Science.gov

Sample records for regulatory dqo privatization

  1. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  2. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  3. Current Regulation of Private Police: Regulatory Agency Experience and Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the third in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, present regulation, and the laws impinging on it. Licensing and regulation of the industry in every state and several cities are described in this volume. Extensive tables present the…

  4. How State Regulatory Agencies Address Privatization: The Case of Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1991-01-01

    How state agencies have addressed privatization in a service setting (municipal wastewater treatment) is discussed. The implications for evaluations of many types of programs, particularly those of local service programs regulated by the states, are explored. Data from a national survey of state environmental regulatory agencies are highlighted.…

  5. Public Rules on Private Schools: Measuring the Regulatory Impact of State Statutes and School Choice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the impacts of state government statutes regulating private schools, regulations distinct to a given school choice program, and any regulatory growth over a program's lifespan. Examining school choice programs in operation for at least a few years provides important context and comparisons for…

  6. 75 FR 43423 - 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review-Private Land Mobile Radio Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Opinion and Order (MO&O) at 67 FR 63279, October 11, 2002, in WT Docket No. 98-182. PRSG filed a petition... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review--Private Land Mobile Radio Services AGENCY: Federal... Commission denies the petition filed by the Personal Radio Steering Group (PRSG) regarding certain...

  7. Self-Regulatory Functions of Children's Private Speech: A Critical Analysis of Recent Challenges to Vygotsky's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenglass, Marni H.; Diaz, Rafael M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent empirical findings have challenged Vygotsky's theory regarding the self-regulatory functions of children's private speech. This study hypothesized that semantic tasks and instructions to talk out loud would maximize private speech production. Results supported Vygotsky's notion that private speech does not disappear with age but "goes…

  8. DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Lee

    2005-09-15

    The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

  9. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  10. State Forest Practice Regulatory Programs: An Approach to ImplementingEcosystem Management on Private Forest Lands in the United States

    PubMed

    Ellefson; Cheng; Moulton

    1997-05-01

    / Implemented in the context of a long history ofintense public debate, forestry practices applied on private forest land areregulated in some form by 38 states. State regulatory activities can involvemany agencies implementing numerous regulatory laws, a single forestry agencyadministering a comprehensive regulatory program, or a combination of thetwo. Regulatory programs are designed to protect resources such as soils,water, wildlife, and scenic beauty. Program administration often involvesrule promulgation, harvest plan reviews, coordination of interagency reviews,and pre- and postharvest on-site inspections. Forest practice rules usuallyfocus on reforestation, forest roads, harvest procedures, and wildlifehabitat protection. Emerging regulatory trends include growth of multiagencyregulatory authority and associated jurisdictional conflicts, increasedtendencies to narrowly specify standards in statutes and rules, emergence ofcontingent regulations, growing sensitivity to processes enabling theadoption of new forest practice technologies and an ability to addresscumulative effects, interest in collaborative rule-making stemming fromheightened concern over legalization of administration processes, and growingconcern over the constitutional foundations for regulatory programs and thegovernment and private sector cost of implementing such programs.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Forestry practices; Private landowners;Regulatory programs; State government PMID:9106415

  11. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    1999-08-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102 required to satisfy the Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase 1: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L&H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999) and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues, except the Equipment DQO apply to tank 241-AZ-102 for this sampling event. The Equipment DQO is applied for shear strength measurements of the solids segments only. Poppiti (1999) requires additional americium-241 analyses of the sludge segments. Brown et al. (1998) also identify safety screening, regulatory issues and provision of samples to the Privatization Contractor(s) as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event. Reynolds et al. (1999) concluded that information from previous sampling events was sufficient to satisfy the safety screening requirements for tank 241 -AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses

  12. Do private gestures have a self-regulatory function? A case study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    One of the most fascinating phenomena in early development is that babies not only understand signs others direct to them and later use them to communicate with others, but they also come to direct the same signs towards themselves in a private way. Private gestures become "tools of thought". There is a considerable literature about private language, but almost nothing about private gestures. Private gestures pose an intriguing communicative puzzle: they are communicative, but with the self. In this paper we study two types of private gestures (signs) before language: (1) private ostensive gestures and (2) private pointing gestures. We show in a case study of one child between 12 and 18 months of age that both are used with a self-reflexive function, as a way of "thinking" what to do, in order to solve a problem in the conventional use of an object. The private gestures become self-reflexive signs. PMID:17374401

  13. Validation of the WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand Measure: Culture-Specific Individualised Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Alison; Camfield, Laura; McGregor, J. Allister; Martin, Faith

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an individualised measure of quality of life (WeDQoL-Goals-Thailand). Three hundred and sixty-nine Thai people completed the WeDQoL by interview. Respondents rated (0-2) the perceived necessity for wellbeing of 51 goals (goal necessity), then rated (0-3) their satisfaction with the same goals (goal…

  14. The impact of regulatory compliance behavior on hazardous waste generation in European private healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Anabela

