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Sample records for rejection predicts hastened

  1. Predictive spatial risk model of poliovirus to aid prioritization and hasten eradication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the challenges facing the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is efficiently directing limited resources, such as specially trained personnel, community outreach activities, and satellite vaccinator tracking, to the most at-risk areas to maximize the impact of interventions. A validated predictive model of wild poliovirus circulation would greatly inform prioritization efforts by accurately forecasting areas at greatest risk, thus enabling the greatest effect of program interventions. Methods Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2013, we developed a spatial hierarchical Poisson hurdle model fitted within a Bayesian framework to study historical polio caseload patterns and forecast future circulation of type 1 and 3 wild poliovirus within districts in Nigeria. A Bayesian temporal smoothing model was applied to address data sparsity underlying estimates of covariates at the district level. Results We find that calculated vaccine-derived population immunity is significantly negatively associated with the probability and number of wild poliovirus case(s) within a district. Recent case information is significantly positively associated with probability of a case, but not the number of cases. We used lagged indicators and coefficients from the fitted models to forecast reported cases in the subsequent six-month periods. Over the past three years, the average predictive ability is 86 ± 2% and 85 ± 4% for wild poliovirus type 1 and 3, respectively. Interestingly, the predictive accuracy of historical transmission patterns alone is equivalent (86 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% for type 1 and 3, respectively). We calculate uncertainty in risk ranking to inform assessments of changes in rank between time periods. Conclusions The model developed in this study successfully predicts districts at risk for future wild poliovirus cases in Nigeria. The highest predicted district risk was 12.8 WPV1 cases in 2006, while the lowest district risk

  2. School Dropout as Predicted by Peer Rejection and Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; Conrad, Jody

    2001-01-01

    Assessed at eighth and tenth grades the prediction of school dropout from measures of antisocial behavior, social preference, and achievement. Found that social preference does not uniquely predict school dropout. The possibility exists, however, that youth who are both antisocial and rejected may be at heightened risk for school dropout.…

  3. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  4. Predictive active disturbance rejection control for processes with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qinling; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective tool in dealing with real world problems of dynamic uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, etc. This paper addresses its existing limitations with plants that have a large transport delay. In particular, to overcome the delay, the extended state observer (ESO) in ADRC is modified to form a predictive ADRC, leading to significant improvements in the transient response and stability characteristics, as shown in extensive simulation studies and hardware-in-the-loop tests, as well as in the frequency response analysis. In this research, it is assumed that the amount of delay is approximately known, as is the approximated model of the plant. Even with such uncharacteristic assumptions for ADRC, the proposed method still exhibits significant improvements in both performance and robustness over the existing methods such as the dead-time compensator based on disturbance observer and the Filtered Smith Predictor, in the context of some well-known problems of chemical reactor and boiler control problems. PMID:24182516

  5. Pretransplant thymic function predicts acute rejection in antithymocyte globulin-treated renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Courivaud, Cécile; Crepin, Thomas; Carron, Clémence; Gaiffe, Emilie; Roubiou, Caroline; Laheurte, Caroline; Moulin, Bruno; Frimat, Luc; Rieu, Philippe; Mousson, Christiane; Durrbach, Antoine; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Saas, Philippe; Ducloux, Didier

    2016-05-01

    Lack of clear identification of patients at high risk of acute rejection hampers the ability to individualize immunosuppressive therapy. Here we studied whether thymic function may predict acute rejection in antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-treated renal transplant recipients in 482 patients prospectively studied during the first year post-transplant of which 86 patients experienced acute rejection. Only CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) T cell (recent thymic emigrant [RTE]) frequency (RTE%) was marginally associated with acute rejection in the whole population. This T-cell subset accounts for 26% of CD4(+) T cells. Pretransplant RTE% was significantly associated with acute rejection in ATG-treated patients (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08) for each increased percent in RTE/CD4(+) T cells), but not in anti-CD25 monoclonal (αCD25 mAb)-treated patients. Acute rejection was significantly more frequent in ATG-treated patients with high pretransplant RTE% (31.2% vs. 16.4%) or absolute number of RTE/mm(3) (31.7 vs. 16.1). This difference was not found in αCD25 monclonal antibody-treated patients. Highest values of both RTE% (>31%, hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.74) and RTE/mm(3) (>200/mm(3), hazard ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-8.70) were predictive of acute rejection in ATG-treated patients but not in patients having received αCD25 monoclonal antibody). Results were confirmed in a retrospective cohort using T-cell receptor excision circle levels as a marker of thymic function. Thus, pretransplant thymic function predicts acute rejection in ATG-treated patients. PMID:27083287

  6. The Role of Conspiracist Ideation and Worldviews in Predicting Rejection of Science

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391

  7. Profile of the Pleximmune blood test for transplant rejection risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Sindhi, Rakesh; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Higgs, Brandon W; Levy, Samantha; Soltys, Kyle; Bond, Geoffrey; Mazariegos, George; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Zeevi, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    The Pleximmune(TM) test (Plexision Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) is the first cell-based test approved by the US FDA, which predicts acute cellular rejection in children with liver- or intestine transplantation. The test addresses an unmet need to improve management of immunosuppression, which incurs greater risks of opportunistic infections and Epstein-Barr virus-induced malignancy during childhood. High-dose immunosuppression and recurrent rejection after intestine transplantation also result in a 5-year graft loss rate of up to 50%. Such outcomes seem increasingly unacceptable because children can experience rejection-free survival with reduced immunosuppression. Pleximmune test sensitivity and specificity for predicting acute cellular rejection is 84% and 80% respectively in training set-validation set testing of 214 children. Among existing gold standards, the biopsy detects but cannot predict rejection. Anti-donor antibodies, which presage antibody-mediated injury, reflect late-stage allosensitization as a downstream effect of engagement between recipient and donor cells. Therefore, durable graft and patient outcomes also require accurate management of cellular immune responses in clinical practice. PMID:26760313

  8. Attachment dismissal predicts frontal slow-wave ERPs during rejection by unfamiliar peers.

    PubMed

    White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; Rutherford, Helena J V; David, Daryn H; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Attachment representations are thought to provide a cognitive-affective template, guiding the way individuals interact with unfamiliar social partners. To examine the neural correlates of this process, we sampled event-related potentials (ERPs) during exclusion by unfamiliar peers to differentiate insecure-dismissing from securely attached youth, as indexed by the child attachment interview. Thirteen secure and 10 dismissing 11- to 15-year-olds were ostensibly connected with two peers via the Internet to play a computerized ball-toss game. Actually, peers were computer generated, first distributing the ball evenly, but eventually excluding participants. Afterward children rated their distress. As in previous studies, distress was related to a negative left frontal slow wave (500-900 ms) during rejection, a waveform implicated in negative appraisals and less approach motivation. Though attachment classifications were comparable in frontal ERPs and distress, an attachment-related dismissal dimension predicted a negative left frontal slow wave during rejection, suggesting that high dismissal potentially involves elevated anticipation of rejection. As expected, dismissal and self-reported distress were uncorrelated. Yet, a new approach to quantifying the dissociation between self-reports and rejection-related ERPs revealed that dismissal predicted underreporting of distress relative to ERPs. Our findings imply that evaluations and regulatory strategies linked to attachment generalize to distressing social contexts in early adolescence. PMID:22251047

  9. Prefrontal Recruitment During Social Rejection Predicts Greater Subsequent Self-Regulatory Imbalance and Impairment: Neural and Longitudinal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region’s inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. PMID:25094019

  10. Low serial serum neopterin does not predict low risk for chronic renal graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Orgler, A; Bidmon, B; Arbeiter, K; Balzar, E; Ruffingshofer, D; Aufricht, C

    2001-01-01

    Research has provided new and potent immunosuppressants which can potentially stop ongoing rejection. Subclinical rejection is a particular problem in the pediatric age group and early identification of children at risk is of the utmost importance. Neopterin has been previously shown to be a non-specific but sensitive marker for immunologic activity. In this study we hypothesized that low serum neopterin in the 1st year after transplantation predicts a low risk of chronic rejection. We retrospectively analyzed serial neopterin data obtained beyond the early postoperative period in 21 children and correlated the peak and average with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss during the subsequent years (P = 0.63, NS, r = 0.10). Our results show that serum neopterin did not differ between the majority of children who developed chronic transplant dysfunction and children with stable transplant function beyond the early post-transplant period. Thus serum neopterin failed to delineate a low-risk population who might be spared more invasive diagnostic procedures such as protocol biopsy. PMID:11198595

  11. Combined Detection of Serum IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 Predicts Acute Rejection Following Adult Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Young-In; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Tak, Eunyoung; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for acute rejection in liver transplant patients would help to ensure the preservation of liver function in the graft, eventually contributing to improved graft and patient survival. We evaluated selected cytokines and chemokines in the sera from liver transplant patients as potential biomarkers for acute rejection, and found that the combined detection of IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 at 1-2 weeks post-operation could predict acute rejection following adult liver transplantation with 97% specificity and 94% sensitivity. PMID:27498551

  12. Interactions between Rejection Sensitivity and Supportive Relationships in the Prediction of Adolescents' Internalizing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Duchene, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity, the tendency to anxiously or angrily expect rejection, is associated with internalizing difficulties during childhood and adolescence. The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether supportive parent-child relationships and friendships moderate associations that link angry and anxious rejection sensitivity to…

  13. The Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI) predicts rejection, possibly due to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Supelana, Christina; Annunziato, Rachel; Schiano, Thomas; Anand, Ravinder; Vaidya, Swapna; Chuang, Kelley; Zack, Yelena; Florman, Sander; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Shemesh, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressants may play a role in late rejection in liver transplant recipients. In children, emerging data suggest that adherence can be measured by computing the standard deviation (SD) of consecutive blood levels of tacrolimus, resulting in a number that reflects the degree of variability between individual measures (the Medication Level Variability Index, MLVI). A higher MLVI value means erratic immunosuppression, likely due to less adherence. Data on this method in adults are limited. We obtained data from the medical charts of 150 randomly selected adult recipients. The MLVI was significantly higher in patients who had biopsy-confirmed rejection (mean MLVI=3.8, SD=3.2) as compared with the rest of the cohort (mean MLVI=2.3, SD=1.5; p<0.01), and it was significantly higher in patients who had a rejection as compared with patients who had a biopsy that was not read as a rejection (mean MLVI=2.6, SD=1.6; p<0.01). The MLVI was both associated with rejection and predicted its occurrence. A threshold MLVI of 2.0 resulted in 77% sensitivity and 60% specificity in predicting rejection; a threshold of 1.8 resulted in a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 48%. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) in a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81). The MLVI is associated with and can predict rejection, possibly related to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients. PMID:24931127

  14. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-11-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection.

