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Sample records for related allergic disorders

  1. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  2. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. PMID:27545731

  3. Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Holgate, Stephen T; Pawankar, Ruby; Ledford, Dennis K; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Al-Ahmad, Mona; Al-Enezi, Fatma; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Baker, David J; Bayram, Hasan; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Buters, Jeroen T M; D'Amato, Maria; Dorsano, Sofia; Douwes, Jeroen; Finlay, Sarah Elise; Garrasi, Donata; Gómez, Maximiliano; Haahtela, Tari; Halwani, Rabih; Hassani, Youssouf; Mahboub, Basam; Marks, Guy; Michelozzi, Paola; Montagni, Marcello; Nunes, Carlos; Oh, Jay Jae-Won; Popov, Todor A; Portnoy, Jay; Ridolo, Erminia; Rosário, Nelson; Rottem, Menachem; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Sibanda, Elopy; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Vitale, Carolina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts

  4. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR) (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis) in the case of non-characterised stimuli. An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications. Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed. PMID:22073046

  5. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  6. Allergic gastrointestinal motility disorders in infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2008-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, constipation and colic are among the most common disorders in infancy and early childhood. In at least a subset of infants with these functional disorders, improvement after dietary elimination of specific food proteins has been demonstrated. Gastrointestinal food allergy should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with persistent regurgitation, constipation or irritable behaviour, particularly if conventional treatment has not been beneficial. The diagnosis of food protein-induced gastrointestinal motility disorders is hampered by the absence of specific clinical features or useful laboratory markers. Gastrointestinal biopsies before commencing a hypoallergenic diet may provide the most important diagnostic clues. Early recognition is essential for the optimal management of these patients to prevent nutritional sequelae or aversive feeding behaviours. Treatment relies on hypoallergenic formulae, as well as maternal elimination diets in breast-fed infants. Further research is required to better define the pathological mechanisms and diagnostic markers of paediatric allergic gastrointestinal motility disorders. The following article will present three instructive cases followed by discussion of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and natural history of food allergic motility disorders in infancy and early childhood. PMID:18713339

  7. Update on rupatadine in the management of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, G W; Giménez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Simons, F E R; Maurer, M; Ryan, D; Scadding, G

    2015-01-01

    In a review of rupatadine published in 2008, the primary focus was on its role as an antihistamine, with a thorough evaluation of its pharmacology and interaction with histamine H1 -receptors. At the time, however, evidence was already emerging of a broader mechanism of action for rupatadine involving other mediators implicated in the inflammatory cascade. Over the past few years, the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a potent mediator involved in the hypersensitivity-type allergic reaction has gained greater recognition. Rupatadine has dual affinity for histamine H1 -receptors and PAF receptors. In view of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma group's call for oral antihistamines to exhibit additive anti-allergic/anti-inflammatory properties, further exploration of rupatadine's anti-PAF effects was a logical step forward. New studies have demonstrated that rupatadine inhibits PAF effects in nasal airways and produces a greater reduction in nasal symptoms than levocetirizine. A meta-analysis involving more than 2500 patients has consolidated the clinical evidence for rupatadine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adults and children (level of evidence Ia, recommendation A). Other recent advances include observational studies of rupatadine in everyday clinical practice situations and approval of a new formulation (1 mg/ml oral solution) for use in children. In this reappraisal, we revisit some key properties and pivotal clinical studies of rupatadine and examine new clinical data in more detail including studies that measured health-related quality of life and studies that investigated the efficacy and safety of rupatadine in other indications such as acquired cold urticaria, mosquito bite allergy and mastocytosis. PMID:25491409

  8. Brief Report: "Allergic Symptoms" in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. More than Meets the Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Asadi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Bodi; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have either family and/or personal history of "allergic symptomatology", often in the absence of positive skin or RAST tests. These symptoms may suggest mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. Moreover, children with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a spectrum of rare…

  9. Exploiting the potential of routine data to better understand the disease burden posed by allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Anandan, C; Simpson, C R; Fischbacher, C; Sheikh, A

    2006-07-01

    The Department of Health and Scottish Executive are currently undertaking independent reviews of allergy services in England (and Wales) and Scotland. Each review will assess the disease burden posed by allergic problems, involving secondary analyses of routine National Health Service (NHS) datasets. Major suggestions for re-structuring and/or re-focusing the NHS efforts to better deal with allergic disease are anticipated. The UK has some of the best datasets of routine health data in the world, but despite their strengths, they have important limitations. These include gaps in data collection, particularly in relation to monitoring of Accident & Emergency and out-patient consultations, and in-patient prescribing, thereby resulting in considerable under-estimates of hospital workload. The current gaps in service monitoring are likely to under-estimate the burden and workload associated with allergic problems, particularly in secondary care. One major limitation of existing data sources is the general inability to link individual patient level data between different datasets. By unlocking this potential there are very considerable potential gains to be made. Data linkage techniques currently being developed in the UK offer exciting new possibilities of looking across the primary-, secondary- and tertiary-care interfaces and also assessing short-and long-term social and educational outcomes in relation to allergic disorders. The current reviews of allergy services being undertaken need to be cognisant of these inherent limitations of existing data sources and would do well to recommend strategic initiatives that could enhance the availability, accessibility and quality of these datasets. Ideally, this should include investment in central data repositories staffed by teams with the necessary technical and statistical expertise, which would also take responsibility for progressing data linkage capabilities. PMID:16839400

  10. Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kakli, Hasan A; Riley, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Among the atopic disorders, allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, although multiple related symptoms may occur. Causes should be ruled out with a thorough history and physical examination, with particular attention to red flag or atypical symptoms. Skin testing or serum sampling can confirm diagnosis and also guide therapy. Therapy is multimodal, tailored to a particular patient's symptom burden and quality of life. PMID:27545735

  11. Rupatadine: a review of its use in the management of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Keam, Susan J; Plosker, Greg L

    2007-01-01

    Rupatadine (Rupafin, Rinialer, Rupax, Alergoliber) is a selective oral histamine H(1)-receptor antagonist that has also been shown to have platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist activity in vitro. It is indicated for use in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients aged >/=12 years. Clinical trials show that rupatadine is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and CIU. It has a rapid onset of action and a prolonged duration of activity. Importantly, it has no significant effect on cognition, psychomotor function or the cardiovascular system. Once-daily rupatadine significantly improves allergic rhinitis symptoms in patients with SAR, PAR or persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) compared with placebo, and provides similar symptom control to that of loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine or ebastine. In patients with CIU, longer-term use of rupatadine improves CIU symptoms to a greater extent than placebo. It is as well tolerated as other commonly used second-generation H(1)-receptor antagonists. Thus, the introduction of rupatadine extends the range of oral agents available for the treatment of allergic disorders, including allergic rhinitis and CIU. PMID:17335300

  12. T follicular helper (Tfh ) cells in normal immune responses and in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Varricchi, G; Harker, J; Borriello, F; Marone, G; Durham, S R; Shamji, M H

    2016-08-01

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh ) are located within germinal centers of lymph nodes. Cognate interaction between Tfh , B cells, and IL-21 drives B cells to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells thereby leading to antibody production. Tfh cells and IL-21 are involved in infectious and autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, vaccination, and cancer. Human peripheral blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells comprise different subsets of Tfh -like cells. Despite the importance of the IgE response in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, little is known about the role of follicular and blood Tfh cells and IL-21 in human and experimental allergic disease. Here, we review recent advances regarding the phenotypic and functional characteristics of both follicular and blood Tfh cells and of the IL-21/IL-21R system in the context of allergic disorders. PMID:26970097

  13. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  14. Age-Related Changes in Immunological Factors and Their Relevance in Allergic Disease Development During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Woo-Sung; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lim, Yeon-Mi; Yoon, Dankyu; Son, Jo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Soo-Jong; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Allergic diseases are triggered by Th2-mediated immune reactions to allergens and orchestrated by various immunological factors, including immune cells and cytokines. Although many reports have suggested that childhood is the critical period in the onset of allergic diseases and aging leads to alter the susceptibility of an individual to allergic diseases, age-related changes in various immunological factors in healthy individuals as well as their difference between healthy and allergic children have not yet been established. Methods We investigated the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells and the levels of 22 allergy-related cytokines across all age groups in individuals who were classified as clinically non-atopic and healthy. We also examined their differences between healthy and allergic children to evaluate immunological changes induced by the development of allergic diseases during childhood. Results The Th1/Th2 ratio rose gradually during the growth period including childhood, reaching peak values in the twenties-thirties age group. Th1/Th2 ratios were significantly lower in allergic children than in healthy controls, whereas 14 of 22 cytokines were significantly higher in allergic children than in healthy controls. On the other hand, there were no differences in Th1/Th2 ratios and cytokines between healthy and allergic adolescents. Conclusions In this study, age-related changes in Th1/Th2 ratios were found in normal controls across all age groups, and decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio were observed with increasing of 14 cytokines in allergic children. The results of this study may be helpful as reference values for both monitoring immunological changes according to aging in healthy individuals and distinguishing between normal and allergic subjects in terms of immune cells and soluble factors. PMID:27126727

  15. Helminth-induced IgE and protection against allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections and allergic disorders. It discusses how helminth infection can lead to IgE cross-reactivity with allergens and how this IgE has poor biological activity. This information is important for developing new diagnostic methods and treatments for allergic disorders in low-to-middle-income countries. PMID:25553796

  16. What Are Related Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection. Disorders related to Marfan syndrome can ... Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection MASS Phenotype Ectopia Lentis Syndrome Beals ...

  17. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  18. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  19. Autism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  20. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  1. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  2. RELATIVE POTENCY OF FUNGAL EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. However, relative potency of molds in the induction of allergic asthma is not clear. In this study, we tested the relative potency of fungal extracts (Metarizium anisophilae [MACA], Stachybotrys ...

  3. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  4. Evaluation on Potential Contributions of Protease Activated Receptors Related Mediators in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiyun; Zeng, Xiaoning; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) have been recognized as a distinctive four-member family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be cleaved by certain serine proteases. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the role of PARs in allergic inflammation, the fundamental pathologic changes of allergy, but the potential roles of PARs in allergy remain obscure. Since many of these proteases are produced and actively involved in the pathologic process of inflammation including exudation of plasma components, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tissue damage and repair, PARs appear to make important contribution to allergy. The aim of the present review is to summarize the expression of PARs in inflammatory and structural cells, the influence of agonists or antagonists of PARs on cell behavior, and the involvement of PARs in allergic disorders, which will help us to better understand the roles of serine proteases and PARs in allergy. PMID:24876677

  5. Knowledge of Surgery-Related Allergic Contact Dermatitis among Florida Dermatological Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Panta; Kirsner, Robert S.; Amado, Antoine; Fleming, Lora E.; Nouri, Keyvan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess knowledge base and practice habits of dermatological surgeons regarding surgery-related allergic contact dermatitis. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. The Florida Society of Dermatologic Surgery served as the study group. Participants. Cohort of dermatological surgeons. Measurements. An anonymous, close-ended survey instrument eliciting common surgical practices as well as allergic contact dermatitis knowledge. Results. Among the 45 respondents, 87 percent reported performing surgery more than 10 times per week and only 14 percent of respondents reported using latex-free gloves in their practice. Nearly two-thirds (66%) of respondents reported diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis either among themselves, their surgical staff, and/or patients. Surgeons were noted to use the TRUE Test® to screen for adhesive allergy. While colophony can be found both in adhesive products and on the TRUE Test, the main adhesives found in perisurgical products, acrylates, cannot. Similarly, the TRUE Test does not screen for antiseptics, yet this group of respondents suspected antiseptics nearly one-fourth of the time and used the TRUE Test to screen for them. Lastly, six dermatological surgeons used the TRUE Test to screen for suture allergy. While only two used chromated cat gut (the TRUE Test screens for chromium), the other surgical components are not screened. Conclusion. Education among dermatological surgeons is needed regarding exposure to a potential allergen in the surgical setting and risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:20725578

  6. Chorea and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhidayasiri, R; Truong, D

    2004-01-01

    Chorea refers to irregular, flowing, non-stereotyped, random, involuntary movements that often possess a writhing quality referred to as choreoathetosis. When mild, chorea can be difficult to differentiate from restlessness. When chorea is proximal and of large amplitude, it is called ballism. Chorea is usually worsened by anxiety and stress and subsides during sleep. Most patients attempt to disguise chorea by incorporating it into a purposeful activity. Whereas ballism is most often encountered as hemiballism due to contralateral structural lesions of the subthalamic nucleus and/or its afferent or efferent projections, chorea may be the expression of a wide range of disorders, including metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, vascular, and neurodegenerative, as well as drug induced syndromes. In clinical practice, Sydenham's chorea is the most common form of childhood chorea, whereas Huntington's disease and drug induced chorea account for the majority of adult onset cases. The aim of this review is to provide an up to date discussion of this disorder, as well as a practical approach to its management. PMID:15356354

  7. Pregnancy-related liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Jamwal, Kapil D; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A; Eapen, Chundamannil E

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy-related liver disorders accounted for 8% of all maternal deaths at our center from 1999 to 2011. Of the three pregnancy-related liver disorders (acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), HELLP (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and pre-eclamptic liver dysfunction, which can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcome, AFLP is most typically under - diagnosed. Risk of maternal death can be minimised by timely recognition and early/aggressive multi-specialty management of these conditions. Urgent termination of pregnancy remains the cornerstone of therapy for some of these life threatening disorders, but recent advancements in our understanding help us in better overall management of these patients. This review focuses on various aspects of pregnancy-related liver disorders. PMID:25755551

  8. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  9. Novel cytokines and cytokine-producing T cells in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Julia A; Borish, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases reflect various pathways of T lymphocyte inflammation and largely comprise T helper (Th) 2-associated processes. Recent investigations have identified pathways involved in promoting Th2 responses. Additionally, novel T-cell subtypes, each with its own distinct cytokine profile, contribute to the heterogeneous presentations of allergic diseases. This article focuses on recent developments including novel effector (nuocytes, Th9, and Th22) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) families of lymphocytes as well as cytokines that are central in driving Th2 differentiation (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-9, IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], and IL-33). Recent literature and investigations were reviewed. Unregulated IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 activity results in activation of Th2 cells, mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, and basophils, leading to inflammatory processes that define allergic disease. As such, these cytokines are central mediators capable of instigating the inflammatory processes responsible for allergen-mediated diseases. The previous paradigm of Th1/Th2 imbalance driving allergic disease is expanded by identification of novel T helper families (nuocytes, Th9, Th17, and Th22) with their signature cytokines, which provide alterative avenues for investigation of neutrophil-predominant asthma and other heterogeneous presentations of allergic diseases. IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 are attractive targets for therapeutics designed to ameliorate Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Moreover, the ability to delineate novel regulatory and effector T-cell lineages among CD4(+) T cells challenges the Th1/Th2 paradigm of allergic disease and invites further avenues of investigation into the role of these cells in allergic disease. PMID:21439160

  10. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. These symptoms can't be traced to a specific physical cause. In people who have a somatic symptom and related disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain ...

  11. Collagen VI related muscle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, A; Bushby, K

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding collagen VI (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) cause Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), two conditions which were previously believed to be completely separate entities. BM is a relatively mild dominantly inherited disorder characterised by proximal weakness and distal joint contractures. UCMD was originally described as an autosomal recessive condition causing severe muscle weakness with proximal joint contractures and distal hyperlaxity. Here we review the clinical phenotypes of BM and UCMD and their diagnosis and management, and provide an overview of the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of collagen VI related disorders. PMID:16141002

  12. Variation in Uteroglobin-Related Protein 1 (UGRP1) gene is associated with Allergic Rhinitis in Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Uteroglobin-Related Protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretoglobulin protein which has been suggested to play a role in lung inflammation and allergic diseases. UGRP1 has also been shown to be an important pneumoprotein, with diagnostic potential as a biomarker of lung damage. Previous genetic studies evaluating the association between variations on UGRP1 and allergic phenotypes have yielded mixed results. The aim of this present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms in UGRP1 and investigate if they were associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Singapore Chinese population. Methods Resequencing of the UGRP1 gene was conducted on 40 randomly selected individuals from Singapore of ethnic Chinese origin. The polymorphisms identified were then tagged and genotyped in a population of 1893 Singapore Chinese individuals. Genetic associations were evaluated in this population comparing 795 individuals with allergic rhinitis, 718 with asthma (of which 337 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis) and 717 healthy controls with no history of allergy or allergic diseases. Results By resequencing the UGRP1 gene within our population, we identified 11 novel and 16 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). TagSNPs were then genotyped, revealing a significant association between rs7726552 and allergic rhinitis (Odds Ratio: 0.81, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.66-0.98, P = 0.039). This association remained statistically significant when it was analyzed genotypically or when stratified according to haplotypes. When variations on UGRP1 were evaluated against asthma, no association was observed. Conclusion This study documents the association between polymorphisms in UGRP1 and allergic rhinitis, suggesting a potential role in its pathogenesis. PMID:21410962

  13. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  14. Relational competence and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

    2007-06-01

    Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary

  15. [DSM-5: OCD and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Toro-Martínez, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    DSM-5 moved OCD out from under the Anxiety Disorder section, into a new category: Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders and added two new specifiers. Specifically a modification of one specifier (insight) and the addition of a new tic specifier. DSM-5 redefined obsessions and recognizes the importance of avoidance and thought stopping beyond compulsions as other strategies to deal with obsessions. OCD related disorders include: Trichotillomania, Hoarding Disorder, Skin Picking Disorder, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. PMID:24887372

  16. Presence of other allergic disease modifies the effect of early childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dell, Sharon D; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernard; Brook, Jeffrey R; Foty, Richard G; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Marshall, Laura; Miller, J David; To, Teresa; Walter, Stephen D; Stieb, David M