    2013-10-01

    This study empirically evaluates whether the increasingly large numbers of private outpatient healthcare facilities (HCFs) within the European Union (EU) countries comply with the existing European waste legislation, and whether compliance with such legislation affects the fraction of healthcare waste (HCW) classified as hazardous. To that end, this study uses data collected by a large survey of more than 700 small private HCFs distributed throughout Portugal, a full member of the EU since 1986, where 50% of outpatient care is currently dominated by private operators. The collected data are then used to estimate a hurdle model, i.e. a statistical specification in which there are two processes: one is the process by which some HCFs generate zero or some positive fraction of hazardous HCW, and another is the process by which HCFs generate a specific positive fraction of hazardous HCW conditional on producing any. Taken together, the results show that although compliance with the law is far from ideal, it is the strongest factor influencing hazardous waste generation. In particular, it is found that higher compliance has a small and insignificant effect on the probability of generating (or reporting) positive amounts of hazardous waste, but it does have a large and significant effect on the fraction of hazardous waste produced, conditional on producing any, with a unit increase in the compliance rate leading to an estimated decrease in the fraction of hazardous HCW by 16.3 percentage points. PMID:23831780

  15. Tank 241-C-106 sampling data requirements developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.S.; Bell, K.E.; Anderson, C.M.; Peffers, M.S.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of heat generation for tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Site is estimated at more then 100,000 Btu/h. The heat is generated primarily from the radioactive decay of {sup 90}Sr waste that was inadvertently transferred into the tank in the late 1960s. If proper tank cooling is not maintained for this tank, heat-induced structural damage to the tank`s concrete shell could result in the release of nuclear waste to the environment. Because of high-heat concerns in January 1991, tank 241-C-106 was designated as a Watch List tank and deemed as a Priority 1 safety issue. Waste Tank Safety Program (WTSP) is responsible for the resolution of this safety issue. Although forced cooling is effective for short term, the long-term resolution for tank cooling is waste retrieval. Single-shell Tank Retrieval Project (Retrieval) is responsible for the safe retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-106 to a selected double-shell tank. This data quality objective (DQO) study is an effort to determine engineering and design data needs for WTSP and assist Retrieval in designing contingency action retrieval systems. The 7-step DQO process is a tool developed by the Environmental Protection Agency with a goal of identifying needs and reducing costs. This report discusses the results of two DQO efforts for WTSP and Retrieval. The key data needs to support WTSP are thermal conductivity, permeability, and heat load profile. For the Retrieval support, there are nine and three data needs identified, respectively, for retrieval engineering system design and HVAC system design. The updated schedule to drill two core samples using rotary mode is set for March 1994. The analysis of the sample is expected to be completed by September 1994.

  16. Statistical and cost-benefit enhancements to the DQO process for characterization decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.

    1996-09-12

    The costs of characterization can comprise a sizeable fraction of a remediation program budget. The DQO Process has been instituted at DOE to ensure that the investment in characterization adds net value to each remediation project. Thoughtful characterization can be very important to minimizing the total cost of a remediation. Strategic information gained by characterization can reduce the remediation costs by reducing the unproductive investment in unnecessary remediation of portions of a site that really don`t need to be remediated, and strategic information can reduce remediation costs by reducing the frequency of expensive rework or emergency action that result when remediation has not been pursued to the extent that really is needed.

  17. Flammable gas tank safety program: Data requirements for core sample analysis developed through the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, N.G.; LeClair, M.D.

    1995-04-28

    This document represents the application of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. The product of this effort is a list of data required from tank core sample analysis to support resolution of this issue.

  18. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  19. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  20. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  2. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap identification

  3. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  4. Privatizing Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounsell, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Schools and other government facilities want to see whether privatization of maintenance can provide services as efficiently and at less cost than inhouse workers. Privatization proponents say that everyone will benefit the most if the bidding process involves competition. Offers examples from the Memphis City Schools and the Union Public Schools…

  5. Pragmatic privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.

    1995-10-01

    Chile was probably the first country in the world to privatize under a decentralized and competitive framework a former state-owned power sector. Power sector privatization was conducted with pragmatism, particularly in terms of the speed with which the changes occurred. In fact, the earliest privatization did not occur until 1980 and the process was not completed until early 1990. The privatized Chilean electric industry has performed fairly well in terms of the investments carried out not only in the power sector, but also in other economic activities and in foreign countries. The diversification of ownership and the competitive framework have been an incentive to reach efficiency and a guaranty for the stability of the rules of the game in the long run.

  6. Quality of Life with Macular Degeneration Is Not as Dark as It May Seem: Patients’ Perceptions of the MacDQoL Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Lisa M.; Wright, JoAnne; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Feehan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To determine the perceived relevance and value of an individualized measure of the impact of macular degeneration on quality of life (QoL) for elderly people with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the USA, through the assessment of the suitability of the measure’s domains and by gaining a deeper insight into the impact of AMD on patients’ QoL vis-á-vis these domains, community-dwelling older adults in the metropolitan Salt Lake City, Utah area were interviewed using the macular degeneration on quality of life (MacDQoL) instrument. Participants felt that the MacDQoL was a relevant instrument for use in this US study population, though it could be improved by adding items pertaining to transportation, and independent driving, in particular, as an important QoL indicator. The emerging theme from analysis of the respondent’s commentary was that, in spite of AMD, these respondents were committed to engage in, and enjoy life. This is an important concept for clinicians and those who offer support programs to integrate into their care planning and reinforce in messaging to patients with the condition. PMID:26402711

  7. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  8. Tensions in private health insurance regulation.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Sharon

    2003-02-01

    This article provides an analysis of the regulatory framework of Australian private health insurance linked to four major implicit regulatory objectives: promoting access to health insurance for consumers; promoting financial solvency and industry viability of registered health benefits organisations; promoting competition between registered health benefits organisations; and promoting accountability to consumers. Through an analysis of regulatory changes, case law and policy documents on the performance of the health insurance industry, it is argued that existing health insurance regulation exhibits inevitable tensions due to shifting and often conflicting government objectives about the role of private health insurance. PMID:12650003

  9. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  10. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  11. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  12. The Motivational Function of Private Speech: An Experimental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Dios, M. J.; Montero, I.

