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Sample records for related uranium mineralisation

  1. Radioactive disequilibria in mineralised fracture samples from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, John A.T.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mineralised fractures from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden were examined mineralogically and isotopically to establish the presence or absence of radioactive equilibrium that may indicate recent rock-water interaction processes based on the natural mobility of uranium (i.e.; during the last 0.5 Ma). The results show evidence of radioactive disequilibrium in six of the nine samples investigated. Disequilibria are attributable to solution to solid 234U recoil gain (weakly mineralised zones adjacent to the main mineralisation) and solid to solution 234U recoil loss (moderate to highly mineralised zones). The absence of significant 238U loss in the samples emphasises the reducing conditions at the sampled depths. ?? 1984.

  2. Fractionation of 238U/235U by reduction during low temperature uranium mineralisation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Melissa J.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Kaltenbach, Angela; Turner, Simon P.; Schaefer, Bruce F.

    2014-02-01

    the groundwaters enriched in 235U, resulting in a progressive shift in 238U/235U towards lighter values in the aqueous phase as U is removed. These data can be modelled by a closed system Rayleigh fractionation model, with a fractionation factor (α, representing the 238U/235U composition of the groundwater relative to the solid uranium minerals) ranging from ∼0.9996 to 1.0000, with the majority of datapoints ranging from α values of 0.9998 to 0.9999. The sense and magnitude of the results of this study imply that 238U/235U fractionation is likely to be controlled by volume-dependent nuclear field shift effects during the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during mineralisation processes. These findings support the use of the 238U/235U isotopic system as a tracer to constrain the nature and timing of palaeoredox conditions.

  3. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  4. Impact of the uranium (VI) speciation in mineralised urines on its extraction by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups used in chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Ritt, A; Peroux, A; Fevrier, L; Rebiere, F; Agarande, M; Cote, G

    2015-11-01

    Actinides determination in urine samples is part of the analyses performed to monitor internal contamination in case of an accident or a terrorist attack involving nuclear matter. Mineralisation is the first step of any of these analyses. It aims at reducing the sample volume and at destroying all organic compounds present. The mineralisation protocol is usually based on a wet ashing step, followed by actinides co-precipitation and a furnace ashing step, before redissolution and the quantification of the actinides by the appropriate techniques. Amongst the existing methods to perform the actinides co-precipitation, alkali-earth (typically calcium) precipitation is widely used. In the present work, the extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from the redissolution solutions (called "mineralised urines") on calix[6]arene columns bearing hydroxamic groups was investigated as such an extraction is a necessary step before their determination by ICP-MS or alpha spectrometry. Difficulties were encountered in the transfer of uranium(VI) from raw to mineralised urines, with yield of transfer ranging between 0% and 85%, compared to about 90% for Pu and Am, depending on the starting raw urines. To understand the origin of such a difficulty, the speciation of uranium (VI) in mineralised urines was investigated by computer simulation using the MEDUSA software and the associated HYDRA database, compiled with recently published data. These calculations showed that the presence of phosphates in the "mineralised urines" leads to the formation of strong uranyl-phosphate complexes (such as UO2HPO4) which compete with the uranium (VI) extraction by the calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups. The extraction constant of uranium (VI) by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups was determined in a 0.04 mol L(-1) sodium nitrate solution (logK=4.86±0.03) and implemented in an extraction model taking into account the speciation in the aqueous phase. This model allowed to

  5. Identifying metabolites related to nitrogen mineralisation using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . T McDonald, Noeleen; Graham, Stewart; Watson, Catherine; Gordon, Alan; Lalor, Stan; Laughlin, Ronnie; Elliott, Chris; . P Wall, David

    2015-04-01

    Exploring new analysis techniques to enhance our knowledge of the various metabolites within our soil systems is imperative. Principally, this knowledge would allow us to link key metabolites with functional influences on critical nutrient processes, such as the nitrogen (N) mineralisation in soils. Currently there are few studies that utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) to characterize multiple metabolites within a soil sample. The aim of this research study was to examine the effectiveness of 1H NMR for isolating multiple metabolites that are related to the mineralizable N (MN) capacity across a range of 35 Irish grassland soils. Soils were measured for MN using the standard seven day anaerobic incubation (AI-7). Additionally, soils were also analysed for a range of physio-chemical properties [e.g. total N, total C, mineral N, texture and soil organic matter (SOM)]. Proton NMR analysis was carried on these soils by extracting with 40% methanol:water, lyophilizing and reconstituting in deuterium oxide and recording the NMR spectra on a 400MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer. Once the NMR data were spectrally processed and analysed using multivariate statistical analysis, seven metabolites were identified as having significant relationships with MN (glucose, trimethylamine, glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid, 4-aminohippuirc acid and citric acid). Following quantification, glucose was shown to explain the largest percentage variability in MN (72%). These outcomes suggest that sources of labile carbon are essential in regulating N mineralisation and the capacity of plant available N derived from SOM-N pools in these soils. Although, smaller in concentration, the amino acids; 4-aminohippuirc acid, glutamic acid and serine also significantly (P<0.05) explained 43%, 27% and 19% of the variability in MN, respectively. This novel study highlights the effectiveness of using 1H NMR as a practical approach to profile multiple metabolites in

  6. Permo Triassic unconformity-related Au-Pd mineralisation, South Devon, UK: new insights and the European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Tom J.; Bouch, Jon E.; Gunn, Andrew G.; McKervey, John A.; Naden, Jonathan; Scrivener, Richard C.; Styles, Michael T.; Large, Duncan E.

    2005-07-01

    An integrated mineralogical-geochemical study of unconformity-related Au-Pd occurrences within and around the Permo Triassic basins of southwest England, UK, has confirmed the importance of low temperature (86±13°C), hydrothermal carbonate veins as hosts for the mineralisation. Fluid inclusion data for the carbonate gangue, supported by stable isotope (13C and 18O) and radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr) data, have identified three principal fluids: (1) a reducing calcic brine [>25 wt% salinity, <0.5 NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)] originating in the sub-unconformity basement and an expression of advanced mineral fluid interaction; (2) an oxidising sodic brine [~16 wt% salinity, >0.9 NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)] originating in the post-unconformity red beds under evaporitic conditions, and (3) an oxygenated, low salinity groundwater (<3 wt% salinity). The sodic brine is reasoned to be the parent metalliferous fluid and to have acquired its enrichment in Au and Pd by the leaching of immature sediments and intra-rift volcanic rocks within the local Permo Triassic basins. Metal precipitation is linked to the destabilisation of Au and Pd chloride complexes by either mixing with calcic brines, dilution by groundwaters or interaction with reduced lithologies. This explains the diversity of mineralised settings below and above the unconformity and their affinity with red bed brines. The paucity of sulphide minerals, the development of selenides (as ore minerals and as mineral inclusion in gold grains), the presence of rhodochrosite and manganoan calcites (up to 2.5 wt% Mn in calcite) and the co-precipitation of hematite and manganese oxides are consistent with the overall high oxidation state of the ore fluids. A genetic model is proposed linking Permo Triassic red beds, the mixing of oxidising and reducing brines, and the development of unconformity-related precious metal mineralisation. Comparison with other European Permo Triassic basins reveals striking similarities in geological setting, mineralogy

  7. Volcanic red-bed copper mineralisation related to submarine basalt alteration, Mont Alexandre, Quebec Appalachians, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Beaudoin, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Two types of native copper occur in Upper Silurian basaltic rocks in the Mont Alexandre area, Quebec Appalachians: (1) type 1 forms micrometric inclusions in plagioclase and is possibly magmatic in origin, whereas (2) type 2 occurs as coarse-grained patches rimmed by cuprite in altered porphyritic basalt. Type 1 has higher contents of sulphur (2,000-20,263 ppm) and arsenic (146-6,017 ppm), and a broader range of silver abundances (<65-2,186 ppm Ag) than type 2 (149-1,288 ppm S, <90-146 As, <65-928 ppm Ag). No mineral inclusions of sulphide or arsenide in native copper were observed at the electron-microprobe scale. Primary igneous fabrics are preserved, but the basaltic flows are pervasively oxidised and plagioclase is albitised. Chlorite replaces plagioclase and forms interstitial aggregates in the groundmass and has Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.36 with calculated temperatures between 155°C and 182°C. Copper sulphides in vacuoles and veinlets are associated with malachite, fibro-radiating albite and yarrowite (Cu9S8 with up to 0.3 wt% Ag). Bulk-rock concentrations of thallium and lithium range from 70 to 310 ppb and 10 to 22 ppm, respectively, and thallium is positively correlated with Fe2O3. Such concentrations of thallium and lithium are typical of spilitisation during heated seawater-basalt interaction. Spilitisation is consistent with the regional geological setting of deepwater-facies sedimentation, but is different from current models for volcanic red-bed copper, which indicate subaerial oxidation of volcanic flows. The volcanic red-bed copper model should be re-examined to account for native copper mineralisation in basalts altered by warm seawater.

  8. Petrochemical and Mineralogical Constraints on the Source and Processes of Uranium Mineralisation in the Granitoids of Zing-Monkin Area, Adamawa Massif, NE Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Haruna, I. V.; Orazulike, D. M.; Ofulume, A. B.; Mamman, Y. D.

    2011-12-15

    Zing-Monkin area, located in the northern part of Adamawa Massif, is underlain by extensive exposures of moderately radioactive granodiorites, anatectic migmatites, equigranular granites, porphyritic granites and highly radioactive fine-grained granites with minor pegmatites. Selected major and trace element petrochemical investigations of the rocks show that a progression from granodiorite through migmatite to granites is characterised by depletion of MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} Sr, Ba, and Zr, and enrichment of SiO{sub 2} and Rb. This trend is associated with uranium enrichment and shows a chemical gradation from the more primitive granodiorite to the more evolved granites. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the uranium is content in uranothorite and in accessories, such as monazite, titanite, apatite, epidote and zircon. Based on petrochemical and mineralogical data, the more differentiated granitoids (e.g., fine-grained granite) bordering the Benue Trough are the immediate source of the uranium prospect in Bima Sandstone within the Trough. Uranium was derived from the granitoids by weathering and erosion. Transportation and subsequent interaction with organic matter within the Bima Sandstone led to precipitation of insoluble secondary uranium minerals in the Benue Trough.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Chen; Yuan, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders. PMID:25655009

  10. Discrimination of precious/base metal mineralising systems by fractal analysis, Mt Isa, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, T.; Oliver, N.

    2003-04-01

    Fractal analysis of deposit and prospect distribution provides a new and valuable tool in interpreting mineralisation patterns and developing exploration strategies, as demonstrated here for the Mount Isa block in Queensland, Australia. The district is one of the world’s most richly endowed base metal provinces; it also has significant precious metal deposits. Genetic models for the base metal deposits have included syngenetic and epigenetic extremes. The comprehensive data base in the North West Queensland Mineral Province Report is used to analyse copper (n=1867), copper-gold (n=211), gold (n=80), zinc-lead-silver (n=186) and uranium (n=212) mineral occurrences, prospects, existing and abandoned mines. Spatial distributions are analysed by counting the number of boxes (N[r]) of size r containing one or more localities as a function of r. Spectacularly different relationships between N[r] and r are observed for the different metals. In all cases, the trend of N[r] with r becomes almost flat at values of r on the order of hundreds of metres. This ``roll-off" effect may be due to lack of discovery of deposits. Relationships between N[r] and r at the largest box sizes may be influenced by a truncation effect. Approximate fractal dimensions (D) of the spatial distribution of each deposit type were evaluated avoiding both roll-off and truncation. The most clustered distributions were observed for Au (D ˜0.29) followed by Zn-Pb-Ag (D ˜0.41), U (D ˜0.87), Cu-Au (D ˜0.93) and Cu (D ˜1.3). This implies that there are strong differences between the mineralising systems of Au and Cu, and that neither Cu nor Au is clearly related to the family of Cu-Au deposits in the district. Au mineralization is highly clustered, implying localisation of mineralising fluid flow. In contrast, the Cu pattern indicates a more pervasive mineralising system. The latter is compatible with popular models which suggest that fluid mixing led to copper deposition, and that both metal source

  11. Regulation of soil organic C mineralisation at the pore scale.

    PubMed

    Ruamps, Léo S; Nunan, Naoise; Pouteau, Valérie; Leloup, Julie; Raynaud, Xavier; Roy, Virginie; Chenu, Claire

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that regulate C mineralisation at the soil pore scale or how these factors vary throughout the pore network. This study sought to understand how the decomposition of organic carbon varies within the soil pore network and to determine the relative importance of local environmental properties relative to biological properties as controlling factors. This was achieved by sterilising samples of soil and reinoculating them with axenic bacterial suspensions using the matric potential to target different locations in the pore network. Carbon mineralisation curves were described with two-compartment first-order models to distinguish CO2 derived from the labile organic carbon released during sterilisation from CO2 derived from organic C unaffected by sterilisation. The data indicated that the size of the labile pool of organic C, possibly of microbial origin, varied as a function of location in the pore network but that the organic carbon unaffected by sterilisation did not. The mineralisation rate of the labile C varied with the bacterial type inoculated, but the mineralisation rate of the organic C unaffected by sterilisation was insensitive to bacterial type. Taken together, the results suggest that microbial metabolism is a less significant regulator of soil organic carbon decomposition than are microbial habitat properties. PMID:23346944

  12. Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems. Bruce E Hobbs1,2, Alison Ord1 and Mark A. Munro1. 1. Centre for Exploration Targeting, The University of Western Australia, M006, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. 2. CSIRO Earth and Resource Engineering, Bentley, WA, Australia Hydrothermal mineralising systems are presented as large, open chemical reactors held far from equilibrium during their life-time by the influx of heat, fluid and dissolved chemical species. As such they are nonlinear dynamical systems and need to be analysed using the tools that have been developed for such systems. Hydrothermal systems undergo a number of transitions during their evolution and this paper focuses on methods for characterising these transitions in a quantitative manner and establishing whether they resemble first or second (critical) phase transitions or whether they have some other kind of nature. Critical phase transitions are characterised by long range correlations for some parameter characteristic of the system, power-law probability distributions so that there is no characteristic length scale and a high sensitivity to perturbations; as one approaches criticality, characteristic parameters for the system scale in a power law manner with distance from the critical point. The transitions undergone in mineralised hydrothermal systems are: (i) widespread, non-localised mineral alteration involving exothermic mineral reactions that produce hydrous silicate phases, carbonates and iron-oxides, (ii) strongly localised veining, brecciation and/or stock-work formation, (iii) a series of endothermic mineral reactions involving the formation of non-hydrous silicates, sulphides and metals such as gold, (iv) multiple repetitions of transitions (ii) and (iii). We have quantified aspects of these transitions in gold deposits from the Yilgarn craton of Western Australia using wavelet transforms. This technique is convenient and fast. It enables one to establish if

  13. The role of intrusions in the formation of Irish-type mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Jim; Reed, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    The Stonepark Prospect is located in County Limerick, south-central Ireland. Multiple zones of Zn-Pb mineralisation have been identified at Stonepark and these are approximately 5 km west of the Pallas Green Prospect. At Stonepark, the sulphide bodies are hosted within the Waulsortian Limestone and closely resemble other Irish-type deposits. The mineralisation is composed of pyrite-marcasite, sphalerite and galena with gangue Fe-dolomite and calcite cements. A key difference at Stonepark is the presence of Chadian-aged volcanic rocks (Knockroe Volcanics) that intrude into and overlie the Waulsortian Limestone. Subsequent hydrothermal brecciation of the Waulsortian Limestone and Knockroe intrusions resulted in the formation of tabular polymict breccia bodies containing mixed carbonate and clasts of intrusive rocks. These have then been overprinted by massive sulphide mineralisation. Further syn-mineralisation brecciation has overprinted the earlier breccias. Drilling has demonstrated a spatial relationship between the volume of intrusive rocks (dykes and polymict breccias) and Zn-Pb mineralisation. This association suggests that the intrusive rocks provided a mechanism for the introduction of the mineralising fluids into the breccia bodies. This is significant as to date no large controlling fault has been identified, as is seen at other Irish-type deposits. Further work is required to understand the alteration process of the intrusive rocks and how this may relate to the mineralising process.

  14. Pb isotopic constraints on the formation of the Dikulushi Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation, Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haest, Maarten; Schneider, Jens; Cloquet, Christophe; Latruwe, Kris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Base metal-Ag mineralisation at Dikulushi and in other deposits on the Kundelungu Plateau (Democratic Republic of Congo) developed during two episodes. Subeconomic Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphide ores were generated during the Lufilian Orogeny (c. 520 Ma ago) in a set of E-W- and NE-SW-oriented faults. Their lead has a relatively unradiogenic and internally inhomogeneous isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.07-18.49), most likely generated by mixing of Pb from isotopically heterogeneous clastic sources. These sulphides were remobilised and enriched after the Lufilian Orogeny, along reactivated and newly formed NE-SW-oriented faults into a chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag mineralisation of high economic interest. The chalcocite samples contain only trace amounts of lead and show mostly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures that fall along a linear trend in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram (206Pb/204Pb = 18.66-23.65; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.72-16.02). These anomalous characteristics reflect a two-stage evolution involving admixture of both radiogenic lead and uranium during a young fluid event possibly c. 100 Ma ago. The Pb isotope systematics of local host rocks to mineralisation also indicate some comparable young disturbance of their U-Th-Pb systems, related to the same event. They could have provided Pb with sufficiently radiogenic compositions that was added to less radiogenic Pb remobilised from precursor Cu-Pb-Zn-Fe polysulphides, whereas the U most likely originated from external sources. Local metal sources are also suggested by the 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb systematics of combined ore and rock lead, which indicate a pronounced and diversified lithological control of the immediate host rocks on the chalcocite-dominated Cu-Ag ores. The Pb isotope systematics of polysulphide mineralisation on the Kundelungu Plateau clearly record a diachronous evolution.

  15. Meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and CT studies. The hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. Twelve intact little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9–3.05 kg were studied. These animals, which were living in the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo, had no symptoms or known disease processes at the time of the study. The plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of both stifle joints were performed under general anaesthesia. Sequential transverse images were acquired on a spiral scanner. Results No signs of articular disease were observed in any of the animals. Radiographically, the meniscal mineralisation was detected as an oval radiopacity in the cranial compartment on the mediolateral projection, located within the area of the medial meniscus. On craniocaudal projection, the mineralisation was more difficult to visualise. In one of the animals, it was not possible to identify the meniscal mineralisation in either of the stifle joints. Using CT, meniscal mineralisation was best identified in the transverse plane images. Conclusions Meniscal mineralisation appears to be a normal anatomic feature in little spotted cats. PMID:23506083

  16. Uranium*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenthe, Ingmar; Drożdżyński, Janusz; Fujino, Takeo; Buck, Edgar C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wolf, Stephen F.

    Uranium compounds have been used as colorants since Roman times (Caley, 1948). Uranium was discovered as a chemical element in a pitchblende specimen by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who published the results of his work in 1789. Pitchblende is an impure uranium oxide, consisting partly of the most reduced oxide uraninite (UO2) and partly of U3O8. Earlier mineralogists had considered this mineral to be a complex oxide of iron and tungsten or of iron and zinc, but Klaproth showed by dissolving it partially in strong acid that the solutions yielded precipitates that were different from those of known elements. Therefore he concluded that it contained a new element (Mellor, 1932); he named it after the planet Uranus, which had been discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, who named it after the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens.

  17. Imaging of unconformity related uranium ore zones by crosshole ERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, M.; Kim, C.; Son, J.

    2011-12-01

    For the exploration of unconformity type uranium deposits in the Athabasca basin, Canada, electrical resistiivty survey is commonly used to define graphtic conductors in the basement. The method, however, can not provide enough resolution since the exploration target is seated in depth greater than 300 m while the width is less than 50 m. To overcome this inherent problem and introduce new exploration technology, we applied the crosshole ERT(Electrical Resistivity Tomography) technology in the Athabasca basin. Since the drillholes are not vertical and randomly oriented, 3D ERT inversion algorithm, accommodating arbitray electrode locations, was used to reconstruct 2D surbsurface resistivity image. For the 2D inversion in 3D inversion code, subsurface was assumed to be two-dimensional. We also applied the full 3D inversion to the field data set from several drillholes. In the ERT images, we could observe the graphitic pelite zone with very low resistivity which is our exploration target. By defining the accurate location of graphtic conductor, we could understand the basic setting of the site. Moreover, in the 3D ERT image, we could define anomalous zone in 3D space which can be related to the uranium target. By this introductory ERT survey, we could show that ERT can be used as a new geophysical exploration method in the Athabasca basin. In the current exploration procedure, barren drillholes are abandoned and further geophysical surveys using thes holes are rare in most cases. Since ERT technique can provide very high resolution image of the subsurface, we can have more detailed information to design the drilling program and this can lead to the cost reduction of exploration program. We expect crosshole ERT will become a standard geophysical methods in the exploration projects in the Athabasca basin.

  18. Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarova, Yulia A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Chipley, Don

    2014-12-01

    Variations in 238U/235U and 234U/238U ratios were measured in uranium minerals from a spectrum of uranium deposit types, as well as diagenetic phosphates in uranium-rich basins and peraluminous rhyolites and associated autunite mineralisation from Macusani Meseta, Peru. Mean δ238U values of uranium minerals relative to NBL CRM 112-A are 0.02‰ for metasomatic deposits, 0.16‰ for intrusive, 0.18‰ for calcrete, 0.18‰ for volcanic, 0.29‰ for quartz-pebble conglomerate, 0.29‰ for sandstone-hosted, 0.44‰ for unconformity-type, and 0.56‰ for vein, with a total range in δ238U values from -0.30‰ to 1.52‰. Uranium mineralisation associated with igneous systems, including low-temperature calcretes that are sourced from U-rich minerals in igneous systems, have low δ238U values of ca. 0.1‰, near those of their igneous sources, whereas uranium minerals in basin-hosted deposits have higher and more variable values. High-grade unconformity-related deposits have δ238U values around 0.2‰, whereas lower grade unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca, Kombolgie and Otish basins have higher δ238U values. The δ234U values for most samples are around 0‰, in secular equilibrium, but some samples have δ234U values much lower or higher than 0‰ associated with addition or removal of 234U during the past 2.5 Ma. These δ238U and δ234U values suggest that there are at least two different mechanisms responsible for 238U/235U and 234U/238U variations. The 234U/238U disequilibria ratios indicate recent fluid interaction with the uranium minerals and preferential migration of 234U. Fractionation between 235U and 238U is a result of nuclear-field effects with enrichment of 238U in the reduced insoluble species (mostly UO2) and 235U in oxidised mobile species as uranyl ion, UO22+, and its complexes. Therefore, isotopic fractionation effects should be reflected in 238U/235U ratios in uranium ore minerals formed either by reduction of uranium to UO2 or chemical

  19. Disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  20. Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  1. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have δ18Ofluid and δ D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by

  2. Mineralisation studies of 14C-labelled metsulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, chlorsulfuron and thifensulfuron-methyl in one Danish soil and groundwater sediment profile.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S M; Hertz, P B; Holst, T; Bossi, R; Jacobsen, C S

    2001-11-01

    Bacterial mineralisation of four sulfonylurea herbicides at 20 microg kg(-1) in a sandy soil from nine different depths in a sandy soil horizon (5-780 cm) was investigated in laboratory studies. Metsulfuron-methyl, chlorsulfuron, and tribenuron-methyl were 14C-labelled in the sulfonamide ring, while thifensulfuron-methyl was labelled in the thiophene ring. The highest mineralised amount in 126 days was observed for metsulfuron-methyl (40%) followed by tribenuron-methyl (25%), and thifensulfuron-methyl (11%). Chlorsulfuron showed low mineralisation in all the soils tested (<4%). Mineralisation of the herbicides metsulfuron-methyl and tribenuron-methyl varied according to soil depth (upper profile: 5-70 cm, and lower profile: 165-780 cm) and were proven faster in soil taken from depths 5-7 and 30-35 cm, and slower in depths 45-50 and 70-75 cm. Mineralisation was absent in the lower profile (165-780 cm). As an indicator of microbial activity bacterial counts were taken at the experimental start; these counts grouped in three levels: highest in the surface layer (5-7 cm), slightly lower in the depths 30-75 cm, and lowest in the lower profile (165-780 cm). Residual concentrations of metsulfuron-methyl correlated to the accumulated amount mineralised, with high residual concentrations in soil showing low mineralisation. Also chlorsulfuron showed high residual concentrations with increasing depth in the upper profile, but the relatively high dissipation at 30-35 cm and lower one at 45-50 cm could not be related with the lack of mineralisation. This shows that hydrolysis occurs, but mineralisation of the chloro-substituted sulfonamide is restricted. Tribenuron-methyl and thifensulfuron-methyl could not be detected due to interference with other compounds. PMID:11695596

  3. New mineralogical and isotopic constraints on Main Zone-hosted PGE mineralisation at Moorddrift, northern Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, D. A.; Jones, A.; Smith, J. W.; Boyce, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    The northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa contains a number of occurrences of platinum-group element (PGE) mineralisation within Main Zone rocks, whereas the rest of the complex has PGE-depleted Main Zone units. On the farm Moorddrift, Cu-Ni-PGE sulphide mineralisation is hosted within the Upper Main Zone in a layered package of gabbronorites, mottled anorthosites and thin pyroxenites. Our observations indicate that a 10-m-thick, `reef-style' package of mineralisation has been extensively `disturbed', forming a mega breccia which in some localities may distribute mineralised rocks over intersections of over 300 m. The sulphides are made up of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite, heavily altered around their margins and overprinted by secondary pyrite. Platinum-group mineral assemblages typical of primary magmatic deposits, with Pt and Pd tellurides and sperrylite, are present in the `reef-style' package, whereas there is a decrease in tellurides and an increase in antimonides in the `disturbed' package, interpreted to be related to hydrothermal recrystallization during veining and brecciation. Sulphur isotopes show that all sulphides within the mineralised package on Moorddrift have a crustal signature consistent with local country rock sediments of the Transvaal Supergroup. We interpret the mineralisation at Moorddrift as a primary sulphide reef, likely produced as a result of the mixing of crustally contaminated magmas in the Upper Main Zone, which has been locally disrupted post-crystallisation. At present, there are no firm links between Moorddrift and the other known PGE occurrences in the Main Zone at the Aurora and Waterberg projects, although the stratigraphic position of all may be similar and thus intriguing. Nonetheless, they do demonstrate that the Main Zone of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, unlike the eastern and western limbs, can be considered a fertile unit for potential PGE mineralisation.