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), has been associated with incident childhood asthma. Timing of exposure and atopic status may be important effect modifiers. We collected cross-sectional data on asthma outcomes from Toronto school children aged 5-9years in 2006. Lifetime home, school and daycare addresses were obtained to derive birth and cumulative NO2 exposures for a nested case-control subset of 1497 children. Presence of other allergic disease (a proxy for atopy) was defined as self-report of one or more of doctor-diagnosed rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders, and examine hypothesized effect modifiers while accounting for clustering by school. In children with other allergic disease, birth, cumulative and 2006 NO2 were associated with lifetime asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.09-2.36 respectively per interquartile range increase) and wheeze (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.89; 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.21). No or weaker effects were seen in those without allergic disease, and effect modification was amplified when a more restrictive algorithm was used to define other allergic disease (at least 2 of doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis, eczema or food allergy). The effects of modest NO2 levels on childhood asthma were modified by the presence of other allergic disease, suggesting a probable role for allergic sensitization in the pathogenesis of TRAP initiated asthma. PMID:24472824

  17. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders. PMID:26598817

  18. Are impulse-control disorders related to bipolar disorder?

    PubMed

    McElroy, S L; Pope, H G; Keck, P E; Hudson, J I; Phillips, K A; Strakowski, S M

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed available evidence regarding a possible relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and bipolar disorder. Studies examining the phenomenology, course, comorbidity, family history, biology, and treatment response of ICDs were compared with similar studies of bipolar disorder. Although no studies directly compare a cohort of ICD patients with a cohort of mood disorder patients, available data suggest that ICDs and bipolar disorder share a number of features: (1) phenomenologic similarities, including harmful, dangerous, or pleasurable behaviors, impulsivity, and similar affective symptoms and dysregulation; (2) onset in adolescence or early adulthood and episodic and/or chronic course; (3) high comorbidity with one another and similar comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders; (4) elevated familial rates of mood disorder; (5) possible abnormalities in central serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission; and (6) response to mood stabilizers and antidepressants. However, ICDs and bipolar disorder differ in important respects. In particular, some ICDs may be more closely related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) than is bipolar disorder. Although the similarities between ICDs and bipolar disorder may be coincidental, they suggest that the two conditions may be related and thus may share at least one common pathophysiologic abnormality. To explain this possible relationship, we hypothesize that impulsivity and bipolarity (or mania) are related, that compulsivity and unipolarity (or depression) are similarly related, and that each state may represent opposing poles of related, or even a single, psychological dimension. PMID:8826686

  19. Rupatadine: pharmacological profile and its use in the treatment of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Picado, César

    2006-10-01

    Rupatadine is a once-daily, non-sedating, selective and long-acting new drug with a strong antagonist activity towards both histamine H(1) receptors and platelet-activating factor receptors. The use of rupatadine is indicated in adult and adolescent patients (> 12 years of age) suffering from intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. In the treatment of these diseases, rupatadine is at least as effective as ebastine, cetirizine, loratadine and desloratadine. A very good safety profile of rupatadine has been evidenced in various studies, including a long-term (1-year) safety study. Rupatadine does not present drug-drug interactions with azithromycin, fluoxetine and lorazepam, but should not be administered concomitantly with known CYP3A4 inhibitors. PMID:17020424

  20. Dystonia: Related and Differential Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... respond, too. What is the difference between a Parkinson's disease patient with dystonia and a dystonia patient with Parkinson's symptoms? Parkinson's disease is a neurological movement disorder ...

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  2. Highly significant linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis and related allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brasch‐Andersen, C; Haagerup, A; Børglum, A D; Vestbo, J; Kruse, T A

    2006-01-01

    Background Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra‐individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many or all are still inconclusive. Following genome‐wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12–q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. Objective To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib‐pair families were fine‐scale mapped in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) ⩾1.5 in the genome‐wide scans. Results Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib‐pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis (MLS 5.55, identity by descent (IBD) 63.9%) and atopy (increased specific immunoglobulin E) (MLS 3.71, IBD 61.7%). We obtained an MLS of 5.1 (IBD 67.3%) at 3q13.31 when sib pairs with both rhinitis and atopy were analysed. Conclusion This study reports the first statistically significant evidence for a genetic susceptibility locus for rhinitis and to our knowledge shows the most significant evidence to date of linkage for any allergy phenotype. PMID:16525028

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Gabrielli, Filippo; Albano, Claudio; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Mattei, Chiara; Solano, Paola; Vinciguerra, Valentina; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry. PMID:19450269

  4. Peptide-based allergen specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    El-Qutob, David; Reche, Pedro; Subiza, José L; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT) and environmental control are the only etiologic treatments of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. The clinical benefit of ASIT relies on the selection of the patients and the identification and administration of the allergen, or allergens. Different routes of administration have been investigated, including subcutaneous, intradermal, epicutaneous, sublingual, inhaled, or intra-lymphatic. While subcutaneous and sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy may require from 3 to 5 years of treatment, clinical efficacy with intra-lymphatic treatment can be achieved after 3 injections. The most severe side effect of ASIT is anaphylaxis. Novel approaches are being investigated to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy vaccines, maintaining immunogenicity. Peptide immunotherapy has been directed mostly against autoimmune diseases, but the use of synthetic peptides for ASIT is a promising field in basic science, applied immunology and in clinical development. Short synthetic peptides bear allergen-specific CD4 T-cell epitopes which induce tolerance by stimulating regulatory (Treg) and Th1 cells. In the present patent review, we describe new trends in allergen immunotherapy using peptides, which, from a clinical point of view, are promising. PMID:25760734

  5. GATA-related hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 are fundamental regulators of hematopoiesis and have overlapping expression profiles. GATA2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and early erythroid-megakaryocytic progenitors and activates a certain set of early-phase genes, including the GATA2 gene itself. GATA2 also initiates GATA1 gene expression. In contrast, GATA1 is expressed in relatively mature erythroid progenitors and facilitates the expression of genes associated with differentiation, including the GATA1 gene itself; however, GATA1 represses the expression of GATA2. Switching the GATA factors from GATA2 to GATA1 appears to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms underlying erythroid differentiation. Loss-of-function analyses using mice in vivo have indicated that GATA2 and GATA1 are functionally nonredundant and that neither can compensate for the absence of the other. However, transgenic expression of GATA2 under the transcriptional regulation of the Gata1 gene rescues lethal dyserythropoiesis in GATA1-deficient mice, illustrating that the dynamic expression profiles of these GATA factors are critically important for the maintenance of hematopoietic homeostasis. Analysis of naturally occurring leukemias in GATA1-knockdown mice revealed that leukemic stem cells undergo functional alterations in response to exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. This mechanism may also underlie the aggravating features of relapsing leukemias. Recent hematologic analyses have suggested that disturbances in the balance of the GATA factors are associated with specific types of hematopoietic disorders. Here, we describe GATA1- and GATA2-related hematologic diseases, focusing on the regulation of GATA factor gene expression. PMID:27235756

  6. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  7. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES AS ADJUVANTS IN ALLERGIC AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: Studies have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) worsen respiratory diseases including allergic asthma. The adjuvant effects of DEP in the airways have been widely reported; however, the precise determinants and mechanisms of these effects are ill-defined. S...

  8. Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Maizels, R M

    2016-06-01

    The profile of global health today presents a striking reciprocal distribution between parasitic diseases in many of the world's lower-income countries, and ever-increasing levels of inflammatory disorders such as allergy, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases in the more affluent societies. Attention is particularly focused on helminth worm parasites, which are associated with protection from allergy and inflammation in both epidemiologic and laboratory settings. One mechanistic explanation of this is that helminths drive the regulatory arm of the immune system, abrogating the ability of the host to expel the parasites, while also dampening reactivity to many bystander specificities. Interest has therefore heightened into whether helminth parasites, or their products, hold therapeutic potential for immunologic disorders of the developed world. In this narrative review, progress across a range of trials is discussed, together with prospects for isolating individual molecular mediators from helminths that may offer defined new therapies for inflammatory conditions. PMID:27172808

  9. Translational Mini-Review Series on Toll-like Receptors: Toll-like receptor ligands as novel pharmaceuticals for allergic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and associated signalling pathways provides a key molecular basis for our understanding of the relationship between exposure to microbial products and susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders. Indeed, ligation of TLR controls innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing synthesis of pro- as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines and activation of effector as well as regulatory lymphocytes. TLRs are therefore considered as major targets for the development of vaccine adjuvants, but also of new immunotherapies. Herein, we review the potential of TLR ligands as a novel class of pharmaceuticals for the prevention or treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:17223960

  10. Allergy-Related Disorders in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Carino, Mauro; Romita, Paolo; Foti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Working conditions in the construction industry have improved in many industrialized countries, but heavy physical work with recurrent exposure to chemical agents, dust, and climatic influences still represents considerable risk for construction workers and may affect their health. The aim of this review is to analyze available data of the literature on allergy-related respiratory and skin disorders with emphasis on a preventive appraisal in order to produce statements and recommendations based on research evidence. The most common agents involved in the construction industry as a cause of occupational asthma (OA) in industrialized countries are isocyanates, wood dust, resins, glues, cobalt, and chromium. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immunologic cell-mediated response to a sensitizing agent and the most common sensitizing agents associated with construction workers are epoxy resins, thiurams and thiazoles, and chromates. Medical surveillance must consider individual risk factors such as differences in individual susceptibility and sensitization to agents at workplace. Once work-related disorder is confirmed, adequate fitness for work should be assessed for the worker impaired by health condition. A reliable diagnosis of an index case is a sentinel event that may reveal risks for workers with similar exposure, leading to a revised risk assessment at the workplace that should reduce the risk and prevent further cases. PMID:24971193

  11. Relations among speech, language, and reading disorders.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Bruce F; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we critically review the evidence for overlap among three developmental disorders, namely speech sound disorder (SSD), language impairment (LI), and reading disability (RD), at three levels of analysis: diagnostic, cognitive, and etiological. We find that while overlap exists at all three levels, it varies by comorbidity subtype, and the relations among these three disorders are complex and not fully understood. We evaluate which comorbidity models can be rejected or supported as explanations for why and how these three disorders overlap and what new data are needed to better define their relations. PMID:18652545

  12. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation. PMID:25726290

  13. Phototherapy-related ophthalmologic disorders.

    PubMed

    DePry, Jennifer; Brescoll, Jennifer; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Rambhatla, Pranita; Lim, Henry W; Cooper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is an effective treatment option for a variety of dermatologic disorders, and the list of indications for its use continues to grow with advances in technology and our understanding of disease processes. Commonly used types of phototherapy include PUVA, broadband UVB, narrowband UVB, photodynamic therapy, and intense pulsed light therapy. Each therapeutic modality can have adverse acute and chronic effects on periocular and ocular structures, including the conjunctiva, cornea, crystalline lens, and retina. There are many types of protective eyewear options available, including goggles and contact lenses that can be used to prevent damage to ocular structures during phototherapy, particularly if eyelid closure is incomplete. PMID:25704945

  14. JM2, encoding a fork head–related protein, is mutated in X-linked autoimmunity–allergic disregulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatila, Talal A.; Blaeser, Frank; Ho, Nga; Lederman, Howard M.; Voulgaropoulos, Constantine; Helms, Cindy; Bowcock, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    X-linked autoimmunity–allergic disregulation syndrome (XLAAD) is an X-linked recessive immunological disorder characterized by multisystem autoimmunity, particularly early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, associated with manifestations of severe atopy including eczema, food allergy, and eosinophilic inflammation. Consistent with the allergic phenotype, analysis of two kindreds with XLAAD revealed marked skewing of patient T lymphocytes toward the Th2 phenotype. Using a positional-candidate approach, we have identified in both kindreds mutations in JM2, a gene on Xp11.23 that encodes a fork head domain–containing protein. One point mutation at a splice junction site results in transcripts that encode a truncated protein lacking the fork head homology domain. The other mutation involves an in-frame, 3-bp deletion that is predicted to impair the function of a leucine zipper dimerization domain. Our results point to a critical role for JM2 in self tolerance and Th cell differentiation. This article may have been published online in advance of the print edition. The date of publication is available from the JCI website, http://www.jci.org. J. Clin. Invest. 106:R75–R81 (2000). PMID:11120765

  15. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  16. Airway Fibrinogenolysis and the Initiation of Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Mak, Garbo; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Knight, J. Morgan; Porter, Paul; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    The past 15 years of allergic disease research have produced extraordinary improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway allergic diseases such as asthma. Whereas it was previously viewed as largely an immunoglobulin E-mediated process, the gradual recognition that T cells, especially Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells and Th17 cells, play a major role in asthma and related afflictions has inspired clinical trials targeting cytokine-based inflammatory pathways that show great promise. What has yet to be clarified about the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory disorders, however, are the fundamental initiating factors, both exogenous and endogenous, that drive and sustain B- and T-cell responses that underlie the expression of chronic disease. Here we review how proteinases derived from diverse sources drive allergic responses. A central discovery supporting the proteinase hypothesis of allergic disease pathophysiology is the role played by airway fibrinogen, which in part appears to serve as a sensor of unregulated proteinase activity and which, when cleaved, both participates in a novel allergic signaling pathway through Toll-like receptor 4 and forms fibrin clots that contribute to airway obstruction. Unresolved at present is the ultimate source of airway allergenic proteinases. From among many potential candidates, perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility such enzymes derive from airway fungi. Together, these new findings expand both our knowledge of allergic disease pathophysiology and options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25525732

  17. RELATIVE POTENCY OF MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Mold has been associated with the exacerbation of allergic asthma. However, its role in induction of allergic asthma is not clear. Using a previously developed mouse model for allergic asthma, we compared potencies of two fungal extracts (Metarhizium anisop...

  18. [Porphyrias and haem related disorders].

    PubMed

    Peoc'h, K; Martin-Schmitt, C; Talbi, N; Deybach, J-C; Gouya, L; Puy, H

    2016-03-01

    The hereditary porphyrias comprise a group of eight metabolic disorders of the haem biosynthesis pathway characterised by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions or both. Each porphyria is caused by abnormal function of a separate enzymatic step resulting in a specific accumulation of haem precursors. Seven porphyrias are the consequence of a partial enzyme deficiency while a gain of function mechanism has been recently characterised in a novel porphyria. Acute porphyrias present with severe abdominal pain, nausea, constipation, confusion and seizure, which may be life threatening. Cutaneous porphyrias can be present with either acute painful photosensitivity or skin fragility and blisters. Rare recessive porphyrias usually manifest in early childhood with either severe chronic neurological symptoms or chronic haemolysis and severe cutaneous photosensitivity. Porphyrias are still underdiagnosed, but once they are suspected, and depending on the clinical presentation, a specific and simple front line test allows the diagnosis in all symptomatic patients. Diagnosis is essential to institute as soon as possible a specific treatment. Screening families to identify presymptomatic carriers is crucial to prevent chronic complications and overt disease by counselling on avoiding potential precipitants. PMID:26774916

  19. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very frequent disease with a prevalence of 15-20%. Symptoms are most pronounced in young people while, for some unknown reason, the elderly become clinically hyposensitized. Pollen is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and house dust mite and animals are the main causes of perennial allergic rhinitis. Histamine is the main cause of sneezing and hypersecretion, while other mediators probably also play a role in nasal blockage. In polyposis, a local denervation is an important cause of vascular leakage, edema and polyp formation. Antihistamines have a positive effect on sneezing and hypersecretion, but not on blockage. As they have a quick onset of action they are useful in patients with mild and occasional symptoms. A nasal steroid is preferable in patients with persistent symptoms, since it is more effective on all nasal symptoms. Short-term use of a systemic steroid can be a valuable adjunct to topical treatment, especially in nasal polyposis, when there is a temporary failure of topical treatment in a blocked nose. A nasal vasoconstrictor can be added for short-term treatment, and an ipratropium spray can be beneficial in perennial non-allergic rhinitis, when watery secretion is the dominant symptom. Immunotherapy can be added in allergic rhinitis, when pharmacotherapy is insufficient. This chapter is based on the author's personal experience with allergic rhinitis, as a patient, a doctor and a researcher. Therefore, it is not a balanced review and the references will be highly selected as they largely consist of the author's own publications. As the text is mainly based on personal research, steroids are described in detail, while, with regard to immunotherapy, the reader is referred to another chapter. In addition to allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis will be described. It was formerly believed to be an allergic disease, but we now know that it is not. However, with regard to histopathology and drug responsiveness this disease is

  20. Autoimmune thyroid disease and allergic contact dermatitis: two immune-related pathologies in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Bluvshteyn-Walker, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. She had a firm goiter (II°) and she stated that she felt constant warmth, nervousness and experienced palpitations. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism was diagnosed (TSH 0.022 mIU/L↓; fT4 21.0 pmol/L; fT3 7.5 pmol/L↑; antithyroperoxidase antibodies 1148.0 U/mL↑; antithyroglobulin antibodies 41.4 U/mL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies 2.3 U/L↑). Thyroid ultrasound showed multiple hypoechogenic areas with increased vascular flow. During treatment with methimazole, a small hyperpigmented and moderately irritated region was found on the right side of the umbilicus. It was not an allergic skin reaction to methimazole but the classic contact allergic dermatitis, probably a result of nickel in her belt. Two years after stopping the treatment she returned to clinics. She was euthyroid but manifested a firm goiter and ultrasonographic features of autoimmune thyroid disease. The diagnostic work-up concerning antithyroid antibodies is mandatory to confirm the ongoing autoimmune process with a long-term significance. PMID:22570947

  1. Noonan syndrome and clinically related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D.; Zenker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common, clinically variable developmental disorder. Cardinal features include postnatally reduced growth, distinctive facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, variable cognitive deficit and skeletal, ectodermal and hematologic anomalies. Noonan syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, and is genetically heterogeneous. So far, heterozygous mutations in nine genes (PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, RAF1, BRAF, SHOC2, MEK1 and CBL) have been documented to underlie this disorder or clinically related phenotypes. Based on these recent discoveries, the diagnosis can now be confirmed molecularly in approximately 75% of affected individuals. Affected genes encode for proteins participating in the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signal transduction pathway, which is implicated in several developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity and growth. Here, we provide an overview of clinical aspects of this disorder and closely related conditions, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:21396583

  2. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. If your doctor determines you ... Others cause little or no sleepiness. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. Ask your ...