    Recently, some works have been published exploring the role of private speech as a tool for motivation, reaching beyond the classical research on its regulatory function for cognitive processes such as attention or executive function. In fact, the authors' own previous research has shown that a moderate account of spontaneous private speech of…

  13. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  14. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  15. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  16. Privatization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, John

    1995-01-01

    Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

  17. [Reflections on public-private participation in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Regina R P; Fortes, Paulo A C; Garrafa, Volnei

    2014-04-01

    Health care is one of the major issues in social policy, affected by multiple factors, such as the increase in health costs, crisis, and the degree of private participation in the financing of services. In this essay we reflect on this participation of the private sector in health care, with Brazil as a reference country and taking into account member states of the Union of South American Nations. Based on a qualitative study using data from national and international organizations, we found significant private participation in health care of countries in various continents, with an increase of public and private spending between 2000 and 2010. Regardless of the adopted health system, there was an increase of private spending in most countries analyzed, which emphasizes the need to further evaluate the performance of public and private sectors, as well as the regulatory frameworks for their participation in health care, thus enabling policies that promote quality improvement and the expansion of coverage. PMID:25014429

  18. 47 CFR 90.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulatory status. 90.1309 Section 90.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1309 Regulatory...

  19. 47 CFR 90.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulatory status. 90.1309 Section 90.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1309 Regulatory...

  20. 47 CFR 90.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulatory status. 90.1309 Section 90.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1309 Regulatory...

  1. 47 CFR 90.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory status. 90.1309 Section 90.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1309 Regulatory...

  2. 47 CFR 90.1309 - Regulatory status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulatory status. 90.1309 Section 90.1309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1309 Regulatory...

  3. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  4. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  5. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

  6. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  7. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  8. SUCCESSFUL PRIVATIZATION OF HANFORD SITE FABRICATION SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.S.

    2004-11-18

    This paper describes the elements of Fluor Hanford's successful privatization of a major support services function. The privatization has accelerated the closure of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site by streamlining operations and using the realized cost savings to maintain the accelerated schedules set by the Department of Energy (DOE) and other regulatory stakeholders. Issues with worker demographics, future workload forecasting, budget optimization, and long-term community economic development were key components to Fluor Hanford's decision to choose the controversial and difficult pathway of outsourcing a Cold War legacy function to a private company. Many privatization efforts are abandoned in the preliminary planning stages due to extreme risk: frequently the final return on investment is less than anticipated. In this case, Fluor Hanford has successfully leveraged onsite assets to support the ongoing clean-up mission, provide potential long-term employment for the displaced workforce as site closure progresses, and establish a manufacturing base supporting the local economy. Based on several factors, which are described in this paper, the privatization of the Hanford Site Fabrication Services to an offsite vendor operating a large local business unit has been successful for virtually all of the stakeholders.

  9. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  10. Public-private partnerships for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Nehoda, D.J.; Fitzpatrick, E.S.; McNelly, G.E.; Holland, M.J.; Peters, E.; Powell, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Most environmental restoration and remediation efforts rely on relatively few existing technologies to accomplish soil and groundwater cleanup. The concept of partnerships to solve common problems is neither new nor unusual. Organizations from private companies to nations have worked together in many facets of society from joint business ventures to military alliances. In one of the most pervasive problems facing society today, environmental contamination and restoration, responsible parties, including the Federal government, work in isolation in their environmental restoration efforts, often at odds with the regulatory community charged with enforcing the cleanup. By forming public-private partnerships which include the regulators to guide the design, construction and evaluation of innovative technologies, the partners are able to bring collective expertise, experience, and resources to bear on the problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how partnerships between the Federal government, private companies, and regulators can cooperatively implement and evaluate innovative technologies. By identifying and implementing innovative technologies to improve site remediation at a Federal facility, the partnership seeks to develop better remedies for similarly contaminated sites in both the public and private sectors.

  11. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  12. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  13. Private and Inner Speech and the Regulation of Social Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Martin Martinez, Conchi; Boada i Calbet, Humbert; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To further investigate the possible regulatory role of private and inner speech in the context of referential social speech communications, a set of clear and systematically applied measures is needed. This study addresses this need by introducing a rigorous method for identifying private speech and certain sharply defined instances of inaudible…

  14. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

  15. Private Security Training. Phase 3: Private Investigator. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the private investigator phase of a private security training course of study. Five units cover the following topics: understanding responsibilities to clients; interpreting laws of private investigations; complying with the Fair Credit Reporting Act; conducting investigations and…

  16. The Privatization of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, The Privatization of Special Education, addresses a shift in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Students with disabilities are being publicly placed in private day and residential schools at public expense. In Virginia, 125 private schools are licensed…

  17. Private Management and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    Many public schools are turning their administration over to private enterprise. The same logic suggests an advantage to privatizing instructional services. What this might mean is discussed. Educational quality and cost effectiveness might be enhanced if the antipathy of public-sector educators to the private sector can be overcome. (SLD)

  18. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  19. The private Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, Rafael A.; Zee, A.