  4. Pyrophosphate: a key inhibitor of mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Arnett, Timothy R; Russell, R Graham G

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate has long been known as a by-product of many intracellular biosynthetic reactions, and was first identified as a key endogenous inhibitor of biomineralisation in the 1960s. The major source of pyrophosphate appears to be extracellular ATP, which is released from cells in a controlled manner. Once released, ATP can be rapidly hydrolysed by ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases to produce pyrophosphate. The main action of pyrophosphate is to directly inhibit hydroxyapatite formation thereby acting as a physiological 'water-softener'. Evidence suggests pyrophosphate may also act as a signalling molecule to influence gene expression and regulate its own production and breakdown. This review will summarise our current understanding of pyrophosphate metabolism and how it regulates bone mineralisation and prevents harmful soft tissue calcification. PMID:27061894

  5. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, D

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures.

  6. Environmental health impacts of dispersed mineralisation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.; Mundalamo, H. R.

    2010-11-01

    The crust of South Africa has undergone various episodes and styles of mineralisation, dating as far back as the Archaean. The suite of minerals produced is diverse and includes metals, non-metals and industrial minerals. Since the Pleistocene, substantial quantities of elements, both nutritional and toxic, that were involved in ore forming processes, have been remobilised and redistributed by surficial processes of intense tropical weathering, leaching, eluviation, podsolisation and gleying; and more recently, by mining and related processes, as well as by other urban and industrial activities. As a result of this "dispersion" it is not uncommon to find large tracts of the country containing anomalous trace element contents or deficiencies in essential micro-nutrient elements. Through water and food crops, extremes in trace element variation in soils are transmitted into the food chain, with often undesirable consequences for human and animal health. But the known variations are not as yet adequately documented. Nor is there sufficient knowledge on the implications of these variations for the health of the environment and its ecosystems. Nutrient deficient soils may be the principal causative factor in the devastating endemic osteoarthritic disease that afflicts two-thirds of the women in Maputaland, for instance. The generally low Se status of agricultural soils could represent an important co-factor in the relatively high diffusion rates of HIV-AIDS in the country. The impact of geology on animal health also remains an area of critical concern to both farmers and managers of the hugely important wildlife game reserves. This paper discusses a few known relationships between trace element excess/deficiency stemming originally from mineralisation processes, and the local and regional distribution of diseases in man and animals in South Africa. It is submitted that the challenge for future research in medical geology would lie in an organised effort aimed at

  7. Negative Priming Effect on Organic Matter Mineralisation in NE Atlantic Slope Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Gontikaki, Evangelia; Thornton, Barry; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Witte, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The priming effect (PE) is a complex phenomenon which describes a modification (acceleration or retardation) in the mineralisation rate of refractory organic matter (OM) following inputs of labile material. PEs are well-studied in terrestrial ecosystems owing to their potential importance in the evolution of soil carbon stocks but have been largely ignored in aquatic systems despite the fact that the prerequisite for their occurrence, i.e. the co-existence of labile and refractory OM, is also true for sediments. We conducted stable isotope tracer experiments in continental margin sediments from the NE Atlantic (550–950 m) to study PE occurrence and intensity in relation to labile OM input. Sediment slurries were treated with increasing quantities of the 13C-labelled diatom Thalassiosira rotula and PE was quantified after 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a stepwise effect of diatom quantity on its mineralisation although mineralisation efficiency dropped with increasing substrate amounts. The addition of diatomaceous OM yielded a negative PE (i.e. retardation of existing sediment OM mineralisation) at the end of the experiment regardless of diatom quantity. Negative PE is often the result of preferential utilisation of the newly deposited labile material by the microbial community (“preferential substrate utilization”, PSU) which is usually observed at excessive substrate additions. The fact that PSU and the associated negative PE occurred even at low substrate levels in this study could be attributed to limited amounts of OM subject to priming in our study area (∼0.2% organic carbon [OC]) which seems to be an exception among continental slopes (typically >0.5%OC). We postulate that PEs will normally be positive in continental slope sediments and that their intensity will be a direct function of sediment OC content. More experiments with varying supply of substrate targeting C-poor vs. C-rich sediments are needed to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:23840766

  8. Organic phosphorus mineralisation in a temperate grassland soil under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus A.; Andresen, Louise; Gorenflo, André D.; Müller, Christoph; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2016-04-01

    0.7 and 4.2 mg P kg‑1 d‑1. Net organic P mineralisation during this phase was quantified by subtracting microbial P immobilisation and ranged between 0.3 and 3.4 mg P kg‑1 d‑1. We did not detect a significant effect of elevated [CO2] on soil organic P transformation rates, however, relatively high P fertilisation since the start of the GiFACE-trial (equal to 5.6 g P m‑2) may have masked subtle changes in mineralisation rates. Significantly higher concentrations of phytate-like P were found in plots treated with elevated [CO2]. We assume that increased plant biomass production under elevated [CO2] caused the formation of more inositol-hexakisphosphate (phytate), a P storage compound in plants. Conclusions & Outlook: Elevated [CO2] had no clear effect on soil organic P mineralisation rates, but soil organic P classes were clearly affected. Organic P transformation rates will also be verified with a recently developed numerical model.

  9. Uranium mining in relation to toxicological impacts on inland waters.

    PubMed

    Holdway, D A

    1992-12-01

    Protection of tropical rivers from metal pollution requires that mining wastewaters be biologically tested for aquatic toxicity before release from the site into natural ecosystems occurs, and that a 'safe' dilution which incorporates a minimum 10-fold safety factor applied to the lowest NOEC threshold value be utilized. Application of these test methods to wastewaters from an operating uranium mine has shown that pre-release toxicity testing provides accurate information on the toxicity of metal-containing wastewaters with a high degree of confidence. Field validation of the laboratory results was obtained when wastewaters which were field diluted through a release into a billabong gave similar results to laboratory-diluted wastewaters. No one species is always the most sensitive to exposure to complex wastewaters. Changes with time in wastewater chemistry, toxicity, and in the physiological capacity of specific organisms to survive in a contaminated environment (tolerance), can result in different species having varying sensitivities over time to exposure to complex wastewaters collected from the same location. As a result of the remote likelihood of finding the 'most sensitive species', it is necessary to test the toxicity of complex wastewaters to a battery of organisms, representing different trophic levels of the ecosystem, under physical conditions representative of the specific environment needing protection. Use of a natural billabong as a 'biological filter' for releasing mine wastewaters did not result in toxicity mitigation and prevented controlled dilution from occurring during periods of high creek flow. PMID:24202975

  10. Critical Mineralising Plumbing Systems - Analysis Using Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Crustal plumbing systems consist of an interconnected set of fractures. Recently, fracture systems have been viewed as examples of critical systems (Perez-Reche et al., 2008). Various styles of critical systems can be distinguished. The classical form of critical behaviour occurs when some tuning parameter (such as elastic modulus or stress) reaches a critical value that initiates fracture. This is expressed as a single catastrophic event which is repeated as the system reloads. Another extreme in behaviour is self-organised criticality (SOC) where the system fails through the development of small avalanches of fractures with continuous forcing. Perez-Reche et al. (2008) discuss systems that can evolve from classical criticality to self-organised criticality or to other regimes. Each regime is characterised spatially by a range in the fractal dimension, D. Massive catastrophic behaviour (called SNAP), in two dimensions, is characterised by1 ˜ D ˜ 1.5. SOC has D ? 1.5whereas distributed small avalanches (called POP) are characterised by1.5 ˜ D ˜ 2. The aim is to distinguish SNAP terrains from POP terrains which seem highly probable mineralising plumbing systems based on previous modelling (Miller and Nur, 2000) and work by Sibson (1992), Cox (1999) and Cox et al. (2001) that portrays the evolution of the plumbing system as a swarm of seismic aftershocks; this constitutes a typical POP regime. We explore whether or not the plumbing systems for hydrothermal systems have fractal dimensions in the POP-range for critical systems, and whether or not there is more diagnostic information to be obtained from the multi-fractal spectrum. The hypothesis is that fracture systems analysed using wavelets define multifractal patterns which are diagnostic of hydrothermal systems. References Cox SF. Deformational controls on the dynamics of fluid flow in mesothermal gold systems. In: McCaffrey K, Lonergan L, Wilkinson J, editors. Fractures, Fluid Flow and Mineralization

  11. Uranium series disequilibrium studies in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, H B; Koteswara Rao, V; Singh, R V; Rahman, M; Rout, G B; Banerjee, Rahul; Pandey, B K; Verma, M B

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to understand uranium series disequilibrium in unconformity proximal related uranium mineralisation in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The uranium mineralization in Chenchu colony is the western continuity of the Koppunuru uranium deposit and predominantly hosted by gritty quartzite/conglomerate, which occasionally transgresses to underlying basement granite/basic rock. Disequilibrium studies are based on borehole core samples (35 boreholes, No. of samples=634) broadly divided in two groups of cover rocks of Banganapalle formation (above unconformity) and basement granites (below unconformity). Linear regression coefficient between uranium and radium is 0.95, which reflects excellent correlation and significant enrichment of parent uranium. Disequilibrium studies have indicated predominant disequilibrium in favour of parent uranium (35%), which is probably due to the weathering process causing migration of some of the radionuclides while dissolution of minerals due to groundwater action might have also played a significant role. Further, escape of radon might have accentuated the disequilibrium factor resulting in an increase in the grade of the mineralization. This is well corroborated by the presence of fractures and faults in the study area providing channels for radon migration/escape. PMID:26313623

  12. Gold mineralisation at the Lady Bountiful Mine, Western Australia: An example of a granitoid-hosted Archaean lode gold deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, K. F.; Bennett, J. M.

    1993-12-01

    The Lady Bountiful granitoid-hosted lode gold deposit, located in the mid-greenschist facies metamorphosed Ora Banda greenstone sequence, is hosted predominantly by the late-tectonic Liberty Granodiorite. Gold mineralisation is localised along quartz-veined, sinistral, brittle fault-zone(s) that transect the boundary between the Liberty Granodiorite and Mt Pleasant sill. Quartz vein textures indicate two stages of a single gold-related vein-development event, with high-grade gold mineralisation restricted to the second stage. Ore minerals include pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite, Au-Ag-Bi-Pb-tellurides, and native gold. Fluid infitration has resulted in narrow (<1 m) bleached wallrock alteration envelopes to the fault zones comprising albite-K-mica ±chlorite±calcite±rutile assemblages. Temperature-pressure conditions varied from Stage I (300°±50°C, ≈2 kbar) to Stage II (250°±50°C, ≈0.5 to 2 kbar), with the hydrothermal fluid in both stages characterised by X(CO2)≤0.15 and moderate salinity (≈1.28 m NaCl). Intermittent phase separation of Stage II mineralising fluids, initiated by pressure fluctuations in dilational sites, and/or fluid-dominated fluid: wallrock interaction, are invoked as the dominant depositional mechanisms. The granitoid-hosted Lady Bountiful lode gold deposit shares many features with other granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and the Superior Province. Granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits, such as the Lady Bountiful deposit, provide additional evidence that the dominant control on the localisation of gold mineralisation within a granitoid host is structure, with competency contrasts playing a significant role. Furthermore, the hydrothermal wallrock alteraction and orefluid chemistry characteristics of the granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits are comparable to those established for greenstone-hosted lode gold mineralisation.

  13. Isotopic fractionation of uranium in sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.; Shields, W.R.; Garner, E.L.

    1963-01-01

    Relatively unoxidized black uranium ores from sandstone deposits in the western United States show deviations in the uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio throughout a range from 40 percent excess uranium-234 to 40 percent deficient uranium-234 with respect to a reference uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio. The deficient uranium-234 is leached preferentially to uranium-238 and the excess uranium-234 is believed to result from deposition of uranium-234 enriched in solutions from leached deposits.

  14. The New Generation of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First Generation Uranium Solution Mining Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon

  15. Correlative spectroscopy of silicates in mineralised nodules formed from osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Fearn, Sarah; Gentleman, Eileen; Spillane, Liam; Carzaniga, Raffaella; McComb, David W.; Stevens, Molly M.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon supplementation has been shown to play an important role in skeleton development, however, the potential role that silicon plays in mediating bone formation, and an understanding of where it might localise in the resulting bone tissue remain elusive. An improved understanding of these processes could have important implications for treating pathological mineralisation. A key aspect of defining the role of silicon in bone is to characterise its distribution and coordination environment, however, there is currently almost no information available on either. We have combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to examine the distribution and coordination environment of silicon in murine osteoblasts (OBs) in an in vitro model of bone formation. SIMS analysis showed a high level of surface contamination from polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) resulting from sample preparation. When the PDMS was removed, silicon compounds could not be detected within the nodules either by SIMS or by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In comparison, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) provided a powerful and potentially widely applicable means to define the coordination environment and localisation of silicon in mineralising tissues. We show that trace levels of silicon were only detectable from the mineral deposits located on the collagen and in the peripheral region of mineralised matrix, possibly the newly mineralised regions of the OB nodules. Taken together our results suggest that silicon plays a biological role in bone formation, however, the precise mechanism by which silicon exerts its physicochemical effects remains uncertain. Our analytical results open the door for compelling new sets of EELS experiments that can provide detailed and specific information about the role that silicates play in bone

  16. Correlative spectroscopy of silicates in mineralised nodules formed from osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Fearn, Sarah; Gentleman, Eileen; Spillane, Liam; Carzaniga, Raffaella; McComb, David W.; Stevens, Molly M.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon supplementation has been shown to play an important role in skeleton development, however, the potential role that silicon plays in mediating bone formation, and an understanding of where it might localise in the resulting bone tissue remain elusive. An improved understanding of these processes could have important implications for treating pathological mineralisation. A key aspect of defining the role of silicon in bone is to characterise its distribution and coordination environment, however, there is currently almost no information available on either. We have combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to examine the distribution and coordination environment of silicon in murine osteoblasts (OBs) in an in vitro model of bone formation. SIMS analysis showed a high level of surface contamination from polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) resulting from sample preparation. When the PDMS was removed, silicon compounds could not be detected within the nodules either by SIMS or by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In comparison, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) provided a powerful and potentially widely applicable means to define the coordination environment and localisation of silicon in mineralising tissues. We show that trace levels of silicon were only detectable from the mineral deposits located on the collagen and in the peripheral region of mineralised matrix, possibly the newly mineralised regions of the OB nodules. Taken together our results suggest that silicon plays a biological role in bone formation, however, the precise mechanism by which silicon exerts its physicochemical effects remains uncertain. Our analytical results open the door for compelling new sets of EELS experiments that can provide detailed and specific information about the role that silicates play in bone

  17. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  18. Orebody Modelling for Exploration: The Western Mineralisation, Broken Hill, NSW

    SciTech Connect

    Lotfolah Hamedani, Mohammad Plimer, Ian Rutherford; Xu Chaoshui

    2012-09-15

    The Western Mineralisation in the Broken Hill deposit was studied to identify the zonation sequence of lithogeochemical haloes along and across the strike of the orebody. Samples used are from 77 drill holes and the samples were assayed for Pb, Zn, Fe, S, Cu, Ag, Cd, Sb, Bi and As. Variogram analyses were calculated for all the elements and kriging was used to construct the 3D block model. Analysis of cross sections along and across the strike of the orebody shows that Bi and Sb form broader halos around sulphide masses and this suggests that they are pathfinder elements for the Pb and Zn elements of this orebody. The threshold concentrations (minimum anomaly) of the 10 elements were determined using the concentration-area analysis. On east-west vertical cross sections, the values of linear productivity, variability gradient and zonality index were calculated for each element. Based on the maximum zonality index of each element, the sequence of geochemical zonation pattern was determined from top to bottom of the orebody. The result shows that S, Pb, Zn and Cd tend to concentrate in the upper part of the mineralisation whereas Ag, Cu, Bi and As have a tendency to concentrate in the lower part of the mineralised rocks. Also, an empirical product ratio index was developed based on the position of the elements in the zonation sequence. The methods and results of this research are applicable to exploration of similar Zn and Pb sulphide ore deposits.

  19. A comparison of the in vitro mineralisation and dentinogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue, bone marrow and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Davies, O G; Cooper, P R; Shelton, R M; Smith, A J; Scheven, B A

    2015-07-01

    Stem-cell-based therapies provide a biological basis for the regeneration of mineralised tissues. Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ADSCs), bone marrow (BMSCs) and dental pulp (DPSCs) have the capacity to form mineralised tissue. However, studies comparing the capacity of ADSCs with BMSCs and DPSCs for mineralised tissue engineering are lacking, and their ability to regenerate dental tissues has not been fully explored. Characterisation of the cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR for MSC markers indicated that they were immunophenotypically similar. Alizarin red (AR) staining and micro-computed tomography (µCT) analyses demonstrated that the osteogenic potential of DPSCs was significantly greater than that of BMSCs and ADSCs. Scanning electron microscopy and AR staining showed that the pattern of mineralisation in DPSC cultures differed from ADSCs and BMSCs, with DPSC cultures lacking defined mineralised nodules and instead forming a diffuse layer of low-density mineral. Dentine matrix components (DMCs) were used to promote dentinogenic differentiation. Their addition to cultures resulted in increased amounts of mineral deposited in all three cultures and significantly increased the density of mineral deposited in BMSC cultures, as determined by µCT analysis. Addition of DMCs also increased the relative gene expression levels of the dentinogenic markers dentine sialophosphoprotein and dentine matrix protein 1 in ADSC and BMSC cultures. In conclusion, DPSCs show the greatest potential to produce a comparatively high volume of mineralised matrix; however, both dentinogenesis and mineral volume was enhanced in ADSC and BMSC cultures by DMCs, suggesting that these cells show promise for regenerative dental therapies. PMID:24997523

  20. Marano volcanic rocks, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran, and associated Fe mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimzadeh Somarin, A.

    2004-10-01

    There are two main types of economic iron ore deposits in Iran: (1) magmatic segregation deposits and (2) skarns. Most of the hydrothermal iron deposits in Iran, except for the skarns, are uneconomic. One of these uneconomic hydrothermal deposits is the Marano Fe deposit, located in East Azarbaijan Province (NW Iran). This deposit is considered to have been formed by an epithermal style of mineralisation related to a volcanic-dome. There are 5 volcanic domes in the Marano area, ranging in composition from dacite to rhyolite. The volcanic rocks show geochemical evidence of fractionation of biotite, hornblende, magnetite, apatite and feldspars. The Marano volcanic domes crystallised from an I-type magma, formed in a volcanic arc setting. Fe mineralisation has occurred around one of these Marano domes (MA dome) in which the igneous rocks contain more biotite and hornblende and are less fractionated than in the other domes. The main Fe oxide, hematite, occurs as veins and disseminations in sedimentary wall rocks. Alteration of the minerals in the host rocks suggests aS2<10-9.5, aO2>10-34.2 and pH<5.5. The small size and shallow-level of emplacement of magma, together with the absence of extensive hydrothermally altered zones, shows that the hydrothermal system was not voluminous enough to form an economic iron deposit.

  1. Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over alters offspring growth, skeletal mineralisation and tissue mRNA expressions of genes related to vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus homoeostasis in swine.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Laura A; Hernandez, Laura L; Laporta, Jimena; Crenshaw, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Maternal dietary vitamin D carry-over effects were assessed in young pigs to characterise skeletal abnormalities in a diet-induced model of kyphosis. Bone abnormalities were previously induced and bone mineral density (BMD) reduced in offspring from sows fed diets with inadequate vitamin D3. In a nested design, pigs from sows (n 23) fed diets with 0 (-D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg from breeding through lactation were weaned and, within litter, fed nursery diets arranged as a 2×2 factorial design with 0 (-D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 95 % (95P) or 120 % (120P) of P requirements. Selected pigs were euthanised before colostrum consumption at birth (0 weeks, n 23), weaning (3 weeks, n 22) and after a growth period (8 weeks, n 185) for BMD, bone mechanical tests and tissue mRNA analysis. Pigs produced by +D or ++D sows had increased gain at 3 weeks (P<0·05), and at 8 weeks had increased BMD and improved femur mechanical properties. However, responses to nursery diets depended on maternal diets (P<0·05). Relative mRNA expressions of genes revealed a maternal dietary influence at birth in bone osteocalcin and at weaning in kidney 24-hydroxylase (P<0·05). Nursery treatments affected mRNA expressions at 8 weeks. Detection of a maternal and nursery diet interaction (P<0·05) provided insights into the long-term effects of maternal nutritional inputs. Characterising early stages of bone abnormalities provided inferences for humans and animals about maternal dietary influence on offspring skeletal health. PMID:27480125

  2. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Cowie, Annette L

    2014-01-01

    Biochar can influence native soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation through "priming effects". However, the long-term direction, persistence and extent of SOC priming by biochar remain uncertain. Using natural (13)C abundance and under controlled laboratory conditions, we show that biochar-stimulated SOC mineralisation ("positive priming") caused a loss of 4 to 44 mg C g(-1) SOC over 2.3 years in a clayey, unplanted soil (0.42% OC). Positive priming was greater for manure-based or 400°C biochars, cf. plant-based or 550°C biochars, but was trivial relative to recalcitrant C in biochar. From 2.3 to 5.0 years, the amount of positively-primed soil CO2-C in the biochar treatments decreased by 4 to 7 mg C g(-1) SOC. We conclude that biochar stimulates native SOC mineralisation in the low-C clayey soil but that this effect decreases with time, possibly due to depletion of labile SOC from initial positive priming, and/or stabilisation of SOC caused by biochar-induced organo-mineral interactions. PMID:24446050

  3. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  4. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  5. Detailed mineral and chemical relations in two uranium-vanadium ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrels, Robert M.; Larsen, E. S., III; Pommer, A.M.; Coleman, R.G.

    1956-01-01

    Channel samples from two mines on the Colorado Plateau have been studied in detail both mineralogically and chemically. A channel sample from the Mineral Joe No. 1 mine, Montrose County, Colo., extends from unmineralized rock on one side, through a zone of variable mineralization, into only weakly mineralized rock. The unmineralized rock is a fairly clean quartz sand cemented with gypsum and contains only minor amounts of clay minerals. One boundary between unmineralized and mineralized rock is quite sharo and is nearly at right angles to the bedding. Vanadium clay minerals, chiefly mixed layered mica-montmorillonite and chlorite-monmorillonite, are abundant throughout the mineralized zone. Except in the dark "eye" of the channel sample, the vanadium clay minerals are accompanied by hewettite, carnotite, tyuyamunite, and probably unidentified vanadates. In the dark "eye," paramontroseite, pyrite, and marcasite are abundant, and bordered on each side by a zone containing abundant corvusite. No recognizable uranium minerals were seen in the paramontroseite zone although uranium is abundant there. Coaly material is recognizable throughout all of the channel but is most abundant in and near the dark "eye." Detailed chemical studies show a general increase in Fe, Al, U, and V, and a decrease in SO4 toward the "eye" of the channel. Reducing capacity studies indicate that V(IV) and Fe(II) are present in the clay mineral throughout the channel, but only in and near the "eye" are other V(IV) minerals present (paramontroseite and corvusite). The uranium is sexivalent, although its state of combination is conjectural where it is associated with paramontroseite. Where the ore boundary is sharp, the boundary of introduced trace elements is equally sharp. Textural and chemical relations leave no doubt that the "eye: is a partially oxidized remnant of a former lower-valence ore, and the remainder of the channel is a much more fully oxidized remnant. A channel sample from the

  6. Geological and geochemical implications of the genesis of the Qolqoleh orogenic gold mineralisation, Kurdistan Province (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Batoul; Ahmadnejad, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), within the NE-SW trending Qolqoleh shear zone. Oligocene granitoids, Cretaceous meta-limestones, schists and metavolcanics are the main lithological units. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the ore-hosting metavolcanics indicate REE enrichment relative to hanging wall (chlorite-sericite schist) and footwall (meta-limestone) rocks. The pattern also reflects an enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. It seems that the LREE enrichment is related to the circulation of SO42- and CO2-bearing fluids and regional metamorphism in the Qolqoleh shear zone. Both positive and negative Eu anomalies are observed in shear-zone metavolcanics. These anomalies are related to the degree of plagioclase alteration during gold mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration. In progressing from a metavolcanic protomylonite to an ultramylonite, significant changes occurred in the major/trace element and REE concentration. Utilising an Al-Fe-Ti isocon for the ore-hosting metavolcanics shows that Sc, Y, K, U, P, and M-HREE (except Eu) are relatively unchanged; S, As, Ag, Au, Ca, LOI, Rb and LREE are enriched, and Sr, Ba, Eu, Cr, Co and Ni decrease with an increasing degree of deformation. Based on geochemical features and comparison with other well-known shear zones in the world, the study area is best classified as an Isovolume-Gain (IVG) type shear zone and orogenic type gold mineralisation. Based on the number of phases observed at room temperature and their microthermometric behaviour, three fluid inclusion types have been recognised in quartz-sulphide and quartz-calcite veins: Type I monophase aqueous inclusions, Type II two-phase liquid-vapour (L-V) inclusions which are subdivided into two groups based on the homogenisation temperature (Th): a) L-V inclusions with Th from 205 to 255°C and melting temperature of last ice (Tm) from -3 to -9°C. b) L-V inclusions with higher Th from 335 to 385

  7. Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

    2009-05-29

    Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

  8. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    SciTech Connect

    Isselhardt, Brett H.

    2011-09-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

  9. Is the rhizosphere priming effect an important mechanism for nitrogen mineralisation in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Conor; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Paterson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In soil, nitrogen is mobilised from soil organic matter (SOM) to pools more readily available to plants (mineralisation), mediated by the microbial biomass. Multiple mechanisms underpin this process, including the priming effect (PE) which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of N mineralisation. The PE is where microbes utilize labile carbon from roots (root exudates or senescing plant material) for energy and subsequently mineralise SOM for nutrients, inevitably mobilising nutrients from SOM to plant available pools. However, the mechanism and regulators underpinning PE's are virtually unknown. This work investigates the importance of priming for N mineralisation. We hypothesized that 1) addition of labile C would increase gross N mineralisation and plant N uptake, and that this is soil-specific; 2) the stoichiometry of primed and basal mineralisation fluxes would be different, indicative of these processes being functionally distinct; and 3) the presence of fertilizer nitrogen and grazing would reduce primed and basal mineralisation and reduce plant uptake of SOM derived N. To do this we coupled continuous steady-state 13C labelling and 15N isotope dilution to measure specific gross C and N fluxes from two contrasting soils. Addition of carbon increased gross C and N fluxes from SOM, but the effect was soil-specific. The C-to-N ratio of the flux from 'primed' SOM was much lower than that of the basal flux indicating that the release of labile carbon from plant roots functions as a nutrient acquisition response, increasing mineralisation of SOM. Addition of N fertiliser resulted in negative priming of SOM, but overall and in both soils, the plant accessed more SOM-derived N. Grazing and priming were closely coupled, with grazing increasing SOM priming. Our results demonstrate that priming effects are an integral component of N mineralisation and should be incorporated into nitrogen cycling models.