  3. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  4. 32 Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow Levels in Children With Allergic Rhinitis and Their Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL)

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Major K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis impairs the quality of life children. There is paucity of data with regards to clinical profile and health related quality of life (HRQL) of children with Allergic rhinitis in India and hence we studied the clinical profile and measured Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) of children with allergic rhinitis in an urban population, and assessed their Quality of life. Methods Children with moderate to severe persistent Allergic rhinitis, diagnosed as per Allergic Rhinitis and Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines, in the age group of 6 to 18 years were included in this study. The quality of life questionnaire, pediatric and adolescent by Juniper et al was used. PNIF was measured by using ‘In- Check’ peak nasal inspiratory flow meter. Results Of the 100 children studied, 70 (70%) were in the age group of 6 to 11years and 30/100 (30%) were between 12 and 18 years of age. An equal distribution of sex was observed in 6 to 11 year age group, and in the 12 to 18 year age group there was a male preponderance (1.9:1). Majority (87%) of children in our study had Moderate Allergic rhinitis and 13% had severe Allergic rhinitis. Bronchial asthma, a commonly reported entity in Allergic rhinitis was seen in 19% of the cases. 66% of children in our study had PNIF values of the fifth to 50th percentile where as 24% were in the third to fifth percentile and 10% had their PNIF values less than third percentile. PNIF showed a linear correlation with severity of allergic rhinitis. HRQL assessment showed that children in the 6 to 11 year group had derangement in the activity and physical symptoms domain while children in the12 to 18 year group had predominately involvement of emotional and practical problem domains. Quality of life score worsened with decrease in PNIF. Conclusions PNIF is very useful tool to quantify the nasal obstruction in Allergic Rhinitis. PNIF is easy to administer, reproducible and correlates well with the severity of the disease. HRQL

  5. Movement-related event-related desynchronization in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) provides information on the dynamics of cortical activation during cognitive and motor tasks and has been applied in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we focus on studies concerning movement-related activity, which showed changes in amount, topography, or time course in relation to not only involvement of the motor system--such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and stroke affecting the sensorimotor (SM) pathways--but also physiological aging, degenerative dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). In these disorders, the extent of abnormality in the pattern of ERD/ERS is related to the severity of the underlying pathology. Moreover in MS, a correlation with the severity of brain tissue has been found. While there is consistency in changes related to ipokinetic disorders, mainly consisting of delayed appearance of ERD to movement preparation, changes occurring in other brain disorders need to be replicated or raise doubts on the specificity of changes across different diseases. Further studies are needed in order to validate the usefulness of this methodology in the assessment of the single patient for diagnosis and monitoring of the natural course of the disease and of treatment efficacy. PMID:17071242

  6. [Allergic inflammation in respiratory system].

    PubMed

    An, Lifeng; Wang, Yanshu; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of allergic disease such as asthma and allergic rhinitis tell the similar story: when the endogenous and exogenous inflammatory mechanisms occur disorder, the body may begin with inflammatory cell activation, namely through the release of cytokine and inflammatory mediator role in the corresponding target cells, activate the sensory nerve fiber, acting on the cell organ specificity effect, clinical symptoms. This article is divided into the following five parts focused on the research progress of allergic inflammatory diseases: (1) inflammatory cells; (2) staphylococcus aureus superantigen; (3) small molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators, lipid classes medium); (4) nerve fibers and effect cells; (5) genetic and epigenetic factors. PMID:26012309

  7. Smoking and hormone-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Spangler, J G

    1999-09-01

    Through its antiestrogenic effect, cigarette smoking is linked to a variety of hormone-related disorders, both benign and malignant. Diseases that depend on this hormone for growth and development tend to be less common among smokers, such as endometrial cancer and uterine fibroids. Some normal, estrogen-dependent physiologic processes are affected by smoking, making osteoporosis and premature menopause more common among women who smoke. In other disorders, the link between sex hormone levels, cigarette smoking, and disease development is less clear. PMID:10436284

  8. [PRRT2 gene-related paroxysmal disorders].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Mao, Xiao; Wang, Junling; Li, Nan; Tang, Beisha

    2014-10-01

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2), the causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias (PKD), benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) and infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA), also causes a variety of neurological paroxysmal disorders. These diseases share the same characteristics which may be due to the same genetic defect. We therefore propose to name them as PRRT2-related paroxysmal disorders (PRPDs) in order to assist clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. This paper has reviewed the clinical phenotype, common features and pathogenesis of the PRPDs. PMID:25297589

  9. A systematic review of socioeconomic position in relation to asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Eleonora; Cabieses, Báltica; Pinart, Mariona; Valdés, Macarena; Antó, Josep Maria; Wright, John

    2015-08-01

    The role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in the development of asthma and allergies is unclear, with some pointing to the risks of low SEP and other research pointing in the direction of higher SEP being associated with higher prevalence rates. The aim of this systematic review is to clarify associations between SEP and the prevalence of asthma and allergies. Out of 4407 records identified, 183 were included in the analysis. Low SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma in 63% of the studies. Research on allergies, however, showed a positive association between higher SEP and illness in 66% of studies. Pooled estimates for the odds ratio of disease for the highest compared with the lowest SEP confirmed these results for asthma (unadjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.37-1.39), allergies in general (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.72), atopic dermatitis (unadjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (unadjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46-0.59). Sensitivity analyses with a subsample of high-quality studies led to the same conclusion. Evidence from this systematic review suggests that asthma is associated with lower SEP, whereas the prevalence of allergies is associated with higher SEP. PMID:25537562

  10. Rupatadine in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Mullol, J; Bousquet, J; Bachert, C; Canonica, W G; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Kowalski, M L; Martí-Guadaño, E; Maurer, M; Picado, C; Scadding, G; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2008-04-01

    Histamine is the primary mediator involved the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria, and this explains the prominent role that histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists have in the treatment of these disorders. However, histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory cascade. There is an emerging view that drugs which can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory processes may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. This is an important consideration of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative which provides a scientific basis for defining what are the desirable properties of an 'ideal' antihistamine. In this review of rupatadine, a newer dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and PAF-receptors, we evaluate the evidence for a mechanism of action which includes anti-inflammatory effects in addition to a powerful inhibition of H(1)- and PAF-receptors. We assess this in relation to the clinical efficacy (particularly the speed of onset of action) and safety of rupatadine, and importantly its longer term utility in everyday life. In clinical trials, rupatadine has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). It has a fast onset of action, producing rapid symptomatic relief, and it also has an extended duration of clinical activity which allows once-daily administration. In comparative clinical trials rupatadine was shown to be at least as effective as drugs such as loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine and ebastine in reducing allergic symptoms in adult/adolescent patients with seasonal, perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis. Importantly, rupatadine demonstrated no adverse cardiovascular effects in preclinical or extensive clinical testing, nor negative significant effects on cognition or psychomotor performance (including a practical driving study). It improved the

  11. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  12. Personality Disorders (and Their Relation to Syndromal Disorders).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.

    Personality disorders and their syndromal disorders may be considered in terms of their distal, phylogenetic origins, and their structures and functions. From an evolutionary standpoint, the syndromal disorders such as anxiety and depression may be viewed as preprogrammed reactions to a perceived threat or a perceived depletion of the individual's…

  13. Effects of sublingual immunotherapy on allergic inflammation: an update.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Colombo, Giselda; Marcucci, Francesco; Caminati, Marco; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Frati, Franco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2012-08-01

    The most common allergic diseases, and especially the respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma, are closely related to the allergic inflammation elicited by the causative allergen. This makes inflammation the main target of anti-allergic therapies. Among the available treatments, allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) has a patent effect on allergic inflammation, which persists also after its discontinuation, and is the only therapy able to modify the natural history of allergy. The traditional, subcutaneous route of administration was demonstrated to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn correct the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation and characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-32 cytokines to a Th1-type response. This immune deviation is related to an increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production as well as to the anergy of Th2 or to tolerance, the latter being related to the generation of allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms observed during sublingual AIT with high allergen doses proved to be similar to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Data obtained from biopsies clearly indicate that the pathophysiology of the oral mucosa, with particular importance for mucosal DCs, plays a crucial role in inducing tolerance to the administered allergen. PMID:22506880

  14. [Sleep and autonomic function: sleep related breathing disorders in Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD), including obstructive and central sleep apnea, vocal cord abductor paralysis and dysrhythmic breathing pattern, are frequently observed. SRBD may have a considerable impact on variation of autonomic nervous activity during sleep. The previous studies correlated upper airway muscle dysfunction related parkinsonism with increased prevalence of SRBD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recently, the clinical significance of SRBD and its impact on sleepiness and disease severity have been debated. In this review, we discuss sleep and autonomic function, especially, SRBD in PD and related disorders, including the previous studies from our department. PMID:25672703

  15. Relative Risk of Perinatal Complications in Common Childhood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    Perinatal complications have been associated with a myriad of later-developing behavioral, neurological, and psychological disorders. These have included school-related disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, mood and anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. This article reviews the research that considers the…

  16. Inhibitory Effect on β -Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder. PTSD typically follows a psychologically traumatic event, and thus has a recognizable point of onset. PTSD symptoms are present shortly after an exposure to a traumatic event, abate with time in the majority of those who initially express them, and leave a significant minority with chronic PTSD. PTSD may be treated with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The treatment of the early expressions of disorder constitutes a separate domain of theory and research. The treatment of chronic PTSD often stabilizes the condition, but rarely produces stable remission. This chapter reviews the empirical evidence on the treatment of acute and chronic PTSD, outlines similarities and differences between PTSD and other Axis I disorders, evaluates new therapeutic approaches, and discusses the implications of current knowledge for the forthcoming DSM V. PMID:19716997

  19. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma. IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The frequencies of cytotoxic T cells (Tc)1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-35, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 12) were analyzed by Pearson's test. IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmatics compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients and healthy controls. More importantly, plasma IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2) cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma. Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. PMID:26547705

  20. Environmentally related disorders of the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L.; Feldman, R.G.; French, J.G. )

    1990-03-01

    Specific physical and chemical agents found in the workplace and in the general environment are responsible for characteristic pathologic processes within the nervous system. It has been shown that many neurotoxic agents produce a dose-related spectrum of impairment ranging from mild slowing of nerve conducting velocity or prolongation in reaction time to neuropathy and frank encephalopathy. Clinical manifestations are determined by the agent involved, by the dose of exposure, the vulnerability of the cellular target, the ability of the organism to metabolize and excrete the agent, and the ability to repair damage. An occupational history, including evaluation of evidence of specific agents and job history, is a critical component in the clinical management of individuals with suspect neurotoxic disease. Environmentally-induced disorders can be prevented by appropriate environmental controls. Prevention of neurotoxic disease is a complex process requiring continuous involvement of public health agencies and strong scientific research.

  1. Occupational asthma and related respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J

    1995-03-01

    Occupational rhinitis is a common but generally underreported entity. Although it may occur alone, it is frequently associated with occupational asthma. Occupational asthma may have one of several presentations that are difficult to distinguish from non-work conditions. The respiratory tract acts as the final common pathway for all inhaled environmental pollutants, whether encountered in the home or at work. More than 200 chemicals have been incriminated as a cause of work-related asthma. It is said that about 2% of the 10 million Americans who have asthma acquired it as a result of some chemical irritant or immunogen in their work environment. A number of predisposing factors facilitate the development of work-related asthma. These include industrial conditions, climatic factors, atopic predisposition, smoking, recreational drug use, viral infection, nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity, and a variety of miscellaneous factors. Pathogenetically, occupational asthma may be immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. The immunologic variants involve sensitization to a variety of large-molecular-weight constituents. The major nonimmune variant is referred to as inflammatory bronchoconstriction or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). There are well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of immunologic and nonimmunologic asthma. The several clinical variations of occupational asthma can be difficult to distinguish from nonindustrial disorders. The most common presentation in practice involves the worker with preexistent asthma who has been adversely affected by work exposures. Occasionally these industrial exposures precipitate permanent impairment. It is clear, however, that occupational asthma is not a single, simple, or homogeneous entity, even when a single specific causal factor can be identified in the workplace. Therefore the physician must be aware of the patient's entire medical history and the precise occupational exposures and must have convincing

  2. Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is an early ‘pre-clinical’ sign of Parkinson's disease (PD). The present review is a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of such dysfunction in PD and related disorders. The olfactory bulb is implicated in the dysfunction, since only those syndromes with olfactory bulb pathology exhibit significant smell loss. The role of dopamine in the production of olfactory system pathology is enigmatic, as overexpression of dopaminergic cells within the bulb's glomerular layer is a common feature of PD and most animal models of PD. Damage to cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems is likely involved, since such damage is most marked in those diseases with the most smell loss. When compromised, these systems, which regulate microglial activity, can influence the induction of localized brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and cytosolic disruption of cellular processes. In monogenetic forms of PD, olfactory dysfunction is rarely observed in asymptomatic gene carriers, but is present in many of those that exhibit the motor phenotype. This suggests that such gene-related influences on olfaction, when present, take time to develop and depend upon additional factors, such as those from aging, other genes, formation of α-synuclein- and tau-related pathology,or lowered thresholds to oxidative stress from toxic insults. The limited data available suggest that the physiological determinants of the early changes in PD-related olfactory function are likely multifactorial and may include the same determinants as those responsible for a number of other non-motor symptoms of PD, such as dysautonomia and sleep disturbances. PMID:22192366

  3. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders. PMID:19946408

  4. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  5. Comorbidity of Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical and genetic studies have suggested autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is associated with immunological abnormalities involving cytokines, immunoglobulins, inflammation, and cellular immunity, but epidemiological reports are still limited. Patients with ASDs were identified in the National Health Insurance Database from 1996 to…

  6. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  7. Basophils and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Mark C; Kim, Brian S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Artis, David

    2013-10-01

    Basophils were discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 and represent the least abundant granulocyte population in mammals. The relative rarity of basophils and their phenotypic similarities with mast cells resulted in this cell lineage being historically overlooked, both clinically and experimentally. However, recent studies in human subjects and murine systems have shown that basophils perform nonredundant effector functions and significantly contribute to the development and progression of TH2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Although the potential functions of murine and human basophils have provoked some controversy, recent genetic approaches indicate that basophils can migrate into lymphoid tissues and, in some circumstances, cooperate with other immune cells to promote optimal TH2 cytokine responses in vivo. This article provides a brief historical perspective on basophil-related research and discusses recent studies that have identified previously unappreciated molecules and pathways that regulate basophil development, activation, and function in the context of allergic inflammation. Furthermore, we highlight the unique effector functions of basophils and discuss their contributions to the development and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation in human disease. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting basophils in preventing or alleviating the development and progression of allergic inflammation. PMID:24075190

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, B; Altamura, A C; Mundo, E; Marazziti, D; Hollander, E

    2007-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is currently recognised as one of the most common psychiatric disorders as well as one of the most disabling of all medical disorders. Obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs), often comorbid with OCD, include many distinct psychiatric conditions (i.e. some somatoform disorders, eating disorders, impulse control disorders and some neurological conditions) which have overlapping symptoms and compulsive qualities with OCD. Although effective treatments exist, OCD and related disorders are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) represent the first-line treatment for OCD and related disorders. However, the time and the doses of the medications used in the treatment of OCD and related disorders differ from those recommended in depressive disorders. In addition, remission is not common for patients with OCD and related disorders in clinical practice, and poor responders as well as refractory cases may benefit from different treatment strategies including integrated treatment, pharmacological augmentation and brain stimulation techniques. PMID:17229184

  9. Genetics of Huntington's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Burgunder, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    Huntington's disease is the most frequent form of the hereditary choreas and has a multifaceted phenotype including cognitive and psychiatric impairment. The disorder is due to a dynamic mutation, which also influences the onset age of the disorder. Other genetic modifiers of the HD phenotypes have been suggested but often not confirmed by independent studies. Several syndromes with similar presentation have different genetic backgrounds, including the neuroacanthocytoses, mainly choreoacanthocytosis and MacLeod syndrome as a result of mutations in chorein and Kell protein, respectively, but also benign hereditary chorea, owing to mutations in NKX-2-1, and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, as a result of recently found mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2, PRRT2. Chorea can also be a major feature in other neurogenetic disorders, including the spinocerebellar ataxias and also in neurometabolic disorders. PMID:24657309

  10. Exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses in relation to atopy and allergic asthma: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Matricardi, Paolo M; Rosmini, Francesco; Riondino, Silvia; Fortini, Michele; Ferrigno, Luigina; Rapicetta, Maria; Bonini, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate if markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses are associated with atopy and respiratory allergies. Design Retrospective case-control study. Participants 240 atopic cases and 240 non-atopic controls from a population sample of 1659 participants, all Italian male cadets aged 17-24. Setting Air force school in Caserta, Italy. Main outcome measures Serology for Toxoplasma gondii, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis A virus, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1; skin sensitisation and IgE antibodies to relevant airborne allergens; total IgE concentration; and diagnosis of allergic asthma or rhinitis. Results Compared with controls there was a lower prevalence of T gondii (26% v 18%, P=0.027), hepatitis A virus (30% v 16%, P=0.004), and H pylori (18% v 15%, P=0.325) in atopic participants. Adjusted odds ratios of atopy decreased with a gradient of exposure to H pylori, T gondii, and hepatitis A virus (none, odds ratio 1; one, 0.70; two or three, 0.37; P for trend=0.000045) but not with cumulative exposure to the other viruses. Conversely, total IgE concentration was not independently associated with any infection. Allergic asthma was rare (1/245, 0.4%) and allergic rhinitis infrequent (16/245, 7%) among the participants (245/1659) exposed to at least two orofecal and foodborne infections (H pylori, T gondii, hepatitis A virus). Conclusion Respiratory allergy is less frequent in people heavily exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes. Hygiene and a westernised, semisterile diet may facilitate atopy by influencing the overall pattern of commensals and pathogens that stimulate the gut associated lymphoid tissue thus contributing to the epidemic of allergic asthma and rhinitis in developed countries. PMID:10669445

  11. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  12. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people. PMID:27120868

  13. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  14. Allergic diseases: the price of civilisational progress.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Sowa, Paweł; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Rutkowski, Ryszard