    2008-09-01

    We introduce Higgs democracy in the Yukawa sector by constructing a model with a private Higgs and a dark scalar for each fermion thus addressing the large hierarchy among fermion masses. The model has interesting implications for the LHC, while the Standard Model phenomenology is recovered at low energies. We discuss some phenomenological implications such as FCNC, new Higgses at the TeV scale and dark matter candidates.

  20. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  1. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  2. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  3. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  4. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  5. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  6. Environmental-scanning behavior among private practice physical therapy firms.

    PubMed

    Schafer, D S

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which private practice physical therapy firms focused on specific environmental sectors in the process of making business decisions. Furthermore, the relationship between scanning behavior and both entrepreneurship level (high, middle, low) and direct-access status (complete, partial, none) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 450 randomly selected private practice decision makers (eg, owners, chief executive officers) from throughout the United States. Data were gathered using a mailed, structured questionnaire. Physical therapy private practices were found to differentially attend to environmental sectors with the customer sector ranked the highest followed, in descending order, by the technological, regulatory, socio-cultural-political, competitive, and economic sectors. In addition, firms in the high-level entrepreneurship group scanned the technological and marketing (customer, competitive) environments to a significantly greater degree than did the middle- and low-level groups. Direct-access status had no effect on scanning behavior. PMID:2034711

  7. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  8. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  9. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

  10. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  11. Public and Private at College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The college, public or private, contains two separate realms. The public realm is the sphere of life bearing on the values sought by the college, and the private realm is that not bearing on those values. The scope of these realms is determined by the college's implicit and explicit purposes. (MSE)

  12. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  13. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  14. A private power plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, B.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of independent power producers in the development of the Indian power sector is a result of the fiscal crisis which overwhelmed the Indian state about 1990. Until then the power sector had been almost exclusively a public sector monopoly. The power ministry estimates energy and peaking shortages of 11 percent and 32 percent in fiscal year 1993 to 1994. These are well above worst case scenarios projected by the Central Electricity Authority. Though it has received more attention, generation is not the only area in India`s power sector where independents will find opportunities. Upgrading, modernization, and transmission and distribution are also open to the private sector. State Electricity Boards (SEBs) currently lose 22 percent of power generated during transmission and distribution, a large part of this due to theft. Ultimately, success in attracting foreign investments will depend on the government`s ability to reform SEBs. This in turn will mean that the state governments will have to muster up the political will to raise tariffs.

  15. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  16. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P. ); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. )

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  17. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  18. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  19. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  20. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  1. Operating private hospitals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barcie, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is one of the richest countries in Latin America and over the last several decades there have been many changes in the healthcare delivery systems, from universal healthcare coverage for all Mexicans to the fast paced expansion of private healthcare. Like many countries, Mexico has both private and public health systems and hospital administrators are facing challenges on multiple fronts in addition to facing exciting new opportunities. In this article you will get a bird's eye view of this ever changing panorama. How the new growing middle class consumerism has impacted physicians, health insurance and private healthcare industry. PMID:26521381

  2. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  3. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  4. Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Anderson, Jorge; Contreras, Lydia M

    2013-01-01

    RNAs have many important functional properties, including that they are independently controllable and highly tunable. As a result of these advantageous properties, their use in a myriad of sophisticated devices has been widely explored. Yet, the exploitation of RNAs for synthetic applications is highly dependent on the ability to characterize the many new molecules that continue to be discovered by large-scale sequencing and high-throughput screening techniques. In this review, we present an exhaustive survey of the most recent synthetic bacterial riboswitches and small RNAs while emphasizing their virtues in gene expression management. We also explore the use of these RNA components as building blocks in the RNA synthetic biology toolbox and discuss examples of synthetic RNA components used to rewire bacterial regulatory circuitry. We anticipate that this field will expand its catalog of smart devices by mimicking and manipulating natural RNA mechanisms and functions. PMID:24356572

  5. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country`s petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government`s own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country`s assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government`s strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed.

  6. Private Colleges Headed for Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Without additional public support, the 1500 private colleges and universities in America will drop to 170 in the next 30 years, according to a forecast by Donald A. Pyke, coordinator of academic planning, University of Southern California. (Author)

  7. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  8. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  9. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  10. An Analysis of Private School Closings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

  11. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management…

  12. Joint Hearing on Privatizing Government Sponsored Entities (GSEs). Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Life-Long Learning of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities and the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    This document is a congressional joint hearing report of a panel discussion exploring issues related to privatization of two government-sponsored entities (GSEs): the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). The two issues specifically addressed by the panel were: (1)…

  13. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  14. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort. PMID:19967364

  15. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  16. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking. PMID:26030051

  17. The case for stronger regulation of private practitioners to control tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis case management practices of private practitioners in low- and middle-income countries are commonly not in compliance with treatment guidelines, thus increasing the risk of drug resistance. National Tuberculosis control programs have long been encouraged to collaborate with private providers to improve compliance, but there is no example yet of a sustained, large scale collaborations with private practitioners in these settings. Regulations have long been realized as a potential response to poor quality care, however there has been a lack of interest from the international actors to invest in stronger regulation of private providers in these countries due to limited evidence and many implementation challenges. Regulatory strategies have now evolved beyond the costly conventional form of command and control. These new strategies need to be tested for addressing the challenge of poor quality care among private providers. Multilateral and bilateral funding agencies committed to tuberculosis control need to invest in facilitating strengthening government's capacity to effectively regulate private providers. PMID:26499482

