhibiting melanoma metastasis by conferring PI3K and PKCζ tumor-suppressive activities. PMID:25792190

  20. Inhibitory effect of STAT3 gene combined with CDDP on growth of human Wilms tumour SK-NEP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junrong; Zhang, Nina; Qu, Haijiang; You, Guangxian; Yuan, Junhui; Chen, Caie; Li, Wenyi; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) combined with cisplatin (CDDP) on the growth of human Wilms tumour (WT) SK-NEP-1 cell subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice and the possible mechanisms. Human WT SK-NEP-1 cells were subcutaneously transplanted to establish the BALB/c nude mice xenograft model. Mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank control group, adenovirus control group (NC group), STAT3 group, CDDP group and STAT3 plus CDDP group (combination group). Tumour volume and tumour weight were observed during the therapeutic process. The expression levels of STAT3, glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. Compared with the STAT3 group or CDDP group, the tumour weight and volume was significantly reduced in the combination group (P<0.05). No statistical significance was found in NC group compared with the blank control group (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that STAT3, GRP78 and BAX protein levels in the combination group were significantly higher than those in STAT3 group and CDDP group (P<0.05). Exogenous STAT3 and CDDP may synergistically inhibit the xenograft tumour growth through up-regulation of BAX protein via GRP78. PMID:27129294

  1. The tumor suppressor gene KCTD11REN is regulated by Sp1 and methylation and its expression is reduced in tumors.

    PubMed

    Mancarelli, M Michela; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Capece, Daria; Po, Agnese; Murgo, Simona; Di Camillo, Raffaello; Rinaldi, Christian; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Gulino, Alberto; Alesse, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of several human cancers is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 17p13. The same chromosomal region is also frequently hypermethylated in cancer. Although loss of 17p13 has been often associated with p53 genetic alteration or Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene hypermethylation, other tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) located in this region have critical roles in tumorigenesis. A novel TSG mapping on human chromosome 17p13.2 is KCTD11REN (KCTD11). We have recently demonstrated that KCTD11 expression is frequently lost in human medulloblastoma (MB), in part by LOH and in part by uncharacterized epigenetic events. Using a panel of human 177 tumor samples and their normal matching samples representing 18 different types of cancer, we show here that the down-regulation of KCTD11 protein level is a specific and a diffusely common event in tumorigenesis. Additionally, in order to characterize the regulatory regions in KCTD11 promoter, we identified a CpG island and several Sp1 binding sites on this promoter, and demonstrated that Sp1 transcription factor and DNA methylation contribute, at least in part, to regulate KCTD11 expression. Our findings identify KCTD11 as a widely down-regulated gene in human cancers, and provide a basis to understand how its expression might be deregulated in tumor cells. PMID:20591193

  2. The tumor suppressor gene KCTD11REN is regulated by Sp1 and methylation and its expression is reduced in tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of several human cancers is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 17p13. The same chromosomal region is also frequently hypermethylated in cancer. Although loss of 17p13 has been often associated with p53 genetic alteration or Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene hypermethylation, other tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) located in this region have critical roles in tumorigenesis. A novel TSG mapping on human chromosome 17p13.2 is KCTD11REN (KCTD11). We have recently demonstrated that KCTD11 expression is frequently lost in human medulloblastoma (MB), in part by LOH and in part by uncharacterized epigenetic events. Using a panel of human 177 tumor samples and their normal matching samples representing 18 different types of cancer, we show here that the down-regulation of KCTD11 protein level is a specific and a diffusely common event in tumorigenesis. Additionally, in order to characterize the regulatory regions in KCTD11 promoter, we identified a CpG island and several Sp1 binding sites on this promoter, and demonstrated that Sp1 transcription factor and DNA methylation contribute, at least in part, to regulate KCTD11 expression. Our findings identify KCTD11 as a widely down-regulated gene in human cancers, and provide a basis to understand how its expression might be deregulated in tumor cells. PMID:20591193

  3. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Qingyi; Qing, Yong; Wu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  4. Deacetylation of the tumor suppressor protein PML regulates hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Guan, D; Lim, J H; Peng, L; Liu, Y; Lam, M; Seto, E; Kao, H-Y

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a tumor suppressor that is expressed at a low level in various cancers. Although post-translational modifications including SUMOylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination have been found to regulate the stability or activity of PML, little is known about the role of its acetylation in the control of cell survival. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of lysine 487 (K487) and SUMO1 conjugation of K490 at PML protein are mutually exclusive. We found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes PML deacetylation and identified SIRT1 and SIRT5 as PML deacetylases. Both SIRT1 and SIRT5 are required for H2O2-mediated deacetylation of PML and accumulation of nuclear PML protein in HeLa cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 reduces the number of H2O2-induced PML-nuclear bodies (NBs) and increases the survival of HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of wild-type PML but not the K487R mutant rescues H2O2-induced cell death in SIRT1 knockdown cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type SIRT5 but not a catalytic defective mutant can also restore H2O2-induced cell death in SIRT1 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism in which SIRT1/SIRT5-mediated PML deacetylation plays a role in the regulation of cancer cell survival. PMID:25032863

  5. Heat-inducible translationally controlled tumor protein of Trichinella pseudospiralis: cloning and regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mak, C H; Poon, M W; Lun, H M; Kwok, P Y; Ko, R C

    2007-04-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of inducing translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in stress adaptation of adenophorean nematodes, the complete coding sequence of TCTP of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis was characterized. Two cDNA clones with different 3' untranslated region were identified. Tp-TCTP contained an open reading frame of 534 bp encoding 177 residues. The gene with five introns was expressed as histidine-tagged fusion protein having a molecular mass of 17.5 kDa. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that TCTP RNA was not accumulated when the infective-stage larvae were heat-shocked for 1 h at 45 or 60 degrees C. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and antiserum against the fusion protein, the expression of TCTP was found to be up-regulated at the translational level. The data suggest that translational regulation of TCTP may play an important role in the early heat-stress adaptation of the trichinellid. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the TCTP sequence of T. pseudospiralis is closely related to that of T. spiralis, but is diverged from the secernentean species. PMID:17149606

  6. LARP4 Is Regulated by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in a Tristetraprolin-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mattijssen, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    LARP4 is a protein with unknown function that independently binds to poly(A) RNA, RACK1, and the poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1). Here, we report on its regulation. We found a conserved AU-rich element (ARE) in the human LARP4 mRNA 3′ untranslated region (UTR). This ARE, but not its antisense version or a point-mutated version, significantly decreased the stability of β-globin reporter mRNA. We found that overexpression of tristetraprolin (TTP), but not its RNA binding mutant or the other ARE-binding proteins tested, decreased cellular LARP4 levels. RNA coimmunoprecipitation showed that TTP specifically associated with LARP4 mRNA in vivo. Consistent with this, mouse LARP4 accumulated to higher levels in TTP gene knockout (KO) cells than in control cells. Stimulation of WT cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which rapidly induces TTP, robustly decreased LARP4 with a coincident time course but had no such effect on LARP4B or La protein or on LARP4 in the TTP KO cells. The TNF-α-induced TTP pulse was followed by a transient decrease in LARP4 mRNA that was quickly followed by a subsequent transient decrease in LARP4 protein. Involvement of LARP4 as a target of TNF-α–TTP regulation provides a clue as to how its functional activity may be used in a physiologic pathway. PMID:26644407

  7. Negative regulation of RNA-binding protein HuR by tumor-suppressor ECRG2.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, C; Sheikh, M S; Huang, Y

    2016-05-19

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) is a newer tumor suppressor whose function in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that ECRG2 expression was upregulated in response to DNA damage, and increased ECRG2 expression induced growth suppression in cancer cells but not in non-cancerous epithelial cells. ECRG2-mediated growth suppression was associated with activation of caspases and marked reduction in the levels of apoptosis inhibitor, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). ECRG2, via RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR), regulated XIAP mRNA stability and expression. Furthermore, ECRG2 increased HuR ubiquitination and degradation but was unable to modulate the non-ubiquitinable mutant form of HuR. We also identified missense and frame-shift ECRG2 mutations in various human malignancies and noted that, unlike wild-type ECRG2, one cancer-derived ECRG2 mutant harboring glutamic acid instead of valine at position 30 (V30E) failed to induce cell death and activation of caspases. This naturally occurring V30E mutant also did not suppress XIAP and HuR. Importantly, the V30E mutant overexpressing cancer cells acquired resistance against multiple anticancer drugs, thus suggesting that ECRG2 mutations appear to have an important role in the acquisition of anticancer drug resistance in a subset of human malignancies. PMID:26434587

  8. IMP1 suppresses breast tumor growth and metastasis through the regulation of its target mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhe; Chen, Shaoying; Zhou, Yanchun; Li, Deling; Singer, Robert H.; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the ability of IMP1 in inhibiting proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. In the current study, we utilized a mouse xenograft model to further investigate the function of IMP1 in breast tumor progression and its underlying mechanism. We demonstrated that IMP1 expression significantly suppressed the growth of MDA231 cell-derived xenograft tumors and subsequent lung metastasis. Microarray analyses and differential gene expression identified handful mRNAs, many of which were involved in breast tumor-growth and metastasis. Further studies revealed that these mRNAs were directly interacted with the KH34 domain of IMP1 and this interaction post-transcriptionally regulated their corresponding protein expression. Either deletion of the KH34 domain of IMP1 or alteration of the expression of IMP1-bound mRNAs affected cell proliferation and tumor growth, producing the same phenotypes as IMP1 knockdown. Correlation of increased IMP1 expression with the reduced levels of its bound mRNAs, such as PTGS2, GDF15 and IGF-2 transcripts, was also observed in human breast tumors. Our studies provide insights into a molecular mechanism that the positive function of IMP1 to inhibit breast tumor growth and metastasis could be through the regulation of its target mRNAs. PMID:26910917

  9. IMP1 suppresses breast tumor growth and metastasis through the regulation of its target mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangli; Huang, Zhenqiang; Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhe; Chen, Shaoying; Zhou, Yanchun; Li, Deling; Singer, Robert H; Gu, Wei

    2016-03-29

    We have previously reported the ability of IMP1 in inhibiting proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. In the current study, we utilized a mouse xenograft model to further investigate the function of IMP1 in breast tumor progression and its underlying mechanism. We demonstrated that IMP1 expression significantly suppressed the growth of MDA231 cell-derived xenograft tumors and subsequent lung metastasis. Microarray analyses and differential gene expression identified handful mRNAs, many of which were involved in breast tumor-growth and metastasis. Further studies revealed that these mRNAs were directly interacted with the KH34 domain of IMP1 and this interaction post-transcriptionally regulated their corresponding protein expression. Either deletion of the KH34 domain of IMP1 or alteration of the expression of IMP1-bound mRNAs affected cell proliferation and tumor growth, producing the same phenotypes as IMP1 knockdown. Correlation of increased IMP1 expression with the reduced levels of its bound mRNAs, such as PTGS2, GDF15 and IGF-2 transcripts, was also observed in human breast tumors. Our studies provide insights into a molecular mechanism that the positive function of IMP1 to inhibit breast tumor growth and metastasis could be through the regulation of its target mRNAs. PMID:26910917

  10. Down-regulation of HSP40 gene family following OCT4B1 suppression in human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, MalekHosein; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossin; Ahmadi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The OCT4B1, as one of OCT4 variants, is expressed in cancer cell lines and tissues more than other variants and plays an important role in apoptosis and stress (heat shock protein) pathways. The present study was designed to determine the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on expressional profile of HSP40 gene family expression in three different human tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods: The OCT4B1 expression was suppressed by specific siRNA transfection in AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor) and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines employing Lipofectamine reagent. Real-time PCR array technique was employed for RNA qualification. The fold changes were calculated using RT2 Profiler PCR array data analysis software version 3.5. Results: Our results indicated that fifteen genes (from 36 studied genes) were down-regulated and two genes (DNAJC11 and DNAJC5B) were up-regulated in all three studied tumor cell lines by approximately more than two folds. The result of other studied genes (19 genes) showed different expressional pattern (up or down-expression) based on tumor cell lines. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, we may suggest that there is a direct correlation between OCT4B1 expression in tumor cell lines (and tissues) and HSP40 family gene expressions to escape from apoptosis and cancer expansion. PMID:27081464

  11. A Feed Forward Loop Involving Protein Kinase C Alpha and MicroRNAs Regulates Tumor Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ezra Eddy Wyssam; Zhu, Hongyan; Lingen, Mark W.; Martin, Leslie E.; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Choi, Eugene A.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Parker, Joel S.; Chung, Christine H.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) has been implicated in cancer but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that PKCα promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) by a feed forward network leading to cell cycle deregulation. PKCα inhibitors decrease proliferation in SCCHN cell lines and xenografted tumors. PKCα inhibition or depletion in tumor cells decreases DNA synthesis by suppressing ERK phosphorylation and cyclin E synthesis. Additionally, PKCα down-regulates miR-15a, a microRNA that directly inhibits protein synthesis of cyclin E as well as other cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, both PKCα and cyclin E protein expression are increased in primary tumors, and PKCα inversely correlates with miR15a expression in primary tumors. Finally, PKCα is associated with poor prognosis in SCCHN. These results identify PKCα as a key regulator of HNSCC tumor cell growth by a mechanism involving activation of MAP kinase, an initiator of the cell cycle, and suppression of miR-15a, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Although the specific components may be different, this type of feed forward loop network, consisting of a stimulus that activates a positive signal and removes a negative brake, is likely to be a general one that enables induction of DNA synthesis by a variety of growth or oncogenic stimuli. PMID:19117988

  12. microRNA-1827 represses MDM2 to positively regulate tumor suppressor p53 and suppress tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cen; Liu, Juan; Tan, Chunwen; Yue, Xuetian; Zhao, Yuhan; Peng, Jiaping; Wang, Xiaolong; Laddha, Saurabh V.; Chan, Chang S.; Zheng, Shu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is the most critical negative regulator of p53, which binds to p53 and degrades p53 through ubiquitation. MDM2 itself is a transcriptional target of p53, and therefore, MDM2 forms a negative feedback loop with p53 to tightly regulate p53 levels and function. microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in regulation of gene expression. miRNA dysregulation plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that miRNA miR-1827 is a novel miRNA that targets MDM2 through binding to the 3′-UTR of MDM2 mRNA. miR-1827 negatively regulates MDM2, which in turn increases p53 protein levels to increase transcriptional activity of p53 and enhance p53-mediated stress responses, including apoptosis and senescence. Overexpression of miR-1827 suppresses the growth of xenograft colorectal tumors, whereas the miR-1827 inhibitor promotes tumor growth in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. miR-1827 is frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer. Decreased miR-1827 expression is associated with high MDM2 expression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. In summary, our results reveal that miR-1827 is a novel miRNA that regulates p53 through targeting MDM2, and highlight an important role and the underlying mechanism of miR-1827 in tumor suppression. PMID:26840028

  13. BAX and tumor suppressor TRP53 are important in regulating mutagenesis in spermatogenic cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guogang; Vogel, Kristine S; McMahan, C Alex; Herbert, Damon C; Walter, Christi A

    2010-12-01

    During the first wave of spermatogenesis, and in response to ionizing radiation, elevated mutant frequencies are reduced to a low level by unidentified mechanisms. Apoptosis is occurring in the same time frame that the mutant frequency declines. We examined the role of apoptosis in regulating mutant frequency during spermatogenesis. Apoptosis and mutant frequencies were determined in spermatogenic cells obtained from Bax-null or Trp53-null mice. The results showed that spermatogenic lineage apoptosis was markedly decreased in Bax-null mice and was accompanied by a significantly increased spontaneous mutant frequency in seminiferous tubule cells compared to that of wild-type mice. Apoptosis profiles in the seminiferous tubules for Trp53-null were similar to control mice. Spontaneous mutant frequencies in pachytene spermatocytes and in round spermatids from Trp53-null mice were not significantly different from those of wild-type mice. However, epididymal spermatozoa from Trp53-null mice displayed a greater spontaneous mutant frequency compared to that from wild-type mice. A greater proportion of spontaneous transversions and a greater proportion of insertions/deletions 15 days after ionizing radiation were observed in Trp53-null mice compared to wild-type mice. Base excision repair activity in mixed germ cell nuclear extracts prepared from Trp53-null mice was significantly lower than that for wild-type controls. These data indicate that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis in seminiferous tubule cells obtained from neonatal mice, whereas tumor suppressor TRP53 plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis between postmeiotic round spermatid and epididymal spermatozoon stages of spermiogenesis. PMID:20739667