  15. Social dominance orientation predicts heterosexual men's adverse reactions to romantic rejection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dubbs, Shelli L; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-05-01

    We examined the role of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a predictor of men's reactions to romantic rejection and attitudes toward female sexuality. In Study 1 (n = 158), we found that men who scored higher in SDO were more likely to blame women for romantic rejection, and report having responded to women's past rejection with persistence and manipulation (e.g., convincing her to "give him another chance"), as well as with aggression and threats of violence. In Study 2 (n = 398), we replicated these findings, and further found that men higher in SDO were more likely to endorse rape myths (e.g., believing that sometimes a woman's barriers need to be "broken down" in order to attain sex), and to want to lower the legal age of sexual consent in women. Two mediators explained this relationship, hostile sexism and the belief that insubordinate women need to be disciplined. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:25224507

  16. Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

    2002-07-01

    This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547

  17. Predicting interest in cosmetic surgery: interactive effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity and negative appearance comments.

    PubMed

    Park, Lora E; Calogero, Rachel M; Harwin, Melissa J; DiRaddo, Ann Marie

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) - the dispositional tendency to anxiously expect rejection based on one's appearance - in a sample of 133 American college students. Participants were randomly assigned to write an essay about either a negative or positive appearance comment they had received in the past. Compared to participants with lower Appearance-RS, those with higher Appearance-RS felt more rejected and expressed greater interest in cosmetic surgery after recalling a negative versus positive appearance comment. Content analysis of the essays revealed that negative appearance comments were most often made in reference to one's body weight/shape/size; positive appearance comments were most often made in reference to one's overall appearance. Peers/friends/romantic partners were the most frequently cited source of both positive and negative appearance comments. Overall, this research suggests that the interaction between the person and the situation is important to consider when predicting cosmetic surgery interest. PMID:19409866

  18. The public's viewpoint on the right to hastened death in Alberta, Canada: findings from a population survey study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Birch, Stephen; MacLeod, Rod; Dhanji, Nurin; Osei-Waree, Jane; Cohen, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    A research study was conducted to determine public opinion in Alberta, a Canadian province, on the controversial topic of death hastening. Questions on the right to hastened death, end-of-life plans and end-of-life experiences were included in the Population Research Laboratory's annual 2010 health-care telephone survey, with 1203 adults providing results relatively representative of Albertans. Of all 1203, 72.6% said yes to the question: 'Should dying adults be able to request and get help from others to end their life early, in other words, this is a request for assisted suicide'? Among all who provided an answer, 36.8% indicated 'yes, every competent adult should have this right' and 40.6% indicated 'yes, but it should be allowed only in certain cases or situations'. Over 50% of respondents in all but one socio-demographic population sub-group (Religious-other) were supportive of the right to hastened death. However, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the experiences of deciding to euthanise a pet/animal and developing or planning to develop an advance directive predicted support, while self-reported religiosity predicted non-support. Finding majority public support for death hastening suggests that legalisation could potentially occur in the future; but with this policy first requiring a careful consideration of the model of assisted suicide or euthanasia that best protects people who are highly vulnerable to despair and suffering near the end of life. PMID:23216960

  19. Peripheral blood T Regulatory cell counts may not predict transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows that allograft survival rates show a positive correlation with the number of circulating T regulatory cells (Tregs). This study investigated both the number and the cytokine profiles exhibited by Foxp3+ Tregs in blood, spleen and lymph nodes of Lewis rat recipients of BN rat cardiac allografts after a single-dose of Rapamycin (RAPA). Results Rats were divided into three groups: control group (containing healthy control and acute rejection group), and recipients treated with a single dose of RAPA on either Day 1 (1D group)or Day 3 (3D group) post-transplant. We analyzed the number of Foxp3+Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 and cytokines in the peripheral blood and the peripheral lymphoid tissues. No difference was found in the numbers of circulating Foxp3+ Tregs between these three groups. RAPA administration significantly increased Foxp3 expression in peripheral lymphoid tissues after a single dose of RAPA on Day 3 post-transplant. Foxp3+Tregs inhibited the activity of effector T cells (Teff) via the secretion of TGF-β1. Conclusion The number of Tregs in the recipient's blood may not be a good predictor of transplant rejection. Foxp3+Tregs inhibit the activity of Teff cells mainly in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:20633262

  20. Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Rod D; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-01-01

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in most countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for the legalisation of euthanasia and assisted suicide has never been stronger. While some studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other healthcare professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to hastening death. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisting death, including a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  1. Does Chronic Classroom Peer Rejection Predict the Development of Children's Classroom Participation during the Grade School Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Herald-Brown, Sarah L.; Reiser, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 398 children was followed up from ages 5 to 12 to investigate the relation between peer group rejection and classroom participation. The participation trajectories of individuals and groups of children who were rejected for differing periods of time were examined both during and after rejection using piecewise growth curve analyses.…

  2. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  3. Considerations about Hastening Death among Parents of Children Who Die of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dussel, Veronica; Joffe, Steven J; Hilden, Joanne M; Watterson-Schaeffer, Jan; Weeks, Jane C; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the frequency of hastening death discussions, describe current parental endorsement of hastening death and intensive symptom management, and explore whether child’s pain influences these views among a sample of parents whose child died of cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Two tertiary-care US pediatric institutions. Participants 141 parents of children who died of cancer (response rate 64%). Outcome measures Proportion of parents who (1)considered or (2)discussed hastening death during the end-of-life, and (3)who endorsed hastening death or (4)intensive symptom management in vignettes portraying children with end-stage cancer. Results a total of 19 out of 141, (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–19%) parents considered requesting hastening death for their child, and 9% (95%CI, 4%–14%) discussed hastening death; consideration of hastening death tended to increase with increasing child suffering from pain. In retrospect, 34% (95%CI, 26%–42%) of parents reported they would have considered hastening their child’s death had the child been in uncontrollable pain, while 15% or less would consider hastening death for non-physical suffering. In response to vignettes, 50% (95%CI, 42%–58%) of parents endorsed hastening death while 94% (95%CI, 90%–98%) endorsed intensive pain management. Parents were more likely to endorse hastening death if the vignette involved a child in pain as compared to in coma (odds ratio, 1.4; 95%CI, 1.1–1.8). Conclusions More than 10% of parents considered hastening their child’s death and this was more likely if the child was in pain. Attention to pain and suffering, and education about intensive symptom management may mitigate consideration of hastening death among parents of children with cancer. PMID:20194255

  4. Assisted or hastened death: the healthcare practitioner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Rod Duncan; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-11-01

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  5. Why now? Timing and circumstances of hastened deaths.

    PubMed

    Starks, Helene; Pearlman, Robert A; Hsu, Clarissa; Back, Anthony L; Gordon, Judith R; Bharucha, Ashok J

    2005-09-01

    We interviewed 35 families to understand the timing and circumstances of hastened deaths. We estimated life expectancy for the 26 patients who hastened their deaths and used content analysis to identify patterns in their decisions. On average, patients had lived with their illness for 2.5 years and had actively planned their deaths for 3 months. Those with less than a week to live (n = 10) were 'dying and done,' having experienced a final functional loss that signaled the end. Those with <1 month (n = 8) were 'dying, but not fast enough.' Those with 1-6 months (n = 5) saw a 'looming crisis' on their horizon that would prohibit following through with their plans. The 3 patients with >6 months were 'not recognized by others as dying, but suffering just the same.' Clinicians should regularly assess where patients perceive they are in the dying process and ask about their comfort with the pace of dying to identify opportunities for intervention. PMID:16183005

  6. Predicting the Rejection of Major Seawater Ions by Spiral-Wound Nanofiltration Membranes.

    PubMed

    Fridman-Bishop, Noga; Nir, Oded; Lahav, Ori; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2015-07-21

    Seawater nanofiltration (SWNF) generates a softened permeate stream and a retentate stream in which the multivalent ions accumulate, offering opportunities for practical utilization of both streams. This study presents an approach to simulation of SWNF including all major seawater ions (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and SO4(2-)) based on the Nernst-Planck equation, and uses it for permeate and retentate streams composition prediction. The number of degrees of freedom in the system was reduced by assuming a very high ionic permeability for Na(+), which only weakly affected the other parameters in the system. Two alternatives were examined to analyze the importance of concentration dependence of ion permeabilities: The assumption of constant ion permeabilities resulted in a reasonable fit with experimental data. However, for the permeate composition the overall fit was significantly improved (P < 0.0001) when the permeabilities of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were allowed to depend on the ratio of their total concentration to Na(+). This type of dependence emphasizes the strong interaction of divalent ions with the membrane and its effect on the membrane fixed charge through screening or charge reversal. When this effect was included, model predictions closely matched the experimental results obtained, corroborating the phenomenological approach proposed in this study. PMID:26107401

  7. Anxious Solitude and Peer Exclusion Predict Social Helplessness, Upset Affect, and Vagal Regulation in Response to Behavioral Rejection by a Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J.

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more…

  8. Prediction of Renal Allograft Acute Rejection Using a Novel Non-Invasive Model Based on Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Jin, Yunjie; Wu, Shengdi; Li, Long; Hu, Mushuang; Xu, Ming; Rong, Ruiming; Zhu, Tongyu; He, Wanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Point shear wave elastography based on acoustic radiation force impulse is a novel technology used to quantify tissue stiffness by measuring shear wave speed. A total of 115 kidney transplantation recipients were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were subdivided into two groups using 1 mo post-transplantation as the cutoff time for determining the development of acute rejection (AR). Shear wave speed was significantly higher in the AR group than in the non-AR group. We created a model called SEV, comprising shear wave speed, estimated glomerular filtration rate and kidney volume change, that could successfully discriminate patients with or without AR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of SEV was 0.89, which was higher than values for other variables; it was even better in patients within 1 mo post-transplantation (0.954), but was lower than the estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients after 1 mo post-transplantation. Therefore, the SEV model may predict AR after renal transplantation with a high degree of accuracy, and it may be more useful in the early post-operative stage after renal transplantation. PMID:27267289

  9. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Peer Acceptance and Peer Rejection and Their Relation to Bullying and Helping among Preadolescents: Comparing Predictions from Gender-Homophily and Goal-Framing Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The relation between bullying and helping and same-gender and cross-gender peer acceptance and peer rejection was examined in a sample of preadolescents aged 11 and 12 years (N=1,065). The authors tested predictions from a gender-homophily approach vs. predictions from a goal-framing approach in which acceptance and rejection are seen as being…

  10. Immune biomarker panel monitoring utilizing IDO enzyme activity and CD4 ATP levels: prediction of acute rejection versus viral replication events

    PubMed Central

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Gupta, Sushil; Khasawneh, Eihab Al; Haafiz, Allah; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Infections have become as important an event as acute rejection post-transplant for long-term allograft survival. Less invasive biomarkers tested so far predict risk for one event or the other, not both. We prospectively tested blood and urine monthly for twelve months post-transplant from children receiving a kidney transplant. The indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme pathway was assessed by mass spectrometry assays using the ratio of product L-kynurenine (kyn) to substrate tryptophan (trp). Kyn/trp ratios and blood CD4 T-cell ATP levels were correlated with acute rejection or major infection events or stable group (no events) in the next 30 days. The 25 subjects experienced 6 discrete episodes of acute rejection in 5 subjects and 16 discrete events of major infection in 14 subjects (7 BK viruria, 6 cytomegaloviremia, 1 Epstein-Barr and cytomegaloviremia, 2 transplant pyelonephritis). Mean serum kyn/trp ratios were significantly elevated in the group that experienced acute rejection (p = 0.02).Within-subject analyses revealed that over time, urine kyn/trp ratios showed an increase (p = 0.01) and blood CD4-ATP levels showed a decrease (p = 0.007) prior to a major infection event. These pilot results suggest that a panel of biomarkers together can predict over- or under-immunosuppression, but need independent validation. PMID:21492353