  18. Public Schools, Private Markets: A Reporter's Guide to Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Scott

    2005-01-01

    More and more, private for-profit and non-profit organizations are involved in schools. No longer limited to support services like transportation and food services, companies are providing tutoring, directing classroom instruction and managing public and charter schools. School reform has raised the stakes for schools and students, asking for…

  19. Private Pre-University Education in Romania: Mixing Control with Lack of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanus, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper approaches private provision of pre-university education in Romania, exploring available data on the sector's size and main characteristics and evaluating the extent to which the current regulatory framework enables positive effects in terms of freedom of choice, quality, equity, and social cohesion. The paper argues that the lack…

  20. Relationships among Private Speech and Creativity in Head Start and Low-Socioeconomic Status Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Martha; White, C. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Vygotsky's notion of private speech as a cognitive self-regulatory process and how it related to creativity measures among at-risk children. Thirty-two Head Start and state-funded Pre-K children completed the Torrance creativity test Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM). The children's private…

  1. Home Schools, Private Schools, Parochial Schools--What Are A Public School's Special Education Obligations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opuda, Michael J.

    This paper examines issues related to the provision of special education services by public schools to students in private, parochial, or home school settings and offers guidelines for local education agencies. First, the paper reviews federal statutory and regulatory obligations, particularly those under the Individuals with Disabilities…

  2. The Privatization of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For-profit education is not a new focus for public schools in the United States. It has been around for several decades, has stimulated considerable controversy, and has been heralded by some as a panacea for improving learning for the nation's public school students. For-profit schools are run by private, for-profit companies or organizations…

  3. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  4. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  5. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development. However,…

  6. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  7. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  8. Immunization and private sector participation.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Representatives from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama met August 19-20 in Honduras to discuss promoting and strengthening the participation of the private medical sector in immunization and surveillance programs for vaccine-preventable diseases. Participants met to analyze countries' experiences in incorporating the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities for vaccine-preventable diseases; to review regional and global goals for vaccine-preventable diseases, cold chain requirements, and issues related to introducing new vaccines into routine immunization schedules; and to sign agreements to facilitate the incorporation of the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities in the region. Country experiences are outlined. The Ministries of Health and the Societies/Associations of Pediatrics established specific objectives designed to develop and/or strengthen private medical sector participation in immunization. Agreements reached on epidemiological surveillance, a basic vaccination schedule, quality vaccines, the cold chain, national committees on immunization practices, annual work plans, technical cooperation, monitoring, and information, education, and promotion are described. PMID:12321836

  9. About Those Private School Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    According to 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress science results, there is no difference between private and public school performance by the time one reaches the 75th percentile of grade 12. Recent SAT scores for the top 20% of students indicate teachers are not inflating grades. The National Center for Fair and Open Testing…

  10. View from a Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Counters Jonathan Kozol's concerns about educational vouchers, insisting that $2,500 could buy a quality private school education in Montgomery, Alabama. Critiques other voucher articles in the November 1992 "Educational Leadership" issue by challenging Alex Molnar's common school system concept and Arnold Fege's substitution of societal consensus…

  11. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  12. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  13. [Private nursing in public institutions].

    PubMed

    Corradini, M; Milani, L

    1998-01-01

    In this article the authors review the two sides of the intramoenia private nursing profession: the italian laws and the disciplinary frame of nursing, in order to define bonds and opportunities offered to nursing profession by means of such a topic. PMID:10455775

  14. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  15. The Administration's Private Pension Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report examines legislation proposed by the Nixon administration to (1) make available to employed workers a new type of personal retirement plan having tax-deferral advantages, (2) apply pre-retirement vesting requirements to the private pension system, and (3) broaden tax-deferred retirement plans presently available to the self-employed…

  16. 3 CFR - Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job... Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies..., economic growth, and job creation. More than half of all Americans working in the private sector either...

  17. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  18. Proceedings: Water and Wastewater Privatization: Proceedings from an EPRI-Sponsored Workshop on Municipal Water and Wastewater Privatization, October 17-18, 1996, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The global water and wastewater industries are undergoing significant changes. Historically, water and wastewater systems have developed along different lines in the various nation states. The difference has usually been on the degree of public versus private sector involvement. The objective of these proceedings was to produce a better understanding of the heightened worldwide competition within the water and wastewater industries. Twenty-two presentations represented a cross-section of investor owned and public water and wastewater professionals, as well as engineering, financial, legal and regulatory experts, providing a balanced perspective on the role privatization is playing and is expected to play in these industries.

  19. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  20. The politics of managed competition: public abuse of the private interest.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The doctrine of managed competition in health care sought to achieve the social goals of access and efficiency using market incentives and consumer choice rather than governmental regulation and public administration. In retrospect, it demanded too much from both the public and the private sectors. Rather than develop choice-supporting rules and institutions, the public sector has promoted process regulation and benefit mandates. The private health insurance sector has pursued short-term profitability rather than cooperate in the development of fair competition and informed consumer choice. Purchasers have subsidized inefficient insurance designs in order to exploit tax and regulatory loopholes and to retain an image of corporate paternalism. America's health care system suffers from the public abuse of private interests and the private abuse of the public interest. PMID:12836889

  1. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  2. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  3. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  4. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  5. Human Capital: The Future for Private Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Economic, demographic, and technological trends suggest that private training will likely receive a good deal more attention in the coming decades. New economic thinking reveals the critical need to develop human capital to improve productivity in the private sector. (CT)

  6. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 a vision for the future was born. Privatized ownership of planetary bodies has been debated and yet skirted by most space enthusiasts for the past 15 years or so. This abstract is an attempt to lay all ideas of privatized ownership to rest. The concentration of efforts to place technological events ahead of property rights and ownership have been the calling card of all the space advocacy groups in recent history. For what ever reason the advocates have decided that this is an issue best left to another time. " Maybe we can sneak up on it and it won't feel so bad when we find that we are too late." This seems to be the general consensus from the conventions I have participated in over the last few years.