  14. STAT5 regulation of BCL10 parallels constitutive NFκB activation in lymphoid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; LeBaron, Matthew J; Ross, Jeremy A; Mitra, Abhisek; Rui, Hallgeir; Kirken, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 A and B (STAT5) are key survival factors in cells of the lymphoid lineage. Identification of novel, tissue-specific STAT5 regulated genes would advance the ability to combat diseases due to aberrant STAT5 signaling. In the present work a library of human STAT5 bound genomic elements was created and validated. Results Of several STAT5 responsive genomic regulatory elements identified, one was located within the first intron of the human BCL10 gene. Chromatin immuno-precipitation reactions confirmed constitutive in vivo STAT5 binding to this intronic fragment in various human lymphoid tumor cell lines. Interestingly, non-phosphorylated STAT5 was found in the nuclei of Kit225 and YT cells in the absence of cytokine stimulation that paralleled constitutive NFκB activation. Inhibition of the hyperactive JAK3/STAT5 pathway in MT-2 cells via the Mannich-base, NC1153, diminished the constitutive in vivo occupancy of BCL10-SBR by STAT5, reduced NFκB activity and BCL10 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, depletion of STAT5 via selective antisense oligonucleotide treatment similarly resulted in decreased BCL10 mRNA and protein expression, cellular viability and impaired NFκB activity independent of IL-2. Conclusion These results suggest that the NFκB regulator BCL10 is an IL-2-independent STAT5 target gene. These findings proffer a model in which un-activated STAT5 can regulate pathways critical for lymphoid cell survival and inhibitors that disrupt STAT5 function independent of tyrosine phosphorylation may be therapeutically effective in treating certain leukemias/lymphomas. PMID:19709433

  15. Olig2-Dependent Reciprocal Shift in PDGF and EGF Receptor Signaling Regulates Tumor Phenotype and Mitotic Growth in Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fanghui; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; He, Danyang; Xu, Lingli; Wang, Jincheng; He, Xuelian; Deng, Yaqi; Lu, Ellen E; Liu, Xue; Verma, Ravinder; Bu, Hong; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Burns, Dennis; Xin, Mei; Rubin, Joshua B; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Canoll, Peter; Holland, Eric C; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-05-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity and poor prognosis. Here we identify mitotic Olig2-expressing cells as tumor-propagating cells in proneural gliomas, elimination of which blocks tumor initiation and progression. Intriguingly, deletion of Olig2 resulted in tumors that grow, albeit at a decelerated rate. Genome occupancy and expression profiling analyses reveal that Olig2 directly activates cell-proliferation machinery to promote tumorigenesis. Olig2 deletion causes a tumor phenotypic shift from an oligodendrocyte precursor-correlated proneural toward an astroglia-associated gene expression pattern, manifest in downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and reciprocal upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Olig2 deletion further sensitizes glioma cells to EGFR inhibitors and extends the lifespan of animals. Thus, Olig2-orchestrated receptor signaling drives mitotic growth and regulates glioma phenotypic plasticity. Targeting Olig2 may circumvent resistance to EGFR-targeted drugs. PMID:27165742

  16. A core human primary tumor angiogenesis signature identifies the endothelial orphan receptor ELTD1 as a key regulator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Massimo; Simões, Filipa Costa; Han, Hee Dong; Snell, Cameron; Peterkin, Tessa; Bridges, Esther; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Wu, Sherry Yen-Yao; Pradeep, Sunila; Li, Demin; Han, Cheng; Dalton, Heather; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Tuynman, Jurriaan B; Mortensen, Neil; Li, Ji-Liang; Patient, Roger; Sood, Anil K; Banham, Alison H; Harris, Adrian L; Buffa, Francesca M

    2013-08-12

    Limited clinical benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy have driven the identification of new targets involved in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report an integrative meta-analysis to define the transcriptional program underlying angiogenesis in human cancer. This approach identified ELTD1, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose expression is induced by VEGF/bFGF and repressed by DLL4 signaling. Extensive analysis of multiple cancer types demonstrates significant upregulation of ELTD1 in tumor-associated endothelial cells, with a higher expression correlating with favorable prognosis. Importantly, ELTD1 silencing impairs endothelial sprouting and vessel formation in vitro and in vivo, drastically reducing tumor growth and greatly improving survival. Collectively, these results provide insight into the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and highlight ELTD1 as key player in blood vessel formation. PMID:23871637

  17. Regulation of O2 consumption by the PI3K and mTOR pathways contributes to tumor hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Catherine J.; Hussien, Kamila; Fokas, Emmanouil; Kannan, Pavitra; Shipley, Rebecca J.; Ashton, Thomas M.; Stratford, Michael; Pearson, Natalie; Muschel, Ruth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway are currently in clinical trials. In addition to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, these agents also diminish tumor hypoxia. Since hypoxia is a major cause of resistance to radiotherapy, we sought to understand how it is regulated by PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Methods Whole cell, mitochondrial, coupled and uncoupled oxygen consumption were measured in cancer cells after inhibition of PI3K (Class I) and mTOR by pharmacological means or by RNAi. Mitochondrial composition was assessed by immunoblotting. Hypoxia was measured in spheroids, in tumor xenografts and predicted with mathematical modeling. Results Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR reduced oxygen consumption by cancer cell lines is predominantly due to reduction of mitochondrial respiration coupled to ATP production. Hypoxia in tumor spheroids was reduced, but returned after removal of the drug. Murine tumors had increased oxygenation even in the absence of average perfusion changes or tumor necrosis. Conclusions Targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway substantially reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption thereby reducing tumor hypoxia. These alterations in tumor hypoxia should be considered in the design of clinical trials using PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, particularly in conjunction with radiotherapy. PMID:24631147

  18. The stress-response sensor Chop regulates the function and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Thevenot, Paul T.; Sierra, Rosa A.; Raber, Patrick L.; Al-Khami, Amir A.; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Zarreii, Parisa; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Cui, Yan; Del Valle, Luis; Rodriguez, Paulo C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adaptation of malignant cells to the hostile milieu present in tumors is an important determinant for their survival and growth. However, the interaction between tumor-linked stress and anti-tumor immunity remains poorly characterized. Here, we show the critical role of the cellular stress sensor C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop) in the accumulation and immune inhibitory activity of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs lacking Chop had decreased immune regulatory functions and showed the ability to prime T cell function and induce anti-tumor responses. Chop expression in MDSCs was induced by tumor-linked reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and regulated by the activating-transcription factor-4. Chop-deficient MDSCs displayed reduced signaling through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β, leading to a decreased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and low expression phospho-STAT3. IL-6 over-expression restored immune suppressive activity of Chop-deficient MDSCs. These findings suggest the role of Chop in tumor-induced tolerance and the therapeutic potential of targeting Chop in MDSCs for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25238096

  19. Regulated expression of mouse mammary tumor proviral genes in cells of the B lineage

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of mouse mammary tumor proviral (MMTV) transcripts during B cell ontogeny and compared levels of RNA in B lymphocytes and B cell lines with levels in other cells of the hematopoietic lineage and in a mammary cell line. We demonstrate that MMTV transcripts are expressed as early as the pro-B cell stage in ontogeny and are expressed at basal constitutive levels throughout most of the B cell developmental pathway. The level of MMTV expression in B cells is similar to constitutive levels in mammary tissues and two to three orders of magnitude greater than in activated T cells. Levels of MMTV transcripts in B cells are not solely due to positional effects. Transient transfection assays showed that MMTV upregulation resulted from transcriptional activation of the viral LTR, indicating that there are specific and inducible transcription factors that regulate MMTV expression in B cells. MMTV transcripts could not be upregulated in pre- B cell lines but could be induced in some mature B cell lines. There was a correlation between the ability to stimulate B cells to secrete antibody and the ability to induce upregulated MMTV expression. Evidence is presented that suggests that the principal transcription factors involved in MMTV expression do not include the B cell factors OTF-2 or NF-kappa B, but rather are likely to be novel factors that are induced during differentiation to antibody secretion. A hypothesis for why mammary tumor viruses are well adapted for expression in cells of the B lineage is proposed, and the implications of this for the documented influence of MMTV gene products on the T cell repertoire are discussed. PMID:1660524

  20. Myeloid cell TRAF3 regulates immune responses and inhibits inflammation and tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Almin I; Moore, Carissa R; Luo, Chang; Kreider, Benjamin Z; Liu, Yan; Morse, Herbert C; Xie, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, are crucial players in innate immunity and inflammation. These cells constitutively or inducibly express a number of receptors of the TNFR and TLR families, whose signals are transduced by TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) molecules. In vitro studies showed that TRAF3 is required for TLR-induced type I IFN production, but the in vivo function of TRAF3 in myeloid cells remains unknown. In this article, we report the generation and characterization of myeloid cell-specific TRAF3-deficient (M-TRAF3(-/-)) mice, which allowed us to gain insights into the in vivo functions of TRAF3 in myeloid cells. We found that TRAF3 ablation did not affect the maturation or homeostasis of myeloid cells in young adult mice, even though TRAF3-deficient macrophages and neutrophils exhibited constitutive NF-κB2 activation. However, in response to injections with LPS (a bacterial mimic) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (a viral mimic), M-TRAF3(-/-) mice exhibited an altered profile of cytokine production. M-TRAF3(-/-) mice immunized with T cell-independent and -dependent Ags displayed elevated T cell-independent IgG3 and T cell-dependent IgG2b responses. Interestingly, 15- to 22-mo-old M-TRAF3(-/-) mice spontaneously developed chronic inflammation or tumors, often affecting multiple organs. Taken together, our findings indicate that TRAF3 expressed in myeloid cells regulates immune responses in myeloid cells and acts to inhibit inflammation and tumor development in mice. PMID:25422508

  1. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  2. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  3. EBNA1 binding and epigenetic regulation of gastrokine tumor suppressor genes in gastric carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latently infects ~10% of gastric carcinomas (GC). Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in EBV-associated GC, and can bind host DNA, where it may impact cellular gene regulation. Here, we show that EBNA1 binds directly to DNA upstream of the divergently transcribed GC-specific tumor suppressor genes gastrokine 1 (GKN1) and gastrokine 2 (GKN2). Methods We use ChIP-Seq, ChIP-qPCR, and EMSA to demonstrate that EBNA1 binds directly to the GKN1 and GKN2 promoter locus. We generate AGS-EBV, and AGS-EBNA1 cell lines to study the effects of EBNA1 on GKN1 and GKN2 mRNA expression with or without 5′ azacytidine treatment. Results We show that gastrokine genes are transcriptionally silenced by DNA methylation. We also show that latent EBV infection further reduces GKN1 and GKN2 expression in AGS gastric carcinoma cells, and that siRNA depletion of EBNA1 partially alleviates this repression. However, ectopic expression of EBNA1 slightly increased GKN1 and GKN2 basal mRNA levels, but reduced their responsiveness to demethylating agent. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that EBNA1 binds to the divergent promoter of the GKN1 and GKN2 genes in GC cells, and suggest that EBNA1 contributes to the complex transcriptional and epigenetic deregulation of the GKN1 and GKN2 tumor suppressor genes in EBV positive GC. PMID:24460791

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Fey, G; Chisari, F V

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that several inflammatory cytokines can modulate hepatocellular gene expression in a complex physiological process known as the hepatic acute-phase response. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) characteristically induces a vigorous lymphomononuclear inflammatory response in the liver during acute and chronic hepatitis, it is possible that hepatocellular HBV gene expression may also be modulated by one or more of the cytokines produced by these cells. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a surrogate inducer of inflammatory cytokines in vivo, we have tested this hypothesis in a transgenic mouse model system. In experiments with two independent transgenic mouse lineages that express the HBV envelope region under the control of either HBV or cellular promoters, we observed a 50 to 80% reduction in the hepatic steady-state content of a 2.1-kb HBV mRNA following administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS. The regulatory influence of several inflammatory cytokines known to be induced by LPS was also examined in this system. The negative regulatory effect of LPS was consistently reproduced by the administration of a single nontoxic dose of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and it was occasionally observed following the administration of high doses of alpha interferon and interleukin-6, while no effect was detectable in response to high-dose interleukin-1 alpha or to gamma interferon. These observations suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha and perhaps other cytokines may activate a heretofore unsuspected intracellular pathway that negatively regulates HBV gene expression. The intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its pathophysiologic relevance remain to be elucidated. Images PMID:1583737

  5. Transforming potential and matrix stiffness co-regulate confinement sensitivity of tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    It is now well established that tumor cell invasion through tissue is strongly regulated by the microstructural and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it remains unclear how these physical microenvironmental inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic lesions to drive invasion. In this study, we address this open question by combining a microfabricated polyacrylamide channel (μPAC) platform that enables independent control of ECM stiffness and confinement with an isogenically-matched breast tumor progression series in which the oncogenes ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ are overexpressed independently or in tandem. We find that increasing channel confinement and overexpressing ErbB2 both promote cell migration to a similar degree when other parameters are kept constant. In contrast, 14-3-3ζ overexpression slows migration speed, and does so in a fashion that dwarfs effects of ECM confinement and stiffness. We also find that ECM stiffness dramatically enhances cell motility when combined with ErbB2 overexpression, demonstrating that biophysical cues and cell-intrinsic parameters promote cell invasion in an integrative manner. Morphometric analysis of cells inside the μPAC platform reveals that the rapid cell migration induced by narrow channels and ErbB2 overexpression are both accompanied by increased cell polarization. Disruption of this polarization occurs by pharmacological inhibition of Rac GTPase phenocopies 14-3-3ζ overexpression by reducing cell polarization and slowing migration. By systematically measuring migration speed as a function of matrix stiffness and confinement, we also quantify for the first time the sensitivity of migration speed to microchannel properties and transforming potential. These results demonstrate that oncogenic lesions and ECM biophysical properties can synergistically interact to drive invasive migration, and that both inputs may act through common molecular mechanisms to enhance migration speed. PMID:23832051

  6. Guidance Molecule SEMA3A Restricts Tumor Growth by Differentially Regulating the Proliferation of Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wallerius, Majken; Wallmann, Tatjana; Bartish, Margarita; Östling, Jeanette; Mezheyeuski, Artur; Tobin, Nicholas P; Nygren, Emma; Pangigadde, Pradeepa; Pellegrini, Paola; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Pontén, Fredrik; Hartman, Johan; Bergh, Jonas; De Milito, Angelo; De Palma, Michele; Östman, Arne; Andersson, John; Rolny, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) correlates with malignant progression, immune suppression, and poor prognosis. In this study, we defined a critical role for the cell-surface guidance molecule SEMA3A in differential proliferative control of TAMs. Tumor cell-derived SEMA3A restricted the proliferation of protumoral M2 macrophages but increased the proliferation of antitumoral M1, acting through the SEMA3A receptor neuropilin 1. Expansion of M1 macrophages in vivo enhanced the recruitment and activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to tumors, inhibiting their growth. In human breast cancer specimens, we found that immunohistochemical levels of SEMA3A correlated with the expression of genes characteristic of M1 macrophages, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells, while inversely correlating with established characters of malignancy. In summary, our results illuminate a mechanism whereby the TAM phenotype is controlled and identify the cell-surface molecule SEMA3A as a candidate for therapeutic targeting. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3166-78. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197153

  7. Cell Cycle Regulating Kinase Cdk4 as a Potential Target for Tumor Cell Treatment and Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Franziska; Koehler, Lena; Kniess, Torsten; Wuest, Frank; Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of cell cycle, has been found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, for example, selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterizations of two 124I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies. PMID:19551155