  10. Characterisation of matrix vesicles in skeletal and soft tissue mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Cui, L; Houston, D A; Farquharson, C; MacRae, V E

    2016-06-01

    The importance of matrix vesicles (MVs) has been repeatedly highlighted in the formation of cartilage, bone, and dentin since their discovery in 1967. These nano-vesicular structures, which are found in the extracellular matrix, are believed to be one of the sites of mineral nucleation that occurs in the organic matrix of the skeletal tissues. In the more recent years, there have been numerous reports on the observation of MV-like particles in calcified vascular tissues that could be playing a similar role. Therefore, here, we review the characteristics MVs possess that enable them to participate in mineral deposition. Additionally, we outline the content of skeletal tissue- and soft tissue-derived MVs, and discuss their key mineralisation mediators that could be targeted for future therapeutic use. PMID:27072517

  11. Elucidation of differential mineralisation on native and regenerated silk matrices.

    PubMed

    Midha, Swati; Tripathi, Rohit; Geng, Hua; Lee, Peter D; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2016-11-01

    Bone mineralisation is a well-orchestrated procedure triggered by a protein-based template inducing the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals on the matrix. In an attempt to fabricate superior nanocomposites from silk fibroin, textile braided structures made of natively spun fibres of Bombyx mori silkworm were compared against regenerated fibroin (lyophilized and films) underpinning the influence of intrinsic properties of fibroin matrices on HA nucleation. We found that native braids could bind Ca(2+) ions through electrostatic attraction, which initiated the nucleation and deposition of HA, as evidenced by discrete shift in amide peaks via ATR-FTIR. This phenomenon also suggests the involvement of amide linkages in promoting HA nucleation on fibroin. Moreover, CaCl2-SBF immersion of native braids resulted in preferential growth of HA along the c-axis, forming needle-like nanocrystals and possessing Ca/P ratio comparable to commercial HA. Though regenerated lyophilized matrix also witnessed prominent peak shift in amide linkages, HA growth was restricted to (211) plane only, albeit at a significantly lower intensity than braids. Regenerated films, on the other hand, provided no crystallographic evidence of HA deposition within 7days of SBF immersion. The present work sheds light on the primary fibroin structure of B. mori which probably plays a crucial role in regulating template-induced biomineralisation on the matrix. We also found that intrinsic material properties such as surface roughness, geometry, specific surface area, tortuosity and secondary conformation exert influence in modulating the extent of mineralisation. Thus our work generates useful insights and warrants future studies to further investigate the potential of bone mimetic, silk/mineral nanocomposite matrices for orthopaedic applications. PMID:27524066

  12. Young orogenic gold mineralisation in active collisional mountains, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Yu, Bing-Sheng; Horton, Travis; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2010-10-01

    Gold-bearing vein systems in the high mountains of Taiwan are part of the youngest tectonic-hydrothermal system on Earth. Tectonic collision initiated in the Pliocene has stacked Eocene-Miocene marine sedimentary rocks to form steep mountains nearly 4 km high. Thinner portions of the sedimentary pile (˜5 km) are currently producing hydrocarbons in a fold and thrust belt, and orogenic gold occurs in quartz veins in thicker parts of the pile (˜10 km) in the Slate Belt that underlies the mountains. Metamorphic fluids (2-5 wt.% NaCl equivalent) are rising from the active greenschist facies metamorphic zone and transporting gold released during rock recrystallisation. Metamorphic fluid flow at the Pingfengshan historic gold mine was focussed in well-defined (4 km3) fracture zones with networks of quartz veins, whereas large surrounding volumes of rock are largely unveined. Gold and arsenopyrite occur in several superimposed vein generations, with ankeritic alteration of host rocks superimposed on chlorite-calcite alteration zones as fluids cooled and became out of equilibrium with the host rocks. Mineralising fluids had δ18O near +10‰, δ13C was between -1‰ and -6‰ and these fluids were in isotopic equilibrium with host rocks at ˜350°C. Ankeritic veins were emplaced in extensional sites in kink fold axial surfaces, formed as the rock mass was transported laterally from compressional to extensional regimes in the orogen. Rapid exhumation (>2 mm/year) of the Slate Belt is causing a widespread shallow conductive thermal anomaly without igneous intrusions. Meteoric water is penetrating into the conductive thermal anomaly to contribute to crustal fluid flow and generate shallow boiling fluids (˜250°C) with fluid temperature greater than rock temperature. The meteoric-hydrothermal system impinges on, but causes only minor dilution of, the gold mineralisation system at depth.

  13. Tris(cyclopentadienyl)cerium and -uranium: Relative basicity, structure, and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, S.D.

    1988-10-01

    The trivalent cerium complexes (RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/Ce /center dot/ L have been prepared and structurally characterized in order to study the relative basicity of neutral donor ligands toward (RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/Ce. The steric properties of the metal environment and the steric and electronic properties of the donor ligand influence complex stability. The base-free metallocenes, (RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/Ce, react with a number of protic reagents to form stable ((RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/CeX)/sub 2/ complexes via a ring protonation reaction. The reagent pKa values govern the thermodynamics of the reaction. The steric bulk of the protic substrate and the cyclopentadienyl ligands can be altered to achieve kinetically stable compounds. In contrast, the analogous uranium complexes, (RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/U, react in an oxidative manner with protic reagents to form (RC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)UX complexes. The base-free cerium metallocenes also react with methyllithium to afford bis(cyclopentadienyl)cerium methyl complexes. Other alkyl complexes cannot be prepared in a similar manner. The cerium methyl complexes readily polymerize ethylene, and they react with phenylacetylene, hydrogen, and ammonia to yield the bridging acetylide, hydride, and amide complexes, respectively. The uranium metallocene, (MeC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/U /center dot/ thf, reacts with methyllithium at low temperature (/minus/30/degree/C) in the presence of Me/sub 2/NCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (tmed) to form a complex that contains a methyl group that is linearly and symmetrically bridging between two (MeC/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 3/U groups, and a MeC/sub 5/H/sub 4/ group that is sandwiched between two Li(tmed) fragments. 149 refs., 35 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Contaminant dispersion at the rehabilitated Mary Kathleen uranium mine, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottermoser, B. G.; Ashley, P. M.; Costelloe, M. T.

    2005-09-01

    This study reports on the transfer of contaminants from waste rock dumps and mineralised ground into soils, sediments, waters and plants at the rehabilitated Mary Kathleen uranium mine in semi-arid northwest Queensland. Numerous waste rock dumps were partly covered with benign soil and the open pit mine was allowed to flood. The mineralised and waste calc-silicate rock in the open pit and dumps has major (>1 wt%) Ca, Fe and Mg, minor (>1,000 ppm) Ce, La, Mn, P and S, subminor (>100 ppm) Ba, Cu, Th and U, and trace (<100 ppm) As, Ni, Pb, Y and Zn values. Consequently, chemical and physical weathering processes have acted on waste rock and on rock faces within the open pit, mobilising many elements and leading to their dispersion into soils, stream sediments, pit water and several plant species. Chemical dispersion is initiated by sulfide mineral breakdown, generation of sulfuric acid and formation of several soluble, transient sulfate minerals as evaporative efflorescent precipitates. Radiation doses associated with the open pit average 5.65 mSv year-1; waste dumps commonly have lower values, especially where soil-covered. Surface pit water is slightly acid, with high sulfate values accompanied by levels of U, Cu and Ni close to or above Australian water guideline values for livestock. Dispersion of U and related elements into soils and stream sediments occurs by physical (erosional) processes and from chemical precipitation. Plants growing in the mine void, on waste dumps and contaminated soil display evidence of biological uptake of U, LREE, Cu and Th and to a lesser degree of As, Ni, Pb, Y and Zn, with values being up to 1-2 orders of magnitude above background sites for the same species. Although rehabilitation procedures have been partly successful in reducing dispersion of U and related elements into the surrounding environment, it is apparent that 20 years after rehabilitation, there is significant physical and chemical mobility, including transfer into

  15. Structure and mineralisation density of antler and pedicle bone in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study

    PubMed Central

    KIERDORF, UWE; KIERDORF, HORST; BOYDE, ALAN

    2000-01-01

    The structure and relative degree of mineralisation of antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags exposed either to low or high levels of environmental fluoride were determined by digital quantitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. Bone fluoride content (BFC) in antlers (845±86 mg F−/kg ash, arithmetic mean± S.E.M.) and pedicles (1448±154 mg F−/kg ash) of deer from a highly fluoride polluted area in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of controls from uncontaminated regions in West Germany (antlers: 206±41, pedicles: 322±52 mg F−/kg ash). Mean (56.5±4.5%) and maximum (84.9±2.1%) mineralised bone area of the control antlers significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) exceeded the corresponding values for the N. Bohemian deer (43.3±1.3 and 73.3±1.9%, respectively), while the pedicles from the 2 groups did not differ significantly. In the pooled antler samples (n = 18), negative correlations existed between BFC and mean (rs = −0.62, P < 0.01) as well as maximum (rs = −0.69, P < 0.01) mineralised bone area. Morphological imaging revealed a decreased width and an increased porosity of the antler cortex in the N. Bohemian specimens. Mean (148.5±1.7) and maximum (154.2±1.7) BSE-signal intensities (= grey levels; range between a monobrominated (grey level 0) and a monoiodinated (grey level 255) dimethacrylate resin standard) of the antlers from the controls were significantly higher than those of the N. Bohemian deer (140.7±2.1 and 145.7±2.2, respectively; P < 0.05 for both comparisons). In the pooled antler samples, negative correlations between BFC and mean (rs = −0.51, P < 0.05) as well as maximum (rs = −0.52, P < 0.05) BSE-signal intensities were observed. No significant differences in mineralisation density parameters were found for the 2 pedicle samples, and BFC and mineralisation density of the pooled pedicles were uncorrelated. Morphological imaging revealed bone mottling

  16. Crustal-scale structures in the Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier of north Australia: their seismic response and influence on mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Barry J.; Goleby, Bruce R.; Goncharov, Alexey G.; Wyborn, L. A. I.; Collins, C. D. N.; MacCready, Tyler

    1998-03-01

    The Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier in northern Australia is prospective for base metals and gold. It contains a Western Fold Belt (including the Leichhardt River Fault Trough) and an Eastern Fold Belt, separated by older basement rocks of the Kalkadoon Leichhardt Belt. Sediments and volcanics in both fold belts were deposited in rifts which were subsequently shortened by up to 50%. Mineralisation appears to be partitioned: large-tonnage lead and zinc deposits are more prevalent in the Leichhardt River Fault Trough, and most gold and copper occurrences are in the Eastern Fold Belt. Cross-sections of the inlier derived from coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling are dominated by the youngest tectonic events. The refraction data imply a west-dipping lens of high-velocity intermediate-to-mafic rock in the middle to upper crust in the east of the inlier. It is collinear with another lens in the lower crust in the west of the inlier. The lenses form a belt of high-velocity rock cutting the crust from top to bottom and from east to west. The reflection data reveal different styles of compression-related structures in the east and west of the inlier. Thin-skinned tectonics dominate in the Eastern Fold Belt. The sediments and volcanics are thrust to the west along a number of shallowly east-dipping upper-crustal detachments. The detachments in turn are cut by steeply east-dipping reverse faults which link into the zone of high-velocity rocks defined by the refraction data. In contrast, faults in the Western Fold Belt are steep and penetrate to mid-crustal levels and probably also link into the belt of high-velocity material deeper in the crust. The partitioning into different tectonic styles occurs across the Kalkadoon Leichhardt Belt, which appears to have acted as a buttress during the crustal shortening. Published mineralisation models attribute the lead-zinc mineralisation to circulating fluids at shallow crustal levels within the Leichhardt River Fault

  17. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  18. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Bioremediation of uranium contamination with enzymatic uranium reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic uranium reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans readily removed uranium from solution in a batch system or when D. desulfuricans was separated from the bulk of the uranium-containing water by a semipermeable membrane. Uranium reduction continued at concentrations as high as 24 mM. Of a variety of potentially inhibiting anions and metals evaluated, only high concentrations of copper inhibited uranium reduction. Freeze-dried cells, stored aerobically, reduced uranium as fast as fresh cells. D. desulfuricans reduced uranium in pH 4 and pH 7.4 mine drainage waters and in uraniumcontaining groundwaters from a contaminated Department of Energy site. Enzymatic uranium reduction has several potential advantages over other bioprocessing techniques for uranium removal, the most important of which are as follows: the ability to precipitate uranium that is in the form of a uranyl carbonate complex; high capacity for uranium removal per cell; the formation of a compact, relatively pure, uranium precipitate.

  20. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Evaluating Best Practices in Raman Spectral Analysis for Uranium Speciation and Relative Abundance in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Grace; Forbes, Tori Z; Haes, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful tool for identifying hexavalent uranium speciation in situ; however, there is no straightforward protocol for identifying uranyl species in solution. Herein, uranyl samples are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, and speciation is monitored at various solution pH values and anion compositions. Spectral quality is evaluated using two Raman excitation wavelengths (532 and 785 nm) as these are critical for maximizing signal-to-noise and minimizing background from fluorescent uranyl species. The Raman vibrational frequency of uranyl shifts according to the identity of the coordinating ions within the equatorial plane and/or solution pH; therefore, spectral barcode analysis and rigorous peak fitting methods are developed that allow accurate and routine uranium species identification. All in all, this user's guide is expected to provide a user-friendly, straightforward approach for uranium species identification using Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26607279

  3. An Overview of Process Monitoring Related to the Production of Uranium Ore Concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Brent

    2014-04-01

    Uranium ore concentrate (UOC) in various chemical forms, is a high-value commodity in the commercial nuclear market, is a potential target for illicit acquisition, by both State and non-State actors. With the global expansion of uranium production capacity, control of UOC is emerging as a potentially weak link in the nuclear supply chain. Its protection, control and management thus pose a key challenge for the international community, including States, regulatory authorities and industry. This report evaluates current process monitoring practice and makes recommendations for utilization of existing or new techniques for managing the inventory and tracking this material.

  4. Mobilization of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings and related waste materials in anaerobic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Specific extraction studies in our laboratory have shown that iron and manganese oxide- and alkaline earth sulfate minerals are important hosts of radium in uranium mill tailings. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria may enhance the release of radium (and its analog barium) from uranium mill tailings, oil field pipe scale [a major technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) waste], and jarosite (a common mineral in sulfuric acid processed-tailings). These research findings are reviewed and discussed in the context of nuclear waste forms (such as barium sulfate matrices), radioactive waste management practices, and geochemical environments in the Earth's surficial and shallow subsurface regions.

  5. Controls on maximum fluid overpressure defining conditions for mesozonal mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    2004-06-01

    The mesozonal environment for mineralisation (˜10±5 km depth) occurs towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the upper continental crust which, in areas of strong fluid release, acts as a stressed elastic lid containing overpressured hydrothermal fluids derived from metamorphic dehydration at depth. Au-quartz lodes in this environment are hosted by fault-fracture meshes comprising dilatant extensional and extensional-shear fractures interlinked by low-displacement faults. They form in a range of tectonic regimes but are most extensively developed in compressional/transpressional settings. A brittle failure mode plot contrasting compressional and extensional stress regimes demonstrates that: (i) high fluid overpressures are easier to sustain in compressional regimes that also allow the highest amplitude fluid-pressure cycling; (ii) dilatant mesh structures serve as high-permeability conduits only under high fluid-pressure and low differential stress in the absence of through-going cohesionless faults that are well-oriented for reactivation; and, (iii) the critical interdependence of differential stress and sustainable overpressure ensures that changes in stress state are accompanied by fluid redistribution. The specialised circumstances allowing high-flux flow of overpressured fluids are generally short-lived and are terminated by the formation of through-going, favourably oriented faults.

  6. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  7. Uranium determination in samples from decommissioning of nuclear facilities related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle

    PubMed

    Alvarez; Correa; Navarro; Sancho

    2000-07-01

    Large amounts of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. Determination of those activity concentration levels becomes more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrixes are involved. In addition, an adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. According to the kind and sample size, together with the minimum detectable activity (MDA) that must be reached in each case, measurements were carried out by laboratory and 'in situ' gamma spectrometry, as well as by alpha spectrometry. A comparison among the different techniques was also performed by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. PMID:10879885

  8. Uranium, its impact on the national and global energy mix; and its history, distribution, production, nuclear fuel-cycle, future, and relation to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1997-01-01

    The many aspects of uranium, a heavy radioactive metal used to generate electricity throughout the world, are briefly described in relatively simple terms intended for the lay reader. An adequate glossary of unfamiliar terms is given. Uranium is a new source of electrical energy developed since 1950, and how we harness energy from it is explained. It competes with the organic coal, oil, and gas fuels as shown graphically. Uranium resources and production for the world are tabulated and discussed by country and for various energy regions in the United States. Locations of major uranium deposits and power reactors in the United States are mapped. The nuclear fuel-cycle of uranium for a typical light-water reactor is illustrated at the front end-beginning with its natural geologic occurrence in rocks through discovery, mining, and milling; separation of the scarce isotope U-235, its enrichment, and manufacture into fuel rods for power reactors to generate electricity-and at the back end-the reprocessing and handling of the spent fuel. Environmental concerns with the entire fuel cycle are addressed. The future of the use of uranium in new, simplified, 'passively safe' reactors for the utility industry is examined. The present resource assessment of uranium in the United States is out of date, and a new assessment could aid the domestic uranium industry.

  9. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN{sub 3}. These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UN{sub 3}, or uranium(V) imides, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph{sub 3-x}CH{sub 3}N{sub 3}, the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 3}, only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, ((MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U){sub 2}({mu}-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(NH{sub 2}R), were produced from (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf) and RNH{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U than is PMe{sub 3}.

  10. Quantitative proteomics provides new insights into chicken eggshell matrix protein functions during the primary events of mineralisation and the active calcification phase.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-08-01

    Eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate mineral and 3.5% organic matrix. Its structural organisation is controlled by its organic matrix. We have used quantitative proteomics to study four key stages of shell mineralisation: 1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), 2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, 3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and 4) development of a columnar structure with preferential calcite crystal orientation. This approach explored the distribution of 216 shell matrix proteins found at the four stages. Variations in abundance according to these calcification events were observed for 175 proteins. A putative function related to the mineralisation process was predicted by bioinformatics for 77 of them and was further characterised. We confirmed the important role of lysozyme, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-17 and ovocleidin-116 for shell calcification process, characterised major calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, ALB, MFGE8, NUCB2), and described novel proteoglycans core proteins (GPC4, HAPLN3). We suggest that OVAL and OC-17 play a role in the stabilisation of ACC. Finally, we report proteins involved in the regulation of proteins driving the mineralisation. They correspond to numerous molecular chaperones including CLU, PPIB and OCX21, protease and protease inhibitors including OVM and CST3, and regulators of phosphorylation. PMID:26049031

  11. Mineralised organic remains from cesspits at the Roman town of Silchester: Processes and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Lisa-Jane R.; Almond, Matthew J.; Cook, Samantha R.; Pantos, Manolis; Tobin, Mark J.; Thomas, Luanne A.

    2008-12-01

    Mineralised organic remains (including apple pips and cereal grains) collected during the ongoing excavations of Insula IX at the Roman town of Silchester, Hampshire have been analysed by a combination of SEM-EDX, powder XRD and IR spectroscopy. The experiments included mapping experiments using spatially resolved versions of each technique. IR and powder XRD mapping have been carried out utilising the synchrotron source at The Daresbury Laboratory on stations 11.1 and 9.6. It is concluded that these samples are preserved by rapid mineralisation in the carbonate-substituted calcium phosphate mineral, dahllite. The rapid mineralisation leads to excellent preservation of the samples and a small crystal size. The value of IR spectroscopy in studying materials like this where the crystal size is small is demonstrated. A comparison is made between the excellent preservation seen in this context and the much poorer preservation of mineralised remains seen in Context 5276 or Cesspit 5251. Comments on the possible mechanism of mineralisation of these samples are made.

  12. Survey of spontaneous dystrophic mineralisation of pineal gland in ageing rats.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S K

    1997-11-01

    The survey included 151 rats from several carcinogenicity studies up to 104 weeks and 260 rats from short-term studies up to 52 weeks. All studies were performed during the period 1990-1996. Young rats up to 52 weeks of age showed normal structural appearance, in 134 male rats the incidence of mineralisation was 6.3% and in 126 females the incidence was only slightly less at 5.6%. In ageing rats, 70-104 weeks, 88 males and 63 females showed far higher incidence of mineralisation, 83% and 57% respectively, showing that the incidence of mineralisation in ageing rats was higher in males than females. The focal mineralisation occurred mainly at the margin of the gland in the subcapsular region mostly adjacent to small blood vessels. On occasions these involved the parenchymal cells in the middle part of the gland. The focal mineralisation stained positive with von Kossa indicating presence of calcium and also with PAS (Pariodic Acid-Schiff method), indicating presence of neutral mucopolysaccharide. There was no evidence of positivity with Perl's stain (for ferric salts), Toluidine blue (for protein) or Alcian blue (for acid mucopolysaccharides). With Oil Red O there was evidence of presence of fat or lipid in pinealocytes. PMID:9428987

  13. Mineralised organic remains from cesspits at the Roman town of Silchester: processes and preservation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lisa-Jane R; Almond, Matthew J; Cook, Samantha R; Pantos, Manolis; Tobin, Mark J; Thomas, Luanne A

    2008-12-01

    Mineralised organic remains (including apple pips and cereal grains) collected during the ongoing excavations of Insula IX at the Roman town of Silchester, Hampshire have been analysed by a combination of SEM-EDX, powder XRD and IR spectroscopy. The experiments included mapping experiments using spatially resolved versions of each technique. IR and powder XRD mapping have been carried out utilising the synchrotron source at The Daresbury Laboratory on stations 11.1 and 9.6. It is concluded that these samples are preserved by rapid mineralisation in the carbonate-substituted calcium phosphate mineral, dahllite. The rapid mineralisation leads to excellent preservation of the samples and a small crystal size. The value of IR spectroscopy in studying materials like this where the crystal size is small is demonstrated. A comparison is made between the excellent preservation seen in this context and the much poorer preservation of mineralised remains seen in Context 5276 or Cesspit 5251. Comments on the possible mechanism of mineralisation of these samples are made. PMID:18406198

  14. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Molecular marker and stable carbon isotope analyses of carbonaceous Ambassador uranium ores of Mulga Rock in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaraula, C.; Schwark, L.; Moreau, X.; Grice, K.; Bagas, L.

    2013-12-01

    -length n-alkanes, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids (C20 to C24) with no preferential distribution (CPI~1). Intermediate length n-alkanes have modest carbon isotope enrichment compared to long-chain n-alkanes. These shorter-chain hydrocarbons are interpreted to represent alteration products. The diversity and relative abundance of ketones in highly mineralised Mulga Rock peats and lignites are not consistent with aerobic and diagenetic degradation of terrigenous OM in oxic environments. Moreover, molecular changes cannot be associated with thermal breakdown due to the low maturity of the deposits. It is possible that the association of high uranium concentrations and potential radiolysis resulted in the oxidation of alcohol functional groups into aldehydes and ketones and breakdown of highly aliphatic macromolecules (i.e. spores, pollen, cuticles, and algal cysts). These phytoclasts are usually considered to be recalcitrant as they evolved to withstand chemical and physical degradation. Previous petrographic analyses show that spores, pollen and wood fragments are preferentially enriched in uranium. Their molecular compositions are feasible sources of short- to intermediate-length n-alkanes that dominate the mineralised peats and lignites.