  7. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh

    2016-08-01

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. PMID:27358251

  8. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  9. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section applies that provides special education shall do so in accordance with §§ 18.435 and 18... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary...

  10. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient to which this section applies that provides special education shall do so in accordance with the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or...

  12. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  13. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  15. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  16. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  17. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  18. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  1. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  2. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  4. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  5. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

  6. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... any private transfer fee covenants. (75 FR 49932). As described in the proposed guidance, private... (76 FR 6702) inviting comments on a proposal that incorporated a number of changes to the substance of... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance...

  7. Improving Schools through Private Sector Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the local school board's role in developing private sector involvement in public education. Gives examples of projects listed in the computerized databank of the President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives. Outlines the major issues in private sector involvement. (NJ)

  8. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  9. A Study of Private Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning Services Branch.

    This study was commissioned by Alberta Education to examine the development and organization of private schools in Alberta and to consider future directions. It examines the financial issues related to private schools, the effect of private schools on public school systems and on the education of children, and implications for public school…

  10. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private applicants. 216.4 Section 216.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.4 Private applicants. Programs, projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs...

  11. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  12. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  13. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  14. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  15. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  16. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  17. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  18. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…

  19. Building and Managing Your Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Daniel L.

    The number of clinicians entering private practice is growing each day. This book presents a step-by-step process for prospective entrepreneurs who wish to become a private practitioner. The text is divided into eight sections. Section 1 looks at the rationale for private practice and addresses the personal questions involving clinical skills,…

  20. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C....

  1. The Privatization of Education in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naradowski, Mariono; Andrada, Myrian

    2001-01-01

    Describes historical and current trends in Argentina's private and public primary- and secondary-school enrollment levels and policy reasons behind changes, including deregulation of private schools. Evaluates research analyzing impact of increased private-school enrollment; argues middle- and high-income students are opting out of public schools…

  2. Private Schooling and the Status Attainment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.; Wanner, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Examines effects of a private school education on educational, occupational, and earnings attainments. Using subsamples of respondents who attended private schools only and public schools only, the so-called private school advantage and its function in transmitting background related advantages is analyzed. (Author/DB)

  3. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  4. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private applicants. 216.4 Section 216.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.4 Private applicants. Programs, projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs...

  5. [Private enterprise and family planning].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems. PMID:12309620

  6. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-14

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration.

  7. TWRS privatization phase 1 master site plan

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. This master site plan presently describes all pertinent aspects of the site and identifies all planned provisions for site development, utilities and other site services. It is a baseline document which will be revised as privatization proceeds through design, construction and start-up.

  8. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Review Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 Regulatory Review Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For well over two decades, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) at the Office of Management...

  9. Investing private capital in private-public partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadd, Courtney A.

    1996-03-01

    Businesses must invest in technology to sustain and enhance their profitability over the long-term. Two of today's greatest challenges are rapidly emerging new technologies and rapidly changing customer preferences. To meet these challenges, businesses must recoup technology investments over shorter product life cycles and reduce new product development times. The associated risk is extraordinary. Businesses reduce this risk through partnerships, strategic alliances, and joint ventures; however, public sector partners are not routinely included in new technology and product development decisions. This paper discusses general decision criteria for technology investment and how decisions may be enhanced through the use of private-public partnerships.

  10. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  11. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  12. Regulatory affairs administration as regulatory policy determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Forcier, J.R.

    1984-05-10

    It is the thesis of this article that the processing of a utility company's regulation-related work, the supporting tasks and the manner in which they are completed, can and does have a significant impact on the final results or work product of the regulatory affairs function, including even, potentially, the action of the regulatory agency. The article is therefore full of practical pointers on how the interface with the regulatory authority can best be organized, managed, and carried through to the attainment of optimum results for the utility. 2 references.

  13. Health care privatization in Latin America: comparing divergent privatization approaches in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-08-01

    The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

  14. Real world pharmacy: assessing the quality of private pharmacy practice in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Stenson, B; Syhakhang, L; Eriksson, B; Tomson, G

    2001-02-01

    The private sector is a dominant actor in the provision of pharmaceuticals, particularly in developing countries. Private provision of drugs has been associated with risks regarding availability, affordability, rational use and drug quality. Ensuring an effective regulatory framework is therefore a major challenge for governments, yet the capacity of regulatory authorities is often outstripped by private sector growth. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R.), a poor, landlocked country in South East Asia, the private provision of drugs has increased dramatically since the liberalisation of the economy in the late 1980s. This paper aims to describe the quality of the private pharmacy services in the Savannakhet province of Lao P.D.R. In order to do this, a monitoring instrument which serves to make the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) operational was developed and applied to a sample of pharmacies. Service quality, as measured by three facility-specific indicators, showed a tendency to be lower in the most distant districts. Poor dispensing practices were manifest by a lack of information about drugs sold in 59% of cases, drugs not being labelled in 47% and different drugs being mixed in the same package in 26% of cases. The prices of four sample drugs were slightly higher in the remote districts. A 10-fold price difference for the same drug was recorded in one district. After reporting the findings, the paper discusses the possible influence of district and pharmacy variables on the quality of services, and goes on to discuss the price differences. It is concluded that further government interventions are needed in order to improve the quality of services and to focus regulatory action on a limited number of aspects, to ensure that drugs can be traced before trying to establish a comprehensive regulatory system. PMID:11330774