  8. Aberrant cell cycle regulation in rat liver cells induced by post-initiation treatment with hepatocarcinogens/hepatocarcinogenic tumor promoters.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine the onset time of hepatocarcinogen/hepatocarcinogenic tumor promoter-specific cell proliferation, apoptosis and aberrant cell cycle regulation after post-initiation treatment. Six-week-old rats were treated with the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, carbadox (CRB), the marginally hepatocarcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG), the tumor promoter, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or the non-carcinogenic hepatotoxicant, acetaminophen, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks during the post-initiation phase using a medium-term liver bioassay. Cell proliferation activity, expression of G2 to M phase- and spindle checkpoint-related molecules, and apoptosis were immunohistochemically analyzed at week 2 and 4, and tumor promotion activity was assessed at week 6. At week 2, hepatocarcinogen/tumor promoter-specific aberrant cell cycle regulation was not observed. At week 4, BNF and LMG increased cell proliferation together with hepatotoxicity, while CRB did not. Additionally, BNF and CRB reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 in both ubiquitin D (UBD)(+) cells and Ki-67(+) proliferating cells, suggesting development of spindle checkpoint dysfunction, regardless of cell proliferation activity. At week 6, examined hepatocarcinogens/tumor promoters increased preneoplastic hepatic foci expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form. These results suggest that some hepatocarcinogens/tumor promoters increase their toxicity after post-initiation treatment, causing regenerative cell proliferation. In contrast, some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens may disrupt the spindle checkpoint without facilitating cell proliferation at the early stage of tumor promotion. This suggests that facilitation of cell proliferation and disruption of spindle checkpoint function are induced by different mechanisms during hepatocarcinogenesis. Four weeks of post-initiation treatment may be sufficient to induce hepatocarcinogen/tumor promoter-specific cellular responses. PMID

  9. NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of esophageal cancer regulates the survival and migration of tumor-associated macrophages and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takase, Nobuhisa; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Urakawa, Naoki; Nishio, Mari; Arai, Noriaki; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Shigeoka, Manabu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-28

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in the angiogenesis and tumor immunosuppression of various cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). To elucidate the roles of TAMs in ESCCs, we compared the gene expression profiles between human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage-like cells (Macrophage_Ls) and Macrophage_Ls stimulated with conditioned medium of the TE series human ESCC cell line (TECM) (TAM_Ls) using cDNA microarray analysis. Among the highly expressed genes in TAM_Ls, we focused on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). NCAM knockdown in TAM_Ls revealed a significant decrease of migration and survival via a suppression of PI3K-Akt and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling. Stimulation by TECM up-regulated the level of FGFR1 in Macrophage_Ls. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) promoted the migration and survival of TAM_Ls and TE-cells through FGFR1 signaling. Our immunohistochemical analysis of 70 surgically resected ESCC samples revealed that the up-regulated FGF-2 in stromal cells, including macrophages, was associated with more aggressive phenotypes and a high number of infiltrating M2 macrophages. These findings may indicate a novel role of NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of ESCCs. PMID:27317650

  10. The Impact of Ethnicity on Wilms Tumor: Characteristics and Outcome of a South African Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nephroblastoma is the commonest renal tumour seen in children. It has a good prognosis in developed countries with survival rates estimated to be between 80% and 90%, while in Africa it remains low. Method. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with nephroblastoma who are seen at 4 paediatric oncology units, representing 58.5% of all South African children with nephroblastoma and treated following SIOP protocol between January 2000 and December 2010. Results. A total of 416 patients were seen at the 4 units. Over 80% of our patients were African and almost 10% of mixed ethnicity. The most common stage was stage 4. The median survival was 28 months after diagnosis with the mixed ethnicity patients recording the longest duration (39 months) and the white patients had the shortest median survival. The overall 5-year survival rate was estimated to be 66%. Stage 2 patients did significantly better (85%). Conclusions. Our patients are similar with regard to gender ratio, median age, and age distribution as described in the literature, but in South Africa the more advanced stage disease seen than in other developed countries is translated into low overall survival rate. PMID:25883659

  11. Altered RNA editing in 3′ UTR perturbs microRNA-mediated regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liye; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Varelas, Xaralabos; Monti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a molecular event that alters specific nucleotides in RNA post-transcriptionally. RNA editing has the potential to impact a variety of cellular processes and is implicated in diseases such as cancer. Yet, the precise mechanisms by which RNA editing controls cellular processes are poorly understood. Here, we characterize sequences altered by RNA editing in patient samples from lymphoma, neuroblastoma and head and neck cancers. We show that A-to-I RNA editing sites are highly conserved across samples of the same tissue type and that most editing sites identified in tumors are also detectable in normal tissues. Next, we identify the significant changes in editing levels of known sites between tumor and paired “normal” tissues across 14 cancer types (627 pairs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas project and show that the complexity of RNA editing regulation cannot be captured by the activity of ADAR family genes alone. Our pan-cancer analysis confirms previous results on individual tumor types and suggests that changes of RNA editing levels in coding and 3′UTR regions could be a general mechanism to promote tumor growth. We also propose a model explaining how altered RNA editing levels affect microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of oncogenes and tumor-suppressors. PMID:26980570

  12. Expression and regulation of the tumor suppressor, SEF, during folliculogenesis in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Ela; Price, Christopher A; Abramovich, Sagit-Sela; Rabinovitz, Shiri; Granot, Irit; Dekel, Nava; Ron, Dina

    2014-11-01

    Similar expression to FGF (Sef or IL17-RD), is a tumor suppressor and an inhibitor of growth factors as well as of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. In this study, we examined the regulation of Sef expression by gonadotropins during ovarian folliculogenesis. In sexually immature mice, in situ hybridization (ISH) localized Sef gene expression to early developing oocytes and granulosa cells (GC) but not to theca cells. Sef was also expressed in mouse ovarian endothelial cells, in the fallopian tube epithelium as well as in adipose tissue venules. SEF protein expression, determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), correlated well with Sef mRNA expression in GC, while differential expression was noticed in oocytes. High Sef mRNA but undetectable SEF protein levels were observed in the oocytes of primary/secondary follicles, while an inverse correlation was found in the oocytes of preantral and small antral follicles. Sef mRNA expression dropped after pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) administration, peaked at 6-8 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment, and declined by 12 h after this treatment. ISH and IHC localized the changes to oocytes and mural GC following PMSG treatment, whereas Sef expression increased in mural GC and declined in granulosa-lutein cells upon hCG treatment. The ovarian expression of SEF was confirmed using human samples. ISH localized SEF transcripts to human GC of antral follicles but not to corpora lutea. Furthermore, SEF mRNA was detected in human GC recovered from preovulatory follicles. These results are the first to demonstrate SEF expression in a healthy ovary during folliculogenesis. Hormonal regulation of its expression suggests that SEF may be an important factor involved in intra-ovarian control mechanisms. PMID:25118304

  13. CHIP-mediated degradation of transglutaminase 2 negatively regulates tumor growth and angiogenesis in renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Park, H; Lee, S; Li, Y; Choi, J-M; Lee, J Y; Kim, J; Choi, Y D; Kwon, Y-G; Lee, H-W; Bae, S-C; Yun, C-O; Chung, K C

    2016-07-14

    The multifunctional enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) primarily catalyzes cross-linking reactions of proteins via (γ-glutamyl) lysine bonds. Several recent findings indicate that altered regulation of intracellular TG2 levels affects renal cancer. Elevated TG2 expression is observed in renal cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying TG2 degradation is not completely understood. Carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) functions as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Previous studies reveal that CHIP deficiency mice displayed a reduced life span with accelerated aging in kidney tissues. Here we show that CHIP promotes polyubiquitination of TG2 and its subsequent proteasomal degradation. In addition, TG2 upregulation contributes to enhanced kidney tumorigenesis. Furthermore, CHIP-mediated TG2 downregulation is critical for the suppression of kidney tumor growth and angiogenesis. Notably, our findings are further supported by decreased CHIP expression in human renal cancer tissues and renal cancer cells. The present work reveals that CHIP-mediated TG2 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation represent a novel regulatory mechanism that controls intracellular TG2 levels. Alterations in this pathway result in TG2 hyperexpression and consequently contribute to renal cancer. PMID:26568304

  14. Regulation of the activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN by thioredoxin in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Zuohe; Saghafi, Negin; Gokhale, Vijay; Brabant, Marc; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J. . E-mail: emeuillet@azcc.arizona.edu

    2007-04-01

    Human Thioredoxin-1 (hTrx-1) is a small redox protein with a molecular weight of 12 kDa that contains two cysteine residues found in its catalytic site. HTrx-1 plays an important role in cell growth, apoptosis, and cancer patient prognosis. Recently, we have demonstrated that hTrx-1 binds to the C2 domain of the human tumor suppressor, PTEN, in a redox dependent manner. This binding leads to the inhibition of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity in mammalian tissue culture systems. In this study, we show that over-expression of hTrx-1 in Drosophila melanogaster promotes cell growth and proliferation during eye development as measured by eye size and ommatidia size. Furthermore, hTrx-1 rescues the small eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of PTEN. We demonstrate that this rescue of the PTEN-induced eye size phenotype requires cysteine-218 in the C2 domain of PTEN. We also show that hTrx-1 over-expression results in increased Akt phosphorylation in fly head extracts supporting our observations that the hTrx-1-induced eye size increase results from the inhibition of PTEN activity. Our study confirms the redox regulation of PTEN through disulfide bond formation with the hTrx-1 in Drosophila and suggests conserved mechanisms for thioredoxins and their interactions with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway in humans and fruit flies.

  15. CRL3IBTK Regulates the Tumor Suppressor Pdcd4 through Ubiquitylation Coupled to Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Palmieri, Camillo; Vecchio, Eleonora; Fiume, Giuseppe; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Mimmi, Selena; Falcone, Cristina; Iaccino, Enrico; Scialdone, Annarita; Pontoriero, Marilena; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Valea, Rosanna; Krishnan, Shibu; Gaspari, Marco; Cuda, Giovanni; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    The human inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase isoform α (IBtkα) is a BTB protein encoded by the IBTK gene, which maps to chromosomal locus 6q14.1, a mutational hot spot in lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we demonstrate that IBtkα forms a CRL3IBTK complex promoting its self-ubiquitylation. We identified the tumor suppressor Pdcd4 as IBtkα interactor and ubiquitylation substrate of CRL3IBTK for proteasomal degradation. Serum-induced degradation of Pdcd4 required both IBtkα and Cul3, indicating that CRL3IBTK regulated the Pdcd4 stability in serum signaling. By promoting Pdcd4 degradation, IBtkα counteracted the suppressive effect of Pdcd4 on translation of reporter luciferase mRNAs with stem-loop structured or unstructured 5′-UTR. IBtkα depletion by RNAi caused Pdcd4 accumulation and decreased the translation of Bcl-xL mRNA, a well known target of Pdcd4 repression. By characterizing CRL3IBTK as a novel ubiquitin ligase, this study provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms of cellular pathways, such as the Pdcd4-dependent translation of mRNAs. PMID:25882842

  16. ECM1 regulates tumor metastasis and CSC-like property through stabilization of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Lee, K-m; Nam, K; Oh, S; Lim, J; Kim, R K; Shim, D; Choi, J-h; Lee, S-J; Yu, J-H; Lee, J W; Ahn, S H; Shin, I

    2015-12-10

    Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 (ECM1) is a marker for tumorigenesis and is correlated with invasiveness and poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the functional role of ECM1 in cancer metastasis is unclear. Here, we detected high ECM1 level in breast cancer patient sera that was associated with recurrence of tumor. The modulation of ECM1 expression affected not only cell migration and invasion, but also sphere-forming ability and drug resistance in breast cancer cell lines. In addition, ECM1 regulated the gene expression associated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression and cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. Interestingly, ECM1 increased β-catenin expression at the post-translational level through induction of MUC1, which was physically associated with β-catenin. Indeed, the association between β-catenin and the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail was increased by ECM1. Furthermore, forced expression of β-catenin altered the gene expression that potentiated EMT progression and CSC phenotype maintenance in the cells. These data provide evidence that ECM1 has an important role in cancer metastasis through β-catenin stabilization. PMID:25746001

  17. Oncogenic B-RAF Negatively Regulates the Tumor Suppressor LKB1 to Promote Melanoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; Jeong, Joseph H.; Asara, John M.; Yuan, Yuan-Ying; Granter, Scott R.; Chin, Lynda; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The LKB1 – AMPK signaling pathway serves as a critical cellular sensor coupling energy homeostasis to cell growth, proliferation and survival. However, how tumor cells suppress this signaling pathway to gain growth advantage under conditions of energy stress is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMPK activation is suppressed in melanoma cells with the B-RAF V600E mutation and that down-regulation of B-RAF signaling activates AMPK. We find that in these cells LKB1 is phosphorylated by ERK and Rsk, two kinases downstream of B-RAF, and that this phosphorylation compromises the ability of LKB1 to bind and activate AMPK. Furthermore, expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of LKB1 allows activation of AMPK and inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth. Our findings provide a molecular linkage between the LKB1-AMPK and the RAF-MEK-ERK pathways and suggest that suppression of LKB1 function by B-RAF V600E plays an important role in B-RAF V600E-driven tumorigenesis. PMID:19187764

  18. LIMK Regulates Tumor-Cell Invasion and Matrix Degradation Through Tyrosine Phosphorylation of MT1-MMP

    PubMed Central

    Lagoutte, Emilie; Villeneuve, Clémentine; Lafanechère, Laurence; Wells, Claire M.; Jones, Gareth E.; Chavrier, Philippe; Rossé, Carine

    2016-01-01

    During their metastatic spread, cancer cells need to remodel the extracellular matrix in order to migrate through stromal compartments adjacent to the primary tumor. Dissemination of breast carcinoma cells is mediated by membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP14), the main invadopodial matrix degradative component. Here, we identify MT1-MMP as a novel interacting partner of dual-specificity LIM Kinase-1 and -2 (LIMK1/2), and provide several evidence for phosphorylation of tyrosine Y573 in the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP by LIMK. Phosphorylation of Y573 influences association of F-actin binding protein cortactin to MT1-MMP-positive endosomes and invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. Moreover, we show that LIMK1 regulates cortactin association to MT1-MMP-positive endosomes, while LIMK2 controls invadopodia-associated cortactin. In turn, LIMK1 and LIMK2 are required for MT1-MMP-dependent matrix degradation and cell invasion in a three-dimensional type I collagen environment. This novel link between LIMK1/2 and MT1-MMP may have important consequences for therapeutic control of breast cancer cell invasion. PMID:27116935

  19. CRL3IBTK Regulates the Tumor Suppressor Pdcd4 through Ubiquitylation Coupled to Proteasomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Antonio; Ceglia, Simona; Palmieri, Camillo; Vecchio, Eleonora; Fiume, Giuseppe; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Mimmi, Selena; Falcone, Cristina; Iaccino, Enrico; Scialdone, Annarita; Pontoriero, Marilena; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Valea, Rosanna; Krishnan, Shibu; Gaspari, Marco; Cuda, Giovanni; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2015-05-29

    The human inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase isoform α (IBtkα) is a BTB protein encoded by the IBTK gene, which maps to chromosomal locus 6q14.1, a mutational hot spot in lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we demonstrate that IBtkα forms a CRL3(IBTK) complex promoting its self-ubiquitylation. We identified the tumor suppressor Pdcd4 as IBtkα interactor and ubiquitylation substrate of CRL3(IBTK) for proteasomal degradation. Serum-induced degradation of Pdcd4 required both IBtkα and Cul3, indicating that CRL3(IBTK) regulated the Pdcd4 stability in serum signaling. By promoting Pdcd4 degradation, IBtkα counteracted the suppressive effect of Pdcd4 on translation of reporter luciferase mRNAs with stem-loop structured or unstructured 5'-UTR. IBtkα depletion by RNAi caused Pdcd4 accumulation and decreased the translation of Bcl-xL mRNA, a well known target of Pdcd4 repression. By characterizing CRL3(IBTK) as a novel ubiquitin ligase, this study provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms of cellular pathways, such as the Pdcd4-dependent translation of mRNAs. PMID:25882842