  16. Influence of nutrient medium composition on uranium toxicity and choice of the most sensitive growth related endpoint in Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Saenen, Eline; Van Hoeck, Arne; Smolders, Valérie; Blust, Ronny; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U) toxicity is known to be highly dependent on U speciation and bioavailability. To assess the impact of uranium on plants, a growth inhibition test was set up in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. First growth media with different compositions were tested in order to find a medium fit for testing U toxicity in L. minor. Following arguments were used for medium selection: the ability to sustain L. minor growth, a high solubility of U in the medium and a high percentage of the more toxic U-species namely UO2(2+). Based on these selection criteria a with a low phosphate concentration of 0.5 mg L(-1) and supplemented with 5 mM MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) to ensure pH stability was chosen. This medium also showed highest U toxicity compared to the other tested media. Subsequently a full dose response curve for U was established by exposing L. minor plants to U concentrations ranging from 0.05 μM up to 150 μM for 7 days. Uranium was shown to adversely affect growth of L. minor in a dose dependent manner with EC10, EC30 and EC50 values ranging between 1.6 and 4.8 μM, 7.7-16.4 μM and 19.4-37.2 μM U, respectively, depending on the growth endpoint. Four different growth related endpoints were tested: frond area, frond number, fresh weight and dry weight. Although differences in relative growth rates and associated ECx-values calculated on different endpoints are small (maximal twofold difference), frond area is recommended to be used to measure U-induced growth effects as it is a sensitive growth endpoint and easy to measure in vivo allowing for measurements over time. PMID:26187266

  17. The importance of plant-soil interactions for N mineralisation in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Conor; Paterson, Eric; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Schulte, Rogier

    2013-04-01

    The last hundred years has seen major advancements in our knowledge of nitrogen mineralisation in soil, but key drivers and controls remain poorly understood. Due to an increase in the global population there is a higher demand on food production. To accommodate this demand agriculture has increased its use of N based fertilizers, but these pose risks for water quality and GHG emissions as N can be lost through nitrate leaching, ammonia volatilization, and denitrification processes (Velthof, et al., 2009). Therefore, understanding the underlying processes that determine the soils ability to supply N to the plant is vital for effective optimisation of N-fertilisation with crop demand. Carbon rich compounds exuded from plant roots to the rhizosphere, which are utilized by the microbial biomass and support activities including nutrient transformations, may be a key unaccounted for driver of N mineralisation. The main aim of this study was to study the impact of root exudates on turnover of C and N in soil, as mediated by the microbial community. Two soil types, known to contrast in N-mineralisation capacity, were used to determine relationships between C inputs, organic matter mineralisation (priming effects) and N fluxes. 15N and 13C stable isotope approaches were used to quantify the importance of rhizosphere processes on C and N mineralisation. Gross nitrogen mineralisation was measured using 15N pool dilution. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured and 13C isotope partitioning was applied to quantify SOM turnover and microbial biomass respiration. Also, 13C was traced through the microbial biomass (chloroform fumigation) to separate pool-substitution effects (apparent priming) from altered microbial utilisation of soil organic matter (real priming effects). Addition of labile carbon resulted in an increase in N-mineralisation from soil organic matter in both soils. Concurrent with this there was an increase in microbial biomass size, indicating that labile C elicited

  18. Potential anthropogenic mobilisation of mercury and arsenic from soils on mineralised rocks, Northland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Craw, D

    2005-02-01

    Eroded roots of hot spring systems in Northland, New Zealand consist of mineralised rocks containing sulfide minerals. Marcasite and cinnabar are the dominant sulfides with subordinate pyrite. Deep weathering and leached soil formation has occurred in a warm temperate to subtropical climate with up to 3 m/year rainfall. Decomposition of the iron sulfides in natural and anthropogenic rock exposures yields acid rock drainage with pH typically between 2 and 4, and locally down to pH 1. Soils and weathered rocks developed on basement greywacke have negligible acid neutralisation capacity. Natural rainforest soils have pH between 4 and 5 on unmineralised greywacke, and pH is as low as 3.5 in soils on mineralised rocks. Roads with aggregate made from mineralised rocks have pH near 3, and quarries from which the rock was extracted can have pH down to 1. Mineralised rocks are enriched in arsenic and mercury, both of which are environmentally available as solid solution impurities in iron sulfides and phosphate minerals. Base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) are present at low levels in soils, at or below typical basement rock background. Decomposition of the iron sulfides releases the solid solution arsenic and mercury into the acid rock drainage solutions. Phosphate minerals release their impurities only under strongly acid conditions (pH<1). Arsenic and mercury are adsorbed on to iron oxyhydroxides in soils, concentrated in the C horizon, with up to 4000 ppm arsenic and 100 ppm mercury. Waters emanating from acid rock drainage areas have arsenic and mercury below drinking water limits. Leaching experiments and theoretical predictions indicate that both arsenic and mercury are least mobile in acid soils, at pH of c. 3-4. This optimum pH range for fixation of arsenic and mercury on iron oxyhydroxides in soils is similar to natural pH at the field site of this study. However, neutralisation of acid soils developed on mineralised rocks is likely to decrease adsorption and enhance

  19. Assessing the mineralisation of charcoal carbon in temperate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, P. L.; Tilston, E.; Garnett, M.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal is pyrolized biomass characterized by its high C content and environmental recalcitrance. Recently 'biochar' has emerged as a concept as a means of long-term C sequestration with a sequestration potential that is comparable with current global anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions (5.5-9.5 Pg C yr-1 and 5.4 Pg C yr-1, respectively). However, charcoal is not a permanent C sink and estimates of charcoal degradation rates vary from the decadal or centennial timescales, with soil residence times in the order of thousands of years. Possible mechanisms of charcoal degradation include biotically and abiotically-mediated transformation and mineralization processes, resulting in a range of products of varying recalcitrance, including CO2. In soil science the decomposition of organic matter is routinely estimated by measuring CO2 efflux, but a key obstacle for the quantification of charcoal-derived CO2 is the accurate and precise apportionment of C sources arising from slow decomposition rates. Moreover, the addition of charcoal to soil can promote decomposition of indigenous soil organic matter and the concomitant increase in CO2 production does not therefore necessarily demonstrate mineralization of the charcoal C. Radiocarbon (14C) offers significant benefits in this regard as a sensitive technique for C source apportionment. We used the 14C content of CO2 respired by a surface soil to quantify the rate of charcoal mineralization, thus demonstrating the efficacy and sensitivity of our 14C approach for estimating charcoal degradation. During incubation the variations in charcoal-derived C mineralization are consistent with the loss of more labile components in the charcoal with a maximum of 2.1% of the evolved CO2-C being attributable to mineralisation of charcoal C. Extrapolation to an annual basis suggests that the loss rate of charcoal C is <1%, supporting the view that rates of charcoal C respiration are slow in temperate woodland soil. Implications for

  20. Modelling the closure-related geochemical evolution of groundwater at a former uranium mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, J. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Blowes, D. W.; Frind, E. O.; Molson, J. W. H.; Kahnt, R.; Jenk, U.

    2001-11-01

    A newly developed reactive transport model was used to evaluate the potential effects of mine closure on the geochemical evolution in the aquifer downgradient from a mine site. The simulations were conducted for the Königstein uranium mine located in Saxony, Germany. During decades of operation, uranium at the former mine site had been extracted by in situ acid leaching of the ore underground, while the mine was maintained in a dewatered condition. One option for decommissioning is to allow the groundwater level to rise to its natural level, flooding the mine workings. As a result, pore water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals, radionuclides, and sulfate may be released. Additional contamination may arise due to the dissolution of minerals contained in the aquifer downgradient of the mine. On the other hand, dissolved metals may be attenuated by reactions within the aquifer. The geochemical processes and interactions involved are highly non-linear and their impact on the quality of the groundwater and surface water downstream of the mine is not always intuitive. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P, which can describe mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions, is shown to be a powerful tool for investigating these processes. The predictive capabilities of the model are, however, limited by the availability of key geochemical parameters such as the presence and quantities of primary and secondary mineral phases. Under these conditions, the model can provide valuable insight by means of sensitivity analyses.

  1. Modelling the closure-related geochemical evolution of groundwater at a former uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Bain, J G; Mayer, K U; Blowes, D W; Frind, E O; Molson, J W; Kahnt, R; Jenk, U

    2001-11-01

    A newly developed reactive transport model was used to evaluate the potential effects of mine closure on the geochemical evolution in the aquifer downgradient from a mine site. The simulations were conducted for the Königstein uranium mine located in Saxony, Germany. During decades of operation, uranium at the former mine site had been extracted by in situ acid leaching of the ore underground, while the mine was maintained in a dewatered condition. One option for decommissioning is to allow the groundwater level to rise to its natural level, flooding the mine workings. As a result, pore water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals, radionuclides, and sulfate may be released. Additional contamination may arise due to the dissolution of minerals contained in the aquifer downgradient of the mine. On the other hand, dissolved metals may be attenuated by reactions within the aquifer. The geochemical processes and interactions involved are highly non-linear and their impact on the quality of the groundwater and surface water downstream of the mine is not always intuitive. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P, which can describe mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions, is shown to be a powerful tool for investigating these processes. The predictive capabilities of the model are, however, limited by the availability of key geochemical parameters such as the presence and quantities of primary and secondary mineral phases. Under these conditions, the model can provide valuable insight by means of sensitivity analyses. PMID:11695738

  2. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Plionis, Alexander A; Peterson, Dominic S; Tandon, Lav; Lamont, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  3. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plionis, A. A.; Peterson, D. S.; Tandon, L.; LaMont, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid non-distructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  4. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Wrzosek, Beata; Królikowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia). The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation) of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites. PMID:26863014

  5. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Kremer, Barbara; Wrzosek, Beata; Królikowska, Agata; Kaźmierczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia). The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation) of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites. PMID:26863014

  6. Review of the Senegalo-Malian shear zone system - Timing, kinematics and implications for possible Au mineralisation styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diene, M.; Fullgraf, T.; Diatta, F.; Gloaguen, E.; Gueye, M.; Ndiaye, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Kédougou Kénieba Inlier (KKI) of eastern Senegal forms a typical Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt characterised by low-metamorphic sequences of volcanic rocks and volcano-sediments that have been intruded at various stages by gabbroic suites and calc-alkaline granitoids. The main structures of the KKI comprise two anastomosing structures about N-S trending shear belts that are distinguished into the western Main Transcurrent Zone (MTZ) and the eastern Senegalo-Malian shear zone system (SMSZ). These shear belts are taken to define the limits between the western Mako, the central Diale-Kéniebandi and the eastern Daléma-Kofi domains even though transitions exist between their characteristic deposition sequences. Remote sensing analysis of airborne geophysics and satellite data (Landsat, ENVI, SRTM) in combination with geological field mapping, structural analysis and geochronology suggests that the SMSZ represents a Birimian structure that records a main stage of deformation that could characterise the major transcurrent Eburnean tectonics (D2) dated from 2105 Ma (Feybesse et al., 2006a-e). This sinistral transpressive deformation marked by a major constraint oriented NNW-SSE, is accompanied by a NNE-SSW extension leading to the opening of dilational areas such as small pull-apart basins marked by local calk-alkaline volcanic sequences and several coeval intrusions of the Boboti Suite dated 2080 ± 0.9 Ma (Hirdes and Davis, 2002). A post-Birimian to pre-Neoproterozoic deformation post dates the transcurrent phase and is marked by regional N-S extension. Review of the existing Au-mineralisation models in combination with the spatial analysis of soil geochemical data suggest seven possible mineralisation styles that are related to the transpressional tectonics and coeval magmatism.

  7. Metals fact sheet - uranium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    About 147 million pounds of this radioactive element are consumed annually by the worldwide nuclear power and weapons industries, as well as in the manufacture of ceramics and metal products. The heaviest naturally occurring element, uranium is typically found in intrusive granites, igneous and metamorphic veins, tabular sedimentary deposits, and unconformity-related structures. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, market, and applications of uranium and uranium ores.

  8. Mortality of a cohort of French uranium miners exposed to relatively low radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tirmarche, M; Raphalen, A; Allin, F; Chameaud, J; Bredon, P

    1993-05-01

    A cohort mortality study has been performed on French uranium miners having experienced more than 2 years of underground mining, with first radon exposure between 1946 and 1972. Vital status has been ascertained from the date of entry to the 31 December 1985 for 99% of the members of this cohort; causes of death are identified for 95.5% of the decedents. The different causes of death are compared to the age specific national death rates by indirect standardisation and expressed by standardised mortality ratios (SMR). A statistically significant excess has been observed for lung and laryngeal cancer deaths. The Poisson trend test shows a statistically significant trend for the risk of lung cancer death as a function of cumulative radon exposure, assuming a lag time of 5 years; for laryngeal cancer no significant trend has been observed. Poisson regression modelling has been applied to the following exposure groups: < 10 WLM (Working Level Month); 10-49 WLM; 50-149 WLM; 150-299 WLM; > or = 300 WLM; it indicates an increase in the SMR for lung cancer of 0.6% per WLM (standard error: 0.4%) with an estimated intercept at 0 WLM of 1.68 (standard error: 0.4). The distinction of two working periods, differing by their annual radon concentration (before/since 1956) does not modify this exposure-response relationship. This coefficient of risk per unit of exposure is lower than in most of the other uranium miners' studies but it lies in the range of the evaluation of the ICRP 50 committee and the 'BEIR IV' report of the U.S. National Academy of Science. It is observed in a cohort having experienced low cumulative exposure to radon (mean: 70 WLM) spread over a mean duration of 14.5 years. Even though occupational exposure in mines differs in several particulars from domestic exposure, this study presents characteristics of low annual exposure comparable to radon gas concentrations in houses of 500-1000 Bq.m-3, and will contribute to the evaluation of cancer risk for the public

  9. Role of fluid mixing and fault-related sulfide in the origin of the Ray Point uranium district, south Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Reynolds, R.L.; Rye, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Lamprecht and Felder deposits are two of many roll-type uranium deposits hosted by the Miocene Oakville sandstone in the Ray Point district, Live Oak County, S Texas. Both deposits show similar patterns of geochemical zonation and distribution of authigenic iron disulphide minerals, and both appear to be genetically related to the nearby Oakville fault. Distribution of U, Mo and Se are typical of roll-type deposits. Sulphur isotope data indicate four stages of FeS2 mineral formation. Geochemical data suggest that the host sandstone near the Oakville fault is the site of a complex zone of mixing between fault-derived saline brines and oxygenated meteoric water. Conditions were thus provided in this zone for the proliferation of sulphate-reducing bacteria that in turn gave rise to the ore mineralization. A detailed discussion of the geological evolution of these deposits is presented.-J.E.S.

  10. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  11. Use of multiscalar processing of remotely sensed data in Kalan fracturation networks, west Kalimantan, Indonesia, for future mineralisations research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hs, Karyono; Ruhland, Michel

    The Kalan area is located on the northern margin of the Schwaner Mountains. Its regional geology comprises essentially more or less metamorphosed Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks about 3000-4000 m thick which make up a metasilt, metapelite and meta-argillite series surrounded by a tonalitic complex. These were affected by at least two main periods of tectonic deformation. The first was a plastic deformation that formed the schistosity in the metapelite, the fracture cleavage in the metasilt and the regional folding with the N70°E axial direction which plunges 30°NE and strikes N50°E/50°S. There is also uranium mineralisation in the fractures and schistosity. The second was a brittle deformation that did not cause any extensive bed sliding, fracture or schistosity displacements. However, the regularity of fractures and faults patterns of this area revealed by the present young relief and morphology is visible on remote sensing, pictures in spite of a thick cover of equatorial forest. The 4 direction systems, from tens to thousand of meters long, visible on aerial photographs and satellite images, give various networks of fractures in different lithologies that are measurable in the field. Generally, these tectonic accidents are superimposed on the drainage pattern. The reorganisation of these systems observed on the ERST image analysis might be the result of a large, N40-N50°E, sinistral strike-slip fault, called the Kalan alignment. Another remote sensing method applied to the Landsat scene with the path row number 120-60 LS4 has revealed more details in several sectors. Their combination with the field tectonic analysis provides an improved base document for mineral research.

  12. On fragmenting, densely mineralised acellular protrusions into articular cartilage and their possible role in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Davis, G R; Mills, D; Zikmund, T; Cox, T M; Adams, V L; Niker, A; Wilson, P J; Dillon, J P; Ranganath, L R; Jeffery, N; Jarvis, J C; Gallagher, J A

    2014-10-01

    High density mineralised protrusions (HDMP) from the tidemark mineralising front into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) were first described in Thoroughbred racehorse fetlock joints and later in Icelandic horse hock joints. We now report them in human material. Whole femoral heads removed at operation for joint replacement or from dissection room cadavers were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual echo steady state at 0.23 mm resolution, then 26-μm resolution high contrast X-ray microtomography, sectioned and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, blocks cut and polished and re-imaged with 6-μm resolution X-ray microtomography. Tissue mineralisation density was imaged using backscattered electron SEM (BSE SEM) at 20 kV with uncoated samples. HAC histology was studied by BSE SEM after staining block faces with ammonium triiodide solution. HDMP arise via the extrusion of an unknown mineralisable matrix into clefts in HAC, a process of acellular dystrophic calcification. Their formation may be an extension of a crack self-healing mechanism found in bone and articular calcified cartilage. Mineral concentration exceeds that of articular calcified cartilage and is not uniform. It is probable that they have not been reported previously because they are removed by decalcification with standard protocols. Mineral phase morphology frequently shows the agglomeration of many fine particles into larger concretions. HDMP are surrounded by HAC, are brittle, and show fault lines within them. Dense fragments found within damaged HAC could make a significant contribution to joint destruction. At least larger HDMP can be detected with the best MRI imaging ex vivo. PMID:25132002

  13. Efficiency of the Regulation of Otolith Mineralisation and Susceptibility to kinetotic Behaviour in Parabolic Aircraft Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knie, M.; Weigele, J.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    Under diminished gravity e g during the respective phase in the course of parabolic aircraft flight PF humans often suffer from motion sickness a kinetsosis due to sensorimotor disorders Using fish as a model system we previously provided ample evidence that an individually differently pronounced asymmetric mineralisation calcification of inner ear stones otoliths leads to the individually different susceptibility to such disorders Depending on the disposition of an individual fish the mineralisation of otoliths is more or less strictly regulated by the central nervous system via a gravity-dependent feedback loop Long-term hypergravity centrifuge e g slows down otolith mineralisation whereas simulated microgravity clinostat yields opposite results Such long-term experiments under altered gravity moreover affect otolith asymmetry According to our working hypothesis the efficiency of the respective regulatory mechanism differs among individual animals This efficiency is postulated to be high in animals who behave normally under microgravity conditions whereas it is assumed to be low in such individuals who reveal a kinetotic behaviour at diminished G-forces In order to test this hypothesis two groups of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were kept under long-term hypergravity centrifuge and simulated microgravity clinostat respectively in order to manipulate the efficiency of the aforementioned regulatory mechanism Subsequently the animals were subjected to diminished gravity in the course of PFs and it was analysed

  14. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-01-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments. PMID:27527125

  15. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Riggs, C M; Bushby, A J; McDermott, B; Pinchbeck, G L; Clegg, P D

    2011-01-01

    Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3) and metatarsal (Mt3) bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb) is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration. Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanized for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected. Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P<0.02) and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P<0.02). Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines. PMID:21623571

  16. The geology and mineralisation at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, I. M. A.; Bierlein, F. P.; Standing, J. S.; Davidson, G.

    2009-10-01

    The Golden Pride gold deposit (˜3 Moz) is located in the central part of the Nzega Greenstone Belt at the southern margin of the Lake Victoria Goldfields in Tanzania. It represents an inferred Late Archaean, orogenic gold deposit and is hosted in intensely deformed meta-sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the approximately E-W striking Golden Pride Shear Zone. The hanging-wall sequence also includes felsic (quartz porphyritic) to mafic (lamprophyric) intrusions, as well as banded iron formations. Hydrothermal alteration phases associated with mineralisation are dominated by sericite and chlorite. Two main ore types can be distinguished, chlorite and silica ore, both occupying dilational sites and structural intersections in the hanging wall of the main shear zone. Sulphide minerals in both ore types include pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and accessory sphalerite, galena, sulphosalts and Ni-Co-Bi sulphides. Gold and tellurides are late in the paragenetic sequence and associated with a secondary phase of pyrrhotite deposition. Sulphur isotope compositions range from -6 to 7 per mil and are interpreted to reflect contributions from two distinct sources to the mineralising fluids in the Golden Pride gold deposit. A redox change, potentially induced by the intrusion of mafic melts, together with structural elements in the hanging wall of the Golden Pride Shear Zone, are interpreted to be the main controls on gold mineralisation in this deposit.

  17. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites.

    PubMed

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T

    2016-01-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments. PMID:27527125

  18. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  19. The structural controls of gold mineralisation within the Bardoc Tectonic Zone, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia: implications for gold endowment in shear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Anthony A.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Bierlein, Frank P.

    2007-08-01

    The Bardoc Tectonic Zone (BTZ) of the late Archaean Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, is physically linked along strike to the Boulder-Lefroy Shear Zone (BLSZ), one of the richest orogenic gold shear systems in the world. However, gold production in the BTZ has only been one order of magnitude smaller than that of the BLSZ (˜100 t Au vs >1,500 t Au). The reasons for this difference can be found in the relative timing, distribution and style(s) of deformation that controlled gold deposition in the two shear systems. Deformation within the BTZ was relatively simple and is associated with tight to iso-clinal folding and reverse to transpressive shear zones over a <12-km-wide area of high straining, where lithological contacts have been rotated towards the plane of maximum shortening. These structures control gold mineralisation and also correspond to the second major shortening phase of the province (D2). In contrast, shearing within the BLSZ is concentrated to narrow shear zones (<2 km wide) cutting through rocks at a range of orientations that underwent more complex dip- and strike-slip deformation, possibly developed throughout the different deformation phases recorded in the region (D1-D4). Independent of other physico-chemical factors, these differences provided for effective fluid localisation to host units with greater competency contrasts during a prolonged mineralisation process in the BLSZ as compared to the more simple structural history of the BTZ.

  20. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  1. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  2. URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, F.T.; Cruikshank, A.J.

    1958-10-28

    A process for recovering uranium from a solution of a diethyl dithiocarbaruate of uranium in an orgakic solvent substantially immiscible with water is presented. The process comprises brlnging the organic solutlon into intimate contact wlth an aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate, whereby the uranium passes to the aqueous carbonate solution as a soluble uranyl carbonate.

  3. Uranium in the Cochetopa District, Colorado, in relation to the Oligocene erosion surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Jerry Chipman

    1976-01-01

    In the Cochetopa district, Colorado, the sequence of Mesozoic and Cenozoic events is as follows: development of a relatively smooth, planar erosion surface in Jurassic time; deposition, on this surface, of the Junction Creek Sandstone and Morrison Formation of Jurassic age, followed by deposition of the Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; Laramide tilting and faulting; erosion to form a terrane of moderate relief in Oligocene time; deposition of lava flows and volcanic breccia of intermediate composition and of ash-flow tuff, all of Oligocene age; and subsequent erosion and canyon-cutting by Cochetopa Creek, a superimposed stream, and its tributaries.

  4. Fission cross sections of some thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium isotopes relative to /sup 235/U

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J W

    1983-10-01

    Earlier results from the measurements, at this Laboratory, of the fission cross sections of /sup 230/Th, /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu relative to /sup 235/U are reviewed with revisions to include changes in data processing procedures, alpha half lives and thermal fission cross sections. Some new data have also been included. The current experimental methods and procedures and the sample assay methods are described in detail and the sources of error are presented in a systematic manner. 38 references.

  5. Carbothermic synthesis of 820 μm uranium nitride kernels: Literature review, thermodynamics, analysis, and related experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Voit, S. L.; Silva, C. M.; Besmann, T. M.; Hunt, R. D.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters near 825 μm. This effort explores factors involved in the conversion of uranium oxide-carbon microspheres into UN kernels. An analysis of previous studies with sufficient experimental details is provided. Thermodynamic calculations were made to predict pressures of carbon monoxide and other relevant gases for several reactions that can be involved in the conversion of uranium oxides and carbides into UN. Uranium oxide-carbon microspheres were heated in a microbalance with an attached mass spectrometer to determine details of calcining and carbothermic conversion in argon, nitrogen, and vacuum. A model was derived from experiments on the vacuum conversion to uranium oxide-carbide kernels. UN-containing kernels were fabricated using this vacuum conversion as part of the overall process. Carbonitride kernels of ∼89% of theoretical density were produced along with several observations concerning the different stages of the process.

  6. [Study of relation between crushed lava spectrum and magnetic susceptibility in Xiangshan uranium orefield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Chun; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Lin-Qing; Jiang, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    Rock spectrum research is the base of the remote sensing geology. It's of great significance of exploring the relations between rock spectrum and other rock natures. In the present study, 36 fine crushed lava samples each measuring 5 cmX5 cmX 5 cm were tested for its spectrums by SVC HR-768 portable spectrometer. But before measuring each sample, white boards should be calibrated and after measuring the curves of spectrum of each sample should make a 5 nm smooth resample so that meteoric water and noise caused by external environment can be eliminated. After such smooth resample, at the spectrum scope of 1 112-1322 nm, taking band value as horizontal axis and reflectivity as vertical axis, linear equations of rock samples can be obtained. Taking the slopes as the horizontal axis and volume magnetic susceptibility as vertical axis, y= -0. 256 31n(x) + 0. 913 7 was thus obtained and its equation correlation coefficient is up to 0. 78. The result shows that volume magnetic susceptibility is mainly caused by Fe2+ , and that the amount of Fe2+ can be almost measured in the spectrum scope of 1112 approximately 1322 nm that has a good correlation with volume magnetic susceptibility. PMID:24611387

  7. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  8. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Chloe L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four‐layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel‐fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel‐fibred bone, showing osteon‐like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we

  9. Relation of Mercury, Uranium, and Lithium Deposits to the McDermitt Caldera Complex, Nevada-Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Glanzman, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    The McDermitt caldera complex, located along the Nevada-Oregon border, is a Miocene collapse structure 45 kilometer in diameter. Large-volume rhyolitic and peralkaline ash-flow tuffs were erupted from 17.9 to 15.8 m.y. ago, leading to the formation of overlapping and nested calderas. Emplacement of rhyolitic ring domes, located primarily along the western margin of the calderas, represents the last phase of volcanic activity. The complex is the site of large deposits of mercury, an are deposit and several occurrences of uranium, and widespread occurrences of lithium. Mercury deposits at Cordero, McDermitt, Bretz, Ruja, and Opalite occur along ring fractures in sedimentary rocks that fill the calderas. Near the deposits the rocks are altered to zeolites and within the ore zones to potassium feldspar and silicate minerals. Although the mercury deposits contain anomalous concentrations of uranium, the most important uranium occurrences are restricted to rhyolitic ring domes emplaced along the western margin of the calderas. Lithium occurrences are located in tuffaceous rocks that are altered to zeolites and potassium feldspar. Concentrations of lithium ranging from 0.1 to 0.68 percent are associated with the clay mineral hectorite. The rhyolitic rocks erupted from the McDermitt caldera complex are enriched in mercury, uranium, and lithium and are likely source rocks for these elements in the ore deposits. Tuffaceous caldera fill-sediment averages 0.29 ppm mercury, 22 ppm uranium, and 236 ppm lithium; large-volume ash-flow tuffs contain up to 0.26 ppm mercury, 20 ppm uranium, and 300 ppm lithium.