  11. The wish to hasten death: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Balaguer, Albert

    2011-08-01

    It is common for patients who are faced with physical or psychological suffering, particularly those in the advanced stages of a disease, to have some kind of wish to hasten death (WTHD). This paper reviews and summarises the current state of knowledge about the WTHD among people with end-stage disease, doing so from a clinical perspective and on the basis of published clinical research. Studies were identified through a search strategy applied to the main scientific databases. Clinical studies show that the WTHD has a multi-factor aetiology. The literature review suggests-perhaps in line with better management of physical pain-that psychological and spiritual aspects, including social factors, are the most important cause of such a wish. One of the difficulties facing clinical research is the lack of terminological and conceptual precision in defining the construct. Indeed, studies frequently blur the distinction between a generic wish to die, a WTDH (whether sporadic or persistent over time), the explicit expression of a wish to die, and a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. A notable contribution to knowledge in this field has been made by scales designed to evaluate the WTHD, although the problems of conceptual definition may once again limit the conclusions, which can be drawn from the results. Studies using qualitative methodology have also provided new information that can help in understanding such wishes. Further clinical research is needed to provide a complete understanding of this phenomenon and to foster the development of suitable care plans. PMID:20821377

  12. Usefulness of Diastolic Strain Measurements in Predicting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Risk of Rejection or Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jimmy C; Magdo, H Sonali; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Zamberlan, Mary; Gajarski, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    In pediatric heart transplant recipients, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is associated with rejection and coronary artery vasculopathy. This study aimed to evaluate which echocardiographic parameters track changes in PCWP and predict adverse outcomes (rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy). This prospective single-center study enrolled 49 patients (median 11.4 years old, interquartile range 7.4 to 16.5) at time of cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (range 1.2 to 3.1 years), with serial testing per clinical protocol. Ratio of early mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/E'), left atrial (LA) distensibility, peak LA systolic strain, E/left ventricular (LV) diastolic strain, and E/LV diastolic strain rate were measured from echocardiograms. Increase in PCWP ≥3 mm Hg was associated with changes in LA distensibility, E/E', and E/LV diastolic strain, with highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for E/LV diastolic strain (0.76). In 9 patients who subsequently developed rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy, E/LV diastolic strain rate at baseline differed from patients without events (median 57.0 vs 43.6, p = 0.02). On serial studies, only change in LV ejection fraction differed in patients with events (median -10% vs -1%, p = 0.01); decrease in LV ejection fraction of -19% had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 44%. In conclusion, LV diastolic strain and strain rate measurements can track changes in PCWP and identify patients at risk for subsequent rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data in a larger cohort. PMID:26976792

  13. Rejection positivity predicts trial-to-trial reaction times in an auditory selective attention task: a computational analysis of inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Melara, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara and Algom, 2003) probed the role of rejection positivity (RP), a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG) component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT) performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors. PMID:25191244

  14. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  15. Molecular analysis of transplant rejection: marching onward

    PubMed Central

    Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of organ transplants is increasingly defining the biological pathways responsible for graft rejection at the molecular level and identifying gene transcripts that diagnose or predict rejection. These advances hold significant promise for the treatment of organ rejection and for improving clinical outcomes after transplantation, but hurdles remain. PMID:24145950

  16. The relationships among clinical depression, suicide, and other actions that may hasten death.

    PubMed

    Werth, James L

    2004-01-01

    Clinical depression and other psychological disorders have been associated with suicidal ideation, attempts, and deaths. Because of the link between suicide and mental illness, whenever discussion of "assisted suicide" arises, the possibility that major depression is affecting the decision arises. This article examines the literature on clinical depression as it relates to suicide, "assisted suicide," and other decisions that will hasten death (i.e. withholding and withdrawing treatment, terminal sedation, and voluntarily stopping eating and drinking). Ethical and legal considerations when working with individuals who are considering taking an action that would hasten death are also briefly reviewed. The article ends with practice and policy recommendations. PMID:15378592

  17. Social Relationships and Their Role in the Consideration to Hasten Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the quality and functioning of terminally ill elders' social relationships and their impact on elders' consideration to hasten death. Design and Methods: In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 96 terminally ill elders. Logistic regression was used to determine whether aspects of social relationships…

  18. Primary Care Patients Hastening Death by Voluntarily Stopping Eating and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Eva E.; Hagens, Martijn; Willems, Dick; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Little is known about the role family physicians play when a patient deliberately hastens death by voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). The purpose of this study was to gain more insight for family physicians when confronted with patients who wish to hasten death by VSED. We aimed to describe physicians’ involvement in VSED, to describe characteristics and motives of their patients, and to describe the process of VSED in terms of duration, as well as common symptoms in the last 3 days of life. METHODS We undertook a survey of a random national sample of 1,100 family physicians (response rate 72%), and 500 of these physicians received questions about their last patient who hastened death by VSED. RESULTS Of the 978 eligible physicians, 708 responded (72.4%); 46% had cared for a patient who hastened death by VSED. Of the 500 physicians who received the additional questions, 440 were eligible and 285 (64.8%) responded; they described 99 cases of VSED. Seventy percent of these patients were aged older than 80 years, 76% had severe disease (27% with cancer), and 77% were dependent on others for everyday care. Frequent reasons for the patients’ death wish were somatic (79%), existential (77%), and dependence (58%). Median time until death was 7 days, and the most common symptoms before death were pain, fatigue, impaired cognitive functioning, and thirst or dry throat. Family physicians were involved in 62% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Patients who hasten death by VSED are mostly in poor health. It is not unlikely for family physicians to be confronted with VSED. They can play an important role in caring for these patients and their proxies by informing them of VSED and by providing support and symptom management during VSED. PMID:26371262

  19. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  20. Climate Change Hastens the Conservation Urgency of an Endangered Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change appears to be one of the main threats to biodiversity in the near future and is already affecting the distribution of many species. Currently threatened species are a special concern while the extent to which they are sensitive to climate change remains uncertain. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) is classified as endangered and a conservation focus on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using measures of species range shift, we explored how the distribution of Przewalski's gazelle may be impacted by projected climate change based on a maximum entropy approach. We also evaluated the uncertainty in the projections of the risks arising from climate change. Modeling predicted the Przewalski's gazelle would be sensitive to future climate change. As the time horizon increased, the strength of effects from climate change increased. Even assuming unlimited dispersal capacity of gazelles, a moderate decrease to complete loss of range was projected by 2080 under different thresholds for transforming the probability prediction to presence/absence data. Current localities of gazelles will undergo a decrease in their occurrence probability. Projections of the impacts of climate change were significantly affected by thresholds and general circulation models. This study suggests climate change clearly poses a severe threat and increases the extinction risk to Przewalski's gazelle. Our findings 1) confirm that endangered endemic species is highly vulnerable to climate change and 2) highlight the fact that forecasting impacts of climate change needs an assessment of the uncertainty. It is extremely important that conservation strategies consider the predicted geographical shifts and be planned with full knowledge of the reliability of projected impacts of climate change. PMID:21826214

  1. Anxiety, helplessness/hopelessness and 'desire for hastened death' in Korean cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shim, E-J; Hahm, B-J

    2011-05-01

    Despite a relatively high rate of suicide associated with cancer, this issue has not been explored in Korean patients. This study investigates the prevalence and factors related to 'the desire for hastened death' (DHD) in Korean cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey using standardised measures, including the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, was performed with 131 patients with different types of cancer. 13.7% of the participants experienced moderate DHD (Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scores 5-9) and 1.7% experienced high DHD (≥10). Socio-demographic and disease-associated factors of the DHD included age, overall health and shortness of breath. The majority of psychosocial variables such as sadness, distress, 'helplessness/hopelessness' and 'anxious preoccupation' had a moderate association with DHD. Patients with a clinically significant level of anxiety or depression reported higher levels of DHD. Other significant correlates included 'meaning/peace', a sense of burdening family, dignity impairment and suicidal thoughts after diagnosis. Helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety were the strongest predictors of DHD in multivariate analysis. In view of significant role of helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety in the DHD of cancer patients, careful monitoring and management of these factors should be an integral part of cancer care to reduce the occurrence of DHD. PMID:20597957

  2. Decisions that hasten death: double effect and the experiences of physicians in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in Australia will hasten death. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Highlighting the importance of a multidimensional approach, physicians negotiated multiple influences when death was regarded as hastened. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices were affected by politico-religious and cultural influences, medico-legal imperatives, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects further emphasised the emotional and psychological investment physicians have with patients and others. In most cases death occurred as a result of treating suffering, and sometimes to fulfil the wishes of patients and others who requested death. Experience was especially subject to the efficacy with which physicians negotiated complex but context-specific situations, and was reflective of how they considered a good death. Although many were compelled to draw on the Principle of Double Effect, every physician reported its inadequacy as a medico-legal guideline. Conclusions The Principle of Double Effect, as a simplistic and generalised guideline, was identified as a convenient mechanism to protect physicians who

  3. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  4. Doctors and their patients: a context for understanding the wish to hasten death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian; Burnett, Paul; Badger, Shirlene; Pelusi, Dan; Varghese, Francis T; Robertson, Marguerite

    2003-06-01

    There is a paucity of research that has directly examined the role of the health professional in dealing with a terminally ill patient's wish to hasten death (WTHD) and the implications of this for the support and services needed in the care for a dying patient. Themes to emerge from a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted on doctors (n=24) involved in the treatment and care of terminally ill patients were (i). the doctors' experiences in caring for their patients (including themes of emotional demands/expectations, the duration of illness, and the availability of palliative care services); (ii). the doctors' perception of the care provided to their respective patients (comprising themes concerning satisfaction with the care for physical symptoms, for emotional symptoms, or overall care); (iii). the doctors' attitudes to euthanasia and (iv). the doctors' perception of their patients' views/beliefs regarding euthanasia and hastened death. When responses were categorised according to the patients' level of a WTHD, the theme concerning the prolonged nature of the patients' illnesses was prominent in the doctor group who had patients with the highest WTHD, whereas there was only a minority of responses concerning support from palliative care services and satisfaction with the level of emotional care in this group.This exploratory study presents a set of descriptive findings identifying themes among a small group of doctors who have been involved in the care of terminally ill cancer patients, to investigate factors that may be associated with the WTHD among these patients. The pattern of findings suggest that research investigating the doctor-patient interaction in this setting may add to our understanding of the problems (for patients and their doctors) that underpins the wish to hasten death in the terminally ill. PMID:12748974

  5. [Exploring and Responding to a Wish to Hasten Death of a patient with Advanced Illness].