    2014-05-01

    Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:25097472

  15. Pregnancy and Birth-Related Brain Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    Although it once seemed simple to say that a single event such as birth trauma or asphyxia caused brain disorders like cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and epilepsy, a recent study showed that it is nearly impossible to pinpoint a single cause and its effects. Recommendations for further research are made. (BB)

  16. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  17. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  18. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy. PMID:19717065

  19. Topical glucocorticoid or pimecrolimus treatment suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin-related allergic inflammatory mechanism in an oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Na Young; Jung, Min young; Kim, Dong Hye; Lee, Hae Jin; Choi, Eung Ho

    2015-09-01

    Congenitally or early impaired skin barrier as the first event starting the 'atopic march' in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients can increase allergen penetration that results in sensitization, even in the airways, followed by asthma and allergic rhinitis. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine existing in high levels in AD skin and is considered as a novel therapeutic target for atopic disease. We generated oxazolone (Ox)-induced AD-like (Ox-AD) hairless mice and divided them into four groups according to the therapeutic challenges: topical glucocorticoid, pimecrolimus, emollient, and control (acetone-only treated). We assessed the functional studies of skin barrier, epidermal expressions of differentiation markers, IL-1α, TNF-α, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), TSLP and antimicrobial peptides (AMP), and serum IgE in each group. Topical glucocorticoid or pimecrolimus treatment improved AD-like skin lesions and barrier functions, and restored the epidermal expression of differentiation markers, IL-1α, TNF-α, PAR-2, and TSLP, in Ox-AD mice. The improvement was relatively better with the glucocorticoid than pimecrolimus. Epidermal AMP expression was restored by topical glucocorticoid, but not pimecrolimus. Our result showed that topical glucocorticoid or pimecrolimus improved the AD-like skin lesions and barrier impairment by suppressing TSLP-related allergic inflammation. PMID:25786383

  20. Is season of birth related to disordered eating and personality in women with eating disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Nicole K.; Krug, Isabel; Maxwell, Millie; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Brewerton, Timothy; Thornton, Laura M.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the relation between season of birth and eating disorder symptoms and personality characteristics in a sample of 880 women with eating disorders and 580 controls from two Price Foundation Studies. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using Structured Interview of Anorexic and Bulimic Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Date of birth was obtained from a sociodemographic questionnaire. No significant differences were observed 1) in season of birth across eating disorder subtypes and controls; nor 2) for any clinical or personality variables and season of birth. We found no evidence of season of birth variation in eating disorders symptoms or personality traits. Contributing to previous conflicting findings, the present results do not support a season of birth hypothesis for eating disorders. PMID:21150253

  1. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Calman

    2014-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) represents one member within the spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which includes eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. EGE is less common than EoE and involves a different site of disease but otherwise shares many common features with EoE. The clinical manifestations of EGE are protean and can vary from nausea and vomiting to protein-losing enteropathy or even bowel obstruction requiring surgery. Although systemic corticosteroids are an effective treatment for EGE, their use results in substantial corticosteroid toxicity. Accordingly, there is a great need for improved therapies for these patients. PMID:24813518

  2. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases: a uniform approach--a MeDALL--GA2LEN--ARIA position paper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P; Schünemann, H J; Togias, A; Akdis, M; Auffray, C; Bachert, C; Bieber, T; Bousquet, P J; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cruz, A A; Keil, T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Maurer, M; Ohta, K; Papadopoulos, N G; Roman Rodriguez, M; Samolinski, B; Agache, I; Andrianarisoa, A; Ang, C S; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ballester, F; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Basagaña, X; Bateman, E D; Bel, E H; Bedbrook, A; Beghé, B; Beji, M; Ben Kheder, A; Benet, M; Bennoor, K S; Bergmann, K C; Berrissoul, F; Bindslev Jensen, C; Bleecker, E R; Bonini, S; Boner, A L; Boulet, L P; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J L; Bush, A; Busse, W W; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Carr, W; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chiriac, A M; Costa, D J; Cox, L; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Darsow, U; Didi, T; Dolen, W K; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; El-Meziane, A; Fonseca, J A; Fokkens, W J; Fthenou, E; Gamkrelidze, A; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Gimeno-Santos, E; Guerra, S; Haahtela, T; Haddad, H; Hellings, P W; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hohmann, C; Howarth, P; Hourihane, J O; Humbert, M; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Kalayci, O; Kaliner, M A; Kauffmann, F; Kerkhof, M; Khayat, G; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kogevinas, M; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Larenas, D; Lavi, I; Le, L T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Mahboub, B; Makela, M J; Martin, F; Martinez, F D; Marshall, G D; Mazon, A; Melen, E; Meltzer, E O; Mihaltan, F; Mohammad, Y; Mohammadi, A; Momas, I; Morais-Almeida, M; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Naclerio, R; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Nawijn, M C; Nyembue, T D; Oddie, S; O'Hehir, R E; Okamoto, Y; Orru, M P; Ozdemir, C; Ouedraogo, G S; Palkonen, S; Panzner, P; Passalacqua, G; Pawankar, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Pinart, M; Pison, C; Popov, T A; Porta, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Ratomaharo, J; Reitamo, S; Rezagui, D; Ring, J; Roberts, R; Roca, J; Rogala, B; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Siroux, V; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P D; Smit, H A; Sooronbaev, T; Stein, R T; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Terreehorst, I; Toskala, E; Tremblay, Y; Valenta, R; Valeyre, D; Vandenplas, O; van Weel, C; Vassilaki, M; Varraso, R; Viegi, G; Wang, D Y; Wickman, M; Williams, D; Wöhrl, S; Wright, J; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zidarn, M; Zhong, N; Zuberbier, T

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies. PMID:22382913

  3. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  4. Agoraphobia Related to Unassertiveness in Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Michelle Nigri; Simoes, Pedro; Sardinha, Aline G; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-05-01

    Despite developments in panic disorder (PD) research, a significant percentage of patients do not benefit from conventional treatments. Interpersonal factors have been identified as potential predictors of treatment failures. We aimed to evaluate assertiveness in a sample of patients with PD and its implications for treatment. Forty-six symptomatic patients with PD and 46 college students responded to assessment scales regarding assertiveness and clinical data. Seventy-five percent of the patients had a secondary diagnosis of agoraphobia. We found that the PD group was characterized as nonassertive and slightly less assertive than control subjects. Furthermore, the deficit in the level of assertiveness correlated with the severity of the PD. The diagnosis of agoraphobia was correlated with unassertiveness (p < 0.05). Agoraphobia predisposes individuals to dependency and insecurity about their ability to overcome anxiogenic situations. These data demonstrate the importance of managing assertiveness in patients with PD accompanied by agoraphobia. PMID:26915016

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prussin, Calman

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) represents one member within the spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs), which includes eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. EGE is less common than EoE and involves a different site of disease, but otherwise shares many common features with EoE. The clinical manifestations of EGE are protean and can vary from nausea and vomiting to protein losing enteropathy or even bowel obstruction requiring surgery. Although systemic corticosteroids are an effective treatment for EGE, their use over the chronic course of the disease results in substantial corticosteroid toxicity. Accordingly, there is a great need for improved therapies for these patients. PMID:24813518

  6. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet. PMID:18173213

  7. The Genetics of Stress-Related Disorders: PTSD, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Research into the causes of psychopathology has largely focused on two broad etiologic factors: genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors. An important role for familial/heritable factors in the etiology of a broad range of psychiatric disorders was established well before the modern era of genomic research. This review focuses on the genetic basis of three disorder categories-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and the anxiety disorders-for which environmental stressors and stress responses are understood to be central to pathogenesis. Each of these disorders aggregates in families and is moderately heritable. More recently, molecular genetic approaches, including genome-wide studies of genetic variation, have been applied to identify specific risk variants. In this review, I summarize evidence for genetic contributions to PTSD, MDD, and the anxiety disorders including genetic epidemiology, the role of common genetic variation, the role of rare and structural variation, and the role of gene-environment interaction. Available data suggest that stress-related disorders are highly complex and polygenic and, despite substantial progress in other areas of psychiatric genetics, few risk loci have been identified for these disorders. Progress in this area will likely require analysis of much larger sample sizes than have been reported to date. The phenotypic complexity and genetic overlap among these disorders present further challenges. The review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings and future directions for research. PMID:26321314

  8. Genetics Home Reference: MYH9-related disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... and clouding of the lens of the eyes ( cataracts ). The bleeding problems in people with MYH9 -related ... stage renal disease (ESRD). Some affected individuals develop cataracts in early adulthood that worsen over time. Not ...

  9. The molecular genetics of Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P N; Arteaga‐Solis, E; Baldock, C; Collod‐Béroud, G; Booms, P; De Paepe, A; Dietz, H C; Guo, G; Handford, P A; Judge, D P; Kielty, C M; Loeys, B; Milewicz, D M; Ney, A; Ramirez, F; Reinhardt, D P; Tiedemann, K; Whiteman, P; Godfrey, M

    2006-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a relatively common autosomal dominant hereditary disorder of connective tissue with prominent manifestations in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems, is caused by mutations in the gene for fibrillin‐1 (FBN1). The leading cause of premature death in untreated individuals with MFS is acute aortic dissection, which often follows a period of progressive dilatation of the ascending aorta. Recent research on the molecular physiology of fibrillin and the pathophysiology of MFS and related disorders has changed our understanding of this disorder by demonstrating changes in growth factor signalling and in matrix‐cell interactions. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the molecular biology of fibrillin and fibrillin‐rich microfibrils. Mutations in FBN1 and other genes found in MFS and related disorders will be discussed, and novel concepts concerning the complex and multiple mechanisms of the pathogenesis of MFS will be explained. PMID:16571647

  10. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  11. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and substance-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Simon, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-related disorders is common in psychiatric practice. Epidemiologic studies and report have established that the risk of a substance-related disorder was 4 to 5 times higher in a population of psychiatric patients than in the general population. However, little is known on the reason of this relationship and the treatments required. It's well known that a family history of psychosis is a risk factor of schizophrenia. Similarly a family history of substance use disorders increases the risk of using substances. Because the two disorders often occurred together, it could be hypothesized that a genetic risk factor is common. However, recent studies did not confirm this hypothesis and it seems that their genetic risks factor would be unrelated. Evidence now exists describing the different profiles of patients whether they used substance or not. Concerning negative symptoms clinical studies and meta-analyses have described fewer symptoms in schizophrenia patients with a substance use disorder. Among the different explanations that have been addressed, it seems that a lower capability of obtaining the substance could partly explain this relationship. Perhaps because patients with social withdrawal have more difficulties to find and spend the time required to obtain abused substances. At the opposite some products such as cocaine may relieve some symptoms especially anhedonia and alogia. However the link between substance-related disorders and negative symptoms is weak and decreases in more recent studies, probably because negative symptoms as well as addiction disorders are better characterized. Considering that treating psychiatric symptoms may not always lead to a decrease in the substance-related disorders but that patients who give up substances improve their psychotic symptoms, a therapeutic strategy should be planned for these dual disorders patients combining psychiatry and addiction interventions. PMID:26776388

  12. Bipolar and related disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Alexander; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Bipolar disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with profound negative impact on affected patients. Even if their symptomatology has long been recognized, diagnostic criteria have changed over time and diagnosis often remains difficult. The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), issued in May 2013, comprises several changes regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorders compared to the previous edition. Diagnostic categories and criteria for bipolar disorders show some concordance with the internationally also widely used Tenth Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). However, there are also major differences that are worth highlighting. The aim of the following text is to depict and discuss those. PMID:27378177

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome: relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-05-28

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of "interface disorders" to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  14. Vertical Craniofacial Morphology and its Relation to Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bavia, Paula Furlan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study investigated the association between craniofacial morphology and temporomandibular disorders in adults. The influence of different craniofacial morphologies on painful temporomandibular disorders was also evaluated. Material and Methods A total of 200 subjects were selected, including 100 with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and 100 without TMD (control), diagnosed by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. All subjects were submitted to lateral cephalometric radiographs, and classified as brachyfacial, mesofacial, or dolichofacial by Ricketts’ analysis. Data were analysed by Tukey-Kramer and Chi-square tests. Results No association between craniofacial morphology and TMD was found (P = 0.6622). However, brachyfacial morphology influences the presence of painful TMD (P = 0.0077). Conclusions Craniofacial morphology is not related to temporomandibular disorders in general. PMID:27489610

  15. [Epidemiology of allergic diseases in the Tampico-Ciudad Madero- Altamira metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Nava, F; Govea Gómez, C

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to know the epidemiology behavior of health problem, with the purpose of creating the supporting basis for all action to its concern. In the cities Tampico, Madero and Altamira, a systematic exploration of the prevalent situation of allergic disorders did not exist: now, there is a study of 730 people selected at random, by means of questionnaire including 55 items applied to the population as a whole that live in the different zones of this area. It has been found that 54% show an allergic illness, it must be observed that in 66% of them a familial allergic history existed, whereas 45% has seasoning crisis environmental-related. PMID:1514011

  16. Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Stress-related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on the brain. Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders related to stress have replicated findings in animal studies by finding alterations in these brain areas. Brain regions implicated in PTSD also play an important role in memory function, highlighting the important interplay between memory and the traumatic stress response. Abnormalities in these brain areas are hypothesized to underlie symptoms of PTSD and other stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:17983968

  17. The characteristics of indoor and outdoor fungi and their relation with allergic respiratory diseases in the southern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Coşkun, Taner; Otag, Feza; Yildirim, Didem Derici; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2016-06-01

    Indoor and outdoor fungal exposure has been shown to be associated with the development of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside homes and evaluate the association between fungal levels and allergic diseases in the southern region of Turkey. A total of 61 children admitted with respiratory complaints to the pediatric allergy clinic between September 2007 and November 2008 were included in this study. The air samples were obtained using the Air IDEAL volumetric air sampler longitudinally for 1 year. A comprehensive questionnaire was used for medical history and housing conditions. Skin prick test was performed to determine fungal sensitivity and spirometric indices were employed. The predominant indoor fungal species were Cladosporium (69.3 %), Penicillium (18.9 %), Aspergillus (6.5 %), and Alternaria (3.1 %). A strong correlation between indoor and outdoor fungal levels was detected for the Cladosporium species (p < 0.001, r = 0.72) throughout the year. Living in a detached home (p = 0.036) and the presence of cockroaches (p = 0.005) were associated with total indoor fungal levels. The presence of cockroaches (aOR 3.5; 95 % CI 0.95-13.10, p = 0.059) was also associated with fungal sensitization at the edge of significance. The statistical cutoff values of indoor and outdoor Cladosporium levels to predict symptomatic asthma were found to be >176 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.003, AUC 0.696; sensitivity 65.5 %; specificity 68.7 %) and >327 CFU/m(3) (p = 0.038; AUC 0.713; sensitivity 66.6 %; specificity 76.9 %), respectively. Children with respiratory symptoms are exposed to a considerable level of fungi inside and outside their homes. The prevention of fungal exposure may provide valuable intervention for respiratory diseases. PMID:27236446

  18. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious. PMID:10524269

  19. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  20. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. PMID:26806013

  1. Functional associations among trauma, PTSD, and substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S H; Pihl, R O; Conrod, P J; Dongier, M

    1998-01-01

    This review article presents several potential functional pathways which may explain the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and substance abuse disorders in traumatized individuals. Emerging empirical studies which have examined these potential pathways are reviewed, including studies on relative order of onset, PTSD patients' perceptions of various drug effects, comparisons of PTSD patients with and without comorbid substance use disorders, and correlational studies examining the relations between severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters and substance disorder symptoms. Research on the acute and chronic effects of alcohol and other drugs on cognitive and physiological variables relevant to PTSD intrusion and arousal symptoms is reviewed to highlight ways in which these two sets of PTSD symptoms might be functionally interrelated with substance abuse. Finally, based on these findings, recommendations are made for the treatment of individuals with comorbid PTSD-substance use disorders. PMID:9801717

  2. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  3. [Vitamin B12 and related genetic disorders].