  10. Positional flexibility: syntheses and characterization of six uranium chalcogenides related to the 2H hexagonal perovskite family.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C; Pozzi, Eric A; Tarasenko, Mariya S; Lebègue, Sébastien; Malliakas, Christos D; Van Duyne, Richard P; Ibers, James A

    2015-03-16

    Six new uranium chalcogenides, Ba4USe6, Ba3FeUSe6, Ba3MnUSe6, Ba3MnUS6, Ba3.3Rb0.7US6, and Ba3.2K0.8US6, related to the 2H hexagonal perovskite family have been synthesized by solid-state methods at 1173 K. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the K4CdCl6 structure type in space group D3d6–R3̅c of the trigonal system with six formula units per cell. This structure type is remarkably flexible. The structures of Ba3FeUSe6, Ba3MnUSe6, and Ba3MnUS6 consist of infinite ∞1[MUQ66–] chains (M = Fe or Mn; Q = S or Se) oriented along the c axis that are separated by Ba atoms. These chains are composed of alternating M-centered octahedra and U-centered trigonal prisms sharing triangular faces; in contrast, in the structures of Ba4USe6, Ba3.3Rb0.7US6, and Ba3.2K0.8US6, there are U-centered octahedra alternating with Ba-, Rb-, or K-centered trigonal prisms. Moreover, the Ba4USe6, Ba3FeUSe6, Ba3MnUSe6, and Ba3MnUS6 compounds contain U4+, whereas Ba3.3Rb0.7US6 and Ba3.2K0.8US6 are mixed U4+/5+ compounds. Resistivity and μ-Raman spectroscopic measurements and DFT calculations provide additional insight into these interesting subtle structural variations. PMID:25697078

  11. A study of radionuclides, metals and stable lead isotope ratios in sediments and soils in the vicinity of natural U-mineralisation areas in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Frostick, A; Bollhöfer, A; Parry, D

    2011-10-01

    Australian guidelines recommend that tailings materials from uranium (U) mining and milling be contained without any detrimental impact on the environment for at least 1000 years. Natural analogue sites are being investigated to determine if they can provide data on the rates of natural erosion processes which occur over these timescales, for input into predictive geomorphic computer models. This paper presents radionuclide, metal and stable lead (Pb) isotope data from sediment cores and surface soils in the vicinity of two mineralised areas in the Alligator Rivers Region. Surface scrapes from the natural Anomaly #2, south of the Ranger mineral lease, exhibit radiogenic (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, and elevated U and metal concentrations typical for a near surface U anomaly. In contrast, samples taken from the Koongarra mineral lease (KML) show radionuclide activity and metal concentrations similar to natural areas elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region and Pb isotope ratios are closer to present day average crustal ratios (PDAC), as the orebodies at KML are covered by surficial sand. A sediment core collected from Anbangbang Billabong, downstream of KML, exhibits small variations in Pb isotope ratios that indicate that approximately 1% of the upper sediments in the sediment core may be derived from material originating from the U anomaly at Koongarra. PMID:20471726

  12. Simulation of substrate erosion and sulphate assimilation by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for the genesis of precious metal-rich sulphide mineralisation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Gaillard, Fabrice; Fiorentini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    On Earth, high temperature mafic to ultramafic lava flows, such as komatiites and ferropicrites of the Archean and Proterozic eons, can be hosts to Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralisation. Mechanical/thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks is ascribed as the principal mechanism that leads to sulphide supersaturation, batch segregation and subsequent accumulation of metal-enriched magmatic sulphides (e.g., Bekker et al., Science, 2009). In order to investigate the likelihood of the occurrence of similar sulphide mineralisation in extraterrestrial magmatic systems, we numerically modelled erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of Martian lavas, some of which display chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial komatiites and ferropicrites, on a variety of consolidated sedimentary sulphate-rich substrates. The modelling approach relies on the integration of i) mathematical lava erosion models for turbulent flows (Williams et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1998), ii) thermodynamic volatile degassing models (Gaillard et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2013), and iii) formulations on the stability of sulphides (Fortin et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2015). A series of scenarios are examined in which various Martian mafic to ultramafic mantle-derived melts emplace over, and assimilate consolidated sulphate-rich substrates, such as the sedimentary lithologies (i.e., conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones) recently discovered at the Gale Crater landing site. Our modellings show that lavas emplacing over consolidated sedimentary substrate rather than stiff basaltic crust, are governed by relatively high cooling and substrate erosion rates. The rapid assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates at fO2 ≳QFM-1. This effect is further enhanced with increased temperature. Nevertheless, sulphide supersaturation in the way of sulphate

  13. Bone mineral homeostasis, bone growth, and mineralisation during years of pubertal growth: a unifying concept.

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, S; Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C

    1982-01-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium proteins, phosphate, and immunoparathyroid hormone were measured in 338 normal children and adolescents aged between 7 and 20 years and in 123 normal adults aged between 21 and 50 years. Protein corrected serum calcium and magnesium remained stable throughout the study. Despite hyperphosphataemia protein corrected calcium exceeded the concentrations of normal adults. Serum phosphate and the Ca X P product greatly exceeded adult values and fell rather slowly towards adult levels after the pubertal growth spurt. Serum immunoparathyroid hormone tended to exceed normal adult values and was judged high for the level of serum calcium. Similarities between mineral metabolism in childhood an adolescence and in acromegaly were striking. On this basis in the light of studies demonstrating stimulatory actions of gonadal hormones on growth hormone and of growth hormone on the secretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a unifying concept is developed. This concept places growth hormone in the unique position of being the main driver and co-ordinator during childhood and adolescence of bone growth an mineralisation on the one hand, and of blood mineral homeostasis on the other. Gonadal hormones probably express some of their actions through stimulation of growth hormone secretion and others by different mechanisms. According to this concept growth hormone is maintaining th Ca X P product at a suitable high level as long as growth hormone and gonadal hormones deliver bone matrix for mineralisation at a high rate. PMID:7092291

  14. Gross and net rates of nitrogen mineralisation in soil amended with composted olive mill pomace.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Hatch, D J; Bol, R; Dixon, E R; García-Ruiz, R

    2011-06-15

    Olive mill pomace is the major waste product in the olive oil industry and composting these by-products for the purpose of recycling nutrients and organic matter is a sound environmental strategy. Yet little is known about the quantity and timing of nitrogen (N) release from composted olive mill pomace. This paper assesses both gross (using the (15)N dilution technique) and net (aerobic incubation) nitrogen (N) mineralisation and N(2)O emissions of soil amended with seven commercially available composts of olive mill pomace (COMP). All are currently produced in Andalusia and differ in the proportions of raw materials co-composted with the pomace. The absence of significant differences in net N or gross mineralisation and nitrification in COMP-amended soil compared with a control, except for COMP combined with poultry manure, highlighted the recalcitrant nature of the COMP-N. Applications of COMP are hence unlikely to supply available N in available forms, at least in the short-term. Furthermore, N(2)O emissions from COMP-amended soil were negligible and, therefore, applications in the field should not result in increased N loss through denitrification. PMID:21594919

  15. Non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) for the prediction of naphthalene mineralisation in soil.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin J; Semple, Kirk T; Paton, Graeme I

    2004-12-15

    Non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) have been shown to measure the putatively bioavailable fraction of hydrophobic compounds in soil. To date, these studies have only considered bioavailability in a single soil type. In this study, naphthalene was amended into five different soil types and mineralisation, bacterial biosensor response and the number of indigenous microbial naphthalene degraders were determined. Two NEETs were used to extract the naphthalene from soil; hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and XAD-4. The HPCD extractable fraction correlated closely (R2 = 0.917) with the portion that was mineralised, but the XAD-4 extract did not (R2 = 0.044). HPCD may be ideal for the rapid assessment of the fraction of a hydrophobic organic contaminant that is available for biodegradation. A NEET that complements environmental microbial analysis will enhance our understanding of soil pollution interactions and equip us better in designing risk assessment models that integrate biological parameters. This application, although refined for soil samples, should be transferable to other environmental matrices. PMID:15598535

  16. Erosion and assimilation of substrate by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for sulphur degassing and the genesis of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Baumgartner, R. J.; Gaillard, F.; Fiorentini, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Archean and Proterozoic komatiites and ferropicrites are mantle plume-related, low-viscosity, high-temperature, mafic to ultramafic lava flows. They are hosts to Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation, which generally formed due to the segregation of sulphides following thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks. We numerically simulated erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of iron-rich Martian lavas displaying chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial mafic to ultramafic lavas, on a variety of basaltic and sedimentary sulphate-rich substratum. With the adoption of the lava flow and erosion model of Williams et al. (JGR, 1998), thermodynamic simulations were implemented to (semi-) quantify the potential changes in melt parameter (i.e., chemistry, temperature, and oxygen fugacity) that dictate the sulphur capacity of silicate melts. Modelling was also performed to assess the role of volatile degassing (Gaillard et al., SSR, 2013) on the sulphur inventory of Martian lavas. Our modelling show that lavas emplacing over basaltic crust are governed by low cooling rates, as well as low erosion and assimilation capacities, thus resulting in calculated near-cotectic proportions of sulphides segregating relatively late upon lava emplacement (usually > 100 km flow distance). The rapid assimilation of highly erodible and sulphate-rich Martian regolith may trigger sulphide supersaturation and batch segregation of sulphides well above cotectic proportions relatively early during the establishment of magmatic flow (<100 km flow distance). However, the assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates. This process may limit or even counteract the overall positive effect of sulphate assimilation on achieving sulphide supersaturation, sulphide segregation and the genesis of Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation.

  17. METHOD OF DISSOLVING URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Slotin, L.A.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an economicai means of dissolving metallic uranium. It has been found that the addition of a small amount of perchloric acid to the concentrated nitric acid in which the uranium is being dissolved greatly shortens the time necessary for dissolution of the metal. Thus the use of about 1 or 2 percent of perchioric acid based on the weight of the nitric acid used, reduces the time of dissolution of uranium by a factor of about 100.

  18. Conflicting evidence on the timing of mesothermal and paleoplacer gold mineralisation in early Proterozoic rocks from Southwest Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenlohr, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rocks of early Proterozoic age (ca. 2100 Ma) host the major gold deposits in Ghana. The deposits are either located in mesothermal quartz vein systems or hosted in a quartz pebble conglomerate that represents a paleoplacer. Both types of mineralisation are largely confined to the Ashanti Belt, one of four parallel northeast-trending volcanic belts. While the stratigraphy and structure of the belts are similar, the Ashanti belt is characterised by a more tectonised northwest margin where most of the epigenetic gold deposits are located. In these deposits, gold mineralisation is located in faults that parallel the regional trend of the belts and were active late in the deformation history of the terrane. The auriferous quartz pebble conglomerate is part of a clastic sequence that is largely derived from the adjacent volcanic and plutonic rocks with the gold widely regarded as having originated from eroded vein deposits. Structural data, however, show that both the volcanic rocks and clastic sequence were deformed jointly prior to epigenetic gold mineralisation. Thus, the quartz vein deposits could not have been the source of the paleoplacer mineralisation. The paleoplacer gold could have originated from one of several possible sources but none has been unequivocally identified.

  19. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  20. ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lofthouse, E.

    1954-08-31

    This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

  1. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Case, Sean D C; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal drying process (input temperature 95 °C, thermal fluid circuit temperature 200 °C, 95 % dry matter content). The drying process reduced the ammonium content of the biosolids and reduced it further at higher drying temperatures. These findings were attributed to ammonia volatilisation. The percentage of mineralisable organic N fraction (min-N) in the biosolids, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production were analysed 120 days after addition to soil. When incubated at soil field capacity (pF 2), none of the dried biosolids had a greater min-N than the AD biosolids (46.4 %). Min-N was lowest in biosolids dried at higher temperatures (e.g. 19.3 % at 250 °C vs 35.4 % at 70 °C). Considering only the dried biosolids, min-N was greater in WWTP-dried biosolids (50.5 %) than all of the laboratory-dried biosolids with the exception of the 70 °C-dried biosolids. Biosolid carbon mineralisation (CO2 release) and N2O production was also the lowest in treatments of the highest drying temperature, suggesting that this material was more recalcitrant. Overall, thermal drying temperature had a significant influence on N availability from the AD biosolids, but drying did not improve the N availability of these biosolids in any case. PMID:27068895

  2. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  3. Role of fluid mixing and fault-related sulfide in the origin of the Ray Point Uranium District, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Reynolds, R.L.; Rye, R.O.

    1983-09-01

    The Lamprecht and Felder deposits are two of many roll-type uranium deposits hosted by the Miocene Oakville Sandstone in the Ray Point (south Texas) uranium district. The deposits in this district are aligned parallel to or are intersected by the Oakville fault which suggests control by the faults on their origin and/or preservation. The Lamprecht and Felder deposits show fundamentally similar patterns of geochemical zonation and of distribution of authigenic iron disulfide (FeS/sub 2/) minerals. Distribution of U, Mo, and Se are typical of roll-type deposits that result from invasion of geochemically reduced rock by oxygenated uranium-bearing solutions. Sulfur content of these deposits is high (as much as 9%), with almost all sulfur occurring as FeS/sub 2/ minerals. Organic carbon is virtually absent. Four distinct stages of FeS/sub 2/ mineral formation are recognized: (1) a generation of isotopically light (delta/sup 34/S < -20%o) preor pyrite, (2) a generation of isotopically light (delta/sup 34/S < -20%o) marcasite that formed mostly before, but also during, ore deposition, (3) a postore generation of isotopically heavy pyrite (delta/sup 34/S > 0%o), and (4) a yet later generation of marcasite with isotopically light sulfur close to the values of stages 1 and 2. The altered tongue in these deposits is anomalous in that it contains FeS/sub 2/ minerals in contrast to other Texas and Wyoming roll-type deposits which typically have an oxidized (ferric iron-bearing) altered tongue. The dominant FeS/sub 2/ mineral in the altered tongue is isotopically heavy pyrite (stage 3) with subordinate amounts of late marcasite (stage 4).

  4. Metabolic fate and evaluation of injury in rats and dogs following exposure to the hydrolysis products of uranium hexafluoride: implications for a bioassay program related to potential releases of uranium hexafluoride, July 1979-October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Leach, L.J.; Smith, F.A.; Gelein, R.M.; Scott, J.B.; Beiter, H.D.; Amato, F.J.; Picano, J.J.; Yuile, C.L.; Consler, T.G.

    1982-12-01

    This final report summarizes the experimental studies undertaken in rats and dogs in order to help provide adequate biological bases for quantifying and evaluating uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) exposures. Animals were administered the hydrolysis products of UF/sub 6/ by inhalation exposures, intratracheal instillations and intravenous injections. Attention was given to dose-effect relationships appropriate to the kidney, the unique site of subacute toxicity; to the rates of uranium excretion; and to uranium retention in renal tissue. These criteria were examined in both naive and multiply-exposed animals. The findings of these studies partly substantiate the ICRP excretion model for hexavalent uranium; generally provide a lower renal injury threshold concentration than implicit in the MPC for natural uranium; indicate distinctions in response (for example, uranium excretion) are based on exposure history; compare and evaluate various biochemical indices of renal injury; raise uncertainties about prevailing views of reversible renal injury, renal tolerance and possible hydrogen fluoride synergism with uranium effects; and reveal species differences in several areas, for example, renal retention of uranium. While these studies present some complicating features to extant bioassay practice, they nevertheless supply data supportive of the bioassay concept.

  5. Magmatic Controls on the Genesis of Ni-Cu-PGE Sulphide Mineralisation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, R. J.; Fiorentini, M.; Baratoux, D.; Micklethwaite, S.; Sener, K.; McCuaig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread igneous activity, which shows striking mineralogical, petrographical and chemical similarities with terrestrial komatiites and ferropicrites, intensely affected, reshaped and buried the primordial Martian crust. This study evaluates for the first time whether the broad igneous activity on Mars may have led to the formation of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralisation similar to that associated with terrestrial komatiites and ferropicrites. Particular focus is laid on two different components of the Martian Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineral system: 1) the potential metal and sulphur fertility of source regions, and 2) the physical/chemical processes that enable sulphide supersaturation and metal concentration into an immiscible sulphide liquid. We show that potentially metal-rich Martian mantle melts likely reach sulphide saturation within 20-35 wt% of simple silicate fractionation; a value that is comparable to that of the terrestrial equivalents (i.e. ferropicrites and komatiites). However, the majority of terrestrial world-class Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide deposits originated by the assimilation of crustal sulphur-rich country rocks, allowing the attainment of sulphide supersaturation and liquid segregation during early stages of magma evolution. The high sulphur content in Martian crustal lithologies, ranging from sulphide bearing magmatic rocks to sulphate-rich regoliths and sedimentary deposits, imply that mantle melts potentially assimilated significant amounts of crustal sulphur during their ascent and emplacement. As a main outcome we show that channelled and fluid lava flows, which potentially emplaced and incised into these sulphur-rich crustal lithologies, are the most promising systems that may have led to the formation of Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralisation on Mars.

  6. Phosphate Bariers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Burns

    2007-01-26

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility.

  7. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Morris, G.O.

    1955-06-21

    This patent relates to a process for the recovery of uranium from impure uranium tetrafluoride. The process consists essentially of the steps of dissolving the impure uranium tetrafluoride in excess dilute sulfuric acid in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide, precipitating ammonium uranate from the solution so formed by adding an excess of aqueous ammonia, dissolving the precipitate in sulfuric acid and adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium peroxdde.

  8. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  9. A reappraisal of the age, origin and structural setting of sulphide mineralisation in the UK North Pennines Orefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Bob; Dempsey, Eddie; Selby, David; Le Cornu, Chris; Young, Brian

    2015-04-01

    mineralisation and also with emplacement of the Whin Sill and associated intrusions. We conclude that: (i) the main phase of NPO mineralization occurred synchronously with regional dextral transtension during the earliest Permian; (ii) that mineralization is genetically linked to a mantle source and (iii) that the genesis of the NPO is closely linked to that of the broadly penecontemporaneous Whin Sill and associated intrusions in northern England. Our new findings are consistent with structural histories recognised in adjacent regions (e.g. Dent-Pennine Fault systems; Northumberland Basin) and point to a major regional phase of mantle-sourced mineralization, igneous intrusion and transtensional deformation in the early Permian. Previous models suggesting that the NPO is a classic example of a MVT mineral deposit or that the mineralizing fluids are related to the influx of Mesozoic brines are largely incorrect.

  10. Association of gold with uraninite and pyrobitumen in the metavolcanic rock hosted hydrothermal Au-U mineralisation at Rompas, Peräpohja Schist Belt, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Ferenc; Oduro, Harry; Cook, Nick D. J.; Pohjolainen, Esa; Takács, Ágnes; O'Brien, Hugh; Pakkanen, Lassi; Johanson, Bo; Wirth, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Peräpohja Schist Belt comprises a supracrustal sequence of quartzites, mafic volcanics and volcaniclastics, carbonate rocks, black shales, mica schists and greywackes which were deposited from ca. 2.44 to ~1.91 Ga, during the rifting of the Archaean basement in the eastern part of the Fennoscandian shield. Metamorphism and multiple folding of the basin fill took place during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga) followed by intrusions of late-orogenic (1.84-1.80 Ga) and post-orogenic granitoids (1.79-1.76 Ga). The Rompas Au-U mineralisation is hosted by deformed calcsilicate veins in mafic volcanic rocks and locally contains very high grade (>10,000 g/t Au) gold pockets with strict spatial association of gold minerals to uraninite and pyrobitumen. Chemical ages from the unaltered domains in the structure of uraninite indicate a 1.95-1.90 Ga age for the deposition of the primary, high temperature (e.g. U/Th < 100 in uraninite) hydrothermal uranium mineralisation. These data are in agreement with the results of previous U-Pb dating of uraninite by SIMS. Textural evidence suggests that metamorphic recrystallisation of the uraninite-bearing quartz-dolomite veins into calcsilicate mineral assemblages during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga) was followed by a hydrocarbon-bearing fluid flow event and radiolytic polymerisation of hydrocarbons around grains of uraninite. Gold precipitated during a subsequent hydrothermal process in the fractures of uraninite, as well as in the cracks and on the botryoidal surfaces of uraninite-pyrobitumen nodules. Remobilisation and redeposition of uranium by these hydrothermal events produced secondary uraninite grains with chemical ages between 1.85 and 1.65 Ga. Native gold is associated with galena, altaite, hunchunite, nickeline and rare cobaltite, Pb-bearing maldonite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and titanite. Raman spectra show disordered structure of undeformed pyrobitumen nodules in contrast with the well

  11. Association of gold with uraninite and pyrobitumen in the metavolcanic rock hosted hydrothermal Au-U mineralisation at Rompas, Peräpohja Schist Belt, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Ferenc; Oduro, Harry; Cook, Nick D. J.; Pohjolainen, Esa; Takács, Ágnes; O'Brien, Hugh; Pakkanen, Lassi; Johanson, Bo; Wirth, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Peräpohja Schist Belt comprises a supracrustal sequence of quartzites, mafic volcanics and volcaniclastics, carbonate rocks, black shales, mica schists and greywackes which were deposited from ca. 2.44 to ~1.91 Ga, during the rifting of the Archaean basement in the eastern part of the Fennoscandian shield. Metamorphism and multiple folding of the basin fill took place during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga) followed by intrusions of late-orogenic (1.84-1.80 Ga) and post-orogenic granitoids (1.79-1.76 Ga). The Rompas Au-U mineralisation is hosted by deformed calcsilicate veins in mafic volcanic rocks and locally contains very high grade (>10,000 g/t Au) gold pockets with strict spatial association of gold minerals to uraninite and pyrobitumen. Chemical ages from the unaltered domains in the structure of uraninite indicate a 1.95-1.90 Ga age for the deposition of the primary, high temperature (e.g. U/Th < 100 in uraninite) hydrothermal uranium mineralisation. These data are in agreement with the results of previous U-Pb dating of uraninite by SIMS. Textural evidence suggests that metamorphic recrystallisation of the uraninite-bearing quartz-dolomite veins into calcsilicate mineral assemblages during the Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga) was followed by a hydrocarbon-bearing fluid flow event and radiolytic polymerisation of hydrocarbons around grains of uraninite. Gold precipitated during a subsequent hydrothermal process in the fractures of uraninite, as well as in the cracks and on the botryoidal surfaces of uraninite-pyrobitumen nodules. Remobilisation and redeposition of uranium by these hydrothermal events produced secondary uraninite grains with chemical ages between 1.85 and 1.65 Ga. Native gold is associated with galena, altaite, hunchunite, nickeline and rare cobaltite, Pb-bearing maldonite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and titanite. Raman spectra show disordered structure of undeformed pyrobitumen nodules in contrast with the well

  12. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. METHOD OF ELECTROPLATING ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Rebol, E.W.; Wehrmann, R.F.

    1959-04-28

    This patent relates to a preparation of metallic uranium surfaces for receiving coatings, particularly in order to secure adherent electroplated coatings upon uranium metal. In accordance with the invention the uranium surface is pretreated by degreasing in trichloroethylene, followed by immersion in 25 to 50% nitric acid for several minutes, and then rinsed with running water, prior to pickling in trichloroacetic acid. The last treatment is best accomplished by making the uranium the anode in an aqueous solution of 50 per cent by weight trichloroacetic acid until work-distorted crystals or oxide present on the metal surface have been removed and the basic crystalline structure of the base metal has been exposed. Following these initial steps the metallic uranium is rinsed in dilute nitric acid and then electroplated with nickel. Adnerent firmly-bonded coatings of nickel are obtained.

  14. Tramp uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrixson, E.S.; Williamson, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Many utilities have implemented a no leaker philosophy for fuel performance and actively pursue removing leaking fuel assemblies from their reactor cores whenever a leaking fuel assembly is detected. Therefore, the only source for fission product activity in the RCS when there are no leaking fuel assemblies is tramp uranium. A technique has been developed that strips uranium impurities from ZrCl{sub 4}. Unless efforts are made to remove natural uranium impurities from reactor materials, the utilities will not be able to reduce the RCS specific {sup 131}I activity in PWRs to below the lower limit of {approximately}1.0 x 10{minus{sup 4}} {mu}Ci/g.

  15. Prostate cancer mortality risk in relation to working underground in the Wismut cohort study of German uranium miners, 1970–2003

    PubMed Central

    Dufey, Florian; Tschense, Annemarie; Schnelzer, Maria; Sogl, Marion; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Objective A recent study and comprehensive literature review has indicated that mining could be protective against prostate cancer. This indication has been explored further here by analysing prostate cancer mortality in the German ‘Wismut’ uranium miner cohort, which has detailed information on the number of days worked underground. Design An historical cohort study of 58 987 male mine workers with retrospective follow-up before 1999 and prospective follow-up since 1999. Setting and participants Uranium mine workers employed during the period 1970–1990 in the regions of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, contributing 1.42 million person-years of follow-up ending in 2003. Outcome measure Simple standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses were applied to assess differences between the national and cohort prostate cancer mortality rates and complemented by refined analyses done entirely within the cohort. The internal comparisons applied Poisson regression excess relative prostate cancer mortality risk model with background stratification by age and calendar year and a whole range of possible explanatory covariables that included days worked underground and years worked at high physical activity with γ radiation treated as a confounder. Results The analysis is based on miner data for 263 prostate cancer deaths. The overall SMR was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.95). A linear excess relative risk model with the number of years worked at high physical activity and the number of days worked underground as explanatory covariables provided a statistically significant fit when compared with the background model (p=0.039). Results (with 95% CIs) for the excess relative risk per day worked underground indicated a statistically significant (p=0.0096) small protective effect of −5.59 (−9.81 to −1.36) ×10−5. Conclusion Evidence is provided from the German Wismut cohort in support of a protective effect from working underground on prostate cancer mortality risk. PMID

  16. Uranium bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    Enrico Fermi was a brilliant physicist, but he did occasionally get things wrong. In 1934 he famously bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons. The result was astounding: the experiment had, Fermi concluded, produced element 93, later called neptunium. The German physicist Ida Noddack, however, came to an even more spectacular conclusion, namely that Fermi had split the uranium nucleus to produce lighter elements. Noddack's friend Otto Hahn judged that idea preposterous and advised her to keep quiet, since ridicule could ruin a female physicist. She ignored that advice, and was, indeed, scorned.

  17. Controls on mineralisation in the Sierra Foothills gold province, central California, USA: A GIS-based reconnaissance prospectivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierlein, F.P.; Northover, H.J.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of spatial relationships between the location, abundance and size of orogenic-gold deposits in the highly endowed Sierra Foothills gold province in California, via the combination of field studies and a GIS-based analysis, illustrates the power of such an approach to the characterisation of important parameters of mineral systems, and the prediction of districts likely to host economic mineralisation. Regional- to deposit-scale reconnaissance mapping suggests that deposition of gold-bearing quartz veins occurred in second- and third-order, east-over-west thrusts during regional east - west compression and right-lateral transpression. At the district-scale, significant zones of mineralisation correspond with such transpressional reactivation zones and dilational jogs that developed during the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous along the misaligned segments of first-order faults throughout the Sierra Nevada Foothills Metamorphic Belt. Field-based observations and interpretation of GIS data (including solid geology, structural elements, deposit locations, magnetics, gravity) also highlight the importance of structural permeability contrasts, rheological gradients, and variations in fault orientation for localising mineralisation. Although this approach confirms empirical findings and produces promising results at the province scale, enhanced geological, structural, geophysical and geochronological data density is required to generate regionally consistent, high-quality input layers that improve predictive targeting at the goldfield to deposit-scale.