    PubMed

    Mazzocato, Claudia; Séchaud, Laurence

    2015-02-25

    It is not uncommon for patients with an advanced disease to express a desire to their physician to hasten their death. Recent studies show that the motivation of such a desire is multifactorial and multidimensional, including depression, physical, psycho-social and spiritual suffering, fears about the process of dying and/or misunderstandings about the options for end-of-life care. The objective of this paper is to propose to the physician how to explore the dimensions of this request and some elements to answer it. PMID:25711787

  6. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Methods Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. Findings All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. Conclusions This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention. PMID:26726801

  7. Physician-hastened death in young children: Getting to underlying assumptions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lester; Chan, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes are occurring in Canada's health care system regarding physician-hastened death (PHD). In the Netherlands, where the Groningen Protocol is in place, euthanasia in now legal for infants and children. The present article considers whether PHD should be applied to young children in Canada and how these paediatric cases differ from adult cases. The discussion analyzes and critiques the underlying assumptions necessary to believe that PHD is good. The role of worldviews in the deliberation of any moral question and the importance of recognizing personal bias are highlighted. The authors present common issues regarding PHD, including suffering, parental autonomy and future quality of life, and examine the basic assumptions on which these arguments are made. Finally, they conclude that the assumptions required are incorrect and that PHD should not be allowed in the case of children. Instead, policies should continue to strive for the protection and promotion of health in all children. PMID:27429568

  8. Doxapram hastens the recovery following total intravenous anesthesia with dexmedetomidine, propofol and remifentanil

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUAN-LIANG; TANG, SHU-HAI; WANG, XUE-QIN; GONG, WEN-HUA; LIU, XIAO-MEI; LEI, WEI-FU

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a suitable sedative for awake fiberoptic intubation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine delays recovery from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. This study aimed to determine whether doxapram may hasten the recovery following dexmedotomidine-propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Sixty patients scheduled for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with total intravenous anesthesia were randomized to two groups according to the medicine given at the end of surgery. These were the doxapram (1 mg/kg) and control (normal saline) groups (n=30 per group). The primary outcome was the time to eye opening on verbal command. The time to return to spontaneous breathing, to hand squeezing in response to verbal command, to extubation of the trachea, and the heart rate (HR), bispectral index (BIS) values, respiratory rate (RR) and pulse oximetry values were also recorded and compared. The time to return to spontaneous breathing (5.2±2.9 vs. 11.7±3.4 min, P<0.001), eye opening (9.3±4.7 vs. 15.9±6.3 min, P<0.001), hand squeeze to command (11.8±6.5 vs. 17.6±7.7 min, P=0.0026) and extubation (14.2±7.8 vs. 19.2±9.6 min, P=0.0308) were significantly shorter in the doxapram group compared with the control group. BIS scores (at 3–14 min), RR (at 4–10 min) and HR (at 2–13 min) were significantly higher in the doxapram group compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Doxapram hastens the recovery from dexmedetomidine-propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may benefit patients with OSA. PMID:25780462

  9. Paying To Belong: When Does Rejection Trigger Ingratiation?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J.; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction with robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual’s self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity, and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection, will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In three studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a fourth study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  10. Paying to belong: when does rejection trigger ingratiation?

    PubMed

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-11-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction to robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual's self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In 3 studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a 4th study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  11. Countering Rejection Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Peggy Riley

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a step-by-step approach for guidance counselors in holding a preliminary college planning conference with high school juniors and their families in order to help students subsequently deal with possible rejection from a college. (TE)

  12. Exploring the option of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking within the context of a suffering patient's request for a hastened death.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Judith

    2007-12-01

    There is an acknowledged difficulty in distinguishing between some morally and legally accepted acts that hasten dying, such as refusing life-sustaining treatment, and other acts that also hasten dying that are labeled as acts of "suicide." Recent empirical findings suggest that most terminally ill and suffering patients who voluntarily chose to stop eating and drinking as a means to hasten their dying generally experienced a "good" death. This paper explores the moral and legal status of a decision to stop eating and drinking as a means to hasten dying that is voluntarily chosen by a competent, terminally ill and suffering patient. The option of voluntarily forgoing food and fluid will be compared to other end-of-life clinical practices known to hasten dying, with emphasis on the issue of whether such practices can or should be distinguished from suicide. PMID:18095807

  13. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media. PMID:20677858

  14. Recurrent slow slip event likely hastened by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Kimura, Hisanori; Enescu, Bogdan; Aoi, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are another mode of fault deformation than the fast faulting of regular earthquakes. Such transient episodes have been observed at plate boundaries in a number of subduction zones around the globe. The SSEs near the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, are among the most documented SSEs, with the longest repeating history, of almost 30 y, and have a recurrence interval of 5 to 7 y. A remarkable characteristic of the slow slip episodes is the accompanying earthquake swarm activity. Our stable, long-term seismic observations enable us to detect SSEs using the recorded earthquake catalog, by considering an earthquake swarm as a proxy for a slow slip episode. Six recurrent episodes are identified in this way since 1982. The average duration of the SSE interoccurrence interval is 68 mo; however, there are significant fluctuations from this mean. While a regular cycle can be explained using a simple physical model, the mechanisms that are responsible for the observed fluctuations are poorly known. Here we show that the latest SSE in the Boso Peninsula was likely hastened by the stress transfer from the March 11, 2011 great Tohoku earthquake. Moreover, a similar mechanism accounts for the delay of an SSE in 1990 by a nearby earthquake. The low stress buildups and drops during the SSE cycle can explain the strong sensitivity of these SSEs to stress transfer from external sources. PMID:22949688

  15. Can community-based integrated vector control hasten the process of LF elimination?

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Kumar, V Ashok; Munirathinam, A; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K; White, Graham B; Arunachalam, N

    2016-06-01

    Community-based integrated vector control (IVC) using polystyrene beads (EPS) and pyrethroid impregnated curtains (PIC) as an adjunct to mass drug administration (MDA) was implemented for lymphatic filariasis elimination, in the filaria endemic villages of Tirukoilur, south India. In all the villages, MDA was carried out by the state health machinery, as part of the national filariasis elimination programme. Thirty-six difficult-to-control villages were grouped as, viz, MDA alone, MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms. Implementation and monitoring of IVC was carried out by the community. After 3 years of IVC, higher reductions in filariometric indices were observed in both the community and vector population. Decline in antigenaemia prevalence was higher in MDA + IVC as compared to MDA alone arm. Vector density dropped significantly (P < 0.05) in both the IVC arms, and nil transmission was observed during post-IVC period. Almost 53.8 and 75.8 % of the cesspits in MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms were closed by the householders, due to the enhanced awareness on vector breeding. The paper presents the key elements of IVC implementation through social mobilization in a LF prevalent area. Thus, community-based IVC strategy can hasten LF elimination, as it reduced the transmission and filariometric indices significantly. Indices were maintained at low level with nil transmission, by the community through IVC tools. PMID:26969179

  16. Pre-crastination: hastening subgoal completion at the expense of extra physical effort.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A; Gong, Lanyun; Potts, Cory Adam

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we describe a phenomenon we discovered while conducting experiments on walking and reaching. We asked university students to pick up either of two buckets, one to the left of an alley and one to the right, and to carry the selected bucket to the alley's end. In most trials, one of the buckets was closer to the end point. We emphasized choosing the easier task, expecting participants to prefer the bucket that would be carried a shorter distance. Contrary to our expectation, participants chose the bucket that was closer to the start position, carrying it farther than the other bucket. On the basis of results from nine experiments and participants' reports, we concluded that this seemingly irrational choice reflected a tendency to pre-crastinate, a term we introduce to refer to the hastening of subgoal completion, even at the expense of extra physical effort. Other tasks also reveal this preference, which we ascribe to the desire to reduce working memory loads. PMID:24815613

  17. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  18. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  19. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  20. SOC REJECTION BY NANOFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the rejection of six synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) from a potable water source by a nanofiltration membrane process. The S0Cs were ethylene dibromide (EDB), dibromochloropropane (DBCP), chlordane, heptachlor, methoxychlor and alachlor. To in...

  1. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  2. Soothing the Sting of Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joan Daniels

    1990-01-01

    Preventing rejection of a student by his/her peers and helping the child to cope with such rejection are ever-present challenges for teachers. Suggestions are given by teachers who have successfully dealt with students who were rejected by classmates. (IAH)

  3. Adding insult to injury: effects of interpersonal rejection types, rejection sensitivity, and self-regulation on obsessive relational intrusion.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, H Colleen; Ladny, Roshni T; Lyndon, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the I(3) model [Finkel, 2007; 2008] of intimate partner violence as applied to obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) to assess the relation among self-regulation, rejection, rejection sensitivity (RS), and stalking-related aggression. In Study 1, participants (N=221) read one of three vignettes: no relationship termination, an "internal" rejection (involves an internal attribution to the rejected as cause of relationship ending), or an "external" rejection (external attributions for relationship demise). Next, participants experienced one of two conditions manipulating self-regulation (no depletion vs. depletion). Finally, participants rated their likelihood of engaging in ORI (e.g. unwanted pursuit and/or aggression). Consistent with predictions, participants receiving an internal rejection reported higher aggression than participants experiencing an external rejection, especially when depleted of self-regulation. Study 2 extended the design of Study 1 by adding in a screening survey of RS. Internal rejections still yielded more aggression than other conditions, but this was especially so when rejection-sensitive persons were depleted of self-regulation. In addition to providing support for the I(3) model of aggression, this research shows that not all types of rejection are created equal. PMID:21932334

  4. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

  5. What Protects Rejected Adolescents from Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…

  6. Heat rejection system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  7. Rejection Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of Rejection on Self-Concept Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Ayduk, Özlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people’s SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed. PMID:19713567

  8. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  9. Sugar or spice: Using I3 metatheory to understand how and why glucose reduces rejection-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; DeWall, C Nathan; Fries, Veronika; Geiger, Babette; Krämer, Tanya; Krug, Sebastian; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social rejection can increase aggression, especially among people high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection impairs self-control, and deficits in self-control often result in aggression. A dose of glucose can counteract the effect of situational factors that undermine self-control. But no research has integrated these literatures to understand why rejection increases aggression, and how to reduce it. Using the I(3) model of aggression, we proposed that aggression would be highest under conditions of high instigation (rejection), high impellance (high rejection sensitivity), and low inhibition (drinking a beverage sweetened with a sugar substitute instead of glucose). As predicted, aggression was highest among participants who experienced social rejection, were high in rejection sensitivity, and drank a placebo beverage. A dose of glucose reduced aggression, especially among rejected people high in rejection sensitivity. These findings point to the importance of self-control in understanding why social rejection increases aggression, and how to prevent it. PMID:26198908

  10. How should a Catholic hospice respond to patients who choose to voluntarily stop eating and drinking in order to hasten death?