  20. Tumor protein Tctp regulates axon development in the embryonic visual system

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Cláudio Gouveia; Wong, Hovy Ho-Wai; Lin, Julie Qiaojin; Holt, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    The transcript encoding translationally controlled tumor protein (Tctp), a molecule associated with aggressive breast cancers, was identified among the most abundant in genome-wide screens of axons, suggesting that Tctp is important in neurons. Here, we tested the role of Tctp in retinal axon development in Xenopus laevis. We report that Tctp deficiency results in stunted and splayed retinotectal projections that fail to innervate the optic tectum at the normal developmental time owing to impaired axon extension. Tctp-deficient axons exhibit defects associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and we show that Tctp interacts in the axonal compartment with myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1), a pro-survival member of the Bcl2 family. Mcl1 knockdown gives rise to similar axon misprojection phenotypes, and we provide evidence that the anti-apoptotic activity of Tctp is necessary for the normal development of the retinotectal projection. These findings suggest that Tctp supports the development of the retinotectal projection via its regulation of pro-survival signalling and axonal mitochondrial homeostasis, and establish a novel and fundamental role for Tctp in vertebrate neural circuitry assembly. PMID:26903505

  1. DNA methylation transcriptionally regulates the putative tumor cell growth suppressor ZNF677 in non-small cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Gerwin; Altenberger, Corinna; Schmid, Bianca; Marhold, Maximilian; Tomasich, Erwin; Ziegler, Barbara; Müllauer, Leonhard; Minichsdorfer, Christoph; Lang, György; End-Pfützenreuter, Adelheid; Döme, Balazs; Arns, Britt-Madeleine; Fong, Kwun M.; Wright, Casey M.; Yang, Ian A.; Klepetko, Walter; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we investigated the role of ZNF677 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). By comparing ZNF677 expression in primary tumor (TU) and in the majority of cases also of corresponding non-malignant lung tissue (NL) samples from > 1,000 NSCLC patients, we found tumor-specific downregulation of ZNF677 expression (adjusted p-values < 0.001). We identified methylation as main mechanism for ZNF677 downregulation in NSCLC cells and we observed tumor-specific ZNF677 methylation in NSCLC patients (p < 0.0001). In the majority of TUs, ZNF677 methylation was associated with loss of ZNF677 expression. Moreover, ZNF677 overexpression in NSCLC cells was associated with reduced cell proliferation and cell migration. ZNF677 was identified to regulate expression of many genes mainly involved in growth hormone regulation and interferon signalling. Finally, patients with ZNF677 methylated TUs had a shorter overall survival compared to patients with ZNF677 not methylated TUs (p = 0.013). Overall, our results demonstrate that ZNF677 is trancriptionally regulated by methylation in NSCLCs, suggest that ZNF677 has tumor cell growth suppressing properties in NSCLCs and that ZNF677 methylation might serve as prognostic parameter in these patients. PMID:25504438

  2. Annexin A4-nuclear factor-κB feedback circuit regulates cell malignant behavior and tumor growth in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hou-Shan; Sun, Chang; Li, Xin-Xing; Wang, Yi; Jin, Kai-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Zhi-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignant tumor of the biliary system. However, the mechanisms underlying its tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis are not yet fully understood. The annexin A4 (ANXA4) gene is highly expressed in GBC tissues and may play an important role in the initiation and progression of this disease. In this study, we examined the up-regulation of ANXA4 in human GBC tissues and cell lines. Elevated ANXA4 correlated well with invasion depth in GBC patients and predicted a poor prognosis. In vitro, GBC-SD and NOZ cells with ANXA4 knockdown demonstrated increased apoptosis and inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion. Interactions between ANXA4 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins were detected. In vivo, ANXA4 knockdown inhibited tumor growth of GBC cells in nude mice and down-regulated the expression of downstream factors in the NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that up-regulation of ANXA4 leads to activation of the NF-κB pathway and its target genes in a feedback regulatory mechanism via the p65 subunit, resulting in tumor growth in GBC. PMID:27491820

  3. Targets of the tumor suppressor miR-200 in regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer.

    PubMed

    Schliekelman, Mark J; Gibbons, Don L; Faca, Vitor M; Creighton, Chad J; Rizvi, Zain H; Zhang, Qing; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wang, Hong; Ungewiss, Christin; Ahn, Young-Ho; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kurie, Jonathan M; Hanash, Samir M

    2011-12-15

    The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family restricts epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in tumor cell lines derived from mice that develop metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. To determine the mechanisms responsible for EMT and metastasis regulated by this microRNA, we conducted a global liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis to compare metastatic and nonmetastatic murine lung adenocarcinoma cells which had undergone EMT because of loss of miR-200. An analysis of syngeneic tumors generated by these cells identified multiple novel proteins linked to metastasis. In particular, the analysis of conditioned media, cell surface proteins, and whole-cell lysates from metastatic and nonmetastatic cells revealed large-scale modifications in the tumor microenvironment. Specific increases were documented in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, peptidases, and changes in distribution of cell adhesion proteins in the metastatic cell lines. Integrating proteomic data from three subproteomes, we defined constituents of a multilayer protein network that both regulated and mediated the effects of TGFβ. Lastly, we identified ECM proteins and peptidases that were directly regulated by miR-200. Taken together, our results reveal how expression of miR-200 alters the tumor microenvironment to inhibit the processes of EMT and metastasis. PMID:21987723

  4. Targets of the tumor suppressor gene miR-200 in regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Mark J.; Gibbons, Don L.; Faca, Vitor M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Rizvi, Zain H.; Zhang, Qing; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wang, Hong; Ungewiss, Christin; Ahn, Young-Ho; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Hanash, Samir M.

    2012-01-01

    The microRNA-200 family restricts epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in tumor cell lines derived from mice that develop metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. To determine the mechanisms responsible for EMT and metastasis regulated by this microRNA, we conducted a global LC-MS/MS analysis to compare metastatic and non-metastatic murine lung adenocarcinoma cells which had undergone EMT due to loss of miR-200. An analysis of syngeneic tumors generated by these cells identified multiple novel proteins linked to metastasis. In particular, the analysis of conditioned media, cell surface proteins, and whole cell lysates from metastatic and non-metastatic cells revealed large scale modifications in the tumor microenvironment. Specific increases were documented in extracellular matrix proteins, peptidases, and changes in distribution of cell adhesion proteins in the metastatic cell lines. Integrating proteomic data from three sub-proteomes, we defined constituents of a multilayer protein network that both regulated and mediated the effects of transforming growth factor TGFβ. Lastly, we identified extracellular matrix proteins and peptidases that were directly regulated by miR-200. Taken together, our results reveal how expression of miR-200 alters the tumor microenvironment to inhibit the processes of EMT and metastasis. PMID:21987723

  5. Annexin A4-nuclear factor-κB feedback circuit regulates cell malignant behavior and tumor growth in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hou-Shan; Sun, Chang; Li, Xin-Xing; Wang, Yi; Jin, Kai-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Zhi-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignant tumor of the biliary system. However, the mechanisms underlying its tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis are not yet fully understood. The annexin A4 (ANXA4) gene is highly expressed in GBC tissues and may play an important role in the initiation and progression of this disease. In this study, we examined the up-regulation of ANXA4 in human GBC tissues and cell lines. Elevated ANXA4 correlated well with invasion depth in GBC patients and predicted a poor prognosis. In vitro, GBC-SD and NOZ cells with ANXA4 knockdown demonstrated increased apoptosis and inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion. Interactions between ANXA4 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins were detected. In vivo, ANXA4 knockdown inhibited tumor growth of GBC cells in nude mice and down-regulated the expression of downstream factors in the NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that up-regulation of ANXA4 leads to activation of the NF-κB pathway and its target genes in a feedback regulatory mechanism via the p65 subunit, resulting in tumor growth in GBC. PMID:27491820

  6. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  7. Targeting of cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LI, MINMIN; LI, MEI; YIN, TAO; SHI, HUASHAN; WEN, YUAN; ZHANG, BINGLAN; CHEN, MEIHUA; XU, GUANGCHAO; REN, KEXIN; WEI, YUQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key components of the tumor stroma, can regulate tumorigenesis by altering the tumor microenvironment in variety of ways to promote angiogenesis, recruit inflammatory immune cells and remodel the extracellular matrix. Using a murine xenograft model of colon carcinoma, the present study observed that oxaliplatin increased the accumulation of CAFs and stimulated the production of cytokines associated with CAFs. When oxaliplatin was combined with the small-molecule dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor PT-100, which inhibits CAFs by targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP), the accumulation of CAFs was markedly reduced, xenograft tumor growth was significantly suppressed and the survival of the mice increased, compared to those of mice treated with oxaliplatin or PT-100 alone. Furthermore, the xenograft tumor tissues of mice treated with oxaliplatin and PT-100 contained lower numbers of tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells, expressed lower levels of cytokines associated with CAFs and had a lower density of CD31+ endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of CAFs improved the response to chemotherapy, reduced the recruitment of immune tumor-promoting cells and inhibited angiogenesis. Combining chemotherapy with agents which target CAFs may represent a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy and reducing chemoresistance. PMID:26846566

  8. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael

    2016-08-01

    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  9. Systemic and tumor level iron regulation in men with colorectal cancer: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased cellular iron exposure is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Hepcidin, a liver peptide hormone, acts as the primary regulator of systemic iron status by blocking iron release from enterocytes into plasma. Concentrations are decreased during low iron status and increased during inflammation. The role of hepcidin and the factors influencing its regulation in CRC remains largely unknown. This study explored systemic and tumor level iron regulation in men with CRC. Methods The participants were 20 CRC cases and 20 healthy control subjects. Colonic tissue (adenocarcinoma [cases] healthy mucosa [controls]) was subjected to quantitative PCR (hepcidin, iron transporters and IL-6) and Perls’ iron staining. Serum was analyzed using ELISA for hepcidin, iron status (sTfR) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α). Anthropometrics, dietary iron intake and medical history were obtained. Results Cases and controls were similar in demographics, medication use and dietary iron intake. Systemically, cases compared to controls had lower iron status (sTfR: 21.6 vs 11.8 nmol/L, p < 0.05) and higher marker of inflammation (CRP: 8.3 vs 3.4 μg/mL, p < 0.05). Serum hepcidin was mildly decreased in cases compared to controls; however, it was within the normal range for both groups. Within colonic tissue, 30% of cases (6/20) presented iron accumulation compared to 5% of controls (1/20) (χ2 = 5.0; p < 0.05) and higher marker of inflammation (IL-6: 9.4-fold higher compared to controls, p < 0.05). Presence of adenocarcinoma iron accumulation was associated with higher serum hepcidin (iron accumulation group 80.8 vs iron absence group 22.0 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Conclusions While CRC subjects had serum hepcidin concentrations in the normal range, it was higher given their degree of iron restriction. Inappropriately elevated serum hepcidin may reduce duodenal iron absorption and further increase colonic adenocarcinoma iron exposure

  10. Regulation of human lung fibroblast glycosaminoglycan production by recombinant interferons, tumor necrosis factor, and lymphotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, J A; Krol, R C; Freundlich, B; Sampson, P M

    1988-01-01

    Mononuclear cells may be important regulators of fibroblast glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis. However, the soluble factors mediating these effects, the importance of intercytokine interactions in this regulation and the mechanisms of these alterations remain poorly understood. We analyzed the effect of recombinant (r) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin (LT), and gamma, alpha, and beta 1 interferons (INF-gamma, -alpha and -beta 1), alone and in combination, on GAG production by normal human lung fibroblasts. rTNF, rLT, and rINF-gamma each stimulated fibroblast GAG production. In addition, rIFN-gamma synergized with rTNF and rLT to further augment GAG biosynthesis. In contrast, IFN-alpha A, -alpha D, and -beta 1 neither stimulated fibroblast GAG production nor interacted with rTNF or rLT to regulate GAG biosynthesis. The effects of the stimulatory cytokines and cytokine combinations were dose dependent and were abrogated by the respective monoclonal antibodies. In addition, these cytokines did not cause an alteration in the distribution of GAG between the fibroblast cell layer and supernatant. However, the stimulation was at least partially specific for particular GAG moieties with hyaluronic acid biosynthesis being markedly augmented without a comparable increase in the production of sulfated GAGs. Fibroblast prostaglandin production did not mediate these alterations since indomethacin did not decrease the stimulatory effects of the cytokines. In contrast, protein and mRNA synthesis appeared to play a role since the stimulatory effects of the cytokines were abrogated by cyclohexamide and actinomycin D, respectively. In addition, the cytokines and cytokine combinations increased cellular hyaluronate synthetase activity in proportion to their effects on hyaluronic acid suggesting that induction of this enzyme(s) is important in this stimulatory process. These studies demonstrate that IFN-gamma, TNF, and LT are important stimulators of fibroblast GAG

  11. Busulfan, Melphalan, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and a Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Relapsed Solid Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Solid Tumor; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Flavopiridol in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Retinoblastoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. Bioinformatics analysis of thousands of TCGA tumors to determine the involvement of epigenetic regulators in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery and the identification of potential cancer drivers among members of epigenetic protein families. Methods We integrated mutation, expression, and copy number data from 5943 tumors from 13 cancer types to train a classification model that predicts the likelihood of being an oncogene (OG), tumor suppressor (TSG) or neutral gene (NG). We applied this predictor to epigenetic regulator genes (ERGs), and used differential expression and correlation network analysis to identify dysregulated ERGs along with co-expressed cancer genes. Furthermore, we quantified global proteomic changes by mass spectrometry after EZH2 inhibition. Results Mutation-based classifiers uncovered the OG-like profile of DNMT3A and TSG-like profiles for several ERGs. Differential gene expression and correlation network analyses revealed that EZH2 is the most significantly over-expressed ERG in cancer and is co-regulated with a cell cycle network. Proteomic analysis showed that EZH2 inhibition induced down-regulation of cell cycle regulators in lymphoma cells. Conclusions Using classical driver genes to train an OG/TSG predictor, we determined the most predictive features at the gene level. Our predictor uncovered one OG and several TSGs among ERGs. Expression analyses elucidated multiple dysregulated ERGs including EZH2 as member of a co-expressed cell cycle network. PMID:26110843

  14. Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 functions as a tumor suppressor by modulating Mgl-1 protein to regulate cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Suresh, Bharathi; Park, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Soo; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) gene encodes a cortical cytoskeleton protein, Lgl, and is involved in maintaining cell polarity and epithelial integrity. Previously, we observed that Mgl-1, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor protein Lgl, is subjected to degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and scaffolding protein RanBPM prevents the turnover of the Mgl-1 protein. Consequently, overexpression of RanBPM enhances Mgl-1-mediated cell proliferation and migration. Here, we analyzed the ability of ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) as a novel regulator of Mgl-1 and it requires RanBPM to regulate proteasomal degradation of Mgl-1. USP11 showed deubiquitinating activity and stabilized Mgl-1 protein. However, USP11-mediated Mgl-1 stabilization was inhibited in RanBPM-knockdown cells. Furthermore, in the cancer cell migration, the regulation of Mgl-1 by USP11 required RanBPM expression. In addition, an in vivo study revealed that depletion of USP11 leads to tumor formation. Taken together, the results indicated that USP11 functions as a tumor suppressor through the regulation of Mgl-1 protein degradation via RanBPM. PMID:26919101

  15. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  16. Fighting the force: potential of homeobox genes for tumor microenvironment regulation