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-louis; Coelho, David; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin (Cbl)) is a water-soluble vitamin that requires complex mechanisms for its assimilation, blood transport and intracellular metabolism. Three proteins, intrinsic factor (IF), haptocorrin (HC), and transcobalamin (TC), and their specific receptors are involved in B12 absorption and transport. Acquired and inherited deficiencies can result in megaloblastic anemia and neurological manifestations. Several genetic diseases are linked to these two steps, namely inherited deficits in FI and TC, and Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease. In mammalian cells, only two enzymes depend on vitamin B12: L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2) in mitochondria, and methionine synthase (EC 2.1.1.13) in cytoplasm. Direct metabolic consequences of impaired B12 absorption and metabolism are the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and of homocysteine (HCy), respectively. More than a dozen genes are involved in the intracellular metabolism of B12, and their defects result in several diseases designated cblA through cblJ This article reviews the steps involved in vitamin B12 absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism, and the main related genetic defects. PMID:26983191

  4. Myelin, myelin-related disorders, and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mighdoll, Michelle I; Tao, Ran; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The neuropathological basis of schizophrenia and related psychoses remains elusive despite intensive scientific investigation. Symptoms of psychosis have been reported in a number of conditions where normal myelin development is interrupted. The nature, location, and timing of white matter pathology seem to be key factors in the development of psychosis, especially during the critical adolescent period of association area myelination. Numerous lines of evidence implicate myelin and oligodendrocyte function as critical processes that could affect neuronal connectivity, which has been implicated as a central abnormality in schizophrenia. Phenocopies of schizophrenia with a known pathological basis involving demyelination or dysmyelination may offer insights into the biology of schizophrenia itself. This article reviews the pathological changes in white matter of patients with schizophrenia, as well as demyelinating diseases associated with psychosis. In an attempt to understand the potential role of dysmyelination in schizophrenia, we outline the evidence from a number of both clinically-based and post-mortem studies that provide evidence that OMR genes are genetically associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. To further understand the implication of white matter dysfunction and dysmyelination in schizophrenia, we examine diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which has shown volumetric and microstructural white matter differences in patients with schizophrenia. While classical clinical-neuropathological correlations have established that disruption in myelination can produce a high fidelity phenocopy of psychosis similar to schizophrenia, the role of dysmyelination in schizophrenia remains controversial. PMID:25449713

  5. Pre- and Postnatal Risk Factors in Relation to Allergic Rhinitis in School-Aged Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youjin; Jiang, Yanrui; Li, Shenghui; Shen, Xiaoming; Liu, Jinfen; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal risk factors and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Chinese children of specific ages. Study Design This study was a cross-sectional survey. Students from 8 metropolitan cities in China were studied in November and December, 2005. There were 20,803 elementary-school Chinese children (49.6% boys, mean age, 9.19 years) enrolled. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children were completed to enable us to examine the pattern of current AR. The potential confounders and pre-and postnatal risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The overall prevalence of AR was found in this study to be 9.8%. After adjusting for several likely confounders, there was a higher likelihood of AR in school-aged children who were not exclusively breastfed in the first 4 months of their lives (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.41), children who were born post-term (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12–1.60), children delivered by cesarean section (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00–1.19), or children born to mothers who experienced depressive symptoms during the pre- and postnatal periods (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15–1.42). Conclusions AR in school-aged children was found to be associated with pre- and postnatal events. These findings indicate that strategies to reduce exposure to risk factors during pre- and postnatal periods for childhood allergies might be warranted. PMID:25647669

  6. Familial recurrences of FOXG1-related disorder: Evidence for mosaicism.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelly Q; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ma, Mandy; Barry, Brenda J; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Dobyns, William B; Scott, Richard H; Trump, Natalie; Kurian, Manju A; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    FOXG1-related disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXG1 and result in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes including postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, chorea, and corpus callosum abnormalities. The recurrence risk for de novo mutations in FOXG1-related disorders is assumed to be low. Here, we describe three unrelated sets of full siblings with mutations in FOXG1 (c.515_577del63, c.460dupG, and c.572T > G), representing familial recurrence of the disorder. In one family, we have documented maternal somatic mosaicism for the FOXG1 mutation, and all of the families presumably represent parental gonadal (or germline) mosaicism. To our knowledge, mosaicism has not been previously reported in FOXG1-related disorders. Therefore, this report provides evidence that germline mosaicism for FOXG1 mutations is a likely explanation for familial recurrence and should be considered during recurrence risk counseling for families of children with FOXG1-related disorders. PMID:26364767

  7. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  8. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: Relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of “interface disorders” to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  10. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche. PMID:26453067

  11. Management of allergic Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, K D

    1984-05-01

    Twenty percent of the recent Australian Olympic athletes have had an allergic disorder. Because of the ban on all sympathomimetic drugs except some beta 2-agonists. Olympic team physicians have a major responsibility to ensure that no competitor is disqualified for infringing on the antidoping rules of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. Inadvertent contravention of these regulations may occur because numerous banned sympathomimetics are available to athletes and their coaches without medical prescription and are frequently contained in combination preparations. The unbroken 24 yr in which asthmatics have won Olympic medals have been both before and after the introduction of drug tests. Currently a comprehensive range of preventive and therapeutic medications are available for asthmatics to compete with minimal respiratory disadvantage. It was, however, during a period of unnecessary restriction that an American swimmer forfeited his gold medal because of prerace ingestion of a banned sympathomimetic agent. Should adverse air quality be encountered during the Los Angeles Olympics, allergic competitors will be among the most inconvenienced . Athletes with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis will be the most disadvantaged because sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors remain banned. It is strongly recommended that the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee meet with an appropriate body of experts (i.e., the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology) to review this ban on vasoconstrictor agents. PMID:6715736

  12. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886

  13. Steroids in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, D R

    1981-09-01

    From the experience above, it may be concluded that corticosteroid therapy in allergic disease has become more effective than ever before. The expected variations in usage of new important pharmacologic agents is seen with special clarity in the use of corticosteroids. The wide acclaim for the "miracle drug of the 1950's", which followed penicillin of the 1940's, soon gave away to anguish about side-effects that threatened to abolish its use entirely in the late 1950's. The 1960's brought alternate day therapy for chronic usage and recognition that short term usage was relatively safe. The 1970's saw proliferation of topically active steroids similar to those so important to the practice of Dermatology in the previous decade. Results in treating asthma and nasal diseases have been excellent and extensive research for adverse effects has been largely unrevealing. PMID:6793795

  14. Gender-related clinical differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bogetto, F; Venturello, S; Albert, U; Maina, G; Ravizza, L

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the gender-related differences of clinical features in a sample of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) patients. One hundred and sixty outpatients with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV, Y-BOCS = 16) were admitted. Patients were evaluated with a semi-structured interview covering the following areas: socio-demographic data, Axis I diagnoses (DSM-IV), OCD clinical features (age at onset of OC symptoms and disorder, type of onset, life events and type of course). For statistical analysis the sample was subdivided in two groups according to gender. We found an earlier age at onset of OC symptoms and disorder in males; an insidious onset and a chronic course of illness were also observed in that group of patients. Females more frequently showed an acute onset of OCD and an episodic course of illness; they also reported more frequently a stressful event in the year preceding OCD onset. A history of anxiety disorders with onset preceding OCD and hypomanic episodes occurring after OCD onset was significantly more common among males, while females showed more frequently a history of eating disorders. We found three gender-related features of OCD: males show an earlier age at onset with a lower impact of precipitant events in triggering the disorder; OCD seems to occur in a relative high proportion of males who already have phobias and/or tic disorders; and a surfeit of chronic course of the illness in males in comparison with females. PMID:10683629

  15. Halting the allergic march.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  16. Review: Axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, R; Coleman, M P

    2013-02-01

    'Dying back' axon degeneration is a prominent feature of many age-related neurodegenerative disorders and is widespread in normal ageing. Although the mechanisms of disease- and age-related losses may differ, both contribute to symptoms. Here, we review recent advances in understanding axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. In particular, we highlight the importance of axonal transport, autophagy, traumatic brain injury and mitochondrial quality control. We then place these disease mechanisms in the context of changes to axons and dendrites that occur during normal ageing. We discuss what makes ageing such an important risk factor for many neurodegenerative disorders and conclude that the processes of normal ageing and disease combine at the molecular, cellular or systems levels in a range of disorders to produce symptoms. Pathology identical to disease also occurs at the cellular level in most elderly individuals. Thus, normal ageing and age-related disease are inextricably linked and the term 'healthy ageing' downplays the important contributions of cellular pathology. For a full understanding of normal ageing or age-related disease we must study both processes. PMID:23046254

  17. Online biomedical resources for malaria-related red cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Piel, Frédéric B; Howes, Rosalind E; Nyangiri, Oscar A; Moyes, Catherine L; Williams, Thomas N; Weatherall, David J; Hay, Simon I

    2013-07-01

    Warnings about the expected increase of the global public health burden of malaria-related red cell disorders are accruing. Past and present epidemiological data are necessary to track spatial and temporal changes in the frequencies of these genetic disorders. A number of open access biomedical databases including data on malaria-related red cell disorders have been launched over the last two decades. Here, we review the content of these databases, most of which focus on genetic diversity, and we describe a new epidemiological resource developed by the Malaria Atlas Project. To tackle upcoming public health challenges, the integration of epidemiological and genetic data is important. As many countries are considering implementing national screening programs, strategies to make such data more accessible are also needed. PMID:23568771

  18. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  19. Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI = 2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI = 4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

  20. Weight-related other evaluation in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Trottier, K; McFarlane, T; Olmsted, M; Polivy, J

    2005-12-01

    Weight-related self-evaluation has been described as the fundamental maladaptive cognitive feature of disordered eating. It is not clear, however, whether the process of determining personal-worth based on an evaluation of body size is specific to the self, or whether it is relevant to the evaluation of people in general. Thirty-three eating disordered patients and 54 undergraduates read an article about a woman who was described as either overweight or slender and evaluated the woman on several dimensions. Both undergraduates and eating disordered patients rated the heavy woman as less attractive than the thin woman. However, the patients' evaluation of the overweight target's attractiveness was significantly more negative than the undergraduates'. Patients also rated the overweight woman as less popular and claimed that they liked the overweight woman less than the thin woman. These effects were not present among the undergraduate students. Finally, the eating disorder participants rated the overweight woman as more overweight and less intelligent than did the undergraduate students. The results suggest that weight-related evaluation in eating disorders extends beyond the self to include the evaluation of other people. PMID:16755170

  1. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  2. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  3. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  4. Factors Related to Eating Disorders in Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Jill; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identified factors related to eating disorders in young adolescent girls. Findings revealed significant differences among the girls based on intact versus broken family; subjects' actual and preferred weight; whether the family ate meals together; average grades; age and grade in school; fathers' occupation; future career plans; place of…

  5. Research Progress in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András; Terry, Sharon F.; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Heritable ectopic mineralization disorders represent a phenotypically diverse group of conditions characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate complexes in soft connective tissues. The prototype of such conditions is pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and related conditions with overlapping clinical features include generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC). Molecular genetic investigations have revealed mutations in the genes physiologically involved in generation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and phosphate (Pi), and the findings suggest a unifying pathomechanism relating to reduced PPi/Pi ratio. This hypothesis is based on the notion that PPi serves as a powerful inhibitor of mineralization while Pi is a pro-mineralization factor, and an appropriate PPi/Pi ratio is critical for prevention of ectopic mineralization under homeostatic conditions. PXE International, the premiere patient support organization, advocating on behalf of patients and families with PXE, sponsors regular research meetings evaluating the progress in this and related ectopic mineralization disorders. The latest meetings were held in September 2014 in Bethesda, MD and in September 2015 in Budapest, Hungary. This report summarizes the latest progress in research on PXE and related ectopic mineralization disorders, based on presentations and discussions in these meetings, with pharmacologic implications for currently intractable disorders. PMID:26902123

  6. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this knowledge is incomplete. Any drug may carry a small risk that must be balanced against the benefits of keeping the mother and baby healthy. The goals and principles of management for acute and chronic asthma, rhinitis, and dermatologic disorders are the same during pregnancy as those for asthma in the general population. Diagnosis of allergy during pregnancy should mainly consist of the patient's history and in vitro testing. The assured and well-evaluated risk factors revealed for sensitization in mother and child are very limited, to date, and include alcohol consumption, exposure to tobacco smoke, maternal diet and diet of the newborn, drug usage, and insufficient exposure to environmental bacteria. Consequently, the recommendations for primary and secondary preventive measures are also very limited in number and verification. PMID:21151812

  7. Otorhinolaryngological aspects of sleep-related breathing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Jagdeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are disorders within a wide spectrum of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). Given the obesity epidemic, these conditions will become increasingly prevalent and continue to serve as a large economic burden. A thorough clinical evaluation and appropriate investigations will allow stratification of patients into appropriate treatment groups. A multidisciplinary team is required to manage these patients. Patient selection is critical in ensuring successful surgical and non-surgical outcomes. A wide range of options are available and further long term prospective studies, with standardised data capture and outcome goals, are required to evaluate the most appropriate techniques and long term success rates. PMID:26904262

  8. The immunobiology of Tourette's disorder, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus, and related disorders: a way forward.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tanya K; Kurlan, Roger; Leckman, James

    2010-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related conditions including Tourette's disorder (TD) are chronic, relapsing disorders of unknown etiology associated with marked impairment and disability. Associated immune dysfunction has been reported and debated in the literature since the late 80s. The immunologic culprit receiving the most interest has been Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which began to receive attention as a potential cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms, following the investigation of the symptoms reported in Sydenham's chorea (SC) and rheumatic fever, such as motor tics, vocal tics, and both obsessive-compulsive and attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms. Young children have been described as having a sudden onset of these neuropsychiatric symptoms temporally associated with GAS, but without supporting evidence of rheumatic fever. This presentation of OCD and tics has been termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS). Of note, SC, OCD, and TD often begin in early childhood and share common anatomic areas--the basal ganglia of the brain and the related cortical and thalamic sites--adding support to the possibility that these disorders might share a common immunologic and/or genetic vulnerability. Relevant manuscripts were identified through searches of the PsycINFO and MedLine databases using the following keywords: OCD, immune, PANDAS, Sydenham chorea, Tourette's disorder Group A Streptococcus. Articles were also identified through reference lists from research articles and other materials on childhood OCD, PANDAS, and TD between 1966 and December 2010. Considering the overlap of clinical and neuroanatomic findings among these disorders, this review explores evidence regarding the immunobiology as well as the relevant clinical and therapeutic aspects of TD, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:20807070

  9. Anxiety disorders and control related beliefs: the exemplar of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Beliefs about control have been postulated to be important to anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the phenomenology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) suggests that it may be an exemplar of an anxiety disorder where control issues related to the self (behavior and thoughts) and world (the external environment) are particularly important. However, only beliefs concerning the need to control thoughts have been incorporated into contemporary theories of OCD. This article summarizes the theoretical and empirical research relevant to control-related beliefs in OCD. It is suggested that discrepancies between an individual's desired level of control and their perceived level of control could contribute to OCD symptoms, and exacerbate the tendency for individuals with OCD to engage in magical ideation and superstitious rituals. Overall, this review demonstrates how consideration of control cognitions could enhance our understanding of OCD and further improve its treatment. PMID:16647173

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and play a role in your body's immune response. They can also build up and cause inflammation. ... Your body may produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal ...

  11. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  12. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    PubMed

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  13. [The amygdala and its relation to autism, behavioural disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Víctor L

    2014-02-24

    The amygdala is related with the recognition of the emotional meaning of stimuli, long-term memory, the orientation of social stimuli and the perception of gaze orientation. It plays a fundamental role in the recognition of faces, especially those expressing fear, and makes it possible to comprehend different emotional states, which will facilitate an appropriate social cognition. Dysfunctions of the amygdala have been associated to a number of different neurodevelopmental disorders as well as neurocognitive and behavioural disorders in specific neurogenetic entities. A number of studies focused on the amygdalic complex have allowed researchers to understand many pathophysiological aspects and to formulate new hypotheses regarding their origins. Given that the disorders or conditions in which the role of the amygdala has been evoked are becoming increasingly more extensive, this article refers the reader to those that have aroused the most interest in recent years. Thus, they can be divided into two groups: developmental and behavioural disorders (autism, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, alexithymia and anorexia nervosa) and specific neurogenetic entities (fragile X, Rett, Prader-Willi and Williams syndromes), in which structural or dysfunctional alterations have been observed that may be related with their neurocognitive and behavioural symptoms. It is important to remember that the amygdala is a highly connected structure that forms truly functional networks and has been associated to different disorders with varied explanations and includes several different pathophysiological phenomena. Its role must not, therefore, be simplified in a reductionistic manner, but also placed upon a hierarchy of dysfunctions in other areas that interact with it. PMID:25252660

  14. Gender-related features of persistent delusional disorders.

    PubMed

    Wustmann, Tobias; Pillmann, Frank; Marneros, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents gender-related features of Delusional Disorder. It is part of the Halle Delusional Syndromes Study (HADES-Study). All inpatients fulfilling the DSM-IV/ICD-10 criteria of Delusional Disorder/Persistent Delusional Disorder (DD) during a 14-year period were included and followed up for an average of 10.8 years. Gender distribution was almost equal, women became ill significantly later than men, and almost all women had a stable diagnosis-in contrast to men. The great majority of women, at the end of the follow-up period, had an unremitted DD. Women more frequently had low social functioning at admission, but then were more compliant and received more frequently pharmacological medication. There were no differences in the delusional topic and no differences regarding long-term disability and autarky. In spite of previous reports, the HADES-Study found no gender difference in the frequency of DD. However, men tended more frequently to change into schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. In these cases, the DD might have been a prodrome of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, which manifests later in life. Although in both female and male DD patients, the majority remained unremitted, almost none of them lost their autarky (independent living). While women more frequently received psychopharmacological medication, their DD was usually found to be unremitted. PMID:20700601

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  16. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  17. Acupuncture and moxibustion for stress-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion, which medical doctors are licensed by the government of Japan to perform, can improve the psychological relationship between doctors and patients, especially when it is disturbed by a “game”, a dysfunctional interpersonal interaction that is repeated unintentionally. This advantage is due to the essential properties of acupuncture and moxibustion. Acupuncture and moxibustion are helpful in treating somatoform disorders, especially musculoskeletal symptoms. In Japan, a holistic acupuncture and moxibustion therapy called Sawada-style has been developed. This is based on fundamental meridian points that are considered to have effects on central, autonomic nervous, immune, metabolic, and endocrine systems to regulate the whole body balance. In addition, some of the fundamental points have effects on Qi, blood, and water patterns associated with major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders. The fixed protocol of Sawada-style would be suitable for large-scale, randomized, controlled studies in the future. Recent systematic reviews indicate that electroacupuncture would be a useful addition to antidepressant therapy for some symptoms accompanying fibromyalgia. Acupuncture and moxibustion are also recommended for irritable bowel syndrome, instead of Western drug therapy. Surprisingly, the dorsal prefrontal cerebral cortex, which is associated with a method of scalp acupuncture applied for gastrointestinal disorders, has been found to be activated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is quite possible that regulation of this cortical area is related to the effect of scalp acupuncture. This acupuncture method can be effective not only for irritable bowel syndrome but also for other stress-related gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:24456818

  18. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value. PMID:26706728

  19. [Workplace-related anxiety, workplace phobia and disorders of participation].

    PubMed

    Muschalla, B; Linden, M

    2009-06-01

    Work is an important domain of life. It is therefore clear that problems at the workplace and mental disorders will have negative interactions. Job-related anxieties are of special importance as any workplace causes or intensifies anxiety by its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general and workplace-related anxieties in particular is workplace phobia. Similarly to agoraphobia, it is characterised by panic when approaching or even thinking of the stimulus, in this case the workplace. Workplace phobia has serious negative consequences for the further course of illness. It impairs the ability to work, and can lead to sick leave and early retirement. It requires special therapeutic interventions. This paper describes workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia and gives a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:19544717

  20. [Borderline personality disorder: the patients and their relatives].