  15. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  16. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  17. Electric utility privatization: What we can learn from the British experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    The most famous privatization effort, that of the Thatcher government, put the concept on the front pages. It embraced privatization with zeal. The government raked in billions of pounds. Millions of new investors bought shares in dozens of companies. But the privatizations left a legacy of problems. One can learn from them. Privatizations shook up complacent enterprises, increasing their efficiency and decreasing the prices that customers paid (with the exception of water consumers). The efforts helped to revitalize London as a financial center, and launched enterprises that have now ventured forth from England`s green and pleasant land into the rest of the world. The UK also made sure that the British remained in control of all the new companies upon privatization. On the other side of the balance, the British government, on occasion, acted in haste, with meeting a politically imposed deadline more important than getting the structure right. It left a great deal of money on the table after each sale. It confused the appearance of competition with effective competition. It created a string of regulatory agencies that lacked the tools to effectively control the utilities absent the effective competition that was supposed to supplement light regulation. And the privatizations put a lot of people out of work in the regulated industries and the businesses that supplied them.

  18. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  19. [Practice in private professional corporations].

    PubMed

    Leguillon-Geffard, G; Mignard, J P

    2005-11-01

    Since 1992, doctors may exert through a private professional corporation. The Decree no 94-680 of 3rd of August 1994 details the new regulation. For physicians used to the liberal scene, one of the greatest innovation is the payment mode. It is basically divided in two parts: the work remuneration as wages or management allowance, and capital remuneration as dividends. This last possibility offering important savings on social contribution, social contribution being calculated only on the work remuneration part. Taxation being in this case a taxation of the company and of the physician on his incomes and dividends. It is a precious instrument to take part in a regrouping and to integrate new associates. Nevertheless it still is an individual's choice and before getting engaged, consequences of the choices selected have to be appreciated with a qualified professional. PMID:16425737

  20. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L.; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a

  1. Size and Usage Patterns of Private TB Drug Markets in the High Burden Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wells, William A.; Ge, Colin Fan; Patel, Nitin; Oh, Teresa; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Kimerling, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) control is considered primarily a public health concern, and private sector TB treatment has attracted less attention. Thus, the size and characteristics of private sector TB drug sales remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used IMS Health data to analyze private TB drug consumption in 10 high burden countries (HBCs), after first mapping how well IMS data coverage overlapped with private markets. We defined private markets as any channels not used or influenced by national TB programs. Private markets in four countries – Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India – had the largest relative sales volumes; annually, they sold enough first line TB drugs to provide 65–117% of the respective countries' estimated annual incident cases with a standard 6–8 month regimen. First line drug volumes in five countries were predominantly fixed dose combinations (FDCs), but predominantly loose drugs in the other five. Across 10 countries, these drugs were available in 37 (loose drug) plus 74 (FDCs) distinct strengths. There were 54 distinct, significant first line manufacturers (range 2–11 per country), and most companies sold TB drugs in only a single study country. FDC markets were, however, more concentrated, with 4 companies capturing 69% of FDC volume across the ten countries. Among second line drugs, fluoroquinolones were widely available, with significant volumes used for TB in India, Pakistan and Indonesia. However, certain WHO-recommended drugs were not available and in general there were insufficient drug volumes to cover the majority of the expected burden of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Conclusions/Significance Private TB drug markets in several HBCs are substantial, stable, and complicated. This calls for appropriate policy and market responses, including expansion of Public-Private Mix (PPM) programs, greater reach, flexibility and appeal of public programs, regulatory and quality enforcement, and

  2. Private Career Colleges. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…

  3. Public Schools/Private Enterprise: What You Should Know and Do about Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flam, Samuel; Keane, William G.

    It is likely that most school districts will need to think through the possibilities of privatizing one or more functions. This book was written to help all concerned parties understand the privatization debate. No political or philosophical conclusions about the feasibility of privatization were made. Chapter 1 relates the experience of the…

  4. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  5. Private Scholarships Count: Access to Higher Education and the Critical Role of the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwain, Courtney; Cunningham, Alisa; Keselman, Yuliya; Merisotis, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    The first comprehensive study of private scholarship aid, this report provides an understanding of this type of aid, and examines its importance to students and to private aid providers. Key findings from the study indicate that over 3 billion dollars in private scholarship aid was awarded in 2003-04, that approximately one hundred million dollars…

  6. Accessibility of Private, Grant-Making Foundations to Private Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Helen Judith

    The purpose of this study was to determine how accessible private and corporate grant-making foundations were to private institutions of higher education. Tax returns for 1975 were examined from 312 foundations, and a total of 2,878 grants to institutions of higher education amounting to $126,920,000 was identified. Private institutions of higher…

  7. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost to the recipient. (c) A recipient to which this section applies that provides special education... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides...

  8. Privatized Child Welfare Services: Foster Parents' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Foster parents were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward the privatization of family foster care services in Kansas. Respondents reported their current level of satisfaction, opinions about privatization, and their experiences with new community-based treatment teams. Responses indicated that satisfaction remained high, but also variances in…

  9. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  10. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  11. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  12. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  13. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  14. 34 CFR 104.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 104.39 Section 104.39 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that...