    PubMed Central

    Northcott, Josette M.; Northey, Jason J.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells exist in a constantly evolving stromal microenvironment composed of vasculature, immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, all residing within a dynamic extracellular matrix. In this review, we examine the biochemical and biophysical interactions between these various stromal cells and their matrix microenvironment. While the stroma can alter tumor progression via multiple mechanisms, we emphasize the role of homeobox genes in detecting and modulating the mechanical changes in the microenvironment during tumor progression. PMID:25818365

  17. Expression of cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 suppresses tumor cell phenotype by non-cell autonomous mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zolochevska, Olga; Figueiredo, Marxa L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 in epithelial or stromal cell compartments to reduce SCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Cell autonomous and/or non-cell autonomous expression of cdk2ap1 reduced tumor growth and invasion and altered cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, and apoptotic gene expression, as assessed by several in vitro phenotype assays, quantitative real time PCR, and in vivo molecular imaging using a novel three-way xenograft animal model. Our findings suggest that the interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts that promote abnormal growth can be minimized by expressing cdk2ap1, supporting a novel concept by which tumor/growth suppressor genes can impact tumorigenesis phenotypes from non-cell autonomous interactions within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:19515604

  18. miR-152 as a tumor suppressor microRNA: Target recognition and regulation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XUEXIANG; LI, JINWAN; QIN, FENGXIAN; DAI, SHENGMING

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are endogenous translation repressors of protein-coding genes that act by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of their target genes, and may contribute to tumorigenesis by functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. miR-152, a member of the miR-148/152 family, is aberrantly expressed in various diseases, including various types of cancer. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that miR-152 may act as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating its target genes, which are associated with cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human cancer. In the present review, the gene structure and functions of miR-152 are discussed, and in particular, its regulatory mechanism, experimentally validated targets and tumor suppressor role in cancer, are highlighted. PMID:27313716

  19. FUSE Binding Protein 1 Facilitates Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Replication in Hepatoma Cells by Regulating Tumor Suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Liu, Zhihe; Kumar, Sushil; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Klein, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry of archived HCC tumors showed abundant FBP1 expression in HCC tumors with the CHC background. Oncomine data analysis of normal versus HCC tumors with the CHC background indicated a 4-fold increase in FBP1 expression with a concomitant 2.5-fold decrease in the expression of p53. We found that FBP1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting p53 and regulating BCCIP and TCTP, which are positive and negative regulators of p53, respectively. The severe inhibition of HCV replication in FBP1-knockdown Huh7.5 cells was restored to a normal level by downregulation of either p53 or BCCIP. Although p53 in Huh7.5 cells is transcriptionally inactive as a result of Y220C mutation, we found that the activation and DNA binding ability of Y220C p53 were strongly suppressed by FBP1 but significantly activated upon knockdown of FBP1. Transient expression of FBP1 in FBP1 knockdown cells fully restored the control phenotype in which the DNA binding ability of p53 was strongly suppressed. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we found no significant difference in in vitro target DNA binding affinity of recombinant wild-type p53 and its Y220C mutant p53. However, in the presence of recombinant FBP1, the DNA binding ability of p53 is strongly inhibited. We confirmed that FBP1 downregulates BCCIP, p21, and p53 and upregulates TCTP under radiation-induced stress. Since FBP1 is overexpressed in most HCC tumors with an HCV background, it may have a role in promoting persistent virus infection and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE It is our novel finding that FUSE binding protein 1 (FBP1) strongly inhibits the function of tumor suppressor p53 and is an essential host cell factor required for HCV replication. Oncomine data analysis of a large number of samples has revealed that overexpression of

  20. Tissue Factor Regulation by miR-520g in Primitive Neuronal Brain Tumor Cells: A Possible Link between Oncomirs and the Vascular Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Huang, Annie; Kool, Marcel; Meehan, Brian; Chan, Jennifer A; Jabado, Nada; Korshunov, Andrey; Pfister, Stefan M; Rak, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric embryonal brain tumors with multilayered rosettes demonstrate a unique oncogenic amplification of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, C19MC. Because oncogenic lesions often cause deregulation of vascular effectors, including procoagulant tissue factor (TF), this study explores whether there is a link between C19MC oncogenic miRNAs (oncomirs) and the coagulant properties of cancer cells, a question previously not studied. In a pediatric embryonal brain tumor tissue microarray, we observed an association between C19MC amplification and reduced fibrin content and TF expression, indicative of reduced procoagulant activity. In medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228) engineered to express miR-520g, a biologically active constituent of the C19MC cluster, we observed reduced TF expression, procoagulant and TF signaling activities (responses to factor VIIa stimulation), and diminished TF emission as cargo of extracellular vesicles. Antimir and luciferase reporter assays revealed a specific and direct effect of miR-520g on the TF 3' untranslated region. Although the endogenous MIR520G locus is methylated in differentiated cells, exposure of DAOY cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or their growth as stem cell-like spheres up-regulated endogenous miR-520g with a coincident reduction in TF expression. We propose that the properties of tumors harboring oncomirs may include unique alterations of the vascular microenvironment, including deregulation of TF, with a possible impact on the biology, therapy, and hemostatic adverse effects of both disease progression and treatment. PMID:26687818

  1. CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV-chemokine interactions: double-edged regulation of inflammation and tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Anneleen; Gouwy, Mieke; Van Damme, Jo; Proost, Paul; Struyf, Sofie

    2016-06-01

    Post-translational modification of chemokines is an essential regulatory mechanism to enhance or dampen the inflammatory response. CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV, ubiquitously expressed in tissues and blood, removes NH2-terminal dipeptides from proteins with a penultimate Pro or Ala. A large number of human chemokines, including CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CCL3L1, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL14, and CCL22, are cleaved by CD26; however, the efficiency is clearly influenced by the amino acids surrounding the cleavage site and although not yet proven, potentially affected by the chemokine concentration and interactions with third molecules. NH2-terminal cleavage of chemokines by CD26 has prominent effects on their receptor binding, signaling, and hence, in vitro and in vivo biologic activities. However, rather than having a similar result, the outcome of NH2-terminal truncation is highly diverse. Either no difference in activity or drastic alterations in receptor recognition/specificity and hence, chemotactic activity are observed. Analogously, chemokine-dependent inhibition of HIV infection is enhanced (for CCL3L1 and CCL5) or decreased (for CXCL12) by CD26 cleavage. The occurrence of CD26-processed chemokine isoforms in plasma underscores the importance of the in vitro-observed CD26 cleavages. Through modulation of chemokine activity, CD26 regulates leukocyte/tumor cell migration and progenitor cell release from the bone marrow, as shown by use of mice treated with CD26 inhibitors or CD26 knockout mice. As chemokine processing by CD26 has a significant impact on physiologic and pathologic processes, application of CD26 inhibitors to affect chemokine function is currently explored, e.g., as add-on therapy in viral infection and cancer. PMID:26744452

  2. Down-regulation of tumor endothelial marker 8 suppresses cell proliferation mediated by ERK1/2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuangjie; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Leilei; Bai, Lihong; Wang, Yuefeng; Liang, Yingjie; Dou, Chengyun; Wang, Liantang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) was recently suggested as a putative anti-tumor target in several types of human cancer based on its selective overexpression in tumor versus normal endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to detect the potential functions of TEM8 in osteosarcoma. Overall, TEM8 was mainly located in cytoplasm and was up-regulated in osteosarcoma compared to benign bone lesions and adjacent non tumor tissue (ANT). High TEM8 expression group had a significant lower overall survival rate than that in the low TEM8 expression group. TEM8 knock-down by siRNA or shRNA results in significant reduction of osteosarcoma cell growth and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Ablation of TEM8 led to increasing of p21 and p27 and suppression of cyclin D1 mediated by Erk1/2 activity. These findings suggest that down-regulation of TEM8 play an important role in the inhibition of tumorigenesis and development of osteosarcoma. PMID:26996335

  3. Tumor suppressors Sav/Scrib and oncogene Ras regulate stem cell transformation in adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Singh, Shree Ram; Hou, David; Hou, Steven X.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that tumors might originate from a few transformed cells that share many properties with normal stem cells. However, it remains unclear how normal stem cells are transformed into cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrated that mutations causing the loss of tumor suppressor Sav or Scrib or activation of the oncogene Ras transform normal stem cells into cancer stem cells through a multistep process in the adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules (MTs). In wild-type MTs, each stem cell generates one self-renewing and one differentiating daughter cell. However, in flies with loss-of-function sav or scrib or gain-of-function Ras mutations, both daughter cells grew and behaved like stem cells, leading to the formation of tumors in MTs. Ras functioned downstream of Sav and Scrib in regulating the stem cell transformation. The Ras-transformed stem cells exhibited many of the hallmarks of cancer, such as increased proliferation, reduced cell death, and failure to differentiate. We further demonstrated that several signal transduction pathways (including MEK/MAPK, RhoA, PKA, and TOR) mediate Rasṕ function in the stem cell transformation. Therefore, we have identified a molecular mechanism that regulates stem cell transformation, and this finding may lead to strategies for preventing tumor formation in certain organs. PMID:20432470

  4. Methionine Enkephalin (MENK) Inhibits tumor growth through regulating CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Meng, Yiming; Plotnikoff, Nicolas P; Youkilis, Gene; Griffin, Noreen; Wang, Enhua; Lu, Changlong; Shan, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Methionine enkephalin (MENK), an endogenous neuropeptide, plays an crucial role in both neuroendocrine and immune systems. CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are identified as a major subpopulation of T lymphocytes in suppressing immune system to keep balanced immunity. The aim of this research work was to elucidate the mechanisms via which MENK interacts with Tregs in cancer situation. The influence of MENK on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediated conversion from naïve CD4+CD25- T cells to CD4+CD25+ Tregs was determined and the data from flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that MENK effectively inhibited the expression of Foxp3 during the process of TGF-βinduction. Furthermore, this inhibiting process was accompanied by diminishing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, confirmed by western blot (WB) analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) at molecular level. We established sarcoma mice model with S180 to investigate whether MENK could modulate Tregs in tumor circumstance. Our findings showed that MENK delayed the development of tumor in S180 tumor bearing mice and down-regulated level of Tregs. Together, these novel findings reached a conclusion that MENK could inhibit Tregs activity directly and retard tumor development through down-regulating Tregs in mice. This work advances the deepening understanding of the influence of MENK on Tregs in cancer situation, and relation of MENK with immune system, supporting the implication of MENK as a new strategy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25701137

  5. Nitroxoline impairs tumor progression in vitro and in vivo by regulating cathepsin B activity.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Bojana; Markelc, Boštjan; Butinar, Miha; Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Gobec, Stanislav; Vasiljeva, Olga; Turk, Boris; Čemažar, Maja; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2015-08-01

    Cathepsin B is a ubiquitously expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that participates in protein turnover within lysosomes. However, its protein and activity levels have been shown to be increased in cancer. Cathepsin B endopeptidase activity is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix, a process that promotes tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Previously, we reported an established antibiotic nitroxoline as a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B. In the present study, we elucidated its anti-tumor properties in in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Tumor and endothelial cell lines with high levels of active cathepsin B were selected for functional analysis of nitroxoline in vitro. Nitroxoline significantly reduced extracellular DQ-collagen IV degradation by all evaluated cancer cell lines using spectrofluorimetry. Nitroxoline also markedly decreased tumor cell invasion monitored in real time and reduced the invasive growth of multicellular tumor spheroids, used as a 3D in vitro model of tumor invasion. Additionally, endothelial tube formation was significantly reduced by nitroxoline in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Finally, nitroxoline significantly abrogated tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo in LPB fibrosarcoma and MMTV-PyMT breast cancer mouse models. Overall, our results designate nitroxoline as a promising drug candidate for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:25848918

  6. Dickkopf-3 Contributes to the Regulation of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun-Hui; Tounsi, Amel; Shridhar, Naveen; Küblbeck, Günter; Klevenz, Alexandra; Prokosch, Sandra; Bald, Tobias; Tüting, Thomas; Arnold, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to limit immune responses in vivo by multiple soluble factors. Dickkopf-3 (DKK3), a secreted glycoprotein, has recently been identified as a novel immune modulator. Since DKK3 has been reported to be produced by MSCs, we investigated whether DKK3 contributes to the immune suppression of anti-tumor responses by MSCs. Whereas wild-type MSCs inhibited immune responses against two different transplantation tumors, DKK3-deficient MSCs did not affect the rejection process. Increased CD8+ T cell and reduced M2-type macrophages infiltration was observed in tumors inoculated together with DKK3-deficient MSCs. Thus, DKK3 could alter the composition of the tumor stroma, thereby supporting the MSCs-mediated suppression of immune responses against these tumor transplants. PMID:26734010

  7. Targeted tumor delivery and controlled release of neuronal drugs with ferritin nanoparticles to regulate pancreatic cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yifeng; Hamada, Yoh; Li, Jun; Cong, Liman; Wang, Nuoxin; Li, Ying; Zheng, Wenfu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-06-28

    Pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignancy whose progression is highly dependent on the nervous microenvironment. This study develops neural drug-loaded ferritin nanoparticles (Ft NPs) to regulate the nervous microenvironment, in order to control the pancreatic cancer progression. The drug-loaded Ft NPs can target pancreatic tumors via passive targeting of EPR effects of tumors and active targeting via transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) binding on cancer cells, with a triggered drug release in acidic tumor environment. Two drugs, one activates neural activity (carbachol), the other impairs neural activity (atropine), are encapsulated into the Ft NPs to form two kinds of nano drugs, Nano-Cab NPs and Nano-Ato NPs, respectively. The activation of the nervous microenvironment by Nano-Cab NPs significantly promotes the pancreatic tumor progression, whereas the blockage of neural niche by Nano-Ato NPs remarkably impairs the neurogenesis in tumors and the progression of pancreatic cancer. The Ft-based nanoparticles thus comprise an effective and safe route of delivery of neural drugs for novel anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27046157

  8. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors.

    PubMed

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis

  9. Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid, inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting rho GTPases and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Tingfang; Yi, Zhengfang; Cho, Sung Gook; Qu, Weijing; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-01-15

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid extracted from Garcinia dulcis, has shown antioxidative, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the function and the mechanism of this compound in cancer treatment and tumor angiogenesis have not been elucidated to date. In this study, we postulated that morelloflavone might have the ability to inhibit angiogenesis, the pivotal step in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. We showed that morelloflavone could inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and capillary-like tube formation of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Morelloflavone effectively inhibited microvessel sprouting of endothelial cells in the mouse aortic ring assay and the formation of new blood microvessels induced by VEGF in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Furthermore, morelloflavone inhibited tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in xenograft mouse tumor model in vivo, suggesting that morelloflavone inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanism of morelloflavone on the inhibitory effect of tumor growth and angiogenesis, we showed that morelloflavone could inhibit the activation of both RhoA and Rac1 GTPases but have little effect on the activation of Cdc42 GTPase. Additionally, morelloflavone inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK pathway kinases without affecting VEGF receptor 2 activity. Together, our results indicate that morelloflavone exerts antiangiogenic action by targeting the activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways. These findings are the first to reveal the novel functions of morelloflavone in tumor angiogenesis and its molecular basis for the anticancer action. PMID:19147565

  10. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis

  11. miR-526b-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer by regulating HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Jian; Xu, Jian; Wang, Jian; Jia, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    HIF-1α is an important transcriptional factor, which plays roles in cancer development and progression. But its regulation by miRNAs is not clear. Here, to investigate the regulation of HIF-1α by miRNAs, miRNAs were predicted and miR-526b-3p was verified as a regulator of HIF-1α in colon cancer cells. Using TaqMan RT-PCR analysis, we analyzed the expression of miR-526b-3p in tumor tissues and cell lines and found that miR-526b-3p was consistently under-expressed in cancer tissues and cell lines compared with their normal controls. When miR-526b-3p was induced into the colon cancer cells, cell proliferation, metastasis and glycolysis of colon cancer cells were suppressed. We also found that miR-526b-3p was down-regulated in metastatic colon cancer tissues and negatively with HIF-1α mRNA in colon cancer tissues. In a summary, miR-526b-3p plays as a tumor suppressor by down-regulation of HIF-1α expression in colon cancer and may be a new diagnosis or therapeutic target. PMID:27398161

  12. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Borensztajn, Keren S. . E-mail: K.S.Borensztajn@amc.uva.nl; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Brueggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-07-15

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival.