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, Sergio; Gagliesi, Pablo

    This present paper reviews the current theories about the borderline personality disorder and their relations with their families and significant others. The biosocial theory states that the relationship between emotional vulnerability and the interactions with family relations seems to explain the problems with DLP clients. This disorder is defined then as an interaction disease. Relatives and significant others usually have symptoms, beliefs, and emotions produced by this interaction. A list of general strategies for the assistance of these clients and their families is introduced: The transformation of the complaint into a problem, the psycho education, the reduction of expressed emotions, the acceptance and the training in different abilities. At the end, the experience with psycho education approach workshops is commented, as well as the use of a psycho educational manual. PMID:15597126

  1. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders.

    PubMed

    Tovoli, Francesco; Masi, Chiara; Guidetti, Elena; Negrini, Giulia; Paterini, Paola; Bolondi, Luigi

    2015-03-16

    Gluten is one of the most abundant and widely distributed components of food in many areas. It can be included in wheat, barley, rye, and grains such as oats, barley, spelt, kamut, and triticale. Gluten-containing grains are widely consumed; in particular, wheat is one of the world's primary sources of food, providing up to 50% of the caloric intake in both industrialized and developing countries. Until two decades ago, celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders were believed to be exceedingly rare outside of Europe and were relatively ignored by health professionals and the global media. In recent years, however, the discovery of important diagnostic and pathogenic milestones led CD from obscurity to global prominence. In addition, interestingly, people feeding themselves with gluten-free products greatly outnumber patients affected by CD, fuelling a global consumption of gluten-free foods with approximately $2.5 billion in United States sales each year. The acknowledgment of other medical conditions related to gluten that has arisen as health problems, providing a wide spectrum of gluten-related disorders. In February 2011, a new nomenclature for gluten-related disorders was created at a consensus conference in London. In this review, we analyse innovations in the field of research that emerged after the creation of the new classification, with particular attention to the new European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines for CD and the most recent research about non-celiac gluten sensitivity. PMID:25789300

  2. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tovoli, Francesco; Masi, Chiara; Guidetti, Elena; Negrini, Giulia; Paterini, Paola; Bolondi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Gluten is one of the most abundant and widely distributed components of food in many areas. It can be included in wheat, barley, rye, and grains such as oats, barley, spelt, kamut, and triticale. Gluten-containing grains are widely consumed; in particular, wheat is one of the world’s primary sources of food, providing up to 50% of the caloric intake in both industrialized and developing countries. Until two decades ago, celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders were believed to be exceedingly rare outside of Europe and were relatively ignored by health professionals and the global media. In recent years, however, the discovery of important diagnostic and pathogenic milestones led CD from obscurity to global prominence. In addition, interestingly, people feeding themselves with gluten-free products greatly outnumber patients affected by CD, fuelling a global consumption of gluten-free foods with approximately $2.5 billion in United States sales each year. The acknowledgment of other medical conditions related to gluten that has arisen as health problems, providing a wide spectrum of gluten-related disorders. In February 2011, a new nomenclature for gluten-related disorders was created at a consensus conference in London. In this review, we analyse innovations in the field of research that emerged after the creation of the new classification, with particular attention to the new European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines for CD and the most recent research about non-celiac gluten sensitivity. PMID:25789300

  3. Allergic host defences.

    PubMed

    Palm, Noah W; Rosenstein, Rachel K; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-04-26

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macroparasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity has an important role in host defence against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, haematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  4. Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of the human population to chlorination products has considerably increased during the 20(th) century especially after the 1960s with the development of public and leisure pools. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the human exposure to chlorination products and reviews studies suggesting that these chemicals might be involved in the development or exacerbation of allergic diseases. Populations regularly in contact with chlorination products such as swimmers, lifeguards or workers using chlorine as cleaning or bleaching agent show increased risks of allergic diseases or of respiratory disorders frequently associated with allergy. Experimental evidence suggests that chlorination products promote allergic sensitization by compromising the permeability or the immunoregulatory function of epithelial barriers. These findings led to the chlorine hypothesis proposing that the rise of allergic diseases could result less from the declining exposure to microbial agents (the hygiene hypothesis) than from the increasing and largely uncontrolled exposure to products of chlorination, the most widely used method to achieve hygiene in the developed world. Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases. PMID:17627515

  5. Trauma-related obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dykshoorn, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly researched and conceptualized disorder, and yet it remains one of the most debilitating, widespread, and expensive disorders one can be afflicted with [Real, E., Labad, J., Alonso, P., Segalas, C., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Bueno, B., … Menchon, J. M. (2011). Stressful life events at onset of obsessive–compulsive disorder are associated with a distinct clinical pattern. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 367–376. doi:10.1002/da.20792]. Exposure treatments and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) have been largely accepted as best practice for those with OCD, and yet there are still many who are left with “treatment-resistant OCD” [Rowa, K., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (2007). Exposure and response prevention. In C. Purdon, M. Antony, & L. J. Summerfeldt (Eds.), Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Fundamentals and beyond (pp. 79–109). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; Foa, E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience, 12, 199–207]. Similarly, exposure treatments and CBT have been accepted as best practice for trauma-related distress (i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder; Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic studies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press). From a literature review, evidence has been provided that demonstrates a high prevalence rate (30–82%) of OCD among individuals with a traumatic history in comparison to the prevalence rate of the general population (1.1–1.8%; [Cromer, K. R., Schmidt, N. B., & Murphy, D. L. (2006). An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1683–1691. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.08.018; Fontenelle, L. F., Cocchi, L., Harrison, B. J., Shavitt, R. G., do Rosario, M. C

  6. Delineation of differential temporal relations between specific eating and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Silgado, Jose; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the temporal sequencing of eating and anxiety disorders to delineate which anxiety disorders increase eating disorder risk and whether individuals with eating disorders are at greater risk for particular anxiety disorders. The sample was drawn from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. Temporal relations between specific eating and anxiety disorders were examined after controlling for relevant variables (e.g., mood disorders, other anxiety disorders) over 14 years. After excluding those with anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescence (T1), OCD was the only T1 anxiety disorder to predict AN by age 30 (T4). No T1 anxiety disorder was associated with T4 bulimia nervosa (BN). Although T1 AN did not increase risk of any T4 anxiety disorder, T1 BN appeared to increase risk for social anxiety and panic disorders. Evidence that eating disorders may have differential relations to particular anxiety disorders could inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:20185151

  7. Internet gaming disorder, social network disorder and laterality: handedness relates to pathological use of social networks.

    PubMed

    Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Mühle, Christiane; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lenz, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The internet age bears new challenges that include health risks. It is agreed that excessive internet use may reach pathological levels. However, the concept of internet addiction lacks specificity and, therefore, warrants studies on its diagnostic and etiologic classification. This study was conducted to characterize the novel DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and the adapted criteria for the "social network disorder". Based on the established association of handedness and substance use disorders, we also explored whether internet use related to laterality. For this study, 3,287 volunteers participated in the online survey and gave particulars concerning their internet use in general, internet gaming and use of social networks, laterality markers (hand, foot, eye, ear, rotational preference in gymnastics, and head turning asymmetry) and health status. Of the participants, 1.1 % fulfilled the criteria for internet gaming disorder, and 1.8 % fulfilled the criteria for social network disorder. The applied criteria were highly correlated with the time spent on the respective internet activities (p < 4 × 10(-56)). The analyses of comorbidity and working hours support the thresholds of 5/9 criteria and ≥30 h/week spent on the internet for the classification as pathological (p < 5 × 10(-2)). Moreover, we found that left-handedness related to more affirmed criteria and longer times spent on social networks (p ≤ 4 × 10(-2)). The provided criteria proved to be user-friendly, comprehensible and well accepted. The results contribute to a better understanding of pathological internet gaming and social network use and provide evidence that biological markers of substance use disorders are involved in internet addiction. PMID:25576300

  8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  9. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  10. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  11. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  12. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy). Is it true that mold spores can trigger eye allergy symptoms? True False ... allergy) are seasonal allergens such as pollen and mold spores. Indoor allergens such as dust mites and ...

  13. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  14. Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A dimensional approach to purported relations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the specificity of purported relations between symptoms of eating disorders (ED) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas most research has focused on diagnostic comorbidity or between-groups analyses, this study took a dimensional approach to investigate specific relations among symptoms of anorexia, bulimia, and OCD, as well as panic, depression, and general distress in a student sample (N=465). Results were that all symptoms showed significant zero-order correlations, including all ED-OCD pairings. After removing general distress variance, however, none of three OCD scales significantly predicted anorexia; only compulsive washing among OCD scales significantly predicted bulimia. Hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that panic and depression out-performed OCD in predicting bulimia symptoms. Overall, symptoms of ED and OCD did not show unique relations at the level of core dimensions of each construct. A possible link between bulimia and compulsive washing is worth further study. PMID:18396006

  15. [Antihistamines in allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines are the first line of pharmacotherapy in allergic diseases, especially in allergic rhinitis. The article also presents the interesting 2005-2007 publications on the use of antihistamine in practical point of view, especially the newly introduced ones (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine) and those which are to be introduced soon (rupatadine). The efficacy in skin histamine provocation model and various clinical model were discussed. PMID:18260244

  16. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  17. Shame in the obsessive compulsive related disorders: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretical and anecdotal support for the role of shame in obsessive compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) is prominent. Developing our understanding of shame’s role in OCRDs is important to building knowledge about this new diagnostic category. This review aims to consolidate our understanding of shame in each OCRD, through summarizing existing clinical, conceptual, and empirical work. Methods We provide an overview of shame, its measurement considerations, and a full review of 110 articles addressing shame in OCRDs. Results General shame and shame about having a mental illness are the broadest types of shame relevant to OCRDs; symptom-based shame and body shame may be more specific to OCRDs. In OCD, violent, sexual, or blasphemous obsessions may trigger symptom-based shame. In trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking (SP), symptom-based shame may be related to pulling, picking, and post-pulling/picking behaviors. In hoarding disorder, symptom-based shame may accompany beliefs about being defective due to living with clutter. Body shame appears inherent to body dysmorphic disorder, while in TTM and SP it may arise as a secondary response to damage resulting from body focused repetitive behaviors. Limitations Much of the current knowledge on shame in OCRDs comes from anecdotal, case, and conceptual work. Empirical studies do not always assess specific types of shame, instead assessing shame as a general construct. Conclusions Shame is closely related to OCRDs. Clinical and research recommendations drawing from the literature are provided. PMID:25299438

  18. [The Marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepe, Matthias; Löffelbein, Florian

    2009-06-01

    The Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder of the connective tissue which is mainly caused by a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The defect in the connective tissue protein can lead to several organ dysfunctions. For the life expectancy, the cardiovascular aspect is of paramount importance. Patients with Marfan syndrome may develop aortic aneurysms and valvular heart defects. The risk of aortic aneurysms consists in the development of aortic dissection or rupture with their fatal consequences. Besides the cardiovascular manifestation, the skeletal and ocular system can also be affected. The skeletal manifestation is often characterised by long limbs, arachnodactyly, and abnormal joint flexibility along with other signs. Patients may also have dislocated lenses, ectasia of the dural sac, stretch marks, spontaneous pneumothorax, recurrent hernia, or a family history suspicious for Marfan. During the past years, other related connective tissue disorders with analogous organ manifestation have been described (e.g., Loeys-Dietz syndrome). In this article we present the basic knowledge about these connective tissue disorders, and we mention new insights in the recently explored pathophysiology of the disorder which is a possible target for future medical treatment options. Furthermore, recent new concepts for the prophylactic treatment of the aortic manifestation are explained. PMID:19554831

  19. Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat anxiety-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Korem, Nachshon; Zer-Aviv, Tomer Mizrachi; Ganon-Elazar, Eti; Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2016-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the control of emotions, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders. The most common self-reported reason for using cannabis is rooted in its ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension, and anxiety. Nevertheless, there are only few studies in controlled clinical settings that confirm that administration of cannabinoids can benefit patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are considerable encouraging preclinical data to suggest that endocannabinoid-targeted therapeutics for anxiety disorders should continue. In this review, we will describe data supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system in preventing and treating anxiety-like behavior in animal models and PTSD patients. Cannabinoids have shown beneficial outcomes in rat and mouse models of anxiety and PTSD, but they also may have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including anxiogenic effects. Hence, clinical and preclinical research on the endocannabinoid system should further study the effects of cannabinoids on anxiety and help determine whether the benefits of using exogenous cannabinoids outweigh the risks. In general, this review suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system represents an attractive and novel approach to the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and, in particular, PTSD. PMID:26426887

  20. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by autoantibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) are detected in a variable proportion of the remainder. Treatment is symptomatic and immunomodulatory. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by antibodies to presynaptic calcium channels, and approximately 50% of cases are paraneoplastic, most often related to small cell carcinoma of the lung. Botulism is an acquired disorder caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, impairing acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft. In addition, several rare congenital myasthenic syndromes have been identified, caused by inherited defects in presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina and postsynaptic proteins necessary for neuromuscular transmission. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:20547629

  1. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stoyneva, Zlatka Borisova; Dermendjiev, Svetlan; Dermendjiev, Tihomir; Dobrev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.

  2. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  3. HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating the traumatic events.

    PubMed

    Theuninck, Anthony C; Lake, Nick; Gibson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between the experience of various HIV-related events (receiving the diagnosis, receiving treatment, experiencing physical symptoms, self-disclosing HIV positive status, and witnessing HIV-related death) and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 100 gay men living with HIV. Self-report data revealed that 65% met criteria for having experienced a traumatic event in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criterion A. The experience of shame, humiliation, or guilt during an event was measured but not found to be a significant indicator of having been traumatized. A total of 33% qualified for a PTSD diagnosis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that receiving medical treatment, experiencing physical symptoms, and witnessing HIV-related death were most associated with HIV-related PTSD symptoms. Given that multiple HIV-related events are potentially traumatic, the screening, assessment and treatment for HIV-related PTSD may need to be considered by HIV services. PMID:20632886

  4. Sleep-related eating disorder secondary to zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Ferreira, Ligia; Peralta, Rita; Bentes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterised by eating episodes during the first period of the night sleep with partial loss consciousness, and amnesia. It can rarely be induced by some drugs, including zolpidem. We present a video report of a patient with a 1-year history of SRED caused by zolpidem causing important repercussions in the sleep structure and life quality. The night eating episodes ceased promptly with discontinuation of zolpidem. Upon the follow-up, the sleep structure improved and the daily consequences disappeared. As in few reported cases of zolpidem-induced SRED, our patient was suffering from the parasomnia for a long time before the diagnosis. Active exclusion of symptoms suggestive of SRED in patients under zolpidem treatment can avoid the deleterious effect of the sleep disorder. PMID:23436890

  5. Evaluating suspected work-related neurologic disorders (clinical diagnosis).

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marcello; Aminoff, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of work-related neurologic disorders is essentially one of exclusion because symptoms and signs are often nonspecific. The clinical reasoning requires a three-step approach: (1) establish the characteristics of the presenting disease; (2) ascertain that observed clinical features are consistent with those caused by the suspected agent(s); and (3) assess occupational exposures. A detailed history is of paramount importance in evaluating patients with suspected work-related neurologic disorders as it is in other clinical contexts, especially because in some circumstances it may represent the only criterion to establish causality. Thus, besides characterization of neurologic symptoms, including their location, quality, timecourse, and possible other associated symptoms, the work environment of the patient should be understood in full detail. In this respect, when a neurotoxin is suspected, then the history collection can be guided by the knowledge of the likely syndromes it produces. Similarly, physical examination should be directed to the target of toxicity/entrapment based on information from the work history. Although specific sites and elements of the nervous system may be affected depending on the offending agent, most neurotoxic disorders are characterized by generalized rather than focal neurologic abnormalities. Laboratory toxicologic tests have limited application for the etiologic diagnosis of neurotoxic disorders, except in cases of acute poisoning and in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemicals with prolonged half-life. In most cases examination takes place after the end of exposure, when the offending chemical is no longer detectable in body fluids. Electrophysiologic studies, in particular evoked potentials, electromyography, and conduction velocities, are important to confirm the organic basis of symptoms, particularly to detect subclinical or early neurologic involvement and to reduce the number of disorders to be considered in

  6. Inhibition of mediator release in RBL-2H3 cells by some H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs: relation to lipophilicity and membrane effects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M J; Paulussen, J J; Horbach, D A; Roelofsen, E P; van Miltenburg, J C; de Mol, N J; Janssen, L H

    1995-02-01

    In a model for mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) a set H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs containing a diphenylmethyl piperazinyl moiety was examined for their ability to inhibit release of the mediator beta-hexosaminidase. Cells were activated with antigen or the calcium ionophore A23187, whether or not in combination with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Oxatomide, hydroxyzine and cetirizine inhibit the antigen induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The release triggered by A23187, whether or not in combination with TPA is hardly influenced by the compounds. A biphasic dependence of the inhibition of exocytosis in RBL cells on lipophilicity is observed with the optimum at log P is 5-6. The extremely lipophilic compounds meclozine and buclizine are not active in this model. pH dependence of the effect of the drugs shows that especially the uncharged species are active in inhibiting exocytosis. The investigated compounds show an effect on phase transitions in L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl liposomes as assayed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the less extremely lipophilic compounds the induced changes in the phospholipid membranes increased with lipophilicity. The relation between structural features of the drug and the interaction with phospholipids is discussed in view of the DSC results. We conclude that location of the active drugs at the membrane or the membrane/protein interface is important for the inhibiting activity on exocytosis. This could affect several membrane related processes, which are abundant in the early phases of the IgE-mediated signal transduction process. PMID:7655991

  7. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  8. Multidimensional Examination of Impulsivity in Relation to Disordered Gambling

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Fortune, Erica; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity has been consistently associated with pathological gambling (PG), but the diversity of definitions and measures of impulsivity has led to ambiguity with regard to which indices are independently relevant. Toward clarifying this relationship, the current study examined indices from an array of commonly-used impulsivity measures in relation to PG severity in an adult community sample of frequent gamblers (N = 353). These included both survey assessments and behavioral tasks. Using a factor analytic approach, four latent factors were identified among 19 indices and were designated reward sensitivity, punishment sensitivity, delay discounting, and cognitive impulsivity. All four latent variables were positively and independently related to PG severity, albeit at a trend level for cognitive impulsivity in a combined model. These findings reveal four generally independent domains of impulsivity that are related to PG severity, clarify which assessment measures aggregate in each domain, and illustrate the importance of measurement specificity in studying impulsivity in relation to PG and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24708148