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The practice of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED) in order to hasten death poses a unique problem for the Catholic hospice. Hospice staff may be confronted with patients already on their service who decide to pursue this option for ending their lives. Patients not on hospice service who are contemplating VSED are often advised to contact hospice for symptom palliation associated with the process of VSED. Intentionally hastening death not only violates the sanctity of human life and the Ethical and Religious Directives the Catholic hospice is bound to uphold, but it also runs counter to the general philosophy that hospice neither hastens nor postpones death. At the same time, hospice programs have a strong philosophy of nonabandonment of patients. This article will analyze the ethical issues from the perspective of the Catholic tradition and suggest strategies for the Catholic hospice to respond to this group of patients. PMID:25249707

  11. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  12. Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Terry B.

    2013-01-01

    During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics. PMID:23676457

  13. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  14. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  15. What Lies behind the Wish to Hasten Death? A Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography from the Perspective of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquin; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; Balaguer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need for an in-depth approach to the meaning of the wish to hasten death (WTHD). This study aims to understand the experience of patients with serious or incurable illness who express such a wish. Methods and Findings Systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies from the patient's perspective. Studies were identified through six databases (ISI, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CUIDEN and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials), together with citation searches and consultation with experts. Finally, seven studies reporting the experiences of 155 patients were included. The seven-stage Noblit and Hare approach was applied, using reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. Six main themes emerged giving meaning to the WTHD: WTHD in response to physical/psychological/spiritual suffering, loss of self, fear of dying, the desire to live but not in this way, WTHD as a way of ending suffering, and WTHD as a kind of control over one's life (‘having an ace up one's sleeve just in case’). An explanatory model was developed which showed the WTHD to be a reactive phenomenon: a response to multidimensional suffering, rather than only one aspect of the despair that may accompany this suffering. According to this model the factors that lead to the emergence of WTHD are total suffering, loss of self and fear, which together produce an overwhelming emotional distress that generates the WTHD as a way out, i.e. to cease living in this way and to put an end to suffering while maintaining some control over the situation. Conclusions The expression of the WTHD in these patients is a response to overwhelming emotional distress and has different meanings, which do not necessarily imply a genuine wish to hasten one's death. These meanings, which have a causal relationship to the phenomenon, should be taken into account when drawing up care plans. PMID:22606338

  16. Space vehicle thermal rejection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, Herbert J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A space vehicle thermal heat rejection system 10 utilizing separate optimized heat pipe components for the functions of heat acquisition, heat transport, and heat rejection. A honeycomb panel heat pipe evaporator section 20 performs the function of heat acquisition, and forms a closed thermodynamic system with a dual channel heat pipe transport section 30, which performs the function of heat transport. A plurality of truss or channel core heat pipe rejection fins 41 form the condenser section 40, which performs the function of heat rejection. A common wall 32 separates the condenser section 40 from the transport section 30. Using the above heat pipe components and having efficient interfacing between them results in high performance factors for the overall system.

  17. Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.

    1985-05-01

    It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

  18. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  19. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  1. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal -transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  2. The Neural Basis of Recollection Rejection: Increases in Hippocampal-Prefrontal Connectivity in the Absence of a Shared Recall-to-Reject and Target Recollection Network.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Dennis, Nancy A

    2016-08-01

    Recollection rejection or "recall-to-reject" is a mechanism that has been posited to help maintain accurate memory by preventing the occurrence of false memories. Recollection rejection occurs when the presentation of a new item during recognition triggers recall of an associated target, a mismatch in features between the new and old items is registered, and the lure is correctly rejected. Critically, this characterization of recollection rejection involves a recall signal that is conceptually similar to recollection as elicited by a target. However, previous neuroimaging studies have not evaluated the extent to which recollection rejection and target recollection rely on a common neural signal but have instead focused on recollection rejection as a postretrieval monitoring process. This study utilized a false memory paradigm in conjunction with an adapted remember-know-new response paradigm that separated "new" responses based on recollection rejection from those that were based on a lack of familiarity with the item. This procedure allowed for parallel recollection rejection and target recollection contrasts to be computed. Results revealed that, contrary to predictions from theoretical and behavioral literature, there was virtually no evidence of a common retrieval mechanism supporting recollection rejection and target recollection. Instead of the typical target recollection network, recollection rejection recruited a network of lateral prefrontal and bilateral parietal regions that is consistent with the retrieval monitoring network identified in previous neuroimaging studies of recollection rejection. However, a functional connectivity analysis revealed a component of the frontoparietal rejection network that showed increased coupling with the right hippocampus during recollection rejection responses. As such, we demonstrate a possible link between PFC monitoring network and basic retrieval mechanisms within the hippocampus that was not revealed with

  3. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this. PMID:25750106

  4. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  5. Influence of biofouling on pharmaceuticals rejection in NF membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Botton, Sabrina; Verliefde, Arne R D; Quach, Nhut T; Cornelissen, Emile R

    2012-11-15

    The effects of biomass attachment and growth on the surface characteristics and organic micropollutants rejection performance of nanofiltration membranes were investigated in a pilot installation. Biomass growth was induced by dosing of a readily biodegradable carbon source resulting in the formation of a biofouling in the investigated membrane elements. Surface properties and rejection behaviour of a biofouled and virgin membrane were investigated and compared in terms of surface charge, surface energy and hydrophobicity. The last two were accomplished by performing contact angle measurements on fully hydrated membrane surfaces, in order to mimic the operating conditions of a membrane in contact with water. Compared to a virgin membrane, deposition and growth of biofilm did slightly alter the surface charge, which became more negative, and resulted in a higher hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In addition, the presence of the negatively charged biofilm induced accumulation of positively charged pharmaceuticals within the biomass layer, which probably also hindered back diffusion. This caused a reduction in rejection efficiency of positively charged solutes but did not alter rejection of neutral and negatively charged pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals rejection was found to positively correlate with the specific free energy of interaction between virgin or biofouled membranes and pharmaceuticals dissolved in the water phase. The rejection values obtained with both virgin and biofouled membranes were compared and found in good agreement with the predictions calculated with a solute transport model earlier developed for high pressure filtration processes. PMID:22960036

  6. Withholding or withdrawing treatment and palliative treatment hastening death: the real reason why doctors are not held legally liable for murder.

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2014-02-01

    Doctors who hasten the termination of the lives of their patients by withholding or withdrawing treatment or prescribing a potentially fatal palliative dose of medication satisfy the elements of intention and causation of a charge of murder against them. However, the courts have held that, for policy reasons based on 'society's legal convictions', such conduct is not unlawful if the patient consented to it or medical treatment would be futile or palliative treatment may hasten death. Doctors are not held liable for murder because society regards their omissions or acts as lawful--not because they did not have the intention in law to kill or did not cause the death of their patients. PMID:24893534

  7. Adenovirus-mediated HIF-1α gene transfer promotes repair of mouse airway allograft microvasculature and attenuates chronic rejection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinguo; Khan, Mohammad A; Tian, Wen; Beilke, Joshua; Natarajan, Ramesh; Kosek, Jon; Yoder, Mervin C; Semenza, Gregg L; Nicolls, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Chronic rejection, manifested as small airway fibrosis (obliterative bronchiolitis [OB]), is the main obstacle to long-term survival in lung transplantation. Recent studies demonstrate that the airways involved in a lung transplant are relatively hypoxic at baseline and that OB pathogenesis may be linked to ischemia induced by a transient loss of airway microvasculature. Here, we show that HIF-1α mediates airway microvascular repair in a model of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Grafts with a conditional knockout of Hif1a demonstrated diminished recruitment of recipient-derived Tie2⁺ angiogenic cells to the allograft, impaired repair of damaged microvasculature, accelerated loss of microvascular perfusion, and hastened denudation of epithelial cells. In contrast, graft HIF-1α overexpression induced via an adenoviral vector prolonged airway microvascular perfusion, preserved epithelial integrity, extended the time window for the graft to be rescued from chronic rejection, and attenuated airway fibrotic remodeling. HIF-1α overexpression induced the expression of proangiogenic factors such as Sdf1, Plgf, and Vegf, and promoted the recruitment of vasoreparative Tie2⁺ cells. This study demonstrates that a therapy that enhances vascular integrity during acute rejection may promote graft health and prevent chronic rejection. PMID:21606594

  8. After All I Have Done For You: Self-silencing Accommodations Fuel Women's Post-Rejection Hostility

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study tests if people's hostility after experiencing rejection is partly explained by the degree to which they had initially suppressed their own feelings and beliefs to please the source of rejection. This hypothesis emerges from the literatures on women's self-silencing and that on rejection-sensitivity, which has documented that rejection-sensitive women show strong responses to rejection, but are also likely to self-silence to please their partners. An online dating paradigm examined if this self-silencing drives post-rejection hostility among women. Participants were given the opportunity to read about a potential dating partner before meeting that person, and were randomly assigned to one of 3 experimental conditions that resulted in rejection from the potential date or from another dater. Self-silencing was captured as the suppression of tastes and opinions that clashed with those of the prospective partner. Self-silencing moderated the effect of rejection on hostility: Self-silencing to the prospective partner was associated with greater post-rejection hostility among women, but not men. Self-silencing to someone other than the rejecter was not predictive of hostility. Women's dispositional rejection-sensitivity predicted greater hostility after rejection, and self-silencing mediated this association. Efforts to secure acceptance through accommodation may help explain the paradoxical tendency of some people to show strong rejection-induced hostility toward those whose acceptance they have sought. PMID:23687385

  9. Augmented orbiter heat rejection study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft radiator concepts are presented that relieve attitude restrictions required by the shuttle orbiter space radiator for baseline and extended capability STS missions. Cost effective heat rejection kits are considered which add additional capability in the form of attached spacelab radiators or a deployable radiator module.