  13. The long noncoding RNA TUG1 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability by targeting miR-144

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Heng; Xue, Yixue; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhiqing; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-01-01

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent to brain tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in various biologic processes of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is unclear. LncRNA TUG1 (taurine upregulated gene 1) was highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells from glioma tissues. It also upregulated in glioma co-cultured endothelial cells (GEC) from BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability, and meanwhile down-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that TUG1 influenced BTB permeability via binding to miR-144. Furthermore, Knockdown of TUG1 also down-regulated Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor of the heat shock transcription factor family, which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-144. HSF2 up-regulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, our results indicate that knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-144 and then reducing EC tight junction protein expression by targeting HSF2. Thus, TUG1 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability. PMID:26078353

  14. FoxM1 regulates transcription of JNK1 to promote the G1/S transition and tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ju; Hughes, Douglas E; Ackerson, Timothy; Major, Michael L; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Costa, Robert H; Raychaudhuri, Pradip; Tyner, Angela L; Lau, Lester F

    2008-07-25

    The Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) protein is a proliferation-specific transcription factor that plays a key role in controlling both the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions through the cell cycle and is essential for the development of various cancers. We show here that FoxM1 directly activates the transcription of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) gene in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Expression of JNK1, which regulates the expression of genes important for the G(1)/S transition, rescues the G(1)/S but not the G(2)/M cell cycle block in FoxM1-deficient cells. Knockdown of either FoxM1 or JNK1 inhibits tumor cell migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. However, expression of JNK1 in FoxM1-depleted cells does not rescue these defects, indicating that JNK1 is a necessary but insufficient downstream mediator of FoxM1 in these processes. Consistent with this interpretation, FoxM1 regulates the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, which play a role in tumor cell invasion, through JNK1-independent and -dependent mechanisms in U2OS cells, respectively. Taken together, these findings identify JNK1 as a critical transcriptional target of FoxM1 that contributes to FoxM1-regulated cell cycle progression, tumor cell migration, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth. PMID:18524773

  15. The long noncoding RNA TUG1 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability by targeting miR-144.

    PubMed

    Cai, Heng; Xue, Yixue; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhiqing; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-08-14

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent to brain tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in various biologic processes of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is unclear. LncRNA TUG1 (taurine upregulated gene 1) was highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells from glioma tissues. It also upregulated in glioma co-cultured endothelial cells (GEC) from BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability, and meanwhile down-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that TUG1 influenced BTB permeability via binding to miR-144. Furthermore, Knockdown of TUG1 also down-regulated Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor of the heat shock transcription factor family, which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-144. HSF2 up-regulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, our results indicate that knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-144 and then reducing EC tight junction protein expression by targeting HSF2. Thus, TUG1 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability. PMID:26078353

  16. Identification of germline DICER1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity in familial Wilms tumour.

    PubMed

    Palculict, Timothy Blake; Ruteshouser, E Cristy; Fan, Yu; Wang, Wenyi; Strong, Louise; Huff, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Wilms tumour (WT), a paediatric renal cancer, is the most common childhood kidney cancer. The aetiology of WT is heterogeneous with multiple genes known to result in WT tumorigenesis. However, these genes are rarely associated with familial Wilms tumour (FWT). To identify mutations predisposing to FWT, we performed whole-genome sequencing using genomic DNA from three affected/obligate carriers in a large WT family, followed by Sanger sequencing of candidate gene mutations in 47 additional WT families to determine their frequency in FWT. As a result, we identified two novel germline DICER1 mutations (G803R and R800Xfs5) co-segregating in two families, thus expanding the number of reported WT families with unique germline DICER1 mutations. The one large family was found to include individuals with multiple DICER1 syndrome phenotypes, including four WT cases. Interestingly, carriers of the DICER1 mutation displayed a greatly increased frequency of WT development compared with the penetrance observed in previously published pedigrees. Also uniquely, in one tumour this DICER1 mutant allele (G803R) was reduced to homozygosity in contrast to the somatic hotspot mutations typically observed in tumours in DICER1 families. PMID:26566882

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of chromosome 11p in familial Wilms tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, P. N.; Pritchard, J.; Cowell, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    In the family reported here, a mother and both of her children developed a Wilms tumour, and all three tumours were of the relatively rare monomorphous epithelial histopathological subtype. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, both sibs were shown to inherit the same maternal allele from the 11p13 region but different maternal alleles from the 11p15 region. Using a combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing techniques, no mutations were identified in the WT1 tumour-suppressor gene from the 11p13 region, but a novel polymorphism was identified in exon 1. mRNA expression studies using the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene, located in 11p15, showed that there was no relaxation of imprinting at this locus. There was also no evidence of loss of heterozygosity on the long arm of chromosome 16. These findings indicate that the WT1 and IGF-II genes, together with the long arm of chromosome 16, are not directly implicated in tumorigenesis in this Wilms family, but that a recombination event has occurred on the short arm of chromosome 11. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7911030

  18. Differential expression of type 2 3α/type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) in tumors of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aubrey L; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Yang, Qing; Sing, Chor Wing; Fan, Michael; Mapstone, Timothy B; Gross, Naina L; Gumerlock, Mary K; Martin, Michael D; Rabb, Craig H; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3, type 2 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSC)/ type 5 17β-HSD, is known to be involved in steroids, prostaglandins, and lipid aldehydes metabolism. The expression of AKR1C3 has been demonstrated in hormone-dependent normal tissues such as breast, endometrium, prostate, and testis; and de -regulated AKR1C3 expression has been shown in breast carcinoma, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma. AKR1C3 expression has also been demonstrated in hormone-independent normal tissues (renal tubules and urothelium) and neoplastic tissues (renal cell carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, and urothelial cell carcinoma). Extensive expression of AKR1C3 in normal and neoplastic as well as hormone-dependent and hormone-independent tissues indicates that AKR1C3 may have functions beyond steroid hormone metabolism. In this report, we describe a widespread expression of AKR1C3 in glial neoplasms and meningiomas, with limited expression in medulloblastoma and no expression in Schwannoma. These tumors, except meningioma, are not classically considered to be sex hormone-dependent or related brain tumors. The current results corroborate our earlier observations that AKR1C3 is expressed in both sex hormone-dependent and hormone-independent malignancies. Similar to AKR1C3 distribution in Wilm’s tumor, we also demonstrate that expression of AKR1C3 is reduced in tumors with embryonic phenotypes. PMID:21151387

  19. miRNA-218 contributes to the regulation of D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase expression in normal and tumor breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Prudnikova, Tatiana Y.; Mostovich, Luydmila A.; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.; Grigorieva, Elvira V.

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. In the present study, regulation of tumor-suppressor gene D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) by miRNA-218 was investigated. Significant downregulation of miRNA-218 expression was shown in primary breast tumors. Exogenous miRNA-218/anti-miRNA-218 did not affect GLCE mRNA but regulated GLCE protein level in MCF7 breast carcinoma cells in vitro. Comparative analysis showed a positive correlation between miRNA-218 and GLCE mRNA, and negative correlation between miRNA-218 and GLCE protein levels in breast tissues and primary tumors in vivo, supporting a direct involvement of miRNA-218 in posttranscriptional regulation of GLCE in human breast tissue. A common scheme for the regulation of GLCE expression in normal and tumor breast tissues is suggested. PMID:22968430

  20. [Role of proteins of the macroglobulin family in regulation of tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Zorin, N A; Zorina, V N; Zorina, R M

    2006-01-01

    Proteins of the macroglobulin family are an ancient and evolutionarily conservative link of the immune system, which is actively involved in both inhibition of tumor growth cells and proliferation of tumor cells. Two basically different binding sites and a great conformational plasticity of all representatives of the macroglobulin family, as well as the presence of two to four representatives of the family in the blood of most species allow them to transport diverse substances and exert various regulatory influences on both the tumor and the entire organism. For example, the capacity of macroglobulins for binding hydrolases makes it possible to inhibit enzyme mediated tumor invasion. At the same time, an excess of macroglobulin/hydrolase complexes can activate apoptosis. The tumor is able of using macroglobulins, especially pregnancy-associated proteins, for its own protection. Specifically, pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein, which is actively produced by human tumor cells, blocks the histocompatibility complex antigens. On the contrary, the capacity of binding zinc stimulates the thymulin-dependent activation of natural killer cells. Nevertheless, the actively growing tumor expresses many receptors to macroglobulins, which are the main carriers of some cytokines and growth factors essential for proliferation. PMID:16523653

  1. Role of the tumor microenvironment in regulating apoptosis and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Yaacoub, Katherine; Pedeux, Remy; Tarte, Karin; Guillaudeux, Thierry

    2016-08-10

    Apoptosis is a gene-directed program that is engaged to efficiently eliminate dysfunctional cells. Evasion of apoptosis may be an important gate to tumor initiation and therapy resistance. Like any other developmental program, apoptosis can be disrupted by several genetic aberrations driving malignant cells into an uncontrolled progression and survival. For its sustained growth, cancer develops in a complex environment, which provides survival signals and rescues malignant cells from apoptosis. Recent studies have clearly shown a wide interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment, confirming the influence of the surrounding cells on tumor expansion and invasion. These non-malignant cells not only intensify tumor cells growth but also upgrade the process of metastasis. The strong crosstalk between malignant cells and a reactive microenvironment is mediated by soluble chemokines and cytokines, which act on tumor cells through surface receptors. Disturbing the microenvironment signaling might be an encouraging approach for patient's treatment. Therefore, the ultimate knowledge of "tumor-microenvironment" interactions facilitates the identification of novel therapeutic procedures that mobilize cancer cells from their supportive cells. This review focuses on cancer progression mediated by the dysfunction of apoptosis and by the fundamental relationship between tumor and reactive cells. New insights and valuable targets for cancer prevention and therapy are also presented. PMID:27224890

  2. The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase HERC2 modulates the activity of tumor protein p53 by regulating its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Amair-Pinedo, Fabiola; Peiró-Jordán, Roser; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2014-05-23

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that coordinates the cellular response to several kinds of stress. p53 inactivation is an important step in tumor progression. Oligomerization of p53 is critical for its posttranslational modification and its ability to regulate the transcription of target genes necessary to inhibit tumor growth. Here we report that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 interacts with p53. This interaction involves the CPH domain of HERC2 (a conserved domain within Cul7, PARC, and HERC2 proteins) and the last 43 amino acid residues of p53. Through this interaction, HERC2 regulates p53 activity. RNA interference experiments showed how HERC2 depletion reduces the transcriptional activity of p53 without affecting its stability. This regulation of p53 activity by HERC2 is independent of proteasome or MDM2 activity. Under these conditions, up-regulation of cell growth and increased focus formation were observed, showing the functional relevance of the HERC2-p53 interaction. This interaction was maintained after DNA damage caused by the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin. In these stressed cells, p53 phosphorylation was not impaired by HERC2 knockdown. Interestingly, p53 mutations that affect its tetramerization domain disrupted the HERC2-p53 interaction, suggesting a role for HERC2 in p53 oligomerization. This regulatory role was shown using cross-linking assays. Thus, the inhibition of p53 activity after HERC2 depletion can be attributed to a reduction in p53 oligomerization. Ectopic expression of HERC2 (residues 2292-2923) confirmed these observations. Together, these results identify HERC2 as a novel regulator of p53 signaling. PMID:24722987

  3. MicroRNA-212 functions as an epigenetic-silenced tumor suppressor involving in tumor metastasis and invasion of gastric cancer through down-regulating PXN expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daojiang; Li, Zhengrong; Xiong, Jianbo; Gong, Binbin; Zhang, Guoyang; Cao, Chao; Jie, Zhigang; Liu, Yi; Cao, Yi; Yan, Yufeng; Xiong, Hong; Qiu, Lingyu; Yang, Miantian; Chen, Hongping; Jiang, Shuping; Yang, Xiongwen; Chen, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of paxillin (PXN) is closely linked to the pathogenesis progression, metastasis and prognosis of different malignancies including gastric cancer (GC). Epigenetic silencing of tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs) is a crucial component of the mechanism underlying activation of oncogenes in tumor. To screen for epigenetically silenced miRNAs which target PXN in GC, we performed bioinformatics algorithms and real-time PCR analysis, and identified miR-212 as the optimum candidate gene. A luciferase reporter gene assay validated that miR-212 directly targets the 3’UTR region of PXN. Importantly, miR-212 levels were inversely correlated with PXN expression in GC cell lines and clinical tumor tissues. The use of miR-212 minics decrease PXN mRNA and protein level in GC cell lines. Moreover, low expression of miR-212 and its promoter hypermethylation were causally related and were associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and adverse prognosis in GC. Restoring mir-212 expression by exogenous mirprecursor molecules transfection or reexpression of endogenous miR-212 treated by 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza) can exert similar effect that reduce GC cells invasion and metastasis abilities in vitro by interacting PXN gene. In addition, 5-aza-induced PXN reduction could be partically blocked by miR-212 inhibitor, resulting in a reversal of weankening cell migration and invasion ability of 5-aza. A rescue experiment and a loss-of-function experiment in vitro and vivo showed that PXN restoration rescues migration and invasion phenotype in miR-212 overexpressed GC cell lines and PXN knockdown blocks GC cells migration and invasion in the presence miR-212 inhibitors. Taken together, our results clearly show that overexpression of PXN induced by methylationsuppressed miR-212 promotes tumor metastasis and invasion, and regulation of miR-212 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:26693054

  4. Nitric Oxide Down-Regulates Topoisomerase I and Induces Camptothecin Resistance in Human Breast MCF-7 Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Amrita; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Bortner, Carl D.; Williams, Jason; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P.; Sinha, Birandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I poison, is an important drug for the treatment of solid tumors in the clinic. Nitric oxide (·NO), a physiological signaling molecule, is involved in many cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival and death. We have previously shown that ·NO plays a significant role in the detoxification of etoposide (VP-16), a topoisomerase II poison in vitro and in human melanoma cells. ·NO/·NO-derived species are reported to modulate activity of several important cellular proteins. As topoisomerases contain a number of free sulfhydryl groups which may be targets of ·NO/·NO-derived species, we have investigated the roles of ·NO/·NO-derived species in the stability and activity of topo I. Here we show that ·NO/·NO-derived species induces a significant down-regulation of topoisomerase I protein via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway in human colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Importantly, ·NO treatment induced a significant resistance to CPT only in MCF-7 cells. This resistance to CPT did not result from loss of topoisomerase I activity as there were no differences in topoisomerase I-induced DNA cleavage in vitro or in tumor cells, but resulted from the stabilization/induction of bcl2 protein. This up-regulation of bcl2 protein in MCF-7 cells was wtp53 dependent as pifithrine-α, a small molecule inhibitor of wtp53 function, completely reversed CPT resistance, suggesting that wtp53 and bcl2 proteins played important roles in CPT resistance. Because tumors in vivo are heterogeneous and contaminated by infiltrating macrophages, ·NO-induced down-regulation of topoisomerase I protein combined with bcl2 protein stabilization could render certain tumors highly resistant to CPT and drugs derived from it in the clinic. PMID:26540186

  5. The homeoprotein DLX3 and tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle progression and squamous tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, E; Kellett, M; Cataisson, C; Gormley, A; Bible, P W; Pietroni, V; Radoja, N; Hwang, J; Blumenberg, M; Yuspa, S H; Morasso, M I