  9. Hoarding and its relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin D; Watson, David

    2005-07-01

    Although hoarding is observed in some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it has not been shown to share a specific relation with OCD. Across two studies, we found that (a) whereas the classic OCD symptoms of checking, rituals, and contamination intercorrelated consistently strongly with one another, hoarding related only moderately to both these OCD symptoms and to depression; (b) OCD patients were distinguished from both other patients and non-patients by classic OCD symptoms, but not by hoarding; and (c) whereas OCD symptoms showed consistent relations with Negative Affect, hoarding largely was uncorrelated with this dimension. These results do not support a specific OCD-hoarding relation but rather call into question the trend of considering it a specific symptom of OCD. PMID:15896286

  10. Multidimensional examination of impulsivity in relation to disordered gambling.

    PubMed

    Mackillop, James; Miller, Joshua D; Fortune, Erica; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-04-01

    Impulsivity has been consistently associated with pathological gambling (PG), but the diversity of definitions and measures of impulsivity has led to ambiguity with regard to which indices are independently relevant. Toward clarifying this relationship, the current study examined indices from an array of commonly used impulsivity measures in relation to PG severity in an adult community sample of frequent gamblers (N = 353). These included both survey assessments and behavioral tasks. Using a factor analytic approach, 4 latent factors were identified among 19 indices and were designated reward sensitivity, punishment sensitivity, delay discounting, and cognitive impulsivity. All 4 latent variables were positively and independently related to PG severity, albeit at a trend level for cognitive impulsivity in a combined model. These findings reveal 4 generally independent domains of impulsivity that are related to PG severity, clarify which assessment measures aggregate in each domain, and illustrate the importance of measurement specificity in studying impulsivity in relation to PG and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24708148

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  12. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers. PMID:21565462

  13. Nasal irrigation for chronic sinus symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and nasal polyposis: a hypothesis generating study

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David P.; Guerard, Emily; Bukstein, Don

    2009-01-01

    Background Rhinosinusitis is a common, expensive disorder with a significant impact on patients' quality-of-life. Chronic sinus symptoms are associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and nasal polyposis. Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for rhinosinusitis and sinus symptoms. Prior studies suggest that HSNI may be effective for symptoms associated with allergy, asthma and nasal polyposis. Objective To assess the degree to which subjects using nasal irrigation for chronic sinus symptoms also reported improvements in symptoms related to allergy, asthma or nasal polyposis. Design Qualitative study using in-depth long interviews. Participants 28 participants in a prior qualitative nasal irrigation study. Intervention Daily nasal irrigation. Outcome Qualitative transcripts Results Transcripts of interviews were systematically examined. Twelve of 21 subjects with allergic rhinitis spontaneously reported that HSNI improved symptoms. Two of seven subjects with asthma and one of two subjects with nasal polyposis reported a positive association between HSNI use and asthma or nasal polyposis symptoms. Transcript content was organized into themes which included: 1) HSNI resulted in improvement of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms, and 2) HSNI should be used for symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Conclusions This hypothesis generating study offers suggestive qualitative evidence that in patients with frequent rhinosinusitis and daily sinus symptoms, symptoms of concomitant allergic rhinitis, asthma or polyposis may also improve with HSNI. The parent studies offer strong evidence that HSNI is an effective adjunctive treatment for symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Larger prospective studies are needed in patients with these diagnoses. PMID:18593081

  14. Broncho-Vaxom Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Restoring GSK3β-Related T Regulatory Cell Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Yu, Dehong; Zeng, Xianping; Deng, Mengxia; Sun, Yueqi; Wen, Weiping; Li, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV)) has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3β expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice models. Method Asthmatic mice models were established with OVA challenge and treated with oral administration of BV. Next, infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophil and neutrophils, mucous metaplasia, levels of Th1/Th2/Treg-typed cytokines and expression of GSK3β and Foxp3 were examined in asthmatic mice models by histological analysis, Bio-Plex and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Treg cells were evaluated in cultured splenocytes by flow cytometry in the presence of BV or GSK3β siRNA interference. Results We found significant decrease of infiltrated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asthmatic mice models after oral administration of BV. Oral administration of BV was shown to significantly suppress mucus metaplasia, Th2-typed cytokine levels and GSK3β expression while increasing Foxp3 production in asthmatic mice models. Moreover, BV significantly enhanced GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells in cultured spleen cells in vitro. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that oral administration of BV is capable of attenuating airway inflammation in asthmatic mice models, which may be associated with GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells. PMID:24667347

  15. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection modulate systemic allergic immune response in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-07-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduced exposure to some microbes. In agreement with epidemiological studies, we previously showed that Toxoplasma gondii infection prevents allergic airway inflammation. The mechanisms would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite and to regulatory cell induction. Herein we further characterized whether T. gondii allergy modulation extents to a systemic level or if it is limited to the lung. Parasite infection before allergic sensitization resulted in a diminished Th2 cytokine response and, when sensitized during acute infection, an increased in TGF-β production was detected. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was also reduced. Sensitization during both acute and chronic phases of infection resulted in a decreased anaphylaxis reaction. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to lung airway inflammation, T. gondii infection can suppress allergic responses at systemic level. These results open the possibility that this protozoan infection could modulate other allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis or oral allergies. Understanding the mechanisms by which different microorganisms regulate inflammation may potentially lead to the development of strategies aimed to control atopic diseases. PMID:25888245

  17. Clinical and molecular features of Joubert syndrome and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JBTS; OMIM 213300) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a specific congenital malformation of the hindbrain and a broad spectrum of other phenotypic findings that is now known to be caused by defects in the structure and/or function of the primary cilium. The complex hindbrain malformation that is characteristic of JBTS can be identified on axial magnetic resonance imaging and is known as the molar tooth sign (MTS); other diagnostic criteria include intellectual disability, hypotonia, and often, abnormal respiratory pattern and/or abnormal eye movements. In addition, a broad spectrum of other anomalies characterize Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), and may include retinal dystrophy, ocular coloboma, oral frenulae and tongue tumors, polydactyly, cystic renal disease (including cystic dysplasia or juvenile nephronophthisis), and congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical course can be variable, but most children with this condition survive infancy to reach adulthood. At least 8 genes cause JSRD, with some genotype-phenotype correlations emerging, including the association between mutations in the MKS3 gene and hepatic fibrosis characteristic of the JSRD subtype known as COACH syndrome. Several of the causative genes for JSRD are implicated in other ciliary disorders, such as juvenile nephronophthisis and Meckel syndrome, illustrating the close association between these conditions and their overlapping clinical features that reflect a shared etiology involving the primary cilium. PMID:19876931

  18. PRIMARY NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND SEVERE ADENOTONSILLAR HYPERTROPHY: A SINGLE CENTER PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Chimenz, R; Manti, S; Fede, C; Stroscio, G; Visalli, C; Nicotera, A; Di Rosa, G; Romeo, A C; Salpietro, V; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep that occurs at least twice a week for three consecutive months. There is no unifying etiology for nocturnal enuresis in the pediatric population and the disorder is likely to be multifactorial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between primary nocturnal enuresis, allergic rhinitis, and related complications in a paediatric case series from a single Center. We retrospectively reviewed and prospectively followed-up at our Institution (i) 32 children (14 females, 18 males; mean age 6.31±1.21 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophygrade I-II (group A) and (ii) 27 children (11 females, 16 males; mean age 6.52±1.33 yrs) affected by allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy grade III-IV (group B). Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed on the basis of (a) typical nasal symptoms due to atopic sensitization (e.g., rhinorrhea , itching, sneezing fits, and nasal congestion and obstruction) and (b) positive skin prick testing and/or increased level of total serum IgE. We identified discrepancies between group A and group B in terms of risk of primary nocturnal enuresis. In fact, only 1 child of group A (3.12%) reported uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis; conversely, 6 children of group B (22.22%) showed a history of uncomplicated primary nocturnal enuresis (p=0.040). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of atopic sensitization and serum total IgE levels (p=0.43). Allergic rhinitis may potentially influence the onset and the natural history of nocturnal enuresis in some children. Children with allergic rhinitis and more severe respiratory manifestations, seem to be more prone to developing primary nocturnal enuresis, likely due to potential multi-factorial causes (e.g., sleep disorders, chronic phlogosis, immune deregulation). PMID:26634591

  19. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  20. Clinician Experiences Assessing Work Disability Related to Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Results Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Conclusions Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of “partial disability”. In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability. PMID:25789478

  1. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  2. Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, P; Pacheco, K; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the greatest progress in our understanding of pneumoconioses, other than those produced by asbestos, silica, and coal, has been in the arena of metal-induced parenchymal lung disorders. Inhalation of metal dusts and fumes can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including airways disorders, cancer, and parenchymal diseases. The emphasis of this update is on parenchymal diseases caused by metal inhalation, including granulomatous disease, giant cell interstitial pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis, among others. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of disorders arising from exposure to aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, and nickel are presented in detail. Metal fume fever, an inhalation fever syndrome attributed to exposure to a number of metals, is also discussed. Advances in our knowledge of antigen-specific immunologic reactions in the lung are particularly evident in disorders secondary to beryllium and nickel exposure, where immunologic mechanisms have been well characterized. For example, current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as an antigen, or hapten, and is presented by antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific surface antigen receptors. Other metals such as cadmium and mercury induce nonspecific damage, probably by initiating production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified in some metal-related diseases such as chronic beryllium disease and hard metal disease. Future research needs include development of biologic markers of metal-induced immunologic disease, detailed characterization of human exposure, examination of gene alleles that might confer risk, and association of exposure data with that of genetic susceptibility. PMID:10931787

  3. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  4. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Blum, Alon; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients and their relatives. The prevalence of current probable PTSD was 40% in the bereaved sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that full-time employment, perceived control, and a secure attachment style moderated the risk for PTSD. Moreover, a long period of caretaking, high levels of somatization, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD. PMID:20623415

  6. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics of asthma and allergic disease is a field that has expanded greatly in the last decade. Previously thought only in terms of cell differentiation, it is now evident the epigenetics regulate many processes. With T cell activation, commitment toward an allergic phenotype is tightly regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications at the Th2 locus control region. When normal epigenetic control is disturbed, either experimentally or by environmental exposures, Th1/Th2 balance can be affected. Epigenetic marks are not only transferred to daughter cells with cell replication but they can also be inherited through generations. In animal models, with constant environmental pressure, epigenetically determined phenotypes are amplified through generations and can last up to 2 generations after the environment is back to normal. In this review on the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases we review basic epigenetic mechanisms and discuss the epigenetic control of Th2 cells. We then cover the transgenerational inheritance model of epigenetic traits and discuss how this could relate the amplification of asthma and allergic disease prevalence and severity through the last decades. Finally, we discuss recent epigenetic association studies for allergic phenotypes and related environmental risk factors as well as potential underlying mechanisms for these associations. PMID:24932182

  7. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... in something you are allergic to, such as dust mites, animal dander, or pollen. Allergic rhinitis is ... your or your child's exposure to them. Reduce dust and dust mites in the home. Control molds ...

  8. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  9. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  10. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  11. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  12. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  13. Mutation spectrum of Joubert syndrome and related disorders among Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; Gleeson, Joseph G; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive (AR), neurological condition characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis with the radiological hallmark of molar tooth sign, oculomotor apraxia, recurrent hyperventilation and intellectual disability. Most cases display a broad spectrum of additional features, including polydactyly, retinal dystrophy and renal abnormalities, which define different subtypes of JS-related disorders (JSRDs). To date, 23 genes have been shown to cause JSRDs, and although most of the identified genes encode proteins involved in cilia function or assembly, the molecular mechanisms associated with ciliary signaling remain enigmatic. Arab populations are ethnically diverse with high levels of consanguinity (20–60%) and a high prevalence of AR disorders. In addition, isolated communities with very-high levels of inbreeding and founder mutations are common. In this article, we review the 70 families reported thus far with JS and JSRDs that have been studied at the molecular level from all the Arabic countries and compile the mutations found. We show that JS and the related JSRDs are genetically heterogeneous in Arabs, with 53 mutations in 15 genes. Thirteen of these mutations are potentially founder mutations for the region. PMID:27081510

  14. Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders: 25 Years of Gene Discovery.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Aline; Alaerts, Maaike; Van Laer, Lut; Loeys, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare, autosomal-dominant, multisystem disorder, presenting with skeletal, ocular, skin, and cardiovascular symptoms. Significant clinical overlap with other systemic connective tissue diseases, including Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS), and the MASS phenotype, has been documented. In MFS and LDS, the cardiovascular manifestations account for the major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, rendering them the main target for therapeutic intervention. Over the past decades, gene identification studies confidently linked the aforementioned syndromes, as well as nonsyndromic aneurysmal disease, to genetic defects in proteins related to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway, greatly expanding our knowledge on the disease mechanisms and providing us with novel therapeutic targets. As a result, the focus of the developing pharmacological treatment strategies is shifting from hemodynamic stress management to TGF-β antagonism. In this review, we discuss the insights that have been gained in the molecular biology of MFS and related disorders over the past 25 years. PMID:26919284

  15. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  16. Do mouse models of allergic asthma mimic clinical disease?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Experimental mouse models of allergic asthma established almost 10 years ago offered new opportunities to study disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapeutics. These models focused on the factors governing the allergic immune response, on modeling clinical behavior of allergic asthma, and led to insights into pulmonary pathophysiology. Although mouse models rarely completely reproduce all the features of human disease, after sensitization and respiratory tract challenges with antigen, wild-type mice develop a clinical syndrome that closely resembles allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), increased IgE, mucus hypersecretion, and eventually, airway remodeling. There are, however, differences between mouse and human physiology that threaten to limit the value of mouse models. Three examples of such differences relate to both clinical manifestations of disease and underlying pathogenesis. First, in contrast to patients who have increased methacholine-induced AHR even when they are symptom-free, mice exhibit only transient methacholine-induced AHR following allergen exposure. Second, chronic allergen exposure in patients leads to chronic allergic asthma, whereas repeated exposures in sensitized mice causes suppression of disease. Third, IgE and mast cells, in humans, mediate early- and late-phase allergic responses, though both are unnecessary for the generation of allergic asthma in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that mouse models of allergic asthma are not exact replicas of human disease and thus, question the validity of these models. However, observations from mouse models of allergic asthma support many existing paradigms, although some novel discoveries in mice have yet to be verified in patients. This review presents an overview of the clinical aspects of disease in mouse models of allergic asthma emphasizing (1). the factors influencing the pathophysiological responses during

  17. [Genetic study of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2012-09-01

    Allergic diseases mentioned in this review is regarding to I type allergic inflammation induced by an IgE-mediated reaction, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. It is convinced that allergic diseases belong to multiple genes diseases and are controlled by both genetic and environmental factors. Meanwhile there exists gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions during the development of the disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the toolkit, advance, inherent difficulties and future clinical application prospect in genetic studies of allergic disease. PMID:23214325

  18. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  19. Diagnosing Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K; Scadding, Guy W

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common immunologic disease in industrialized societies and has a significant impact on quality of life. Most asthmatics also have rhinitis. AR may present with comorbidities, including chronic otitis media with effusion, cough, and pollen-food cross-reactivity. AR may occur in isolation or be part of a mixed rhinitis. PMID:27083100

  20. Impulse control and related disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Daniel; Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Other impulsive-compulsive behaviors have been linked to dopaminergic medications; these include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS; compulsive medication overuse). ICDs have been most closely related to the use of dopamine agonists (DAs), particularly at higher dosages; in contrast, DDS is primarily associated with shorter-acting, higher-potency dopaminergic medications, such as apomorphine and levodopa. Risk factors for ICDs may include male sex; younger age; younger age at PD onset; a pre-PD history of ICD(s); personal or family history of substance abuse; bipolar disorder; gambling problems; and impulsive personality traits. The primary treatment of ICDs in PD is discontinuation of DA therapy. Not all patients can tolerate this, however, due to worsening motor symptoms and/or DA withdrawal syndrome (a severe, stereotyped drug withdrawal syndrome similar to that of other psychostimulants). While psychiatric medications are frequently used to treat ICDs in the general population, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that they are effective in PD. Given the paucity of treatment options and potentially serious consequences of ICDs in PD, it is critical for patients to be monitored closely for their development. As empirically validated treatments for ICDs emerge, it will also be important to examine their efficacy and tolerability in individuals with comorbid PD. PMID:23038208

  1. Cortical morphology in children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rajaprakash, Meghna; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Rovet, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that individuals exposed to alcohol in utero have reduced cortical grey matter volumes. However, the candidate determinants of these reductions, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), have not been investigated exclusively in alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), the most prevalent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder subgroup that lacks the characteristic facial dysmorphology. Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 88 participants (8–16 years), 36 diagnosed with ARND and 52 typically developing controls. Scans were submitted to the CIVET pipeline (version 1.1.10). Deformable models were used to construct the inner white matter surfaces and pial surfaces from which CT and SA measures were derived. Group differences in cortical volume, CT, and SA were computed using a general linear model covaried for age, sex, and handedness. Results Global cortical volume reductions in ARND did not reflect CT, which did not differ between groups. Instead, volume decreases were consistent with global SA reductions in bilateral frontal and temporal as well as right occipital regions. Local reductions in SA were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right occipital-temporal region. Conclusion Results suggest that in ARND, prenatal alcohol exposure perturbs global SA to a greater degree than CT, particularly in the right temporal lobe. PMID:24653953

  2. The Castleman's Disease and Related Disorders--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K; Talukder, R H; Kamruzzaman, M

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare primary disease of the lymph nodes. Little is known about the management of the disease. Surgical treatment gives a very good result. What other modalities of treatment could be done is not yet established. The role of surgery gives good result and follow up evaluation is satisfactory. We found a solitary intra-abdominal mass of lymphoid hyperplasia with a histological diagnosis of Castlemans disease identified in the pathological data base. Unicentric disease was defined as it was a solitary mass. Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory data were analysed to evaluate treatment response. The patient also has related disorders as Acanthosis nigricans, Myoneuronal disorder as-MG and bronchiolitis. The patient diagnosed as angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). After evaluation patient under went surgical treatment, partial excision of tumor mass due to morbid adhesion with inferior vena cava. The patient becomes symptom free and lump disappears within 60 days of treatment. There was no recurrence of the disease after further evaluation. The author recommends that in Unicentric variant of Castlemans disease surgical resection of the tumor is curative. The unicentric tumour may be hyaline-vascular or hyaline-vascular/ plasma cell type. Partial resection, Radiotherapy or observation alone may avoid excessive aggressive therapy. PMID:26931270

  3. Identification of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Mining

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Eric; Pollard, Jonisha P.