  18. Geochronology of unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada and their integration in the evolution of the basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Paul; Kyser, Kurt; Thomas, Dave; Polito, Paul; Marlat, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The importance of geochronology in the study of mineral deposits in general, and of unconformity-type uranium deposits in particular, resides in the possibility to situate the critical ore-related processes in the context of the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions in the studied area. The present paper gives the results of laser step heating 40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic host-rock minerals, pre-ore and syn-ore alteration clay minerals, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U/Pb dating of uraninite from a number of basement- and sediment-hosted unconformity-related deposits in the Athabasca Basin, Canada. Post-peak metamorphic cooling during the Trans-Hudson Orogen of rocks from the basement occurred at ca 1,750 Ma and gives a maximum age for the formation of the overlying Athabasca Basin. Pre-ore alteration occurred simultaneously in both basement- and sandstone-hosted mineralizations at ca 1,675 Ma, as indicated by the 40Ar/39Ar dating of pre-ore alteration illite and chlorite. The uranium mineralization age is ca 1,590 Ma, given by LA-ICP-MS U/Pb dating of uraninite and 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-ore illite, and is the same throughout the basin and in both basement- and sandstone-hosted deposits. The mineralization event, older than previously proposed, as well as several fluid circulation events that subsequently affected all minerals studied probably correspond to far-field, continent-wide tectonic events such as the metamorphic events in Wyoming and the Mazatzal Orogeny (ca 1.6 to 1.5 Ga), the Berthoud Orogeny (ca 1.4 Ga), the emplacement of the McKenzie mafic dyke swarms (ca 1.27 Ga), the Grenville Orogeny (ca 1.15 to 1 Ga), and the assemblage and break-up of Rodinia (ca 1 to 0.85 Ga). The results of the present work underline the importance of basin evolution between ca 1.75 Ga (basin formation) and ca 1.59 Ga (ore deposition) for understanding the conditions necessary for the formation of unconformity

  19. NOTCH1, HIF1A and Other Cancer-Related Proteins in Lung Tissue from Uranium Miners—Variation by Occupational Exposure and Subtype of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Beate; Casjens, Swaantje; Stricker, Ingo; Westerwick, Daniela; Taeger, Dirk; Rabstein, Sylvia; Wiethege, Thorsten; Tannapfel, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Johnen, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Radon and arsenic are established pulmonary carcinogens. We investigated the association of cumulative exposure to these carcinogens with NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-specific proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners. Methodology/Principal Findings Paraffin-embedded tissue of 147 miners was randomly selected from an autopsy repository by type of lung tissue, comprising adenocarcinoma (AdCa), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and cancer-free tissue. Within each stratum, we additionally stratified by low or high level of exposure to radon or arsenic. Lifetime exposure to radon and arsenic was estimated using a quantitative job-exposure matrix developed for uranium mining. For 22 cancer-related proteins, immunohistochemical scores were calculated from the intensity and percentage of stained cells. We explored the associations of these scores with cumulative exposure to radon and arsenic with Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rs). Occupational exposure was associated with an up-regulation of NOTCH1 (radon rs = 0.18, 95% CI 0.02–0.33; arsenic: rs = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07–0.38). Moreover, we investigated whether these cancer-related proteins can classify lung cancer using supervised and unsupervised classification. MUC1 classified lung cancer from cancer-free tissue with a failure rate of 2.1%. A two-protein signature discriminated SCLC (HIF1A low), AdCa (NKX2-1 high), and SqCC (NKX2-1 low) with a failure rate of 8.4%. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the radiation-sensitive protein NOTCH1 can be up-regulated in lung tissue from uranium miners by level of exposure to pulmonary carcinogens. We evaluated a three-protein signature consisting of a physiological protein (MUC1), a cancer-specific protein (HIF1A), and a lineage-specific protein (NKX2-1) that could discriminate lung cancer and its major subtypes with a low failure rate. PMID:23028920

  20. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  1. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  2. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  3. Reaction mechanism for the replacement of calcite by dolomite and siderite: implications for geochemistry, microstructure and porosity evolution during hydrothermal mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Mark A.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Hough, Robert M.; Cleverley, James S.

    2013-10-01

    Carbonate reactions are common in mineral deposits due to CO2-rich mineralising fluids. This study presents the first in-depth, integrated analysis of microstructure and microchemistry of fluid-mediated carbonate reaction textures at hydrothermal conditions. In doing so, we describe the mechanisms by which carbonate phases replace one another, and the implications for the evolution of geochemistry, rock microstructures and porosity. The sample from the 1.95 Moz Junction gold deposit, Western Australia, contains calcite derived from carbonation of a metamorphic amphibole—plagioclase assemblage that has further altered to siderite and dolomite. The calcite is porous and contains iron-rich calcite blebs interpreted to have resulted from fluid-mediated replacement of compositionally heterogeneous amphiboles. The siderite is polycrystalline but nucleates topotactically on the calcite. As a result, the boundaries between adjacent grains are low-angle boundaries (<10°), which are geometrically similar to those formed by crystal-plastic deformation and recovery. Growth zoning within individual siderite grains shows that the low-angle boundaries are growth features and not due to deformation. Low-angle boundaries develop due to the propagation of defects at grain faces and zone boundaries and by impingement of grains that nucleated with small misorientations relative to each other during grain growth. The cores of siderite grains are aligned with the twin planes in the parent calcite crystal showing that the reactant Fe entered the crystal along the twin boundaries. Dolomite grains, many of which appear to in-fill space generated by the siderite replacement, also show alignment of cores along the calcite twin planes, suggesting that they did not grow into space but replaced the calcite. Where dolomite is seen directly replacing calcite, it nucleates on the Fe-rich calcite due to the increased compatibility of the Fe-bearing calcite lattice relative to the pure calcite

  4. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's tabulation of volcanogenic uranium deposits lists 100 deposits in 20 countries, with major deposits in Russia, Mongolia, and China. Collectively these deposits are estimated to contain uranium resources of approximately 500,000 tons of uranium, which amounts to 6 percent of the known global resources. Prior to the 1990s, these deposits were considered to be small (less than 10,000 tons of uranium) with relatively low to moderate grades (0.05 to 0.2 weight percent of uranium). Recent availability of information on volcanogenic uranium deposits in Asia highlighted the large resource potential of this deposit type. For example, the Streltsovskoye district in eastern Russia produced more than 100,000 tons of uranium as of 2005; with equivalent resources remaining. Known volcanogenic uranium deposits within the United States are located in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. These deposits produced an estimated total of 800 tons of uranium during mining from the 1950s through the 1970s and have known resources of 30,000 tons of uranium. The most recent estimate of speculative resources proposed an endowment of 200,000 tons of uranium.

  5. Tectonic controls on hydrothermal mineralisation in hot continental crust: Thermal modelling and spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, K.; Porwal, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits provide a record of excess energy flux and mass transfer in the Earth's lithosphere. The heterogeneous distribution of ore deposits in space and time provides a challenge to uniformitarian geodynamic and tectonic concepts, but unusual thermal and structural events often coincide with high mineral endowment. In the Australian Proterozoic continental backarcs and intracratonic rifts host large resources of base metals, gold, and uranium. We present thermal models and spatial analyses of mineral occurrences within the Mount Isa Inlier, an inverted Mesoproterozoic rift in northwest Queensland, Australia, to demonstrate how thermal structure, tectonic style and crustal scale fluid flow are related. In the Mount Isa Inlier, radiogenic heat production contributes significantly to present day surface heat flow, and Mesoproterozoic geotherms of 40°C km-1 in the upper crust can be inferred from lithosphere-scale conductive models. The combination of thick continental crust and high temperatures implies that localization of deformation was limited to a thin upper crustal layer. During rifting mid-crustal rocks intruded by syn-extensional granites were exhumed as metamorphic core complexes in strike-parallel linear basement belts. The resulting horizontal strength contrast between sedimentary basins and shallow basement domains became a focus for deformation during subsequent crustal shortening. Our spatial analysis of mineral occurrences demonstrates that epigenetic copper mineralization at Mount Isa correlates positively with steep fault zones bounding linear basement domains, and granites within these domains. Mineralization potential is greatly increased, because high permeability along steep fault zones enables hydrothermal fluid flow between magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary reservoirs. We argue that the deformation behavior of hot continental lithosphere generates a favorable environment for hydrothermal mineralization by linking shallow

  6. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOEpatents

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  7. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  8. The Kohuamuri siliceous sinter as a vector for epithermal mineralisation, Coromandel Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Ayrton; Campbell, Kathleen; Rowland, Julie; Browne, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Kohuamuri siliceous sinter is the largest known fossil hot-spring system in the Hauraki Goldfield, a 200 × 40 km volcanic terrain with at least 50 adularia-illite epithermal deposits formed 16.3-5.6 Ma within the Coromandel Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. The sinter is associated with rhyolite and ignimbrite of the Whitianga Caldera (Miocene-Pliocene) and consists of two deposits, the Kohuamuri deposit itself, a large in situ outcrop (47,000 m2) and its associated sinter boulder field (4500 m2), and the Kaitoke deposit 900 m to the southwest, comprising boulders in a landslide situated on a normal fault. The well-preserved macroscopic and microscopic textures at Kohuamuri are similar to actively forming and ancient hot-spring deposits elsewhere, derived from deep circulating, magmatically heated, near-neutral pH alkali chloride fluids oversaturated in amorphous silica and that discharge at the Earth's surface at ≤100 °C. Lithofacies, petrography, mineralogy, as well as trace element concentrations of the Kohuamuri/Kaitoke deposits were used to locate likely palaeo-thermal conduits from the deep reservoir and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental setting of the siliceous sinter as an aid to assessing the economic potential of the ancient geothermal system. Both deposits contain the high-temperature (>75 °C) geyserite lithofacies, with the Kohuamuri deposit also exhibiting textures affiliated with cooler middle and distal sinter apron areas, as well as geothermally influenced marsh facies. Trace element analysis of sinter lithofacies revealed concentrations and zonations of Au, Ag, base metals (Pb, Cu, Zn) and pathfinder elements (As, Sb) associated with epithermal deposits, elevated in the proximal vent area, and providing evidence of possible Au and Ag ore mineralisation at depth. The methodology used in this study could be utilised globally to identify and assess as yet unidentified epithermal deposits.

  9. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E.; Kim, Jong Ryul; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the nonclassical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 hours after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  10. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E; Kim, Jong R; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2010-09-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 h after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  11. Constraints on the development of orogenic style gold mineralisation at Mineral de Talca, Coastal Range, central Chile: evidence from a combined structural, mineralogical, S and Pb isotope and geochronological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firth, Emily A.; Holwell, David A.; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.; Mortensen, James K.; Rovardi, Matthew P.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2015-08-01

    the mineralisation. However, the significant amounts of base metals and the moderate salinity of some of the fluids and the proximity to felsic granitoid intrusions have raised the possibility of an intrusion-related origin for the mineralisation. Vein sulphides display S isotope signatures (δ34S +2.1 to +4.3 ‰) that are intermediate between the host rock metasediments (δ34S +5.3 to +7.5 ‰) and the local granitoids (δ34S +1.3 to +1.4 ‰), indicating a distinct crustal source of some of the S in the veins and possibly a mixed magmatic-crustal S source. The local granite and granodiorite give U-Pb zircon ages of 219.6 ± 1 and 221.3 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Lead isotopic compositions of galena in the veins are consistent, suggesting derivation from a homogeneous source. Differences, however, between the isotopic signatures of the veins and igneous feldspars from nearby intrusions imply that these bodies were not the source of the metals though an igneous source from depth cannot be discounted. The Triassic age of the granitoids is consistent with emplacement during regional crustal extension, with the El Teniente Fault formed as an easterly dipping normal fault. The change to a compressional regime in the mid-Jurassic caused reactivation of the El Teniente Fault as a strike-slip fault and provided a structural setting suitable for orogenic style mineralisation. The intrusions may, however, have provided a structural competency contrast that focused the mineralising fluids in a dilational jog along the El Teniente Fault to form WNW-trending veins. As such, the mineralisation is classified as orogenic style, and the identification of the key mineralogical, isotopic and structural features has implications for exploration and the development of similar deposits along the Coastal Range.

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Issues Related to Uranium Mining and Tailings Management in Continuous Permafrost Zones in Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Booshehrian, A.; Wan, R.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the potential environmental effects of a uranium mining and tailings management project in northern Canada, numerical simulations have been conducted on the Kiggavik project to investigate the issues of permafrost degradation, mine pit floor heave and slope deformation, and potential inflow into the mine pits during mining and tailings disposition. The project includes the development of three open pit mines, the Main Zone, the Centre Zone, and the East Zone at the Kiggavik site, and an open pit mine and an underground mine at the Sissons site. The mined ore will be milled at the Kiggavik site and the mill tailings will be disposed back into the three open pits at Kiggavik. The mining and milling operation of the project will last about 15 to 20 years. Permafrost at the Kiggavik site extends between 220 m to 240 m below ground surface, while permafrost at the Sissons site ranges from 260 m to 280 m below ground surface. The centre zone and the east zone will be excavated within permafrost, while the main zone and the open pit at Sissons will penetrate the permafrost layer. A high artesian pressure due to the permafrost constraint was measured at both Kiggavik and Sissons sites, and was found to be higher than the ground surface. The results of numerical simulations on the behavior of the continuous permafrost layer indicate that permafrost degradation around the pits or tailings management facilities is not significant during mine operation. No open talik would form below the excavated area as a result of depositing warm tailings in both East Zone and Centre Zone pits. A thin thawed zone of 3 to 5 m on the side of Centre Zone pit is developed, while the thawed area at the bottom of the pit extends to a depth of 10 to 15 m. For the Main Zone, where the excavation breaks through the permafrost, an open talik would remain following the operation period. The warm tailings would cause a 20 m thick thawed zone along the lower sides of the pit. With

  13. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  14. Uranium price forecasting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.

  15. Uranium bioassay--beyond urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Karpas, Z

    2001-10-01

    Assessment of occupational or environmental exposure to uranium compounds is largely based on urinalysis. However, urine samples generally reflect either recent exposure (within a few days after an incident) or chronic exposure and, furthermore, diurnal fluctuations in "spot samples" make it difficult to estimate the extent of the internal dose received. Thus, if urine samples are not collected within a relatively short time after accidental exposure or if the samples are not representative due to collection logistics, internal dosimetry calculations based only on urinalysis may be misleading. With the advent of efficient and sensitive methods for determination of uranium in hair and nails, some of these drawbacks may be overcome. It is proposed that with little additional cost, determination of the uranium in hair may yield better insights for internal dosimetry of uranium exposure. PMID:11569642

  16. Application of airborne LiDAR to the detailed geological mapping of mineralised terrain: the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebby, S.; Cunningham, D.; Naden, J.; Tansey, K.

    2009-04-01

    The identification of mineral prospects is highly dependent upon the acquisition and synthesis of a wide variety of geological information, e.g., lithological, structural, geophysical and geochemical data. Conventionally, the majority of this information is acquired through field-based surveys. However, the quality of data collected in this manner is often affected by subjectivity and lack of detail due to coarse sampling over vast areas or inaccessible terrain. Both multi- and hyperspectral satellite remote sensing and the interpretation of aerial photography are typically used to help try and overcome some of the limitations associated with field-based surveys. However, the use of these approaches for the extraction of exploration data can be hindered by spatial and spectral limitations and by dense forest cover. A relatively new active remote sensing technology—known as airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR)—offers the possibility of acquiring accurate and high-resolution (ca. 1-4 m) topographic data through dense forest cover. The ability of LiDAR systems to detect multiple returns from the emission of a single laser pulse can be utilised to generate a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the ground beneath the forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR is an important tool for geoscience research, with a wide spectrum of applications including the mapping of landslides and faults to help inform hazard assessment studies. A LiDAR system can also provide an insight into the spectral and textural properties of surface materials using intensity data—a ratio of the reflected laser energy to the emitted laser energy. Where rocks outcrop, these properties are linked to the surface mineralogy and weathering at the LiDAR footprint scale. The ability to acquire two high-resolution datasets simultaneously from a single survey makes airborne LiDAR an attractive tool for the extraction of detailed geological information in terrain with either sparse or dense

  17. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  18. Hydrocarbon-mediated gold and uranium concentration in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Williams-Jones, Anthony; Schumann, Dirk; Couillard, Martin; Murray, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The Witwatersrand deposits in South Africa represent the largest repository of gold in the World and a major resource of uranium. The genesis of the gold and uranium ores in the quartz-pebble conglomerates (reefs), however, is still a matter of considerable discussion. Opinion has been divided over whether they represent paleo-placers that have been partly remobilised by hydrothermal fluids or if the mineralisation is entirely hydrothermal in origin. In addition, recently published models have proposed a syngenetic origin for the gold involving bacterially-mediated precipitation from meteoric water and shallow seawater. An important feature of the gold and uranium mineralisation in the reefs is the strong spatial association with organic matter. In some reefs, up to 70% of the gold and almost the entire uranium resource is spatially associated with pyrobitumen seams, suggesting a genetic relationship of the gold-uranium mineralisation with hydrocarbons. Here we report results of a study of the Carbon Leader Reef, using high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM / TEM) and LA-ICP-MS that provide new insights into the role of hydrocarbons in the concentration of the gold and uranium. A detailed examination revealed gold monocrystals containing numerous rounded or elliptical inclusions filled with pyrobitumen. We interpret these inclusions to record the crystallisation of the gold around droplets of a hydrocarbon liquid that migrated through the Witwatersrand basin, and was converted to pyrobitumen by being heated. We propose that the gold was transported in a hydrothermal fluid as a bisulphide complex and that this fluid mixed with the hydrocarbon liquid to form a water-oil emulsion. The interaction between the two fluids caused a sharp reduction in fO2 at the water-oil interface, which destabilised the gold-bisulphide complexes, causing gold monocrystals to precipitate around the oil droplets. In contrast to the gold, uraninite, the principal

  19. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  20. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  1. The calculated solubility of platinum and gold in oxygen-saturated fluids and the genesis of platinum-palladium and gold mineralization in the unconformity-related uranium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaireth, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations on the solubility of platinum and gold indicate that saline (1 m NaCl), fluids saturated with atmospheric oxygen can transport geologically realistic concentrations of platinum-group-elements (PGE), gold, and uranium as chloro-complexes. A number of calculations involving fluid-rock interaction suggest that the oxygen-saturated fluids flowing through rocks containing quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, magnetite and hematite, initially oxidize any magnetite to hematite, allowing subsequent batches of ore fluids to retain their high oxidation state. During their migration through the aquifer, the oxidizing fluids would move the oxidation-reduction interface deeper into the aquifer, leaching and redepositing platinum and gold. The redissolution of earlier precipitated platinum and gold depends on the fluid/ rock ratio and the associated increase in the oxidation state. Therefore, lowering of fluid/rock ratios and/or mixing of the oxidized fluids with a large amount of reduced fluid will precipitate uranium, PGE, and gold. It is suggested that this model can explain the genesis of gold and PGE mineralization in the unconformity-related uranium deposits of the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the Northern Territory, Australia.

  2. Accounting for smoking in the radon-related lung cancer risk among German uranium miners: results of a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schnelzer, Maria; Hammer, Gaël P; Kreuzer, Michaela; Tschense, Annemarie; Grosche, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The possible confounding effect of smoking on radon-associated risk for lung cancer mortality was investigated in a case-control study nested in the cohort of German uranium miners. The study included 704 miners who died of lung cancer and 1,398 controls matched individually for birth year and attained age. Smoking status was reconstructed from questionnaires and records from the mining company's health archives for 421 cases and 620 controls. Data on radon exposure were taken from a job-exposure matrix. Smoking adjusted odds ratios for lung cancer in relation to cumulative radon exposure have been calculated with conditional logistic regression. The increase in risk per Working Level Month (WLM) was assessed with a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model taking smoking into account as a multiplicative factor. In addition, the potential impact of temporal factors on the ERR per WLM was examined. Lung cancer mortality risk increased with increasing radon exposure, yielding a crude ERR per WLM of 0.25% (95% CI: 0.13-0.46%). Adjustment for smoking led only to marginal changes of the radon-associated lung cancer risks. The adjusted ERR per WLM was very similar (0.23%, 95%-CI: 0.11-0.46%) to the crude risk and to the risk found in the Wismut cohort study. This stability of the radon-related lung cancer risks with and without adjustment for smoking suggests that smoking does not act as a major confounder in this study and presumably also not in the cohort study. PMID:19959947

  3. Uranium and plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, Y.; Meason, J.L.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1983-04-20

    Uranium 234 and 235 were found to be highly enriched relative to uranium 238 in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of April and May 1980. The anomalous uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada on January 24, 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The concentration of /sup 238/U in rain increased markedly after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, and it appeared as if a large quantity of natural uranium was injected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption. The pattern of variation of the concentrations of uranium in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

  4. Photochemical mineralisation in a humic boreal lake: temporal variability and contribution to carbon dioxide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, M. M.; Tranvik, L. J.; Koehler, B.

    2015-10-01

    Sunlight induces photochemical mineralisation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in inland waters, resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. Photochemical rate modelling is used to determine sunlight-induced CO2 emissions on large spatial and temporal scales. A sensitive model parameter is the wavelength-specific photochemical CDOM reactivity, the apparent quantum yield (AQY). The modelling studies so far assume that AQY spectra determined for single lakes and on single occasions represent larger spatial and temporal scales. Here, we studied a humic boreal lake in Sweden. We measured AQY spectra for photochemical DIC production monthly between June and November 2014 and parameterised a photochemical rate model. Photochemical reactivity increased slightly during the open water period, likely due to a high rainfall event with consecutive mixing in autumn that increased availability of highly photoreactive CDOM. However, the variability in AQY spectra over time was much smaller than previously reported variability in AQY spectra across lakes. Yet, using either the AQY spectrum from the least or from the most photoreactive water sample resulted in a 5-fold difference in simulated annual DIC photoproduction (2.0 ± 0.1 and 10.3 ± 0.7 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively). Using the monthly measured AQY spectrum to simulate DIC photoproduction for month-long time periods resulted in an apparent time lag between irradiance and DIC photoproduction. This suggested that temporal variability in AQY spectra occurs on shorter time scales. Therefore, we parameterised the model with the pooled AQY spectrum of six monthly measurements. Simulated DIC photoproduction for three years (2012-2014) averaged 4.5 ± 0.2 g C m-2 yr-1, which represented 3 % of the mean CO2 emissions from this lake. We conclude that (1) it may be recommendable to conduct repeated AQY measurements across the season for more accurate simulation of

  5. Mineralisation of collagen rich soft tissues and osteocyte lacunae in Enpp1−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajjawi, Mark O.R.; MacRae, Vicky E.; Huesa, Carmen; Boyde, Alan; Millán, José Luis; Arnett, Timothy R.; Orriss, Isabel R.

    2014-01-01

    Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) hydrolyse nucleotide triphosphates to the corresponding nucleotide monophosphates and the mineralisation inhibitor, pyrophosphate (PPi). This study examined the role of NPP1 in osteocytes, osteoclasts and cortical bone, using a mouse model lacking NPP1 (Enpp1−/−). We used microcomputed tomography (μCT) to investigate how NPP1 deletion affects cortical bone structure; excised humerus bones from 8, 15 and 22-week old mice were scanned at 0.9 μm. Although no changes were evident in the cortical bone of 8-week old Enpp1−/− mice, significant differences were observed in older animals. Cortical bone volume was decreased 28% in 22-week Enpp1−/− mice, whilst cortical porosity was reduced 30% and 60% at 15 and 22-weeks, respectively. This was accompanied by up to a 15% decrease in closed pore diameter and a 55% reduction in the number of pores. Cortical thickness was reduced up to 35% in 15 and 22-week Enpp1−/− animals and the endosteal diameter was increased up to 23%. Thus, the cortical bone from Enpp1−/− mice was thinner and less porous, with a larger marrow space. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a decrease in the size and number of blood vessel channels in the cortical bone as well as a 40% reduction in the mean plan area of osteocyte lacunae. We noted that the number of viable osteocytes isolated from the long bones of Enpp1−/− mice was decreased ≤ 50%. In contrast, osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were unaffected by NPP1 deletion. μCT and histological analysis of Enpp1−/− mice also revealed calcification of the joints and vertebrae as well as soft tissues including the whisker follicles, ear pinna and trachea. This calcification worsened as the animals aged. Together, these data highlight the key role of NPP1 in regulating calcification of both soft and skeletal tissues. PMID:25260930

  6. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  7. Ailing uranium millworkers seek recognition, aid

    SciTech Connect

    Ambler, M.

    1980-09-05

    Uranium millworkers who helped produce uranium for the U.S. nuclear defense program in the 1950's and 1960's are suing the federal government and uranium companies for compensation for illnesses that they believe are job-related. Symptoms of these illnesses include frequent blackouts, chronic bronchitis, asthma, constant fatigue, and susceptibility to colds. Research is being conducted to determine whether the millworkers' symptoms are due to excessive radiation exposure. Studies to date indicated that during the 1950's and early 1960's, radiation protection procedures at uranium milling facilities were extremely deficient. (2 photos)

  8. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOEpatents

    DeVol, Timothy A.; Hixon, Amy E.; DiPrete, David P.

    2012-03-13

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  9. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry is a compendium of information relating to US uranium reserves and potential resources and to exploration, mining, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1981. The statistics are based primarily on data provided voluntarily by the uranium exploration, mining, and milling companies. The compendium has been published annually since 1968 and reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) of the US Department of Energy. The production, reserves, and drilling information is reported in a manner which avoids disclosure of proprietary information.

  10. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  11. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  12. On the role of the central nervous system in regulating the mineralisation of inner-ear otoliths of fish.