    2016-06-16

    Epidermal homeostasis depends on the coordinated control of keratinocyte cell cycle. Differentiation and the alteration of this balance can result in neoplastic development. Here we report on a novel DLX3-dependent network that constrains epidermal hyperplasia and squamous tumorigenesis. By integrating genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we demonstrate that DLX3 operates through a p53-regulated network. DLX3 and p53 physically interact on the p21 promoter to enhance p21 expression. Elevating DLX3 in keratinocytes produces a G1-S blockade associated with p53 signature transcriptional profiles. In contrast, DLX3 loss promotes a mitogenic phenotype associated with constitutive activation of ERK. DLX3 expression is lost in human skin cancers and is extinguished during progression of experimentally induced mouse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Reinstatement of DLX3 function is sufficient to attenuate the migration of SCC cells, leading to decreased wound closure. Our data establish the DLX3-p53 interplay as a major regulatory axis in epidermal differentiation and suggest that DLX3 is a modulator of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:26522723

  6. Rab11-FIP1C Is a Critical Negative Regulator in ErbB2-Mediated Mammary Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Mitchell, Louise; Turpin, Jason; Huot-Marchand, Julie-Émilie; Lavoie, Cynthia; Sanguin-Gendreau, Virginie; Jones, Laura; Mitra, Shreya; Livingstone, Julie M; Campbell, Shirley; Hallett, Michael; Mills, Gordon B; Park, Morag; Chodosh, Lewis; Strathdee, Douglas; Norman, Jim C; Muller, William J

    2016-05-01

    Rab coupling protein (FIP1C), an effector of the Rab11 GTPases, including Rab25, is amplified and overexpressed in 10% to 25% of primary breast cancers and correlates with poor clinical outcome. Rab25 is also frequently silenced in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting its ability to function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, depending on the breast cancer subtype. However, the pathobiologic role of FIP family members, such as FIP1C, in a tumor-specific setting remains elusive. In this study, we used ErbB2 mouse models of human breast cancer to investigate FIP1C function in tumorigenesis. Doxycycline-induced expression of FIP1C in the MMTV-ErbB2 mouse model resulted in delayed mammary tumor progression. Conversely, targeted deletion of FIP1C in the mammary epithelium of an ErbB2 model coexpressing Cre recombinase led to accelerated tumor onset. Genetic and biochemical characterization of these FIP1C-proficient and -deficient tumor models revealed that FIP1C regulated E-cadherin (CDH1) trafficking and ZONAB (YBX3) function in Cdk4-mediated cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FIP1C promoted lysosomal degradation of ErbB2. Consistent with our findings in the mouse, the expression of FIP1C was inversely correlated with ErbB2 levels in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that FIP1C acts as a tumor suppressor in the context of ErbB2-positive breast cancer and may be therapeutically exploited as an alternative strategy for targeting aberrant ErbB2 expression. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2662-74. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933086

  7. M-CSF and GM-CSF Receptor Signaling Differentially Regulate Monocyte Maturation and Macrophage Polarization in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Van Overmeire, Eva; Stijlemans, Benoît; Heymann, Felix; Keirsse, Jiri; Morias, Yannick; Elkrim, Yvon; Brys, Lea; Abels, Chloé; Lahmar, Qods; Ergen, Can; Vereecke, Lars; Tacke, Frank; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Laoui, Damya

    2016-01-01

    Tumors contain a heterogeneous myeloid fraction comprised of discrete MHC-II(hi) and MHC-II(lo) tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) subpopulations that originate from Ly6C(hi) monocytes. However, the mechanisms regulating the abundance and phenotype of distinct TAM subsets remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in TAM differentiation and polarization in different mouse tumor models. We demonstrate that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a blocking anti-M-CSFR monoclonal antibody resulted in a reduction of mature TAMs due to impaired recruitment, extravasation, proliferation, and maturation of their Ly6C(hi) monocytic precursors. M-CSFR signaling blockade shifted the MHC-II(lo)/MHC-II(hi) TAM balance in favor of the latter as observed by the preferential differentiation of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into MHC-II(hi) TAMs. In addition, the genetic and functional signatures of MHC-II(lo) TAMs were downregulated upon M-CSFR blockade, indicating that M-CSFR signaling shapes the MHC-II(lo) TAM phenotype. Conversely, granulocyte macrophage (GM)-CSFR had no effect on the mononuclear tumor infiltrate or relative abundance of TAM subsets. However, GM-CSFR signaling played an important role in fine-tuning the MHC-II(hi) phenotype. Overall, our data uncover the multifaceted and opposing roles of M-CSFR and GM-CSFR signaling in governing the phenotype of macrophage subsets in tumors, and provide new insight into the mechanism of action underlying M-CSFR blockade. PMID:26573801

  8. Stromal interactions as regulators of tumor growth and therapeutic response: A potential target for photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly widely recognized that the stroma plays several vital roles in tumor growth and development and that tumor-stroma interactions can in many cases account poor therapeutic response. Inspired by an emerging body of literature, we consider the potential role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for targeting interactions with stromal fibroblasts and mechano-sensitive signaling with the extracellular matrix as a means to drive tumors toward a more therapeutically responsive state and synergize with other treatments. This concept is particularly relevant for cancer of the pancreas, which is characterized by tumors with a profoundly dense, rigid fibrous stroma. Here we introduce new in vitro systems to model interactions between pancreatic tumors and their mechanical microenvironment and restore signaling with stromal fibroblasts. Using one such model as a test bed it is shown here that PDT treatment is able to destroy fibroblasts in an in vitro 3D pancreatic tumor-fibroblast co-culture. These results and the literature suggest the further development of PDT as a potential modality for stromal depletion. PMID:23457416

  9. Programmed Nanococktail for Intracellular Cascade Reaction Regulating Self-Synergistic Tumor Targeting Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hai; Luo, Guo-Feng; Qiu, Wen-Xiu; Lei, Qi; Hong, Sheng; Wang, Shi-Bo; Zheng, Di-Wei; Zhu, Cheng-Hui; Zeng, Xuan; Feng, Jun; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2016-02-10

    In this work, a ZnO based nanococktail with programmed functions is designed and synthesized for self-synergistic tumor targeting therapy. The nanococktail can actively target tumors via specific interaction of hyaluronic acid (HA) with CD44 receptors and respond to HAase-rich tumor microenvironment to induce intracellular cascade reaction for controlled therapy. The exposed cell-penetrating peptide (R8) potentiates the cellular uptake of therapeutic nanoparticles into targeted tumor cells. Then ZnO cocktail will readily degrade in acidic endo/lysosomes and induce the production of desired reactive oxygen species (ROS) in situ. The destructive ROS not only leads to serious cell damage but also triggers the on-demand drug release for precise chemotherapy, thus achieving enhanced antitumor efficiency synergistically. After tail vein injection of ZnO cocktail, a favorable tumor apoptosis rate (71.2 ± 8.2%) is detected, which is significantly superior to that of free drug, doxorubicin (12.9 ± 5.2%). Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that the tailor-made ZnO cocktail with favorable biocompatibility, promising tumor specificity, and self-synergistically therapeutic capacity opens new avenues for cancer therapy. PMID:26708101

  10. Targeting of cancer‑associated fibroblasts enhances the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by regulating the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Li, Mei; Yin, Tao; Shi, Huashan; Wen, Yuan; Zhang, Binglan; Chen, Meihua; Xu, Guangchao; Ren, Kexin; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key components of the tumor stroma, can regulate tumorigenesis by altering the tumor microenvironment in variety of ways to promote angiogenesis, recruit inflammatory immune cells and remodel the extracellular matrix. Using a murine xenograft model of colon carcinoma, the present study observed that oxaliplatin increased the accumulation of CAFs and stimulated the production of cytokines associated with CAFs. When oxaliplatin was combined with the small‑molecule dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor PT‑100, which inhibits CAFs by targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP), the accumulation of CAFs was markedly reduced, xenograft tumor growth was significantly suppressed and the survival of the mice increased, compared to those of mice treated with oxaliplatin or PT‑100 alone. Furthermore, the xenograft tumor tissues of mice treated with oxaliplatin and PT‑100 contained lower numbers of tumor‑associated macrophages and dendritic cells, expressed lower levels of cytokines associated with CAFs and had a lower density of CD31+ endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of CAFs improved the response to chemotherapy, reduced the recruitment of immune tumor‑promoting cells and inhibited angiogenesis. Combining chemotherapy with agents which target CAFs may represent a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy and reducing chemoresistance. PMID:26846566

  11. Adrenomedullin Is a Cross-Talk Molecule that Regulates Tumor and Mast Cell Function during Human Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zudaire, Enrique; Martínez, Alfredo; Garayoa, Mercedes; Pío, Rubén; Kaur, Gurmeet; Woolhiser, Michael R.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Hook, William A.; Siraganian, Reuben P.; Guise, Theresa A.; Chirgwin, John M.; Cuttitta, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adrenomedullin (AM) plays a critical role as an autocrine/paracrine tumor cell survival factor. We now present evidence that AM is an important regulator of mast cell (MC) function and that this modulation is potentially involved in tumor promotion. AM induced histamine or β-hexosaminidase release from rat and human MCs through a receptor-independent pathway. AM was chemotactic for human MCs and stimulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in this cell type. Differentiated but not undifferentiated human MCs responded to hypoxic insult with elevated AM mRNA/protein expression. Using confocal microscopy, we identified AM-producing MCs in tumor infiltrates of human breast and lung cancer patients. In mixed culture assays the AM-producing human MC line HMC-1 augmented both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of human lung cancer A549 cells, an effect that was suppressed by MC-targeted siRNA AM knockdown. Finally, HMC-1 cells induced in vivo angiogenesis as assessed by directed in vivo angiogenesis assay analysis; neutralizing anti-AM monoclonal antibody blocked this ability. Our collective data suggest a new role for AM as a cross-talk molecule that integrates tumor and MC communication, underlying a unique promotion mechanism of human cancers. PMID:16400030

  12. Identification of immune factors regulating anti-tumor immunity using polymeric vaccines with multiple adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Omar A.; Verbeke, Catia; Johnson, Chris; Sands, Warren; Lewin, Sarah A.; White, Des; Doherty, Edward; Dranoff, Glenn; Mooney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The innate cellular and molecular components required to mediate effective vaccination against weak tumor-associated antigens remain unclear. In this study we utilized polymeric cancer vaccines incorporating different classes of adjuvants to induce tumor protection, in order to identify dendritic cell subsets and cytokines critical to this efficacy. Three-dimensional, porous polymer matrices loaded with tumor lysates and presenting distinct combinations of GM-CSF and various TLR agonists effected 70–90% prophylactic tumor protection in B16-F10 melanoma models. In aggressive, therapeutic B16 models, the vaccine systems incorporating GM-CSF in combination with P(I:C) or CpG-ODN induced the complete regression of solid tumors (≤40mm2) resulting in 33% long-term survival. Regression analysis revealed that the numbers of vaccine-resident CD8(+) DCs and plasmacytoid DCs, along with local IL-12, and G-CSF concentrations correlated strongly to vaccine efficacy regardless of adjuvant type. Further, vaccine studies in Batf3−/− mice revealed that CD8(+) DCs are required to effect tumor protection, as vaccines in these mice were deficient in cytotoxic T cell priming, and IL-12 induction in comparison to wild-type. These studies broadly demonstrate that three-dimensional polymeric vaccines provide a potent platform for prophylactic and therapeutic protection, and can be used as a tool to identify critical components of a desired immune response. Specifically, these results suggest that CD8(+) DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, IL-12, and G-CSF play important roles in priming effective anti-tumor responses with these vaccines. PMID:24480625

  13. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  14. Tumor-specific up-regulation of the nonclassical class I HLA-G antigen expression in renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, E C; Guerra, N; Lacombe, M J; Angevin, E; Chouaib, S; Carosella, E D; Caignard, A; Paul, P

    2001-09-15

    HLA-G is a nonclassical class I antigen mainly expressed at the maternofetal interface during pregnancy where it is thought to down-modulate maternal immune response against the semiallogeneic fetus. Recent studies indicate that ectopic up-regulation of HLA-G expression on melanoma cells may also favor their escape from antitumor immune response. HLA-G expression was here investigated on paraffin-embedded tumor and adjacent normal renal tissues of 18 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. We provide evidence that HLA-G antigen is differentially expressed in carcinoma and normal renal cells and that up-regulation of this antigen in the tumor cells is more frequent than alterations of other MHC class I or class II antigens. We also demonstrated that HLA-G cell surface expression and secretion is maintained in a tumor cell line (DM) established from an HLA-G-positive RCC lesion. Furthermore, we show that type I (alpha and beta) and, in particular, type II (gamma) IFN treatment enhances steady-state mRNA levels and cell surface expression of HLA-G in the DM cell line. As several studies suggest that HLA-G displays various functional features that allow down-modulation of immune response in vitro, we propose that selective in vivo expression of HLA-G may participate in the impairment of antitumor immunity in RCC. PMID:11559559

  15. MicroRNA-21 regulates T-cell apoptosis by directly targeting the tumor suppressor gene Tipe2

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Q; Wang, P; Wang, T; Qi, J; Wei, M; Wang, S; Fan, T; Johnson, D; Wan, X; Shi, W; Sun, H; Chen, Y H

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (MiRs) are short noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression. It has been reported that miR-21 suppresses apoptosis in activated T cells, but the molecular mechanism remains undefined. Tumor suppressor Tipe2 (or tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8)-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2)) is a newly identified anti-inflammatory protein of the TNFAIP8 family that is essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. We report here that miR-21 is a direct target of nuclear factor-κB and could regulate Tipe2 expression in a Tipe2 coding region-dependent manner. In activated T cells and macrophages, Tipe2 expression was markedly downregulated, whereas miR-21 expression was upregulated. Importantly, Tipe2-deficient T cells were significantly less sensitive to apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of Tipe2 in EL-4 T cells increased their susceptibility to activation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, Tipe2 provides a molecular bridge between miR-21 and cell apoptosis; miR-21 suppresses apoptosis in activated T cells at least in part through directly targeting tumor suppressor gene Tipe2. PMID:24577093

  16. Regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Munemitsu, S; Albert, I; Souza, B; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P

    1995-01-01

    The APC tumor-suppressor protein associates with beta-catenin, a cell adhesion protein that is upregulated by the WNT1 oncogene. We examined the effects of exogenous APC expression on the distribution and amount of beta-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell containing only mutant APC. Expression of wild-type APC caused a pronounced reduction in total beta-catenin levels by eliminating an excessive supply of cytoplasmic beta-catenin indigenous to the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. This reduction was due to an enhanced rate of beta-catenin protein degradation. Truncated mutant APC proteins, characteristic of those associated with cancer, lacked this activity. Mutational analysis revealed that the central region of the APC protein, which is typically deleted or severely truncated in tumors, was responsible for the down-regulation of beta-catenin. These results suggest that the tumor-suppressor activity of mutant APC may be compromised due to a defect in its ability to regulate beta-catenin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708772

  17. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumor-driven angiogenesis by up-regulating pro-angiogenic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Andrew E.; Liu, Bing; Song, Renhua; Li, Jinyan; Pasquier, Eddy; Cheung, Belamy B.; Jiang, Cizhong; Marshall, Glenn M.; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D.; Fletcher, Jamie I.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor during early childhood. One of the key features of neuroblastoma is extensive tumor-driven angiogenesis due to hypoxia. However, the mechanism through which neuroblastoma cells drive angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 was upregulated in human neuroblastoma cell lines under hypoxic conditions. Conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting MALAT1, compared with conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with control siRNAs, induced significantly less endothelial cell migration, invasion and vasculature formation. Microarray-based differential gene expression analysis showed that one of the genes most significantly down-regulated following MALAT1 suppression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions was fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that MALAT1 suppression reduced FGF2 expression, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays revealed that transfection with MALAT1 siRNAs reduced FGF2 protein secretion from neuroblastoma cells. Importantly, addition of recombinant FGF2 protein to the cell culture media reversed the effects of MALAT1 siRNA on vasculature formation. Taken together, our data suggest that up-regulation of MALAT1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions increases FGF2 expression and promotes vasculature formation, and therefore plays an important role in tumor-driven angiogenesis. PMID:26848616