    2016-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) prevention measures have been studied in great depth throughout various industries. While the nature and causes of these disorders have been characterized in many industries, WMSDs occurring in the U.S. mining sector have not been characterized for several years. In this report, MSHA accident/injury/illness data from 2009 to 2013 were characterized to determine the most frequently reported WMSDs in the U.S. mining sector. WMSDs were most frequently reported in workers with less than 5 years or more than 20 years of mining experience. The number of days lost from work was the highest for shoulder and knee injuries and was found to increase with worker age. Underground and surface coal, surface stone and stone processing plants experienced the greatest number of WMSDs over the period studied. WMSDs were most commonly caused by an employee suffering from an overexertion, falls or being struck by an object while performing materials handling, maintenance and repair tasks, getting on or off equipment or machines, and walking or running. The injury trends presented should be used to help determine the focus of future WMSD prevention research in mining. PMID:27294012

  4. A Systematic Review on the Development of Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Relation to International Immigration: The Leading Role of the Environment Confirmed

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Báltica; Uphoff, Eleonora; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep Maria; Wright, John

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is rising worldwide. Evidence on potential causal pathways of asthma and allergies is growing, but findings have been contradictory, particularly on the interplay between allergic diseases and understudied social determinants of health like migration status. This review aimed at providing evidence for the association between migration status and asthma and allergies, and to explore the mechanisms between migration status and the development of asthma and allergies. Methods and Findings Systematic review on asthma and allergies and immigration status in accordance with the guidelines set by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of the prevalence of asthma in immigrants compared to the host population was 0.60 (95% CI 0.45–0.84), and the pooled OR for allergies was 1.01 (95% CI 0.62–1.69). The pooled OR for the prevalence of asthma in first generation versus second generation immigrants was 0.37 (95% CI 0.25–0.58). Comparisons between populations in their countries of origin and those that emigrated vary depending on their level of development; more developed countries show higher rates of asthma and allergies. Conclusions Our findings suggest a strong influence of the environment on the development of asthma and allergic diseases throughout the life course. The prevalence of asthma is generally higher in second generation than first generation immigrants. With length of residence in the host country the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases increases steadily. These findings are consistent across study populations, host countries, and children as well as adults. Differences have been found to be significant when tested in a linear model, as well as when comparing between early and later age of migration, and between shorter and longer time of residence. PMID:25141011

  5. The Relation between Anger Management Style and Organ System-Related Somatic Symptoms in Patients with Depressive Disorders and Somatoform Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joong Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine the relation between anger management style and organ system-related somatic symptoms in depressive disorder and somatoform disorder patients. Materials and Methods The subjects included 73 patients with depressive disorders and 47 with somatoform disorders. Anger management styles were assessed by the Anger Expression Scale, while the severity of organ system-related somatic symptoms was evaluated using the Somatic Stress Response Scale (SSRS). The severity of depression and hostility was assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) depression and hostility subscales. Results The results of multiple regression analyses showed that, in depressive disorder patients, the level of anger expression was significantly associated with the severity of somatic symptoms related to neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal systems. However, in these patients, the level of anger suppression was not significantly associated with the severity of somatic symptoms related to any specific organ systems. In patients with somatoform disorders, there was no significant association between the level of anger suppression or anger expression and the severity of the somatic symptoms related to any specific organ systems. Conclusion These results suggest that, in depressive disorder patients, anger expression is likely to be predominantly involved in the neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal organ systems. However, in each of depressive disorder and somatoform disorder patients, anger suppression is not likely to be associated with any specific organ systems. PMID:18306468

  6. Olfaction in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Boris A; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Despite the implications for quality of life, relatively few articles have tested olfactory function in their investigations. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the following 2 questions: (1) What does AR do to human olfaction? (2) How effective is the treatment of AR in restoring the sense of smell? A comprehensive literature search was performed, and human studies of any design were included. A total of 420 articles were identified, and 36 articles were considered relevant. Data indicate that the frequency of olfactory dysfunction increases with the duration of the disorder, and most studies report a frequency in the range of 20% to 40%. Although olfactory dysfunction does not appear to be very severe in patients with AR, its presence seems to increase with the severity of the disease. There is very limited evidence that antihistamines improve olfactory function. In addition, there is limited evidence that topical steroids improve the sense of smell, especially in patients with seasonal AR. This is also the case for specific immunotherapy. However, many questions remain unanswered because randomized controlled trials are infrequent and only a few studies rely on quantitative measurement of olfactory function. PMID:26409662

  7. Abnormal IgG4 antibody response to aeroallergens in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Tillie-Leblond, I; Wallaert, B; carlier, A; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1994-01-01

    Various studies have suggested the involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies (Ab) in the physiopathology of allergic disorders. Recently, an abnormal IgG4 Ab production in response to immunization has been reported in some atopic patients. Thus, in order to evidence in allergic patients, a potential abnormal IgG4 Ab response to aeroallergens following natural exposure, we compared, in 34 patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and in 16 healthy subjects, the IgG4 Ab response to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat dander, using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Since some patients were also sensitive to grass pollen and/or to cat dander, we analyzed, in all patients, the IgG4 Ab responses both towards the allergen(s) they were sensitive to (sensitizing allergen) or not (unrelated allergen). The results showed that 90% of the patients produced levels of antisensitizing allergen(s) IgG4 Ab significantly higher than the controls; this IgG4 Ab response was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE Ab level. In addition, among these patients, around 40% presented high levels of IgG4 Ab to the unrelated allergen(s). Thus, in allergic patients, while specific IgE Ab define the nature of the sensitizing allergen, the presence of IgG4 Ab directed against various allergens seems in relation with an abnormal isotype regulation associated with atopic disorders. PMID:8199463

  8. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here. PMID:26626472

  9. [Prevention of allergic diseases in childhood: from theory to reality].

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Allergic diseases have an increasing worldwide prevalence and a great impact on the health related costs. The research is focused on the study of etiological and risk factors of allergic diseases that can potentially be modified with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies. Many of these measures do not have a definitively proven effect taking place in a controlled context different to what happens in real life. This paper aims to review the latest evidence on prevention of allergic diseases considering certainties and unresolved issues and focuses mainly on environmental, dietary, pharmacological and immunological preventive strategies for different levels of prevention. It is imperative to have a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that cause allergic diseases to optimize preventive measures that are effective in reversing the increasing trend in the prevalence of allergic illnesses in childhood. PMID:27164342

  10. Work organization, job stress, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Carayon, P; Smith, M J; Haims, M C

    1999-12-01

    Recent studies indicate potential links among work organization, job stress, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). In this paper we propose several pathways for a theoretical relationship between job stress and WRMDs. These pathways highlight the physiological, psychological, and behavioral reactions to stress that can affect WRMDs directly and indirectly. One model stipulates that psychosocial work factors (e.g., work pressure, lack of control), which can cause stress, might also influence or be related to ergonomic factors such as force, repetition, and posture that have been identified as risk factors for WRMDs. In order to fully understand the etiology of WRMDs, it is important to examine both physical ergonomic and psychosocial work factors simultaneously. Smith and Carayon-Sainfort (1989) have proposed a model of the work system for stress management that provides a useful framework for conceptualizing the work-related factors that contribute to WRMDs. Practical applications of this research include practitioners taking into account psychosocial work factors and job stress in their efforts to reduce and control WRMDs. PMID:10774134

  11. Sleep-Related Problems in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Lack, Caleb W.; Geffken, Gary R.; Jacob, Marni L.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention has been given to presence of sleep related problems (SRPs) in children with psychiatric conditions, little has been reported on SRPs in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-six children and adolescents with OCD were administered the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and Children’s Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale. A subset of youth (n = 41) completed a trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, OCD symptom severity, child-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety, parent-proxy ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems, and functional impairment. Ninety-two percent of youth experienced at least one SRP, with 27.3% reporting five or more SRPs. Total SRPs were positively associated with OCD symptom severity, child-rated anxiety, and parent-proxy ratings of internalizing problems. Total and several specific SRPs were reduced following cognitive-behavioral treatment. These results suggest that SRPs are relatively common in youth with OCD, are associated with symptom severity, and warrant attention during assessment and treatment. PMID:17951025

  12. 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Joo; Kim, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders. PMID:26090077

  13. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-09-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  14. Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cararo, José H; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patricia F; Ferreira, Gustavo da C

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole dipeptides (ID), such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), are compounds widely distributed in excitable tissues of vertebrates. ID are also endowed of several biochemical properties in biological tissues, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, proton buffering, and carbonyl scavenger activities. Furthermore, remarkable biological effects have been assigned to such compounds in age-related human disorders and in patients whose activity of serum carnosinase is deficient or undetectable. Nevertheless, the precise biological role of ID is still to be unraveled. In the present review we shall discuss some evidences from clinical and basic studies for the utilization of ID as a drug therapy for age-related human disorders. PMID:26425391

  15. Knowledge of Social Anxiety Disorder Relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Educational Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…

  16. [Obscene telephone calls--relations to paraphilias, paraphilia related disorders and stalking].

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Hill, Andreas; Nika, Evangelia; Berner, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about the aetiology, course and therapy of obscene telephone calls as a paraphilic behaviour. Overlaps to other paraphilias like voyeurism, paraphilia related disorders and the concept of stalking are reported in the literature. In case reports we describe the paraphilic development and course with a focus on the relationship to the victim. We discuss this on the background of different concepts regarding risk assessment and therapy. PMID:16094556

  17. Increased Risk of Dementia Among Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Chung-Hsing; Fan, Yu-Ming; Yin, Jiu-Haw; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Sung, Yueh-Feng; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yu-Kai; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sleep-related movement disorders (SRMD) are sleep disorders. As poor sleep quality is associated with cognitive impairment, we hypothesized that SRMD patients were exposed to a great risk for developing dementia. The present study was aimed to retrospectively examine the association of SRMD and dementia risk. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using the data obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan. The study cohort enrolled 604 patients with SRMD who were initially diagnosed and 2416 patients who were randomly selected and age/gender matched with the study group. SRMD, dementia, and other confounding factors were defined according to International Classification of Diseases Clinical Modification Codes. Cox proportional-hazards regressions were employed to examine adjusted hazard ratios (HR) after adjusting with confounding factors. Our data revealed that patients with SRMD had a 3.952 times (95% CI = 1.124–4.767) higher risk to develop all-cause dementia compared with individuals without SRMD. The results showed that SRMD patients aged 45 to 64 exhibited highest risk of developing all-cause dementia (HR: 5.320, 95% CI = 1.770–5.991), followed by patients age ≥65 (HR: 4.123, 95% CI = 2.066–6.972) and <45 (HR: 3.170, 95% CI = 1.050–4.128), respectively. Females with SRMD were at greater risk to develop all-cause dementia (HR: 4.372, 95% CI = 1.175–5.624). The impact of SRMD on dementia risk was progressively increased by various follow-up time intervals (<1 year, 1–2 years, and ≥2 years). The results suggest that SRMD is linked to an increased risk for dementia with gender-dependent and time-dependent characteristics. PMID:26705224

  18. [Age-related factors of psychopathology of impulse control disorders].

    PubMed

    Shiurkute, A

    1999-01-01

    15 children and adolescents with impulse control disorders (mean age 12.9 years) were examined. These disorders were presented as dromomania, kleptomania, aggressive-sadistic actions, tricholillomania, pyromania; a combination of different types was observed in some cases. Schizophrenia was diagnosed in 7 cases, affective disorders--in 8 patients. Independently of the nosologic unity of the disease, development of the impulse control disorders took place in affective disorders which manifested either by monopolar course (depression) (11 cases), or by bypolar attacks with unclear outlines of the phases (4 patients). Psychopathology of impulse control disorders in children and juveniles was analogous to that of the adults, however, their structure wasn't so complex and development of the phases wasn't so clear. PMID:11530454

  19. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the "Health on the Net" label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  20. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among Indian tabla players.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Wricha; De, Amitabha; Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Chandra, Ananga M

    2013-06-01

    Playing a percussion instrument demands great force and effort, which may make percussionists prone to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Of all of the percussion instruments in India, tabla is the most popular. The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of discomforts among professional tabla players. Eighty-five professional tabla players voluntarily participated in the study. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and visual analog scale were administered to all the participants. Demographic details, music-related activities, and symptoms of discomfort were also recorded. It was found that prone anatomical areas were the low back, right shoulder, neck, left shoulder, upper back, and knees. The frequency of discomfort was found to be mostly weekly for the shoulders and monthly for neck, low back, and knees. There was an association between visual analog scale and prevalence of self-reported discomforts in some body parts. It can be said that the prolonged, unsupported, folded-knee sitting posture may be the cause of discomforts. PMID:23752286

  1. A review of pharmacogenetic studies of substance-related disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance-related disorders (SRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated the substantial heritability of SRDs. To determine the impact of genetic variation on risk for SRD and the response to treatment, researchers have conducted a number of secondary data analyses and quasi-experimental studies that target one or more candidate gene variants. Methods This review examines studies in which candidate polymorphisms were examined as mediator variables to identify pharmacogenetic effects on subjective responses to drug administration or cues or outcomes of medication trials for SRDs. Efforts to use a meta-analytic approach to quantify these effects are premature because the number of available studies using similar methods and outcomes is limited, so the present review is qualitative. Results Findings from these studies provide preliminary evidence of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic effects. However, independent replication of these findings has been sparse. Conclusions Although this growing body of literature has produced conflicting results, improved statistical controls may help to clarify the findings. Additionally, the use of empirically derived sub-phenotypes (i.e., which serve to differentiate distinct groups of affected individuals) may also help to identify genetic mediators of pharmacologic response in relation to SRDs. The identification of genetic mediators can inform clinical care both by identifying risk factors for SRDs and predicting adverse events and therapeutic outcomes associated with specific pharmacotherapies. PMID:25819021

  2. Pycnogenol® in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2015-07-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological actions of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension. Pycnogenol® is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. Subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity, and also its anti-thrombotic effects make it appropriate for targeting the multifaceted pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, and waist circumference, and improve lipid profile, renal and endothelial functions in metabolic syndrome. This review highlights the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and related clinical research findings on the safety and efficacy of Pycnogenol®. The results of clinical research studies performed with Pycnogenol® are discussed using an evidence-based, target-oriented approach following the pathophysiology of individual components as well as in metabolic syndrome overall. PMID:25931421

  3. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  4. Curcumin: a novel treatment for skin-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Friedman, Adam J

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin, or diferuloylmethane, is a crystalline compound which gives the East Asian spice turmeric its bright yellow color. The medicinal properties of this spice have been referenced in numerous countries and cultures throughout the world. Today, there is growing scientific evidence suggesting curcumin's utility in the treatment of chronic pain, inflammatory dermatoses, acceleration of wound closure, skin infections, as well as cosmetic ailments such as dyspigmentation. In addition, curcumin may have a protective role against various pollutants and cytotoxic agents, indicating that it may be beneficial in a mitigational or prophylaxis role. Although turmeric has been used for thousands of years in alternative medicine, curcumin has yet to emerge as a component of our mainstream dermatologic therapeutic armamentarium. Interestingly, curcumin provides an ideal alternative to current therapies because of its relative safety profile even at high doses. Although the advantageous properties of curcumin in medicine are well established, its therapeutic potential thus far has been limited because of its poor oral bioavailablity. Topical administration of curcumin can directly deliver it to the affected tissue making it useful in treating skin-related disorders. However, limitations still exist such as the cosmetically unpleasing bright yellow-orange color, its poor solubility, and its poor stability at a high pH. Here the current literature detailing the potential and current use of curcumin in dermatology is reviewed. PMID:24085048

  5. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  6. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer. PMID:10932345

  7. The Hyaluronic Acid–HDAC3–miRNA Network in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-allergic effect of high molecular weight form of hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA). In doing so, HA targets CD44 and inhibits FcεRI signaling and cross-talk between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FcεRI. We previously reported the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in allergic inflammation and allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic potential. We reported regulatory role of HA in the expression of HDAC3. In this review, we will discuss molecular mechanisms associated with anti-allergic effect of HA in relation with HDACs. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in allergic inflammation has been reported. We will also discuss the role of miRNAs in allergic inflammation in relation with HA-mediated anti-allergic effects. PMID:25983734

  8. Occurrence of Common Allergic Diseases in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical and immunological studies have consistently shown a possible link between atopy and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, whether allergic diseases occur after INS develops is unknown. Methods From Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database, 1340 children with newly diagnosed INS and 5360 non-INS matched controls were identified in 2000–2007. By the end of 2008, the incidences and hazard ratios of four allergic diseases (allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma) were calculated. Results The incidence rates of all four allergic diseases were greater in the INS cohort than in the non-INS cohort in all age groups and decreased sharply as age increased in both cohorts. Children with INS had the highest adjusted hazard ratio (4.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50–6.83) for atopic dermatitis and the lowest adjusted hazard ratio (1.71; 95% CI, 1.39–2.09) for allergic rhinitis. Most of the allergic diseases appeared within 2–6 months after INS developed, and the incidences declined with increasing follow-up duration. Conclusions Allergic disorders are common in children with INS, especially within the first year after diagnosis. The role of INS in the development of allergic disorders should be elucidated to establish innovative disease intervention programs. PMID:25843432

  9. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Laurence E; Locksley, Richard M

    2015-03-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  10. Conceptual Relations between Anxiety Disorder and Fearful Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…