  15. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  16. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  17. Strange Bedfellows? Reaffirming Rehabilitation and Prison Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…

  18. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  19. Competition for Private and State School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…

  20. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  1. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  2. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  3. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratization and educational development. Suggests that its development has been haphazard, reflecting the uncertainties of a society in transition. Urges the need for evaluation and dissemination of private-sector initiatives to serve as…

  4. Private Schooling and Equity: Dilemmas of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies some of the salient characteristics of American private schools. Examines possible effects that the status composition of the student body might have in influencing the educational opportunity structure. Raises questions about the educational and social equity of supporting private schools financially through school choice mechanisms…

  5. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  6. A Brief Profile of America's Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a summary of a study of private schools. The study examined private schools, how they differ by type (Catholic, other religious, and nonsectarian), and how they differ from public schools. Data were collected in 1999 and 2000 from an integrated set of survey instruments that collected information on a wide range of topics…

  7. Eyes on Ecuador: Pains of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    International firms are bidding to explore petroliferous land under new more favorable terms by an Administration determined to boost private oil investment. Private sector partnership is also sought in downstream operations, formerly reserved for the state oil company. There is powerful resistance, however, to a too rapid scenario for change.

  8. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  9. Private Schools Hail Changes to IDEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2005-01-01

    Private school students with special needs are among the intended beneficiaries of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Parents and private school advocates hope changes in the newest version of the law will make it easier for them to get school district services without having to enroll in public schools. Under the…

  10. Private Source Funding for FCS Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Financial difficulties have prompted institutions of higher education to explore private sources of funding. In recent years, public institutions have significantly increased their focus on private giving, with several campaigns having more than $1 billion as a goal. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be actively involved in…

  11. Public-Private Partnerships in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemans, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Belgium's Flemish government recently approved a EUR 1 billion investment in school infrastructure through public-private partnerships, its first major initiative of this kind. The Flemish Community's variant of public-private partnerships in school building allows the government to meet urgent needs in the short run, but also to spread the costs…

  12. Prisons for Profit: Public Justice, Private Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John D.

    This paper examines several aspects of the private prison debate: (1) How much scope is there for improving the technical and economic efficiency of incarceration through contracting-out to private prison entrepreneurs? (2) Will a fully developed corrections industry be sufficiently competitive to ensure that any efficiency gains are passed on to…

  13. Privatizing Higher Education: A New Australian Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David R., Ed.; Anwyl, John, Ed.

    The papers in this collection deal with the concept of "privatization" in higher education in both the traditional sense of student finance and in relation to recent usage involving non-government funding of research, provision of full-fee places alongside free places in public institutions, the founding of a private sector in addition to the…

  14. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  15. 28 CFR 42.736 - Private lawsuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private lawsuits. 42.736 Section 42.736... of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Compliance Procedures § 42.736 Private lawsuits. (a) Upon... demands such an award in the complaint initiating the lawsuit; (3) Before commencing the action,...

  16. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  17. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  18. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an arrangement, distinct from a spectrum leasing arrangement but permitted in the same services for which spectrum leasing arrangements are allowed, in which a licensee or spectrum lessee...

  19. Private Schools, Choice and The Ethical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia; Suissa, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relationship between the existence of private schools and public attitudes towards questions about educational provision. Data from the 2010 British Social Attitudes survey suggest that parents who choose to send children to private schools may become more entrenched in their support for more extensive forms of…

  20. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  1. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  2. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  3. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  4. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures....

  5. 50 CFR 27.97 - Private operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private operations. 27.97 Section 27.97 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.97 Private...

  6. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures....

  7. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures....

  8. Private Room as a Test Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Wood, Whitney; Lambert, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a private vs. group test setting were examined on a reading comprehension test for a sample of typical college students. Participants took Forms G and H of the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Test in both private and group (classroom) settings. Contrary to expectations, performance was slightly better in the group setting.…

  9. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  10. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  11. Prospects of Private Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Wu

    2009-01-01

    Private education contributes a great deal to education in China, but people are confused about the prospects of teacher development, tax problems, property rights problems, remunerations, and so forth. Legal provisions stipulate that private education and public education have the same legal status and rights, but there is still a long way to go…

  12. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private suits. 36.501 Section 36.501... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Nothing in this section...

  13. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private suits. 36.501 Section 36.501... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Nothing in this section...

  14. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private suits. 36.501 Section 36.501... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Nothing in this section...

  15. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private suits. 36.501 Section 36.501... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Nothing in this section...

  16. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private suits. 36.501 Section 36.501... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... the civil action without the payment of fees, costs, or security. Nothing in this section...

  17. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national...

  18. 50 CFR 27.92 - Private structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national...

  19. Privatization in a public leadership mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    We consider domestic and international competitions with one public leader firm and one follower private firm, producing complementary goods and competing on prices. We compare the results obtained in both models. Furthermore, we examine the impacts of privatization on consumer surplus and on social welfare.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...) 2010, less the amounts appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund, amounts appropriated for Waste... agenda on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21960). For this edition of the NRC's regulatory agenda, the most... publication of the last NRC semiannual agenda on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21960). Within each group, the...

  1. NRC regulatory agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  2. NRC regulatory agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  3. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  4. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  5. NRC regulatory agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  6. NRC regulatory agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter.

  7. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  8. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  9. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section...