  10. MDMA DECREASES THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED SOCIAL REJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Charles G.; Wardle, Margaret C.; Norman, Greg J.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases self-reported positive social feelings and decreases the ability to detect social threat in faces, but its effects on experiences of social acceptance and rejection have not been determined. We examined how an acute dose of MDMA affects subjective and autonomic responses to simulated social acceptance and rejection. We predicted that MDMA would decrease subjective responses to rejection. On an exploratory basis, we also examined the effect of MDMA on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic cardiac control often thought to index social engagement and emotional regulation. Over three sessions, healthy adult volunteers with previous MDMA experience (N = 36) received capsules containing placebo, 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg of MDMA under counter-balanced double-blind conditions. During expected peak drug effect, participants played two rounds of a virtual social simulation task called “Cyberball” during which they experienced acceptance in one round and rejection in the other. During the task we also obtained electrocardiograms (ECGs), from which we calculated RSA. After each round, participants answered questionnaires about their mood and self-esteem. As predicted, MDMA decreased the effect of simulated social rejection on self-reported mood and self-esteem and decreased perceived intensity of rejection, measured as the percent of ball tosses participants reported receiving. Consistent with its sympathomimetic properties, MDMA decreased RSA as compared to placebo. Our finding that MDMA decreases perceptions of rejection in simulated social situations extends previous results indicating that MDMA reduces perception of social threat in faces. Together these findings suggest a cognitive mechanism by which MDMA might produce pro-social behavior and feelings and how the drug might function as an adjunct to psychotherapy. These phenomena merit further study in non-simulated social environments. PMID

  11. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  12. Whites' Opposition to Affirmative Action: Rejection of Group-based Preferences as well as Rejection of Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses whether whites' rejection of affirmative action reflects an opposition to group-based preferences per se, independent of their attitudes toward blacks. Analysis of 1996 General Social Survey data shows that whites' attitude toward preferential hiring and promotion of blacks is predicted by their attitude toward preferential…

  13. Sociocultural Influence and Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Lora E.; DiRaddo, Ann Marie; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of parents, peers, and the media in predicting college students' Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS)--the degree to which individuals anxiously expect to be rejected based on their physical appearance. Given that women are socialized to be more appearance-focused than men, women were…

  14. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  15. Reactions to Discrimination, Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Laura Smart; Leary, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people’s reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People’s immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses, people’s reactions are influenced by construals of the rejection experience that predict 3 distinct motives for prosocial, antisocial, and socially avoidant behavioral responses. The authors describe the relational, contextual, and dispositional factors that affect which motives determine people’s reactions to a rejection experience and the ways in which these 3 motives may work at cross-purposes. The multimotive model accounts for the myriad ways in which responses to rejection unfold over time and offers a basis for the next generation of research on interpersonal rejection. PMID:19348546

  16. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  17. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  18. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  19. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  20. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  1. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457

  2. Treating humoral rejection after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Jef; Vermeulen, Tom; Janssen Van Doorn, Karin; Vrints, Christiaan; Conraads, Viviane

    2011-04-01

    Whereas effective strategies are available to treat acute cellular cardiac rejection, humoral rejection, also called vascular or antibody-mediated rejection, is more difficult to manage. Antibody-mediated (non-cellular) rejections (AMR) are rare and few successfully treated cases have been described in the literature. We report on a female patient, diagnosed with humoral rejection, leading to severe ventricular dysfunction and haemodynamic compromise, two months after transplantation. The patient received a combination therapy, consisting of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulins, which resulted in complete resolution of immunohistochemical signs of AMR. In this report, we will overview AMR and discuss several treatment modalities. PMID:21591590

  3. The push of social pain: Does rejection's sting motivate subsequent social reconnection?

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S

    2016-06-01

    Physical pain motivates the healing of somatic injuries, yet it remains unknown whether social pain serves a similarly reparative function toward social injuries. Given the substantial overlap between physical and social pain, we predicted that social pain would mediate the effect of rejection on greater motivation for social reconnection and affiliative behavior toward rejecters. In Study 1, the effect of rejection on an increased need to belong was mediated by reports of more intense social pain. In Study 2, three neural signatures of social pain (i.e., activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, left and right anterior insula during social rejection), each predicted greater behavioral proximity to rejecters. Our findings reify the overlap between social and physical pain. Furthermore, these results are some of the first to demonstrate the reparative nature of social pain and lend insight into how this process may be harnessed to promote postrejection reconnection. PMID:26912270

  4. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P

    2016-08-01

    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27254083

  5. Are You Being Rejected or Excluded? Insights from Neuroimaging Studies Using Different Rejection Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene. PMID:23430682

  6. Haptoglobin Enhances Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Heuzey, Elizabeth; Mori, Daniel; Wong, Christine; Colangelo, Christopher; Chung, Lisa M.; Bruce, Can; Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Booth, Carmen J.; Kreisel, Daniel; Goldstein, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Early graft inflammation enhances both acute and chronic rejection of heart transplants, but it is unclear how this inflammation is initiated. Objective To identify specific inflammatory modulators and determine their underlying molecular mechanisms after cardiac transplantation. Methods and Results We used a murine heterotopic cardiac transplant model to identify inflammatory modulators of early graft inflammation. Unbiased mass spectrometric analysis of cardiac tissue before and up to 72 hours after transplantation revealed that 22 proteins including haptoglobin, a known anti-oxidant, are significantly upregulated in our grafts. Through the use of haptoglobin deficient mice, we show that 80% of haptoglobin deficient recipients treated with peri-operative administration of the costimulatory blocking agent CTLA4 immunoglobulin exhibited > 100 days survival of full major histocompatibility complex mismatched allografts, whereas all similarly treated wild type recipients rejected their transplants by 21 days post transplantation. We found that haptoglobin modifies the intra-allograft inflammatory milieu by enhancing levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the chemokine MIP-2 but impair levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Haptoglobin also enhances dendritic cell graft recruitment and augments anti-donor T cell responses. Moreover, we confirmed that the protein is present in human cardiac allograft specimens undergoing acute graft rejection. Conclusions Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation after cardiac transplantation and suggest that, in contrast to its prior reported anti-oxidant function in vascular inflammation, haptoglobin is an enhancer of inflammation after cardiac transplantation. Haptoglobin may also be a key component in other sterile inflammatory conditions. PMID:25801896

  7. Comparing reports of peer rejection: associations with rejection sensitivity, victimization, aggression, and friendship.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew; McGregor, Leanne; Mastro, Shawna; Goodwin, Belinda; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-12-01

    Perceiving that one is rejected is an important correlate of emotional maladjustment. Yet, self-perceptions can substantially differ from classmate-reports of who is rejected. In this study, discrepancies between self- and classmate-reports of rejection were identified in 359 Australian adolescents (age 10-12 years). As expected, adolescents who overestimated rejection reported more rejection sensitivity and felt more victimized by their peers, but were not seen by peers as more victimized. Adolescents who underestimated rejection identified themselves as high in overt aggression, and their peers identified them as high in overt and relational aggression and low in prosocial behavior. Yet, underestimators' feelings of friendship satisfaction did not seem to suffer and they reported low rejection sensitivity. Results suggest that interventions to promote adolescent health should explicitly recognize the different needs of those who do and do not seem to perceive their high rejection, as well as adolescents who overestimate their rejection. PMID:24215970

  8. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  9. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  10. Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Chang, Jessica; Famulski, Konrad; Hidalgo, Luis G; Salazar, Israel D R; Merino Lopez, Maribel; Matas, Arthur; Picton, Michael; de Freitas, Declan; Bromberg, Jonathan; Serón, Daniel; Sellarés, Joana; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population. PMID:25377077

  11. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26928516

  12. Links of justice and rejection sensitivity with aggression in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25136820

  13. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. PMID:25010933

  14. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  15. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  16. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  17. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  18. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  19. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3...

  20. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunction have been reported, and these demonstrate that antibodies can directly injure the allograft. However, the incidence and toll of antibody-mediated rejection are unknown because there is no widely accepted definition and some cases may be unrecognized. Clearly, humoral immunity has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:23002428

  1. Monocyte procoagulant activity and plasminogen activator. Role in human renal allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.H.; Cardella, C.J.; Schulman, J.; Levy, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    Currently the mechanism of renal allograft rejection is not well understood. This study was designed to determine whether induction of monocyte procoagulant activity (MCPA) is important in the pathogenesis of renal allograft rejection. The MPCA assay was performed utilizing a one stage clotting assay both in normal and in factor-VII-deficient plasma. There was no increase in spontaneous MPCA in 20 patients with endstage renal failure and in 10 patients following abdominal or orthopedic operation, as compared with 20 normal controls. MPCA was assessed daily in 18 patients who had received renal allografts. Rejection episodes (RE) were predicted on the basis of persistent elevation in MPCA as compared with pretransplant levels. Rejection was diagnosed clinically and treated on the basis of standard criteria. Treated RE were compared with those predicted by elevated MPCA, and 3 patients were assessed as having no RE by MPCA and by standard criteria. In 8 RE, MPCA correlated temporally with RE (same day) when compared with standard criteria. In 12 RE, MPCA was predictive of rejection preceding standard criteria by at least 24 hr. There were 7 false-positive predictions on the basis of MPCA; however, there was only 1 false negative. MPCA was shown to be a prothrombinase by its dependence only on prothrombin and fibrinogen for full activity. MPCA may be important in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection, and additionally it may be a useful adjunct in the clinical management of this disease.

  2. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  3. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  4. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  5. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  6. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  7. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  8. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  9. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  10. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  11. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  12. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  13. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  14. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  15. Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Psychological Adjustment: A Meta-Analysis of Cross-Cultural and Intracultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Information was pooled from 43 studies to test a postulate of parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTherory, which states that perceived parental acceptance-rejection is associated with a specific form of psychological maladjustment. Results showed that the predicted relationship emerged without exception. Analysis of fail safe showed that…

  16. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue; Shan, Junhong; Wang, Can; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-08-15

    Rejection of four pharmaceutical compounds, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, by forward osmosis (FO) membranes was investigated in this study. For the first time, the rejection efficiency of the pharmaceutical compounds was compared between commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) based membranes and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide based membranes. The rejection behavior was related to membrane interfacial properties, physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical molecules and feed solution pH. TFC polyamide membranes exhibited excellent overall performance, with high water flux, excellent pH stability and great rejection of all pharmaceuticals investigated (>94%). For commercial CTA based FO membranes, hydrophobic interaction between the compounds and membranes exhibited strong influence on their rejection under acidic conditions. The pharmaceuticals rejection was well correlated to their hydrophobicity (log D). Under alkaline conditions, both electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion contributed to the removal of deprotonated molecules. The pharmaceuticals rejection by CTA-HW membrane at pH 8 followed the order: diclofenac (99%)>carbamazepine (95%)>ibuprofen (93%) ≈ naproxen (93%). These results can be important for FO membrane synthesis, modification and their application in water purification. PMID:22640821

  17. Usefulness of liver stiffness measurement during acute cellular rejection in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Castro-Narro, Graciela; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Benítez, Carlos; Ruiz, Pablo; Sastre, Lydia; Colmenero, Jordi; Miquel, Rosa; Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a useful method to estimate liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. The inflammatory process that takes place in post-liver transplant acute cellular rejection (ACR) may also increase liver stiffness. We aimed to explore the association between liver stiffness and the severity of ACR, as well as to assess the relationship between liver stiffness and response to rejection treatment in a prospective study that included 27 liver recipients with biopsy-proven ACR, 30 stable recipients with normal liver tests, and 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected LT recipients with histologically diagnosed HCV recurrence. Patients with rejection were stratified into 2 groups (mild and moderate/severe) according to the severity of rejection evaluated with the Banff score. Routine biomarkers and LSM with FibroScan were performed at the time of liver biopsy (baseline) and at 7, 30, and 90 days in patients with rejection and at baseline in control patients. Median baseline liver stiffness was 5.9 kPa in the mild rejection group, 11 kPa in the moderate/severe group (P = 0.001), 4.2 kPa in stable recipients (P = 0.02 versus mild rejection), and 13.6 kPa in patients with recurrent HCV (P = 0.17 versus moderate/severe rejection). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of LSM to discriminate mild versus moderate/severe ACR was 0.924, and a LSM value of 8.5 kPa yielded a positive predictive value of 100% to diagnose moderate/severe rejection. Liver stiffness improved in 7%, 21%, and 64% of patients with moderate/severe rejection at 7, 30, and 90 days. In conclusion, according to the results of this exploratory study, LSM is associated with the severity of ACR in liver transplantation and thus may be of help in its assessment. PMID:26609794