    PubMed

    Anken, Ralf H

    2006-12-01

    Stato- or otoliths are calcified structures in the organ of balance and equilibrium of vertebrates, the inner ear, where they enhance its sensitivity to gravity. The compact otoliths of fish are composed of the calcium carbonate polymorph aragonite and a small fraction of organic molecules. The latter form a protein skeleton which determines the morphology of an otolith as well as its crystal lattice structure. This short review addresses findings according to which the brain obviously plays a prominent role in regulating the mineralisation of fish otoliths and depends on the gravity vector. Overall, otolith mineralisation has thus been identified to be a unique, neuronally guided biomineralisation process. The following is a hypothetical model for regulation of calcification by efferent vestibular neurons: (1) release of calcium at tight junctions in the macular epithelia, (2) macular carbonic anhydrase activity (which in turn is responsible for carbonate deposition), (3) chemical composition of matrix proteins. The rationale and evidence that support this model are discussed. PMID:17180502

  13. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  14. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  16. Reprocessed uranium exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Jacob, Sophie; Cardis, Elisabeth; Wild, Pascal; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the risk of lung cancer in regards to protracted occupational exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds. Two thousand seven hundred and nine male workers employed at the AREVA NC uranium processing plant between 1960 and 2005 in France were included in the cohort. Historical exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds classified by their solubility type was assessed on the basis of the plant's specific job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for attained age, calendar period, and socioeconomic status were used to estimate relative risks in regards of each type of uranium compound. The relative risk of lung cancer tended to increase with decreasing solubility of reprocessed uranium compounds. The highest-though not statistically significant-relative risk was observed among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium dioxide. This study is the first suggesting an increasing risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to reprocessed uranium. Our results are consistent with data from experimental studies of biokinetics and the action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium compounds, but need to be confirmed in larger studies with more detailed dose-response analyses. PMID:20699691

  17. Spatial distribution and compositional variation of APS minerals related to uranium deposits in the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, Thomas; Quirt, Dave; Beaufort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend consists of four mineralized zones, partially outcropping, lying 2 km south of the erosional contact with the unmetamorphosed sandstone and basal conglomerates of the Paleoproterozoic Thelon Formation. The mineralization is controlled by a major E-W fault system associated with illite and sudoite alteration halos developed in the Archean metagraywackes of the Woodburn Lake Group. Aluminum phosphate sulfate (APS) minerals from the alunite group crystallized in association with the clay minerals in the basement alteration halo as well as in the overlying sandstones, which underwent mostly diagenesis. APS minerals are Sr- and S-rich (svanbergite end-member) in the sedimentary cover overlying the unconformity, whereas they are light rare earth elements (LREE)-rich (florencite end-member) in the altered basement rocks below the unconformity. The geochemical signature of each group of APS minerals together with the petrography indicates three distinct generations of APS minerals related to the following: (1) paleoweathering of continental surfaces prior to the basin occurrence, (2) diagenetic processes during the burial history of the lower unit of the Thelon sandstones, and (3) hydrothermal alteration processes which accompanied the uranium deposition in the basement rocks and partially overlap the sedimentary-diagenetic mineral parageneses. In addition, the association of a first generation of APS minerals with both detrital cerium oxide and aluminum oxy-hydroxide highlights the fact that a part of the detrital material of the basal Thelon Formation originated from eroded paleolaterite (allochthonous regolith). The primary rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals (e.g., monazite, REE carbonates, and allanite) of the host rocks were characterized to identify the potential sources of REE. The REE chemical composition highlights a local re-incorporation of the REE released from the alteration processes in the APS minerals of

  18. Metal fractionation of cadmium, lead and arsenic of geogenic origin in topsoils from the Marrancos gold mineralisation, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, A P; Patinha, C; Ferreira da Silva, E; Sousa, A J

    2012-04-01

    The Marrancos gold mineralisation has a chemical assemblage of Fe-As-Se-Bi-Au-Ag-Te-(Cu-Pb-Zn-Sn-W). The -200 mesh of 144 topsoil samples was analysed by ICP-MS to determine total contents of 53 elements that include potentially harmful elements like Cd, As and Pb. The soil geochemistry shows that some trace elements occur in considerably high concentrations. On the basis of data for total metal concentrations, 10 topsoil samples were selected to carry out a metal fractionation study using a selective extraction method. A set of four leaches of increasing strength was used sequentially in the soil samples. Across the study area, there is some evidence of past mining and exploration activity, indicating that these soils may be locally disturbed. The shallow mineralised quartz veins were exploited for gold by the Romans. Several galleries were constructed during the 2nd World War, probably for the exploration of quartz-cassiterite-wolframite veins. However, the main mineralised body in depth was never explored. The results of metal fractionation show different partitions for the three elements. Total Cd concentrations in these soils are low, with a median value of 0.1 mg/kg. In average, 12% of total Cd is adsorbed by clays and/or co-precipitated with carbonates, and 19% is bounded to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. However, the low concentrations indicate that the metal does not represent an immediate risk to human health. For Pb, metal fractionation shows that, on average, 22% of Pb is adsorbed by amorphous Fe and Mn oxides, but the samples from the northern part of the area have the major fractions of Pb in soluble forms. The low probability of exposure in this part of the study area decreases the risk posed by this heavy metal. Total As concentrations in the Marrancos soils are extremely high. A large area has As concentrations above 1,000 mg/kg. For As, metal fractions in the sulphide phase vary between 84 and 98% in the studied samples. But one sample has 20% of total As

  19. Geology and geochemistry of high-grade, volcanic rock-hosted, mercury mineralisation in the Nuevo Entredicho deposit, Almadén district, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jébrak, Michel; Higueras, Pablo L.; Marcoux, Éric; Lorenzo, Saturnino

    2002-06-01

    The Nuevo Entredicho deposit contains the richest concentration of mercury in the Almadén district, locally grading as much as 45% Hg. This ore deposit is hosted within an alkaline, conically shaped diatreme, about 150 m in diameter, which was subsequently filled with phreatomagmatic breccias. The diatreme cuts an Ordovician to Silurian clastic sedimentary rock sequence that is intercalated with basaltic sills. Structural analysis reveals a complex tectonic history with three main phases of Hercynian deformation. Mineralisation occurs as cinnabar replacements in volcanic tuffs and breccias and as recrystallised veins in tensions cracks associated with pyrophyllite and hydrothermal pyrite, which is strongly enriched in Cu, Pb and Hg. Lead isotopes in pyrite are characterised by high 207Pb/204Pb ratios (15.70-15.75), suggesting a contribution of ancient upper continental crust remobilised by Silurian-Devonian volcanism, with no mantle involvement. Sulphur isotopes of epigenetic cinnabar and pyrite range from +10.3 to +10.8‰ and from +10.6 to +11.9‰ respectively, suggesting a uniform sulphur source or a constant mixing ratio in the ore fluids. These isotopic compositions differ from those measured in the syngenetic deposits of the Almadén district; they suggest a higher temperature of ore formation of about 300 °C, and a genesis related to a distinct hydrothermal flow path at the Nuevo Entredicho deposit. Deposition of anomalously high-grade mercury ore at Nuevo Entredicho is related to a combination of (1) an abundance of black shale that provided sulphur and increasingly reducing conditions with high sulphide/sulphate ratios, (2) explosive Silurian-Devonian mafic magmatism that provided an initial source of mercury, (3) tectonic activity that lead to structurally favourable sites for ore deposition, and (4) replacement of secondary, carbonate-rich volcanic rocks.

  20. Metasomatic silicate chemistry at the Bayan Obo Fe REE Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: Contrasting chemistry and evolution of fenitising and mineralising fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Fenite aureoles around carbonatite dykes, and alteration associated with Fe-REE-Nb ore bodies at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China, show alkali silicate assemblages containing aegirine-augite, (magnesio-)riebeckite, (magnesio-)arfvedsonite, and phlogopite, accompanied by varying amounts of apatite, albite and quartz. In both fenites and orebodies simple thermodynamic constraints indicate mineral parageneses are consistent with rock buffered cooling accompanied by the infiltration of a range of externally buffered hydrothermal fluids. Statistical analysis of amphibole chemistry indicates that even in apparently texturally well constrained paragenetic stages wide variations in chemistry occur in both the ore bodies and fenites. Much of this variation is attributable to the Mg and F content of amphibole, and is therefore interpreted as a result of variation in externally controlled variables ( P, T, initial fluid composition) rather than internally controlled variables such as protolith composition. Similarities in chemistry exist between fenite and some ore body amphiboles. Thermodynamic analysis of the composition of biotite and apatite allows constraints to be placed on the F-content of hydrothermal fluids, and indicates relatively consistent compositions in fenites and orebodies (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 3.8 to - 3.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). Amphibole and biotite associated with niobate mineralization are both enriched in fluorine relative to the rest of the paragenesis, and biotite compositions indicate significantly higher HF activities in the hydrothermal fluid (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 2.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). The data presented here reinforce previous interpretations of the complex, multistage nature of mineralisation at Bayan Obo, but are still consistent with a direct involvement of carbonatite derived fluids during ore genesis.

  1. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  2. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  3. A spectroscopic study of uranium(VI) interaction with magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamrani, S. El; Giménez, J.; Rovira, M.; Seco, F.; Grivé, M.; Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; de Pablo, J.

    2007-08-01

    The uranium sorbed onto commercial magnetite has been characterized by using two different spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Magnetite samples have been put in contact with uranium(VI) solutions in conditions in which a high uranium uptake is expected. After several days, the magnetite surface has been analysed by XPS and EXAFS. The XPS results obtained are not conclusive regarding the uranium oxidation state in the magnetite surface. On the other hand, the results obtained with the EXAFS technique show that the uranium-magnetite sample spectrum has characteristics from both the UO 2 and schoepite spectra, e.g. a relatively high coordination number of equatorial oxygens and two axial oxygens, respectively. These results would indicate that the uranium sorbed onto magnetite would be a mixture of uranium(IV) and uranium(VI).

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  5. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  6. Reconnaissance for uranium in asphalt-bearing rocks in the western states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William James, Jr.

    1955-01-01

    Evaluation of field data indicates that naturally occurring asphalts with a relatively high uranium content probably originated in, or migrated through, rocks that contain more than average amounts of uranium. It is believed that some of the uranium was present as an original constituent of the oil but that some uranium may have been introduced during migration of the oil.

  7. Carbonate dykes associated with Arch˦an lode-Au mineralisation, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, L. W.; Ward, J. H. W.; Horstmann, U. E.; Jordaan, L. J.; Eaton, B.

    2000-02-01

    Carbonate dykes, exposed within the Barberton greenstone belt, display geochemical signatures similar to altered carbonatite. The trace element signature normalised to primordial mantle, and the chondrite-normalised REE trends of the Ulundi Dyke display geochemical similarities to carbonatites. In addition, stable isotope results from the Ulundi Dyke (δ13Cwhole rock and δ18Owhole rock range from -3.7 to -4.9‰ and 12.8 to 13.2‰, respectively) are similar to values found for samples of wall rock and vein carbonate from Arch˦an Au-quartz-carbonate-sulphide vein systems studied in the Barberton greenstone belt. Although the data do not plot in the field of primary igneous carbonatite, they are similar to data of deuterically-altered carbonatite. These associations strengthen the deduction that Iode-Au mineralised fractures and shear zones in the Barberton greenstone belt were open to mantle-tapping fundamental faults.

  8. Soluble factors produced by PC-3 prostate cells decrease collagen content and mineralisation rate in fetal rat osteoblasts in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Santibáñez, J. F.; Silva, S.; Martínez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 70% of patients with prostate cancer develop bone metastases in the advanced state of the disease. In the present study, we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factors that inhibit the mineralisation process in vitro, decreasing the content of type I collagen in rat fetal calvaria osteoblasts. We investigated the capacity of conditioned media (CM) from the human prostatic tumour cell line PC-3 to inhibit the expression of the differentiation programme on osteoblasts in culture, with a primary focus on type I collagen synthesis and degradation. Our results show that PC-3 CM inhibits collagen synthesis and stimulates the production of interstitial collagenase from osteoblasts. A consequential decrease in the content of immunoreactive type I collagen was observed. We have previously demonstrated that PC-3 CM blocks osteoblast differentiation in culture. We propose that under the effect of factors present in PC-3 CM, osteoblastic cells retain the undifferentiated phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8695358

  9. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  10. Effects of long-term alendronate treatment on bone mineralisation, resorption parameters and biomechanics of single human vertebral trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Krause, M; Soltau, M; Zimmermann, E A; Hahn, M; Kornet, J; Hapfelmeier, A; Breer, S; Morlock, M; Wulff, B; Püschel, K; Glueer, C-C; Amling, M; Busse, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-established fracture risk reduction, bisphosphonates are the most frequently used therapeutic agent to treat osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk by suppressing bone resorption, but the lower bone turnover could have a negative impact on bone quality at the tissue level. Here, we directly assess the structural and mechanical characteristics of cancellous bone from the lumbar vertebrae (L5) in non-treated osteoporotic controls (n=21), mid-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n=6), and long-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n=7). The strength and toughness of single trabeculae were evaluated, while the structure was characterised through measurements of microdamage accumulation, mineralisation distribution, and histological indices. The alendronate-treated cases had a reduced eroded surface (ES/BS, p<0.001) and a higher bone mineralisation in comparison to non-treated controls (p=0.037), which is indicative of low turnover associated with treatment. However, the amount of microdamage and the mechanical properties were similar among the control and treatment groups. As the tissue mineral density (TMD) increased significantly with alendronate treatment compared to non-treated osteoporotic controls, the reduction in resorption cavities could counterbalance the higher TMD allowing the alendronate-treated bone to maintain its mechanical properties and resist microdamage accumulation. A multivariate analysis of the possible predictors supports the theory that multiple factors (e.g., body mass index, TMD, and ES/BS) can impact the mechanical properties. Our results suggest that long-term alendronate treatment shows no adverse impact on mechanical cancellous bone characteristics. PMID:25241965

  11. Modelling the role of graphite in development of a mineralised mid-crustal shear zone, Macraes mine, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Phaedra; Craw, Dave

    2008-02-01

    The Hyde-Macraes Shear Zone (HMSZ) is a mineralised low-angle shear within the Otago Schist traceable for ˜ 30 km with a NW strike. It is being actively mined along 12 km of this strike, producing > 6 Moz of gold. The shear zone formed under lower greenschist facies conditions as the host schist was uplifted through the brittle-ductile transition. Sheared rocks consist of greenschist facies schists with mineralogy only subtly different from that of the host schist. Pervasive fluid flow has occurred along grain boundaries and within microshears whose development has been enhanced by the deposition of hydrothermal graphite. We model the development of these microshears using a three-dimensional numerical code. For an inhomogeneous initial rock with lithostatic fluid pressures and a dynamic permeability deformed under dextral non-coaxial flow, deformation is distributed into weak shear bands. Graphite deposition and associated reaction-softening have a dramatic effect on the development of model shear zones. Graphite is deposited into a shear band, weakening it and further localising the deformation into that shear band, producing an anastomosing and interconnected shear zone structure such as observed in the HMSZ. The degrees of graphite precipitation and graphite-induced weakening are varied in the models. Graphite precipitation with a low degree of reaction-softening results in more diffuse shear bands. In contrast less graphite deposition but with a high degree of reaction-softening leads to the development of more focused shear bands. Graphite deposition has clearly controlled the formation of the HMSZ structure, and is an important indicator of potentially mineralised mid-crustal structures elsewhere.

  12. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  13. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  14. DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

  15. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  16. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  17. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  18. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  19. Uranium Distribution along the Salinity Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.; Seo, J.; Lee, J.; Chung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium distribution has been examined in the estuarine waters of the Keum River, Korea. Water samples were collected along a salinity gradient, range from 0.2 to 31.5 psu. Dissolved uranium in the samples has been extracted by C-18 SPE cartridge after pre-treatment. Extraction of uranium by C-18 cartridge after complexation with APDC/DDDC shows about 90 % recovery. After concentration of sample onto C-18 cartridge, uranium complex has been sequentially extracted by 50 % and 100 % acetonitrile, respectively. Result shows good recovery efficiency at low pH (2.5 _ 3.0) during the pre-treatment of sample which was presumably related with destabilization of uranium-carbonate complex. In the estuary, uranium shows typical conservative behavior along the salinity gradient. The current result substantiates earlier reports that uranium is conservatively transported from the river to the ocean. Most of dissolved trace metals, except cadmium, decreased with increasing salinity in the estuary. Dissolved organic carbon also decreased along the salinity gradient. Copper was rapidly removed during the mixing with seawaters as a result of organic matter flocculation. Dissolved molybdenum, vanadium and uranium distribution in the estuary showed similarities that those concentration increase along the salinity gradient.

  20. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

    1959-08-01

    A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

  1. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  2. Zeolite shape selectivity in the uptake of uranium from solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, C.W.; Szostak, R.; Cleare, K.

    1996-12-31

    Various synthetic zeolites (KL, LZY, 13X, and mordenite), as well as a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) were evaluated for the uptake of uranium from solution. Mordenite, LZY and KL were most effective for uranium uptake. The relative effectiveness of the zeolites was a function of their pore dimensions, chemical compositions and cation concentration. Mordenite showed superior performance to a clay-soil for uranium uptake. With time, initially sorbed uranium later re-dissolve from the clay, but remained anchored in the matrix of the zeolite. Mordenite therefore demonstrated potential for use as an in situ trap for preventing uranium migration in soils.

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the evaluation of low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion fuel for use in non-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion plate-type fuels have been extensively researched and developed under the international program, Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors. The international effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States. This evaluation is based primarily on reports issued by ANL that discuss and summarize the developmental tests and experiments, including postirradiation examinations, of both miniature and full-sized plates of prototypical fuel compositions. This evaluation concludes that plate-type fuels suitable and acceptable for use in research and test reactors can be fabricated with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al dispersion compacts with uranium densities up to 4.8 g/cm/sup 3/. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  5. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  6. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  7. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  8. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  9. Tetravalent uranium in calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N. C.; Antonio, M. R.; Soderholm, L.; Sutton, S. R.; Brannon, J. C.; Univ. of Chicago; Washington Univ.

    1998-08-14

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of 35-million-year-old calcite from a Mississippi Valley-type zinc ore deposit indicate substitution of tetravalent uranium for divalent calcium. Thus, tetravalent uranium has a stable location in calcite deposited under reducing conditions. This result validates uranium-series dating methods (including uranium/lead dating) for ancient calcite and shows that calcite provides a sink for uranium in deep groundwater aquifers and anoxic lacustrine and marine basins.

  10. Tetravalent uranium in calcite

    PubMed

    Sturchio; Antonio; Soderholm; Sutton; Brannon

    1998-08-14

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of 35-million-year-old calcite from a Mississippi Valley-type zinc ore deposit indicate substitution of tetravalent uranium for divalent calcium. Thus, tetravalent uranium has a stable location in calcite deposited under reducing conditions. This result validates uranium-series dating methods (including uranium/lead dating) for ancient calcite and shows that calcite provides a sink for uranium in deep groundwater aquifers and anoxic lacustrine and marine basins. PMID:9703507

  11. PROCESS FOR SEGREGATING URANIUM FROM PLUTONIUM AND FISSION-PRODUCT CONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, C.V.; Runion, T.C.

    1961-06-27

    An aqueous nitric acid solution containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values is contacted with an organic extractant comprised of a trialkyl phosphate and an organic diluent. The relative amounts of trialkyl phosphate and uranium values are controlled to achieve a concentration of uranium values in the organic extractant of at least 0.35 moles uranium per mole of trialkyl phosphate, thereby preferentially extracting uranium values into the organic extractant.

  12. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  13. SAB report: Radionuclides in drinking water. Review of the Office of Drinking Water`s criteria documents and related reports for uranium, radon, and man-made beta-gamma emitters by the radiation advisory committee

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    EPA`s Office of Drinking Water developed draft criteria documents and related reports that were the basis for new drinking water standards for uranium, radium, radon and man-made beta-gamma emitting radionuclides during the period November 1989-July 1990. The overall quality of the four draft criteria documents submitted to the Subcommittee for its review was not good. Taken as a set, the documents are inconsistent in approach and with Agency practice in the derivation of drinking water criteria for other contaminants.

  14. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  15. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  16. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  17. An investigation into heterogeneity in a single vein-type uranium ore deposit: Implications for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Keatley, A C; Scott, T B; Davis, S; Jones, C P; Turner, P

    2015-12-01

    Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in nuclear materials are important as they are used within the field of nuclear forensics as an indicator of sample origin. However recent studies into uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) have shown significant elemental and isotopic heterogeneity from a single mine site such that some sites have shown higher variation within the mine site than that seen between multiple sites. The elemental composition of both uranium and gangue minerals within ore samples taken along a single mineral vein in South West England have been measured and reported here. The analysis of the samples was undertaken to determine the extent of the localised variation in key elements. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the gangue mineralogy and measure major element composition. Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The results confirm that a number of key elements, REE concentrations and patterns used for origin location do show significant variation within mine. Furthermore significant variation is also visible on a meter scale. In addition three separate uranium phases were identified within the vein which indicates multiple uranium mineralisation events. In light of these localised elemental variations it is recommended that representative sampling for an area is undertaken prior to establishing the REE pattern that may be used to identify the originating mine for an unknown ore sample and prior to investigating impact of ore processing on any arising REE patterns. PMID:26301831

  18. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    This report is a compendium of information relating to US uranium reserves and potential resources and to exploration, mining, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1982. The statistics are based primarily on data provided voluntarily by the uranium exploration, mining and milling companies. The compendium has been published annually since 1968 and reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Area Office of the US Department of Energy. Statistical data obtained from surveys conducted by the Energy Information Administration are included in Section IX. The production, reserves, and drilling data are reported in a manner which avoids disclosure of proprietary information.

  19. New lithogeochemical and mineralogical exploration of Li-Sn greisen mineralisation in old mining adits of the Zinnwald deposit, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neßler, Jörg; Seifert, Thomas; Gutzmer, Jens; Müller, Armin; Henker, Jan; Kühn, Kersten

    2014-05-01

    The polymetallic Zinnwald-Cínovec deposit is represented by greisen-type mineralisation hosted within the apical portion of a small granite intrusion. Similar to other granitic stocks with Sn-W mineralisation in the Erzgebirge, the Zinnwald granite intruded during the post-collisional stage of the late-Variscan (Permo-Carboniferous) magmatic evolution. These intrusions are characterised by the prominent enrichment of incompatible elements (F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Nb and Ta) and the depletion of P2O5. The deposit is located in the eastern part of the Erzgebirge region, Germany and straddles the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. It is characterised by flat dipping, sheet-like greisen ore bodies (up to 40 m in thickness) and veins (up to 1 m in thickness) located in the apical part and along the quaquaversal dipping edges of the granite stock. The greisen bodies predominantly consist of quartz, Li-Rb-Cs-bearing mica (named zinnwaldite), topaz, fluorite and accessory kaolinite and cassiterite. Historically mined for its cassiterite and wolframite ores since the 16th and 19th century, respectively, the deposit still provides access to a wide spread system of drifts and adits. Selected parts of the underground mine are now presented by the visitor's mine "Vereinigt Zwitterfeld zu Zinnwald". These local conditions are favourable for the re-examination of the exhibited greisen mineralisation. Within the framework of the ongoing Li and Sn exploration project of the SolarWorld Solicium GmbH in the German part of the deposit, an underground sampling campaign has been conducted, incorporating a series of 88 channel samples gained at two different levels (Tiefer Bünau adit = 750 m a.s.l.; Tiefe Hilfe Gottes adit = 720 m a.s.l.). Equally spaced channels of 2 m intervals and approximate dimensions of 180 x 5 x 2.5 cm have been created on pre-selected and detailed mapped walls of two different adits within the mine. The sample material has been gained for mineralogical

  20. The performance of functional methods for correcting non-Gaussian measurement error within Poisson regression: corrected excess risk of lung cancer mortality in relation to radon exposure among French uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-12-30

    A broad variety of methods for measurement error (ME) correction have been developed, but these methods have rarely been applied possibly because their ability to correct ME is poorly understood. We carried out a simulation study to assess the performance of three error-correction methods: two variants of regression calibration (the substitution method and the estimation calibration method) and the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. Features of the simulated cohorts were borrowed from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort in which exposure to radon had been documented from 1946 to 1999. In the absence of ME correction, we observed a severe attenuation of the true effect of radon exposure, with a negative relative bias of the order of 60% on the excess relative risk of lung cancer death. In the main scenario considered, that is, when ME characteristics previously determined as most plausible from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort were used both to generate exposure data and to correct for ME at the analysis stage, all three error-correction methods showed a noticeable but partial reduction of the attenuation bias, with a slight advantage for the SIMEX method. However, the performance of the three correction methods highly depended on the accurate determination of the characteristics of ME. In particular, we encountered severe overestimation in some scenarios with the SIMEX method, and we observed lack of correction with the three methods in some other scenarios. For illustration, we also applied and compared the proposed methods on the real data set from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort study. PMID:22996087

  1. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  2. Uranium Exposures in a Community near a Uranium Processing Facility: Relationship with Hypertension and Hematologic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Pinney, Susan M.; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Vena, John E.; Hébert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental uranium exposure originating as a byproduct of uranium processing can impact human health. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center functioned as a uranium processing facility from 1951 to 1989, and potential health effects among residents living near this plant were investigated via the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program (FMMP). Methods Data from 8,216 adult FMMP participants were used to test the hypothesis that elevated uranium exposure was associated with indicators of hypertension or changes in hematologic parameters at entry into the program. A cumulative uranium exposure estimate, developed by FMMP investigators, was used to classify exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and physician diagnoses were used to assess hypertension; and red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cell differential counts were used to characterize hematology. The relationship between uranium exposure and hypertension or hematologic parameters was evaluated using generalized linear models and quantile regression for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression or ordinal logistic regression for categorical outcomes, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8,216 adult FMMP participants 4,187 (51%) had low cumulative uranium exposure, 1,273 (15%) had moderate exposure, and 2,756 (34%) were in the high (>0.50 Sievert) cumulative lifetime uranium exposure category. Participants with elevated uranium exposure had decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Female participants with higher uranium exposures had elevated systolic blood pressure compared to women with lower exposures. However, no exposure-related changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure or hypertension diagnoses among female or male participants. Conclusions Results from this investigation suggest that residents in the vicinity of the Fernald plant with elevated exposure to uranium primarily via inhalation exhibited

  3. Disturbed 40Ar 39Ar systematics in hydrothermal biotite and hornblende at the Scotia gold mine, Western Australia: Evidence for argon loss associated with post-mineralisation fluid movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adam J. R.; Campbell McCuaig, T.

    1997-11-01

    Homblende and biotite that formed during gold mineralisation at the Scotia mine, Western Australia, have erratic 40Ar 39Ar release spectra and total gas ages that are ˜200-900 million year younger than the ca. 2600-2620 Ma minimum age of gold mineralisation, as given by 40Ar 39Ar plateau (muscovite) ages of crosscutting pegmatite dykes. Analysed hornblendes are dominated by magnesio hornblende but also contain small domains of ferro-actinolitic hornblende, actinolitic hornblende, and actinolite. Biotite also appears to be substantially altered to chlorite along cleavage planes. Relatively young apparent ages and high K/Ca ratios of argon released from hornblendes at temperatures less than ˜1000°C are interpreted to be the result of degassing of contaminant biotite. However, this cannot totally explain the young ages of hornblendes. Gas fractions released at furnace temperatures above 1000 C, where the effect of biotite degassing is demonstrably negligible, still have apparent ages that are ˜200-900 million years younger than the age of muscovite from post-gold pegmatite dykes. The close proximity of disturbed hydrothermal hornblende samples to apparently undisturbed pegmatite muscovite samples (less than a few metres in some cases) is difficult to reconcile with argon loss in hydrothermal hornblende being the product of thermally-driven volume diffusion. Given a suitable thermal history, argon loss could occur preferentially in hornblendes if (1) the closure (for slow cooling) and blocking (for reheating) temperatures of hydrothermal hornblendes were lower than published estimates, as has been observed in structurally complex metamorphic hornblendes and/or (2) the closure and blocking temperature of pegmatite muscovite were higher than commonly estimated. However, neither of these interpretations can easily explain the large variation in hornblende ages. It is instead suggested that argon loss occurred during mineral-fluid interaction during movement of a

  4. Politics of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, N.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement.