  18. Sds22/PP1 Links Epithelial Integrity and Tumor Suppression via Regulation of Myosin II and JNK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuwei; Scott, Kenneth L.; Kwak, Su-Jin; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Loss of epithelial integrity often correlates with the progression of malignant tumors. Sds22, a regulatory subunit of Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1), has recently been linked to regulation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains obscure. Here, using Drosophila imaginal tissue as an in vivo model system, we show that sds22 is a new potential tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila. Without sds22, cells lose epithelial architecture, and become invasive and tumorigenic when combined with Ras overexpression; conversely, sds22 overexpression can largely suppress tumorigenic growth of RasV12scrib−/ − mutant cells. Mechanistically, we show that sds22 prevents cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting myosin II and JNK activity downstream of PP1. Loss of this inhibition causes cells to lose epithelial organization and promotes cell invasion. Finally, human Sds22 is focally deleted and down-regulated in multiple carcinomas, and this downregulation correlates with tumor progression, suggesting that sds22 inactivation may contribute to tumorigenesis and metastatic potential in human cancers via a similar mechanism. PMID:21399659

  19. MicroRNA dependent regulation of DNMT-1 and tumor suppressor gene expression by Interleukin-6 in human malignant cholangiocytes

    PubMed Central

    Braconi, Chiara; Huang, Nianyuan; Patel, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Although the inflammation-associated cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in cholangiocarcinoma growth, the relationship between IL-6 and oncogenic changes is unknown. IL-6 can increase expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT-1) and epigenetically regulate the expression of several genes, including microRNAs (miRNAs). DNMT-1 up-regulation occurs in hepatobiliary cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. To understand the potential regulation of DNMT-1 by IL-6 dependent miRNAs, we examined the expression of a group of miRNAs which have sequence complementarity to the 3′-UTR of DNMT-1, namely miR-148a, miR-152 and miR-301. The expression of these miRNAs was decreased in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, the expression of all three miRNAs was decreased in IL-6 over-expressing malignant cholangiocytes in vitro and in tumor cell xenografts. There was a concomitant decrease in expression of the methylation-sensitive tumor suppressor genes Rassf1a, and p16INK4a. Using luciferase reporter constructs, DNMT-1 was verified as a target for miR-148a and miR-152. Precursors to miR-148a and miR-152 decreased DNMT-1 protein expression, increased Rassf1a and p16INK4a expression and reduced cell proliferation. Conclusion These data indicate that IL-6 can regulate the activity of DNMT-1 and expression of methylation-dependent tumor suppressor genes by modulation of miR-148a and miR-152, and provide a link between this inflammation-associated cytokines and oncogenesis in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20146264

  20. LRP-1–CD44, a New Cell Surface Complex Regulating Tumor Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Gwenn; Langlois, Benoit; Devy, Jérôme; Jeanne, Albin; Verzeaux, Laurie; Almagro, Sébastien; Sartelet, Hervé; Hachet, Cathy; Schneider, Christophe; Sick, Emilie; David, Marion; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Emonard, Hervé; Martiny, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a large endocytic receptor mediating the clearance of various molecules from the extracellular matrix. In the field of cancer, LRP-1-mediated endocytosis was first associated with antitumor properties. However, recent results suggested that LRP-1 may coordinate the adhesion-deadhesion balance in malignant cells to support tumor progression. Here, we observed that LRP-1 silencing or RAP (receptor-associated protein) treatment led to accumulation of CD44 at the tumor cell surface. Moreover, we evidenced a tight interaction between CD44 and LRP-1, not exclusively localized in lipid rafts. Overexpression of LRP-1-derived minireceptors indicated that the fourth ligand-binding cluster of LRP-1 is required to bind CD44. Labeling of CD44 with EEA1 and LAMP-1 showed that internalized CD44 is routed through early endosomes toward lysosomes in a LRP-1-dependent pathway. LRP-1-mediated internalization of CD44 was highly reduced under hyperosmotic conditions but poorly affected by membrane cholesterol depletion, revealing that it proceeds mostly via clathrin-coated pits. Finally, we demonstrated that CD44 silencing abolishes RAP-induced tumor cell attachment, revealing that cell surface accumulation of CD44 under LRP-1 blockade is mainly responsible for the stimulation of tumor cell adhesion. Altogether, our data shed light on the LRP-1-mediated internalization of CD44 that appeared critical to define the adhesive properties of tumor cells. PMID:22711991

  1. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Barden; VanderLaan, Paul A.; Sukhatme, Vikas P.

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Expression of 6PGD positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. •Knockdown of 6PGD by shRNA potently inhibits c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation. •Exogenous HGF fails to restore c-Met phosphorylation in cells with 6PGD knocked down. •6PGD knockdown results in inhibition of cell migration in vitro. •Constitutively active TPR-cMet significantly restores migration of cells without 6PGD. -- Abstract: 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

  2. Protein kinase C is differentially regulated by thrombin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor in human mammary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.L.; Tellez-Inon, M.T. ); Medrano, E.E.; Cafferatta, E.G.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The exposure of serum-deprived mammary tumor cells MCF-7 and T-47D to insulin, thrombin, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in dramatic modifications in the activity and in the translocation capacity of protein kinase C from cytosol to membrane fractions. Insulin induces a 600% activation of the enzyme after 5 h of exposure to the hormone in MCF-7 cells; thrombin either activates (200% in MCF-7) or down-regulates (in T-47D), and EGF exerts only a moderate effect. Thus, the growth factors studied modulate differentially the protein kinase C activity in human mammary tumor cells. The physiological significance of the results obtained are discussed in terms of the growth response elicited by insulin, thrombin, and EGF.

  3. Regulating the Tumor Cell Population Dynamics by Controlling the Proliferation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschbeck, Sarah; Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra

    2007-03-01

    The two-compartment model of cancer cell population dynamics introduces two subpopulations for a tumor (proliferating and quiescent). In precious theoretical models, the interaction of tumor cells with chemotherapeutic drugs is expressed as an additional term which reduces the size of subpopulations because of the killing effect of the drug with different killing rates. We develop a simple mathematical model for a more realistic interaction of anti-cancer drugs with tumor cells. The key assumption used in developing this model is that the anti-cancer drug not only kills the subpopulations but also decreases the proliferating rate of the proliferating subpopulation during the course of therapy. Finally, we present the numerical result for the evolution of the subpopulations based on this model.

  4. NDRG2 Expression Decreases Tumor-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation by Down-regulating ICAM1 in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bomi; Nam, Sorim; Lim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Bone matrix is properly maintained by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In the tumor microenvironment, osteoclasts are increasingly differentiated by the various ligands and cytokines secreted from the metastasized cancer cells at the bone metastasis niche. The activated osteoclasts generate osteolytic lesions. For this reason, studies focusing on the differentiation of osteoclasts are important to reduce bone destruction by tumor metastasis. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been known to contribute to the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis, but the precise role of NDRG2 in osteoclast differentiation induced by cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. RAW 264.7 cells, which are monocytic preosteoclast cells, treated with the conditioned media (CM) of murine breast cancer cells (4T1) expressing NDRG2 are less differentiated into the multinucleated osteoclast-like cells than those treated with the CM of 4T1-WT or 4T1-mock cells. Interestingly, 4T1 cells stably expressing NDRG2 showed a decreased mRNA and protein level of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), which is known to enhance osteoclast maturation. Osteoclast differentiation was also reduced by ICAM1 knockdown in 4T1 cells. In addition, blocking the interaction between soluble ICAM1 and ICAM1 receptors significantly decreased osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells in the tumor environment. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of ICAM1 expression by NDRG2 in breast cancer cells decreases osteoclast differentiation, and demonstrate that excessive bone resorption could be inhibited via ICAM1 down-regulation by NDRG2 expression. PMID:26759696

  5. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Induce, Expand and Up-Regulate Biological Activities of Human Regulatory T Cells (Treg)

    PubMed Central

    Szajnik, Marta; Czystowska, Malgorzata; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Mandapathil, Magis; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV) or exosomes are present in body fluids of patients with cancer and might be involved in tumor progression. The frequency and suppressor functions of peripheral blood CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Treg are higher in patients with cancer than normal controls. The hypothesis is tested that TMV contribute to induction/expansion/and activation of human Treg. Methodology/Principal Findings TMV isolated from supernatants of tumor cells but not normal cells induced the generation and enhanced expansion of human Treg. TMV also mediated conversion of CD4+CD25neg T cells into CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Treg. Upon co-incubation with TMV, Treg showed an increased FasL, IL-10, TGF-β1, CTLA-4, granzyme B and perforin expression (p<0.05) and mediated stronger suppression of responder cell (RC) proliferation (p<0.01). Purified Treg were resistant to TMV-mediated apoptosis relative to other T cells. TMV also increased phospho-SMAD2/3 and phospho-STAT3 expression in Treg. Neutralizing Abs specific for TGF-β1 and/or IL-10 significantly inhibited TMV ability to expand Treg. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that TMV have immunoregulatory properties. They induce Treg, promote Treg expansion, up-regulate Treg suppressor function and enhance Treg resistance to apoptosis. Interactions of TMV with Treg represent a newly-defined mechanism that might be involved in regulating peripheral tolerance by tumors and in supporting immune evasion of human cancers. PMID:20661468

  6. NDRG2 Expression Decreases Tumor-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation by Down-regulating ICAM1 in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bomi; Nam, Sorim; Lim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Bone matrix is properly maintained by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In the tumor microenvironment, osteoclasts are increasingly differentiated by the various ligands and cytokines secreted from the metastasized cancer cells at the bone metastasis niche. The activated osteoclasts generate osteolytic lesions. For this reason, studies focusing on the differentiation of osteoclasts are important to reduce bone destruction by tumor metastasis. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been known to contribute to the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis, but the precise role of NDRG2 in osteoclast differentiation induced by cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. RAW 264.7 cells, which are monocytic preosteoclast cells, treated with the conditioned media (CM) of murine breast cancer cells (4T1) expressing NDRG2 are less differentiated into the multinucleated osteoclast-like cells than those treated with the CM of 4T1-WT or 4T1-mock cells. Interestingly, 4T1 cells stably expressing NDRG2 showed a decreased mRNA and protein level of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), which is known to enhance osteoclast maturation. Osteoclast differentiation was also reduced by ICAM1 knockdown in 4T1 cells. In addition, blocking the interaction between soluble ICAM1 and ICAM1 receptors significantly decreased osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells in the tumor environment. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of ICAM1 expression by NDRG2 in breast cancer cells decreases osteoclast differentiation, and demonstrate that excessive bone resorption could be inhibited via ICAM1 down-regulation by NDRG2 expression. PMID:26759696

  7. Phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the tumor suppressor PDCD4 as a RSK substrate negatively regulated by 14-3-3

    PubMed Central

    Galan, Jacob A.; Geraghty, Kathryn M.; Lavoie, Geneviève; Kanshin, Evgeny; Tcherkezian, Joseph; Calabrese, Viviane; Jeschke, Grace R.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Blenis, John; Thibault, Pierre; Roux, Philippe P.

    2014-01-01

    The Ras/MAPK signaling cascade regulates various biological functions, including cell growth and proliferation. As such, this pathway is frequently deregulated in several types of cancer, including most cases of melanoma. RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) is a MAPK-activated protein kinase required for melanoma growth and proliferation, but relatively little is known about its exact function and the nature of its substrates. Herein, we used a quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to define the signaling networks regulated by RSK in melanoma. To more accurately predict direct phosphorylation substrates, we defined the RSK consensus phosphorylation motif and found significant overlap with the binding consensus of 14-3-3 proteins. We thus characterized the phospho-dependent 14-3-3 interactome in melanoma cells and found that a large proportion of 14-3-3 binding proteins are also potential RSK substrates. Our results show that RSK phosphorylates the tumor suppressor PDCD4 (programmed cell death protein 4) on two serine residues (Ser76 and Ser457) that regulate its subcellular localization and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. We found that 14-3-3 binding promotes PDCD4 degradation, suggesting an important role for RSK in the inactivation of PDCD4 in melanoma. In addition to this tumor suppressor, our results suggest the involvement of RSK in a vast array of unexplored biological functions with relevance in oncogenesis. PMID:25002506

  8. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Regulates Cell Death and Survival Signaling in Tumor Cells under Redox Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Venè, Roberta; Cardinali, Barbara; Arena, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Nicoletta; Benelli, Roberto; Minghelli, Simona; Poggi, Alessandro; Noonan, Douglas M.; Albini, Adriana; Tosetti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Targeting tumor-specific metabolic adaptations is a promising anticancer strategy when tumor defense mechanisms are restrained. Here, we show that redox-modulating drugs including the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR), the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone (2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester), arsenic trioxide (As2O3), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), while affecting tumor cell viability, induce sustained Ser9 phosphorylation of the multifunctional kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine decreased GSK3β phosphorylation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage induced by 4HPR, As2O3, and PEITC, implicating oxidative stress in these effects. GSK3β phosphorylation was associated with up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, in particular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and transient elevation of intracellular glutathione (GSH) in cells surviving acute stress, before occurrence of irreversible damage and death. Genetic inactivation of GSK3β or transfection with the non-phosphorylatable GSK3β-S9A mutant inhibited HO-1 induction under redox stress, while tumor cells resistant to 4HPR exhibited increased GSK3β phosphorylation, HO-1 expression, and GSH levels. The above-listed findings are consistent with a role for sustained GSK3β phosphorylation in a signaling network activating antioxidant effector mechanisms during oxidoreductive stress. These data underlie the importance of combination regimens of antitumor redox drugs with inhibitors of survival signaling to improve control of tumor development and progression and overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25246272

  9. Deletion of 5-Lipoxygenase in the Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Lung Cancer Progression and Metastasis through Regulating T Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Poczobutt, Joanna M; Nguyen, Teresa T; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Gijon, Miguel; Murphy, Robert C; Nemenoff, Raphael A

    2016-01-15

    Eicosanoids, including PGs, produced by cyclooxygenases (COX), and leukotrienes, produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) have been implicated in cancer progression. These molecules are produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). We previously reported that both COX and 5-LO metabolites increase during progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung cancer. Although PGs in the TME have been well studied, less is known regarding 5-LO products produced by the TME. We examined the role of 5-LO in the TME using a model in which Lewis lung carcinoma cells are directly implanted into the lungs of syngeneic WT mice or mice globally deficient in 5-LO (5-LO-KO). Unexpectedly, primary tumor volume and liver metastases were increased in 5-LO-KO mice. This was associated with an ablation of leukotriene (LT) production, consistent with production mainly mediated by the microenvironment. Increased tumor progression was partially reproduced in global LTC4 synthase KO or mice transplanted with LTA4 hydrolase-deficient bone marrow. Tumor-bearing lungs of 5-LO-KO had decreased numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells compared with WT controls, as well as fewer dendritic cells. This was associated with lower levels of CCL20 and CXL9, which have been implicated in dendritic and T cell recruitment. Depletion of CD8 cells increased tumor growth and eliminated the differences between WT and 5-LO mice. These data reveal an antitumorigenic role for 5-LO products in the microenvironment during lung cancer progression through regulation of T cells and suggest that caution should be used in targeting this pathway in lung cancer. PMID:26663781

  10. Deletion of 5-Lipoxygenase in the Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Lung Cancer Progression and Metastasis through Regulating T Cell Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Poczobutt, Joanna M.; Nguyen, Teresa T.; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C. M.; Gijon, Miguel; Murphy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids, including PGs, produced by cyclooxygenases (COX), and leukotrienes, produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) have been implicated in cancer progression. These molecules are produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). We previously reported that both COX and 5-LO metabolites increase during progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung cancer. Although PGs in the TME have been well studied, less is known regarding 5-LO products produced by the TME. We examined the role of 5-LO in the TME using a model in which Lewis lung carcinoma cells are directly implanted into the lungs of syngeneic WT mice or mice globally deficient in 5-LO (5-LO-KO). Unexpectedly, primary tumor volume and liver metastases were increased in 5-LO-KO mice. This was associated with an ablation of leukotriene (LT) production, consistent with production mainly mediated by the microenvironment. Increased tumor