  18. Corneal Allograft Rejection: Immunopathogenesis to Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is among the most successful solid organ transplants. However, despite low rejection rates of grafts in the ‘low-risk’ setting, rejection can be as high as 70% when grafted into ‘high-risk’ recipient beds. Under normal homeostatic conditions, the avascular cornea provides a unique environment that facilitates immune and angiogenic privilege. An imbalance in pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic mediators leads to a breakdown in corneal immune privilege with a consequent host response against the donor graft. Recent developments in lamellar and endothelial keratoplasties have reduced the rates of graft rejection even more, while providing improved visual outcomes. The corneal layer against which an immune response is initiated, largely determines reversibility of the acute episode. While epithelial and stromal graft rejection may be treated with topical corticosteroids with higher success, acute endothelial rejection mandates a more aggressive approach to therapy due to the lack of regenerative capacity of this layer. However, current immunosuppressive regimens come with the caveat of ocular and systemic side effects, making prolonged aggressive treatment undesirable. With the advent of biologics, efficacious therapies with a superior side effect profile are on the horizon. In our review we discuss the mediators of ocular immune privilege, the roles of cellular and molecular immune players in graft rejection, with a focus on human leukocyte antigen and antigen presenting cells. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical risk factors for graft rejection and compare rates of rejection in lamellar and endothelial keratoplasties to traditional penetrating keratoplasty. Lastly, we present the current and upcoming measures of therapeutic strategies to manage and treat graft rejection, including an overview of biologics and small molecule therapy. PMID:24634796

  19. Egg arrangement in avian clutches covaries with the rejection of foreign eggs.

    PubMed

    Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms. PMID:23443406

  20. The experimental study on heat rejection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Toshihiko; Atsumi, Masahiro; Tokue, Rinzo

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the concept study and the experimental work for development of the advanced style expendable heat rejection device. Emphasis is laid on minimizing the hardware weight and using innocuous coolant. Empirical heat transfer characteristics of water spray cooling were obtained and applied to the mathematical model to evaluate the performance. Besides the development of spray nozzle, prototype model of 4 kW class evaporator was fabricated and tested. Heat rejection rate of 3.2-4.5 kW was attained at both (high/low altitude) modes of operation, and feasibility of this heat rejection device was assured.

  1. Pericytes, microvasular dysfunction and chronic rejection

    PubMed Central

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z.; Li, Xian C.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rejection of transplanted organs remains the main obstacle in the long-term success of organ transplantation. Thus, there is a persistent quest for development of anti-chronic rejection therapies and identification of novel molecular and cellular targets. One of the potential targets is the pericytes, the mural cells of microvessels, which regulate microvascular permeability, development and maturation by controlling endothelial cell functions and regulating tissue fibrosis and inflammatory response. In this review we discuss the potential of targeting pericytes in development of microvasular dysfunction and the molecular pathways involved in regulation of pericyte activities for anti-chronic rejection intervention. PMID:25793439

  2. Extracorporeal photopheresis in heart transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh; Klapper, Ellen; Shafi, Hedyeh; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2015-04-01

    Up to 25% of heart transplant recipients develop rejection requiring intervention. While the majority respond to augmentation of immunomodulatory drug therapy, a subset of patients will remain refractory. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) appears particularly useful in the management of select heart transplant recipients at risk of rejection, with recurrent rejection, or rejection associated with hemodynamic compromise. This chapter summarizes the current clinical experience of ECP in heart transplantation. ECP appears to favorably affect both the cellular and humoral arms of the immune response to the allograft and promote a tolerogenic profile. These immunomodulatory effects also appear to decrease development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. ECP is generally well tolerated with few adverse effects and low infection risk. PMID:25748232

  3. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection.

  4. DIPS organic rankine cycle heat rejection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an optimization study performed on the heat rejection system for a space based ORC power system using an isotope heat source. The radiator sizing depends on the heat rejection temperature, radiator configuration, and radiator properties such as the fin effectiveness, emissivity, and absorptivity. The optimization analysis to evaluate the effect of each of these parameters on the system weight and area is presented.

  5. Clutter rejection limitations from ambiguous range clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick

    Limitations on achievable clutter rejection due to ambiguous range clutter are described. The profile of clutter power versus range is shown to limit achievable clutter rejection. Ambiguous range effects are discussed in the context of sea clutter, using a model that includes propagation conditions, and rain clutter. Limitations in moving target indication systems are illustrated for sea clutter, where propagation is subject to evaporation ducts. Benefits of fill pulses are illustrated for rain and sea clutter.

  6. A longitudinal investigation of the rejection-identification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Miguel R; Cassidy, Clare; Reicher, Stephen; Haslam, S Alexander

    2012-12-01

    The rejection-identification model (RIM; Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999) is supported by a number of previous studies (e.g., Schmitt, Branscombe, Kobrynowicz, & Owen, 2002; Schmitt, Spears, & Branscombe, 2003). This suggests that rejection by an outgroup can lead minority group members to identify more with their ingroup, thereby buffering them from the negative effects of discrimination. However, contradictory findings have been produced by other research (e.g., Eccleston & Major, 2006; Major, Quinton, & Schmader, 2003; McCoy & Major, 2003; Sellers & Shelton, 2003), suggesting that the relationship between rejection and identification is far from being completely understood. In the present study, we followed a cohort of 113 international students for a period of 2 years. The study sought to extend the previous work in two important ways. First, it examined the RIM within a longitudinal perspective. Second, building on important work on the multidimensionality of social identification (e.g., Ellemers, Kortekaas, & Ouwerkerk, 1999; Jackson, 2002), it tested the RIM using a three-dimensional approach to group identification. Results supported the predictions of the RIM and indicated that perceived discrimination causes minority group identification and not the reverse. The multidimensional approach also served to reveal a specific effect of discrimination on the cognitive components of identification. PMID:21736592

  7. Kin rejection: social signals, neural response and perceived distress during social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Herrera, Tania A; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; White, Lars O; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Across species, kin bond together to promote survival. We sought to understand the dyadic effect of exclusion by kin (as opposed to non-kin strangers) on brain activity of the mother and her child and their subjective distress. To this end, we probed mother-child relationships with a computerized ball-toss game Cyberball. When excluded by one another, rather than by a stranger, both mothers and children exhibited a significantly pronounced frontal P2. Moreover, upon kin rejection versus stranger rejection, both mothers and children showed incremented left frontal positive slow waves for rejection events. Children reported more distress upon exclusion than their own mothers. Similar to past work, relatively augmented negative frontal slow wave activity predicted greater self-reported ostracism distress. This effect, generalized to the P2, was limited to mother- or child-rejection by kin, with comparable magnitude of effect across kin identity (mothers vs. children). For both mothers and children, the frontal P2 peak was significantly pronounced for kin rejection versus stranger rejection. Taken together, our results document the rapid categorization of social signals as kin relevant and the specificity of early and late neural markers for predicting felt ostracism. PMID:24909389

  8. Kin Rejection: Social Signals, Neural Response and Perceived Distress During Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Herrera, Tania A.; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L.; White, Lars O.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Across species, kin bond together to promote survival. We sought to understand the dyadic effect of exclusion by kin (as opposed to non-kin strangers) on brain activity of the mother and her child and their subjective distress. To this end, we probed mother-child relationships with a computerized ball-toss game Cyberball. When excluded by one another, rather than by a stranger, both mothers and children exhibited a significantly pronounced frontal P2. Moreover, upon kin-rejection versus stranger-rejection, both mothers and children showed incremented left frontal positive slow waves for rejection events. Children reported more distress upon exclusion than their own mothers. Similar to past work, relatively augmented negative frontal slow wave activity predicted greater self-reported ostracism distress. This effect, generalized to the P2, was limited to mother or child- rejection by kin, with comparable magnitude of effect across kin identity (mothers vs. children). For both mothers and children, the frontal P2 peak was significantly pronounced for kin-rejection versus stranger rejection. Taken together, our results document the rapid categorization of social signals as kin-relevant and the specificity of early and late neural markers for predicting felt ostracism. PMID:24909389

  9. Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Troscianko, Jolyon; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    2013-01-01

    Cuckoo eggs famously mimic those of their foster parents to evade rejection from discriminating hosts. Here we test whether parasites benefit by repeatedly parasitizing the same host nest. This should make accurate rejection decisions harder, regardless of the mechanism that hosts use to identify foreign eggs. Here we find strong support for this prediction in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava), the most common host of the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). We show experimentally that hosts reject eggs that differ from an internal template, but crucially, as the proportion of foreign eggs increases, hosts are less likely to reject them and require greater differences in appearance to do so. Repeated parasitism by the same cuckoo finch female is common in host nests and likely to be an adaptation to increase the probability of host acceptance. Thus, repeated parasitism interacts with egg mimicry to exploit cognitive and sensory limitations in host defences. PMID:24064931

  10. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008-2009) to currently about 12-15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of 'big misses', resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. PMID:26597920

  11. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  12. Automatic misclassification rejection for LDA classifier using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Menon, Radhika; Di Caterina, Gaetano; Lakany, Heba; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Conway, Bernard A; Soraghan, John J

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a technique to improve the performance of an LDA classifier by determining if the predicted classification output is a misclassification and thereby rejecting it. This is achieved by automatically computing a class specific threshold with the help of ROC curves. If the posterior probability of a prediction is below the threshold, the classification result is discarded. This method of minimizing false positives is beneficial in the control of electromyography (EMG) based upper-limb prosthetic devices. It is hypothesized that a unique EMG pattern is associated with a specific hand gesture. In reality, however, EMG signals are difficult to distinguish, particularly in the case of multiple finger motions, and hence classifiers are trained to recognize a set of individual gestures. However, it is imperative that misclassifications be avoided because they result in unwanted prosthetic arm motions which are detrimental to device controllability. This warrants the need for the proposed technique wherein a misclassified gesture prediction is rejected resulting in no motion of the prosthetic arm. The technique was tested using surface EMG data recorded from thirteen amputees performing seven hand gestures. Results show the number of misclassifications was effectively reduced, particularly in cases with low original classification accuracy. PMID:26736304

  13. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  14. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  15. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  16. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  17. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  18. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  19. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  20. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  1. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  2. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  3. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  4. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  5. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  6. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  7. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  8. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  9. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  10. Alternatively expressed genes identified in the CD4+ T cells of allograft rejection mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Chao; Song, Jing; Liang, Ting; Jin, Weirong; Kim, Yeong C; Wang, San Ming; Hou, Guihua

    2011-01-01

    Allograft rejection is a leading cause for the failure of allotransplantation. CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in this process. The identification of genes that alternatively expressed in CD4(+) T cells during allograft rejection will provide critical information for studying the mechanism of allograft rejection, finding specific gene markers for monitoring, predicting allograft rejection, and opening new ways to regulate and prevent allograft rejection. Here, we established allograft and isograft transplantation models by adoptively transferring wild-type BALB/c mouse CD4(+) T cells into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with a C57BL/6 or BALB/c mouse skin graft. Using the whole transcriptome sequencing-based serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology, we identified 97 increasingly and 88 decreasingly expressed genes that may play important roles in allograft rejection and tolerance. Functional classification of these genes shows that apoptosis, transcription regulation, cell growth and maintenance, and signal transduction are among the frequently changed functional groups. This study provides a genome-wide view for the candidate genes of CD4(+) T cells related to allotransplantation, and this report is a good resource for further microarray studies and for identifying the specific markers that are associated with clinical organ transplantations. PMID:21294963

  11. Large Solar-Rejection Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William; Sheikh, David; Patrick, Brian

    2007-01-01

    analogous to a bird on a high voltage power wire. Recent analysis confirms that positive floating potentials, ionospheric currents to the EVA suit, can be hazardous. The analysis is wrong in that the ionospheric plasma itself can close the circuit. Parametric analysis of very low voltage exposures (2 to 15 volts) could cause pain and/or involuntary muscle tetani or spinal cord shock. NASA worked with the Naval Health Research Center Detachment Directed Energy Bioeffects Laboratory to examine the affects electrical hazards could have on extravehicular activity using two models. The results of the two computational models were combined to predict areas of the body in which neurons of different diameters would be excited. They predicted that physiologically active current could be conducted across the crew member causing catastrophic hazards. Future work to analyze additional current paths was proposed. The FUSE spectrum of BB Dor, observed in a high state, is modeled with an accretion disk with a very low inclination (possibly lower than 10 degrees). Assuming an average WD mass of 0.8 solar mass leads to a distance of the order of approximately 650pc, consistent with the extremely low galactic reddening in its direction, and a mass accretion rate of 10 (exp -9) solar mass a year. The spectrum presents some broad and deep silicon and sulfur absorption lines, indicating that these elements are over-abundant: silicon is 3 times solar, and sulfur is 20 times solar. The FUSE spectrum of BB Dor, observed in a high state, is modeled with an accretion disk with a very low inclination (possibly lower than 10 degrees). Assuming an average WD mass of 0.8 solar mass leads to a distance of the order of approximately 650pc, consistent with the extremely low galactic reddening in its direction, and a mass accretion rate of 10 (exp -9) solar mass a year. The spectrum presents some broad and deep silicon and sulfur absorption lines, indicating that these elements are over-abundant: silicon is

  12. Changes in Self-Definition Impede Recovery From Rejection.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research highlights how adept people are at emotional recovery after rejection, but less research has examined factors that can prevent full recovery. In five studies, we investigate how changing one's self-definition in response to rejection causes more lasting damage. We demonstrate that people who endorse an entity theory of personality (i.e., personality cannot be changed) report alterations in their self-definitions when reflecting on past rejections (Studies 1, 2, and 3) or imagining novel rejection experiences (Studies 4 and 5). Further, these changes in self-definition hinder post-rejection recovery, causing individuals to feel haunted by their past, that is, to fear the recurrence of rejection and to experience lingering negative affect from the rejection. Thus, beliefs that prompt people to tie experiences of rejection to self-definition cause rejection's impact to linger. PMID:26498977

  13. Guidelines for proposals to conserve or reject

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scientific journal Taxon is the medium for the publication of proposals to conserve or reject scientific names of plants based on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). The first formal guidelines for the preparation of such proposals appeared in 1994; these were updated in 200...

  14. A Developmental Interpretation of Help Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Sharon; Juhasz, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of factors accounting for low levels of student participation in academic assistance programs, based on case studies of eight university students on academic probation who had rejected offers of academic assistance, using structured interviews and the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory and the Mooney Problem Checklist. Includes…

  15. The biology of acute transplant rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, N L; Kupiec-Weglinski, J W

    1991-01-01

    An intriguing and increasingly understood facet of immune responses is the ability of a recipient to destroy a foreign tissue or organ graft. The phenomenon of acute rejection of an allograft involves a series of complex and inter-related cellular and humoral events, culminating in graft death. Some of the current thinking surrounding this phenomenon is reviewed. PMID:1867525

  16. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  17. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  18. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  19. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-03-23

    Research at Virginia Tech led to two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from much of the Eastern US coals. One controls the surface properties of coal pyrite (FeS[sub 2]) by electrochemical-.potential control, referred to as the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) Process: The second controls the flotation of middlings, i.e., particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions by using polymeric reagents to react with pyrite and convert the middlings to hydrophilic particles, and is termed the Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) Process. These new concepts are based on recent research establishing the two main reasons why flotation fails to remove more than about 50% of the pyritic sulfur from coal: superficial oxidization of liberated pyrite to form polysulfide oxidation products so that a part of the liberated pyrite floats with the coal; and hydrophobic coal inclusions in the middlings dominating their flotation so that the middlings also float with the coal. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications of existing coal preparation facilities, enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that they can be used simultaneously to achieve both free pyrite and locked pyrite rejection.

  20. Nutrition: rejection is the fly's protection.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Samantha L; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-03-31

    Animals need to ingest a full set of essential amino acids through their diet. A new study in Drosophila larvae describes how activation of the kinase GCN2 in three dopaminergic neurons mediates the rejection of amino-acid-imbalanced food. PMID:24698377

  1. The QuickWee trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation to hasten non-invasive urine collection from infants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tosif, Shidan; Hopper, Sandy M; Bryant, Penelope A; Donath, Susan M; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised controlled trial of 354 infants (aged 1–12 months) who require urine sample collection, conducted in a single emergency department in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. After standard urogenital cleaning, patients will be randomised to either a novel technique of suprapubic cutaneous stimulation using cold saline-soaked gauze in circular motions or no stimulation. The study period is 5 min, after which care is determined by the treating clinician if a urine sample has not been collected. Primary outcome: whether the child voids within 5 min (yes/no). Secondary outcomes: parental and clinician satisfaction with the method, success in catching a urine sample if the child voids, and sample contamination rates. This trial will allow the definitive assessment of this novel technique, gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold saline-soaked gauze, and its utility to hasten non-invasive urine collection in infants. Ethics and dissemination The study has hospital ethics approval and is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12615000754549. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000754549; Pre-results. PMID:27515752

  2. Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

  3. Narrative Representations of Caregivers and Emotion Dysregulation as Predictors of Maltreated Children's Rejection by Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Ann; Ryan, Richard M.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to develop poor-quality representations of parents and whether these representations predicted children's rejection by peers. Found that maltreated children's representations were more negative/constricted and less positive/coherent than nonmaltreated children's.…

  4. Neural Responses to Peer Rejection in Anxious Adolescents: Contributions from the Amygdala-Hippocampal Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…

  5. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Rejection of bids....

  6. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  7. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  8. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  9. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  10. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  11. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  12. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  13. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  14. Passive rejection of heat from an isotope heat source through an open door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The isotope heat-source design for a Brayton power system includes a door in the thermal insulation through which the heat can be passively rejected to space when the power system is not operating. The results of an analysis to predict the heat-source surface temperature and the heat-source heat-exchanger temperature during passive heat rejection as a function of insulation door opening angle are presented. They show that for a door opening angle greater than 20 deg, the temperatures are less than the steady-state temperatures during power system operation.

  15. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts.

  16. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism. PMID:16283489

  17. Optical communication noise rejection using corelated photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, D.; Hockney, G. M.; Dowling, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new way to perform noise rejection using photons correlated through quantum entanglement to improve an optical communications link in the presence of uncorrelated noise. In particular, a detailed analysis is made of the case where a classical link would be saturated by an intense background, such as when a satellite is in front of the sun, and identifies where the quantum correlating system has superior performance.

  18. Funding for NSF underground laboratory is rejected

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2011-02-15

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which proponents hope could provide a niche for the US particle-physics community, faces a shutdown as early as 1 April; the National Science Board (NSB) has rejected $19 million in funding needed to keep the project going through the fall of this year. The lab is housed in a disused gold mine in South Dakota's Black Hills.

  19. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Autophagy in allografts rejection: A new direction?

    PubMed

    Sun, Hukui; Cheng, Dayan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huaiquan; Liang, Ting; Hou, Guihua

    2016-03-18

    Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection is still a major risk for graft survival. Modulating the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs is not a good choice for all patients, new rejection mechanisms discovery are crucial to limit the inflammatory process and preserve the function of the transplant. Autophagy, a fundamental cellular process, can be detected in all subsets of lymphocytes and freshly isolated naive T lymphocytes. It is required for the homeostasis and function of T lymphocytes, which lead to cell survival or cell death depending on the context. T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and costimulator signals induce strong autophagy, and autophagy deficient T cells leads to rampant apoptosis upon TCR stimulation. Autophagy has been proved to be activated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with grafts dysfunction. Furthermore, Autophagy has also emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate and adaptive immune response to self-antigens, which relates with negative selection and Foxp3(+) Treg induction. Although, the role of autophagy in allograft rejection is unknown, current data suggest that autophagy indeed sweeps across both in the graft organs and recipients lymphocytes after transplantation. This review presents the rationale for the hypothesis that targeting the autophagy pathway could be beneficial in promoting graft survival after transplantation. PMID:26876576

  1. Effect of Heat Rejection Conditions on Cryocooler Operational Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that cryocooler thermal efficiency is a strong function of heat rejection temperature, roughly following the dependency described by carnot. An equally important and generally overlooked implication of cryocooler heat-rejection thermodynamics is the effect of the heat rejection temparature control mode on cyrocooler performance and operational stability.

  2. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  3. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  4. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  5. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  6. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  7. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  8. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  9. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  10. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  11. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  12. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  13. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  14. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  15. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  16. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  17. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  18. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  19. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  20. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  1. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  2. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  3. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  4. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  5. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  6. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  7. When Is Peer Rejection Justifiable? Children's Understanding across Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonjung; Killen, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how Korean (N = 397) and U.S. (N = 333) children and adolescents (10 and 13 years of age) evaluated personality (aggression, shyness) and group (gender, nationality) characteristics as a basis for peer rejection in three contexts (friendship rejection, group exclusion, victimization). Overall, peer rejection based on "group…

  8. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  9. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  10. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  15. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  16. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  17. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  18. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  19. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  1. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  2. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  3. Children's Coping with "In Vivo" Peer Rejection: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Telch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined children's behavioral coping in response to an "in vivo" peer rejection manipulation. Participants (N = 186) ranging between 10 and 13 years of age, played a computer game based on the television show "Survivor" and were randomized to either peer rejection (i.e., being voted out of the game) or non-rejection control. During a five-min.…

  4. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a...

  5. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a...

  6. Child neglect and adolescent violence: examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E

    2005-02-01

    Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed. PMID:16047934

  7. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  8. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  9. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zanolie, Kiki; de Cremer, David; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs) in mid-adolescents (14–17 years) and early adults (19–24 years). Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder) by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3) and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5) or a hyperfair distribution (3/7). Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5) when the alternative was unfair (7/3), but made mostly unfair offers (7/3) when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7). When participants’ fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3) were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7). Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3) compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence. PMID:26445134

  10. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-12-11

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner's dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants' tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants' responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status. PMID:23188801