  5. Uranium purchases report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-19

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B ``Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data.

  6. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  7. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  8. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  9. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  10. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  11. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  12. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1957-11-12

    An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

  13. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  14. URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

  15. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  16. Uranium industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  17. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.

    1962-05-15

    A process is given for separating fission products from uranium by extracting the former into molten aluminum. Phase isolation can be accomplished by selectively hydriding the uranium at between 200 and 300 deg C and separating the hydride powder from coarse particles of fissionproduct-containing aluminum. (AEC)

  19. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion). PMID:24478959

  20. Uranium and Thorium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Warren I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

  1. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium compounds--a review.

    PubMed

    Konietzka, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    Uranium occurs naturally in soil and rocks, and therefore where it is present in water-soluble form it also occurs naturally in groundwater as well as in drinking water obtained from groundwater. Animal studies suggest that the toxicity of uranium is mainly due to its damage to kidney tubular cells following exposure to soluble uranium compounds. The assessments of the absorption of uranium via the gastrointestinal tract vary, and this has consequences for regulation, in particular the derivation of e.g. drinking water limit values. Absorption rates vary according to the nature and solubility of the compound in which uranium is presented to the test animals and depending on the animal species used in the test. No differences for sex have been observed for absorption in either animals or humans. However, human biomonitoring data do show that boys excrete significantly more uranium than girls. In animal studies neonates took up more uranium than adults or older children. Nutritional status, and in particular the iron content of the diet, have a marked influence on absorption, and higher uranium levels in food intake also appear to increase the absorption rate. If the pointers to an absorption mechanism competing with iron are correct, these mechanisms could also explain the relatively high concentration and chemical toxicity of uranium in the kidneys. It is here (and in the duodenum) that divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), which is primarily responsible for the passage of iron (or uranium?) through the cell membranes, is most strongly expressed. PMID:25263405

  2. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  3. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.

  4. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  5. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes. PMID:26035690

  6. Fe isotope behaviours during sulfide-dominated skarn-type mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Zhu, Xiang-kun; Cheng, Yanbo

    2015-05-01

    Fe isotope compositions of mineral separates and bulk samples from Dongguashan and Fenghuangshan skarn type Cu-Fe deposits in Tongling District, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley Cu-Fe-Au-Mo polymetallic belt have been investigated. Differences in δ57Fe values exist in co-precipitated bornite-chalcopyrite and pyrite-chalcopyrite mineral pairs. The bornite is enriched in light iron isotopes relative to coexisting chalcopyrite, whereas pyrite samples show a tendency of heavy isotopes enrichment relative to chalcopyrite. Moreover, the δ57Fe values of endoskarn and the earliest formed Fe-mineral phase magnetite of the three deposits investigated in Tongling district are consistently lower relative to ore-related igneous rocks, suggesting Fe isotopic fractionation occurs during fluid exsolution and exsolved fluid is enriched in light Fe isotopes relative to the stock. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in δ57Fe values within single mineral phases are observed, suggesting iron isotopic fractionation occurs between mineral and fluid phases as a result of precipitation of Fe-bearing minerals during fluid evolution. Overall, according to Fe isotope compositions of three representative skarn deposits formed under the same geological setting in Tongling district, this study indicates that Fe isotopes have the potential to unraveling ore-forming processes, as well as constraining the metal sources of skarn deposits. Combining with results of previous studies, a protocol for using Fe isotopes to trace skarn-type metallogeny is proposed.

  7. Photochemical mineralisation in a boreal brown water lake: considerable temporal variability and minor contribution to carbon dioxide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Marloes; Tranvik, Lars; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Koehler, Birgit

    2016-07-01

    Sunlight induces photochemical mineralisation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in inland waters, resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. Photochemical rate modelling is used to determine sunlight-induced CO2 emissions on large spatial and temporal scales. A sensitive model parameter is the wavelength-specific photochemical CDOM reactivity, the apparent quantum yield (AQY). However, the temporal variability of AQY spectra within inland waters remains poorly constrained. Here, we studied a boreal brown water lake in Sweden. We measured AQY spectra for photochemical DIC production monthly between June and November 2014 and parameterised a photochemical rate model. The total AQY between 280 and 600 nm increased about 3-fold during the open-water period, likely due to a high rainfall event with consecutive mixing in autumn that increased availability of highly photoreactive CDOM. However, the variability in AQY spectra over time was much smaller than previously reported variability in AQY spectra between lakes. Yet, using either the AQY spectrum from the least or from the most photoreactive water sample resulted in a 5-fold difference in simulated annual DIC photoproduction (2012-2014), with 2.0 ± 0.1 and 10.3 ± 0.7 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. This corresponded to 1 and 8 % of the mean CO2 emissions measured from this lake. We conclude that (1) it may be recommendable to conduct repeated AQY measurements throughout the season for more accurate simulation of annual photochemical DIC production in lakes and (2), in agreement with previous studies, direct CDOM photomineralisation makes only a minor contribution to mean CO2 emissions from Swedish brown water lakes.

  8. Uranium series disequilibrium in a Holocene uranium deposit in northeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.A.; Bush, C.A.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    A recently discovered ore-grade accumulation of uranium in post-glacial, organic-rich sediments provides an opportunity for studying the early association of uranium and organic matter in a natural setting. The uranium occurs in valley-fill sediments of peat, peaty clay, silt, and sand along the north fork of Flodelle Creek, Stevens County, Washington. Sixteen lithologically distinct intervals in a 290 cm core were measured by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and by thin-source alpha spectrometry to determine the abundance and distribution of uranium series nuclides and the extent of secular equilibrium within the uranium decay series. Samples taken above the 6700 to 7000 year old Mazama Ash (0-127 cm depth) are clearly most deficient in daughters, but a simple increase of daughters relative to uranium as a function of depth was not observed, probably because chemically diverse daughters that are decay-generated in situ have differing mobilities, and because upwelling ground waters continuously add more uranium and minor amounts of daughters. Measured alpha activity ratios of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U (1.31-1.38) are analytically indistinguishable from those measured in coexisting waters, suggesting a rather constant isotopic composition of introduced uranium and little preferential recoil of /sup 234/U daughter from sediment surfaces. A consistent excess of /sup 210/Pb relative to /sup 226/Ra is observed throughout the core, suggesting ground-water input of the highly mobile intervening daughter, /sup 222/Rn. The abundance of uranium (160-3300 ppm) correlates highly with the abundance of organic matter (3-60 wt.%) as do abundances of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 210/Pb below 127 cm depth.

  9. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  10. Uranium in groundwater--Fertilizers versus geogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Liesch, Tanja; Hinrichsen, Sören; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Due to its radiological and toxicological properties even at low concentration levels, uranium is increasingly recognized as relevant contaminant in drinking water from aquifers. Uranium originates from different sources, including natural or geogenic, mining and industrial activities, and fertilizers in agriculture. The goal of this study was to obtain insights into the origin of uranium in groundwater while differentiating between geogenic sources and fertilizers. A literature review concerning the sources and geochemical processes affecting the occurrence and distribution of uranium in the lithosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere provided the background for the evaluation of data on uranium in groundwater at regional scale. The state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, was selected for this study, because of its hydrogeological and land-use diversity, and for reasons of data availability. Uranium and other parameters from N=1935 groundwater monitoring sites were analyzed statistically and geospatially. Results show that (i) 1.6% of all water samples exceed the German legal limit for drinking water (10 μg/L); (ii) The range and spatial distribution of uranium and occasional peak values seem to be related to geogenic sources; (iii) There is a clear relation between agricultural land-use and low-level uranium concentrations, indicating that fertilizers generate a measurable but low background of uranium in groundwater. PMID:26170113

  11. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor; low-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years.

  12. Effect of uranium (VI) on two sulphate-reducing bacteria cultures from a uranium mine site.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogério; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-05-15

    This work was conducted to assess the impact of uranium (VI) on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) communities obtained from environmental samples collected on the Portuguese uranium mining area of Urgeiriça. Culture U was obtained from a sediment, while culture W was obtained from sludge from the wetland of that mine. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was used to monitor community changes under uranium stress conditions. TGGE profiles of dsrB gene fragment demonstrated that the initial cultures were composed of SRB species affiliated with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfomicrobium spp. (sample U), and by species related to D. desulfuricans (sample W). A drastic change in SRB communities was observed as a result of uranium (VI) exposure. Surprisingly, SRB were not detected in the uranium removal communities. Such findings emphasize the need of monitoring the dominant populations during bio-removal studies. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the uranium removal consortia are composed by strains affiliated to Clostridium genus, Caulobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae families. Therefore, these communities can be attractive candidates for environmental biotechnological applications associated to uranium removal. PMID:20334901

  13. Influence of Uranium on Bacterial Communities: A Comparison of Natural Uranium-Rich Soils with Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mondani, Laure; Benzerara, Karim; Carrière, Marie; Christen, Richard; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Février, Laureline; Marmier, Nicolas; Achouak, Wafa; Nardoux, Pascal; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of uranium on the indigenous bacterial community structure in natural soils with high uranium content. Radioactive soil samples exhibiting 0.26% - 25.5% U in mass were analyzed and compared with nearby control soils containing trace uranium. EXAFS and XRD analyses of soils revealed the presence of U(VI) and uranium-phosphate mineral phases, identified as sabugalite and meta-autunite. A comparative analysis of bacterial community fingerprints using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the presence of a complex population in both control and uranium-rich samples. However, bacterial communities inhabiting uraniferous soils exhibited specific fingerprints that were remarkably stable over time, in contrast to populations from nearby control samples. Representatives of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and seven others phyla were detected in DGGE bands specific to uraniferous samples. In particular, sequences related to iron-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Geothrix were identified concomitantly with iron-oxidizing species such as Gallionella and Sideroxydans. All together, our results demonstrate that uranium exerts a permanent high pressure on soil bacterial communities and suggest the existence of a uranium redox cycle mediated by bacteria in the soil. PMID:21998695

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  15. Characterisation of mineralisation of bone and cartilage: X-ray diffraction and Ca and Sr K α X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Muthuvelu, P.; Ellis, R. E.; Green, E. M.; Attenburrow, D.; Barrett, R.; Arkill, K.; Colridge, D. B.; Winlove, C. P.

    2007-10-01

    Bone is a dynamic structure, constantly remodelling in response to changing mechanical and environmental factors. This is particularly evident in the mineral component encrusting the collagenous framework. The mineral is principally in the form of calcium apatite, but calcium can exchange with strontium, both during the cellular processes of mineralisation and resorption and by passive exchange with the deposited crystals. Mineralisation is generally characterized by densitometry, but because of the differences in absorption cross sections of calcium and strontium it can be misleading in studies of composition. In this work we have used X-ray diffraction to identify calcium and strontium apatite and X-ray fluorescence to quantify strontium and calcium distribution. With the beam characteristics available from synchrotron radiation, this has enabled us to obtain microscopic resolution on thin sections of bone and cartilage from the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. Two issues have been investigated; the first is the distribution of mineral in the bone-cartilage interface and within individual trabeculae. In trabecular bone the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration was typically 0.0035 ± 0.0020, and higher by a factor of ∼3 at the periphery than in the centre of a trabeculum (possibly reflecting the more rapid turnover of mineral in the surface layer). In the dense subchondral bone the ratio was similar, approximately doubling in the calcified cartilage. The second objective was to explore the changes in mineralisation associated with development of osteoarthrosis. We analysed lesions showing cartilage thinning and changes in the trabecular organization and density of the underlying bone. At the centre of the lesion the ratio of strontium to calcium was much lower than that in normal tissue, although the calcified cartilage still showed a higher ratio than the underlying bone. In the superficially normal tissue around the lesion the calcified cartilage

  16. Using Geomodelling and Geophysical Inversion to Evaluate the Geological Controls on Low-Sulphidation Epithermal Au-Ag mineralisation in the Drummond and Bowen Basins, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltrin, Leonardo; Baker, Timothy; Oliver, Nick; Scott, Margaretha; Wilkinson, Kate; Fitzell, Melanie; Dixon, Owen; Bertelli, Martina

    2008-05-01

    We present a 3D geological model that integrates different datasets and incorporates geophysical inversion of airborne gravimetric and magnetic surveys of the northern part of the Drummond and Bowen basins. These basins are known for their endowment of low-sulphidation, epithermal Au-Ag mineralisation. The objective of this computer based reconstruction is to empirically evaluate the key controlling variables that contributed to the spatial localization of 147 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic shallow hydrothermal gold systems, found predominantly in veins and breccia hosted in basal volcanics and volcaniclastic intervals developed in a back-arc rift environment. The model provides a three-dimensional, regional scale (100,000 km2) perspective on the spatial associations between geology, structure, magmatism and known mineral occurrences, representing a 3D framework for precious-metals exploration. Results of 3D visualisation of geological and geophysical data suggest that magmatic intrusions, and correlative volcanic centres localized most of the major deposits and also controlled the arrangement of clusters of uneconomic Au-Ag occurrences. The empirical modelling supports a model for the genesis of low-sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag mineralisation that favours a strong spatial association with shallow felsic to intermediate magmatic intrusions, similarly to that proposed for high-sulphidation systems. Geophysical inversion estimates for the depth of magmatic bodies suggest also that they may have controlled the efficiency of the hydrothermal, mineralising systems-shallow intrusions tend to be associated with greater tonnages of Au-Ag and are spatially associated with the larger clusters of occurrences. However, the composition of magmatic intrusions (mafic, intermediate, felsic) may have been important in regulating the amount of available bisulphide in the volatile phase, exerting a control on Au grade/tonnage independent of the depth of emplacement of intrusions.

  17. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of human condyles in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: increased cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume fraction with reduced mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G

    2014-12-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 μm resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles. PMID:25219775

  18. Bone mineralisation of weaned piglets fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Weremko, Dagmara; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen female piglets (58 d of age, 16.8 ± 0.8 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and received until day 100 of age (50.3 ± 1.2 kg BW) ad libitum either a diet with a standard (diet C) or low (diet L) total phosphorus (P) content (5.38 and 4.23 g/kg, respectively). Diet C was supplemented with mineral P (1.15 g/kg) and did not contain microbial phytase. Diet L did not contain any inorganic P but 750 FTU/kg of microbial phytase. Despite these treatments, both diets were composed with the same ingredients. Body mineralisation of each gilt was assessed by determining the bone mineral content (BMC), area bone mineral density (BMD) by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at days 58, 72, 86 and 100 of age. Feeding diet L caused a higher P digestibility (p = 0.008) measured from days 72 to 86 of age and at 100 days of age a higher BMC and BMD (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, the gilts of group L deposited more minerals in the body than control pigs (by 2.4 g/d, p = 0.008). It was found that BMD and BMC were positively correlated with body lean mass and digestible P intake. The results indicated that, even for very young pigs, the addition of microbial phytase instead of inorganic P increases the amount of digestible P covering the requirements of piglets for proper bone mineralisation. Furthermore, it was proved that the DXA method can be successfully applied to measure body fat and lean mass contents as well as bone mineralisation of growing pigs using the same animals. PMID:26062598

  19. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  20. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  1. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  2. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  3. Giant uranium deposits formed from exceptionally uranium-rich acidic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Rozsypal, Christophe; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel

    2012-02-01

    Giant uranium deposits were formed during the Mesoproterozoic era, 1.6-1.0 Gyr ago, in both Canada and Australia. The deposits are thought to have formed from large-scale circulation of brines at temperatures of 120-200 °C that percolated between sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline basement rocks. However, the precise conditions for transport of the uranium in these brines are poorly understood. Here we use mass spectrometry to analyse the uranium content of brines preserved in naturally occurring fluid inclusions in ore deposits from the Athabasca Basin, Canada. We measure concentrations of uranium in the range 1.0×10-6-2.8×10-3moll-1. These concentrations are three orders of magnitude above any other common crustal fluids. Experimentally, we measure the solubility of uranium as a function of NaCl content and pH, in mixtures that are analogous to ore-forming brines at 155°C. To account for the high uranium content observed in the Athabasca deposits, we find that the brines must have been acidic, with a pH between 2.5 and 4.5. Our results strongly suggest that the world's richest uranium deposits formed from highly concentrated uranium-bearing acidic brines. We conclude that these conditions are a necessary requirement for the formation of giant uranium deposits in relatively short periods of time of about 0.1-1 Myr, similar to other world-class deposits of lead-zinc and gold.

  4. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  5. A World War II uranium hexafluoride inhalation event with pulmonary implications for today.

    PubMed

    Moore, R H; Kathren, R L

    1985-10-01

    Two individuals were exposed to massive quantities of airborne uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis products following a World War II equipment rupture. An excretion pattern for uranium exhibited by these patients is, in light of current knowledge, anomalous. The possible role of pulmonary edema is discussed. Examination of these individuals 38 years later showed no physical changes believed to be related to their uranium exposure and no deposition of uranium could be detected. PMID:4067678

  6. Fluorination of uranium dioxide particles: a review of physical and chemical properties of the compounds involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, S. S.; Jeapes, A. P.

    1999-11-01

    A review of literature related to the process of fluorination of uranium dioxide and physical properties of the compounds involved (uranium hexafluoride, fluorine, uranium dioxide and argon) is presented. It is pointed out that there exist strong indications that the maximum rate of fluorination of uranium dioxide can be achieved at temperatures above 540°C. Particular attention is focused on the study of transport properties of argon-fluorine plasma.

  7. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  8. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  9. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity. PMID:23851265

  10. Concentration-Purification of Uranium from an Acid Leaching Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettaf, H.; Becis, A.; Ferhat, K.; Hanou, K.; Bouchiha, D.; Yakoubi, K.; Ferrad, F.

    2009-11-01

    Chemical processes for the elaboration of uranium concentrate from uranium ore have been studied. This process is composed of successive units operations: crushing, milling, acid conventional leaching, filtration-washing, purification-concentration by ion exchange resins and uranium precipitation. The acid leaching operating conditions allow us to obtain a recovery uranium rate of 93%. The uranium concentration of the pregnant solution is approximately of 1.2 g/l. This value justifies the use of ion exchange resins to the concentration-purification of our pregnant solution. We have noticed that the pregnant solution contains a relatively high phosphate concentration which causes a premature uranium precipitation at pH=1.8. This pH value is in general, considered optimal to obtain the highest amount of fixed uranium by the anionic resin. To avoid the precipitation of uranium, the pH=1.5 has been fixed. We have obtained at this condition a good adsorption capacity. A 75% uranium concentrate have been elaborated, but the filtration of this concentrate has been very difficult. We have also noticed an excessive sulphate concentration. In order to improve this process, we have tested nitrates as eluant at different operating conditions.

  11. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Niedrach, L.W.; Glamm, A.C.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process of refining or decontaminating uranium is presented. The impure uranium is made the anode of an electrolytic cell. The molten salt electrolyte of this cell comprises a uranium halide such as UF/sub 4/ or UCl/sub 3/ and an alkaline earth metal halide such as CaCl/sub 2/, BaF/sub 2/, or BaCl/sub 2/. The cathode of the cell is a metal such as Mn, Cr, Co, Fe, or Ni which forms a low melting eutectic with U. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting point of U. In operation the electrodeposited uranium becomes alloyed with the metal of the cathode, and the low melting alloy thus formed drips from the cathode.

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  13. Uranium purchases report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-10

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B,`` Uranium Marketing Activities,`` are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year`s report. The report contains a glossary of terms.

  14. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BORGHESE JV

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  15. Uranium concentrations in asparagus

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-05-01

    Concentrations of uranium were determined in asparagus collected from eight locations near and ten locations on the Hanford Site southcentral Washington State. Only one location (Sagemoor) had samples with elevated concentrations. The presence of elevated uranium in asparagus at Sagemoor may be explained by the elevated levels in irrigation water. These levels of uranium are comparable to levels previously reported upstream and downstream of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site (0.0008 {mu}g/g), but were below the 0.020-{mu}g/g level reported for brush collected at Sagemoor in a 1982 study. Concentrations at all other onsite and offsite sample locations were considerably lower than concentrations reported immediately upstream and downstream of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Using an earlier analysis of the uranium concentrations in asparagus collected from the Hanford Site constitutes a very small fraction of the US Department of Energy effective dose equivalent limit of 100 mrem.

  16. Identification of uterine ion transporters for mineralisation precursors of the avian eggshell

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Gallus gallus, eggshell formation takes place daily in the hen uterus and requires large amounts of the ionic precursors for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Both elements (Ca2+, HCO3-) are supplied by the blood via trans-epithelial transport. Our aims were to identify genes coding for ion transporters that are upregulated in the uterine portion of the oviduct during eggshell calcification, compared to other tissues and other physiological states, and incorporate these proteins into a general model for mineral transfer across the tubular gland cells during eggshell formation. Results A total of 37 candidate ion transport genes were selected from our database of overexpressed uterine genes associated with eggshell calcification, and by analogy with mammalian transporters. Their uterine expression was compared by qRTPCR in the presence and absence of eggshell formation, and with relative expression levels in magnum (low Ca2+/HCO3- movement) and duodenum (high rates of Ca2+/HCO3- trans-epithelial transfer). We identified overexpression of eleven genes related to calcium movement: the TRPV6 Ca2+ channel (basolateral uptake of Ca2+), 28 kDa calbindin (intracellular Ca2+ buffering), the endoplasmic reticulum type 2 and 3 Ca2+ pumps (ER uptake), and the inositol trisphosphate receptors type 1, 2 and 3 (ER release). Ca2+ movement across the apical membrane likely involves membrane Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/Na+ exchangers. Our data suggests that Na+ transport involved the SCNN1 channel and the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers SLC8A1, 3 for cell uptake, the Na+/K+ ATPase for cell output. K+ uptake resulted from the Na+/K+ ATPase, and its output from the K+ channels (KCNJ2, 15, 16 and KCNMA1). We propose that the HCO3- is mainly produced from CO2 by the carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) and that HCO3- is secreted through the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger SLC26A9. HCO3- synthesis and precipitation with Ca2+ produce two H+. Protons are absorbed via the membrane’s Ca2+ pumps ATP2B1, 2 in the apical

  17. Facilitation of Pb-Zn mineralisation by diatremes in the Irish Orefield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Gernon, T. M.; Roberts, S.; Redmond, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Limerick Basin in southwest Ireland is an important part of the Pb-Zn Orefield within the Irish Midlands [1]. A recently discovered cluster of basaltic diatremes within the Stonepark area, spatially associated with mineralization, challenges previously accepted theories that the carbonate hosted Pb-Zn deposits were not related to Lower Carboniferous volcanics within the area. Thus, the genetic relationship between mineralization and magmatism is poorly understood and highly controversial. The diatremes emplaced into the Lower Carboniferous carbonate stratigraphy, are attributed to increased heat flow and magmatism during extensional tectonic activity in the Tournasian [2]. The preferred NE-SW trend of diatremes suggests that they might have been fault controlled. In close proximity to the diatremes a series of extra-crater basaltic lava flows and pyroclastics (Knockroe Formation) is commonly interbedded with argillaceous and crinoidal limestones formed in a shallow marine environment (Lough Gur Formation) [3]. Analysis of trace elements from juvenile material from both the extra-crater and diatreme deposits have confirmed that the two are related, following a broadly linear fractionation trend. The Knockroe sequence is likely sourced from the diatreme eruptions, apparently thickening toward the diatremes, and share compositional and textural similarities with the diatremes. The deposits record at least two different magmatic phases, the first contains fragmented crystals and a very low degree of vesiculation. The second contains no phenocrysts; the lapilli are more altered and have a higher vesicularity (21-42 area %). The low vesicularity of juvenile lapilli (5-26 area %), interbedding of diatreme-sourced Knockroe pyroclastic material and shallow marine deposits, and other large-scale geological relationships indicate that the eruptions were largely phreatomagmatic. However, the occurrence of highly vesiculated lapilli and late stage crosscutting dykes

  18. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  19. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  20. Uranium purchases report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

  1. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  2. Covalency in oxidized uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, J. G.; Yu, S.-W.; Qiao, R.; Yang, W. L.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Duffin, A. M.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.

    2015-07-01

    Using x-ray emission spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy, it has been possible to directly access the states in the unoccupied conduction bands that are involved with 5 f and 6 d covalency in oxidized uranium. By varying the oxidizing agent, the degree of 5 f covalency can be manipulated and monitored, clearly and irrevocably establishing the importance of 5 f covalency in the electronic structure of the key nuclear fuel, uranium dioxide.

  3. Constraints on the composition of ore fluids and implications for mineralising events at the Cleo gold deposit, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.M.; Johnson, C.A.; Watling, R.J.; Premo, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Cleo gold deposit, 55 km south of Laverton in the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia, is characterised by banded iron-formation (BIF)-hosted ore zones in the gently dipping Sunrise Shear Zone and high-grade vein-hosted ore in the Western Lodes. There is evidence that gold mineralisation in the Western Lodes (which occurred at ca 2655 Ma) post-dates the majority of displacement along the Sunrise Shear Zone, but it remains uncertain if the ore in both structures formed simultaneously or separately. Overall, the Pb, Nd, Sr, C. O and S isotopic compositions of ore-related minerals from both the Western Lodes and ore zones in the Sunrise Shear Zone are similar. Early low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids and late high-salinity fluids with similar characteristics are trapped in inclusions in quartz veins from both the Sunrise Shear Zone and the Western Lodes. The early CO2, CO2-H2O, and H2O- dominant inclusions are interpreted as being related to ore formation, and to have formed from a single low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluid as a result of intermittent fluid immiscibility. Homogenisation temperatures indicate that these inclusions were trapped at approximately 280??C and at approximately 4 km depth, in the deeper epizonal range. Differences between the ore zones are detected in the trace-element composition of gold samples, with gold from the Sunrise Shear Zone enriched in Ni, Pb, Sn, Te and Zn, and depleted In As, Bi, Cd, Cu and Sb, relative to gold from the Western Lodes. Although there are differences in gold composition between the Sunrise Shear Zone and Western Lodes, and hence the metal content of ore fluids may have varied slightly between the different ore zones, no other systematic fluid or solute differences are detected between the ore zones. Given the fact that the ore fluids in each zone have very similar bulk properties, the considerable differences in gold grade, sulfide mineral abundance, and ore textures between the two ore zones

  4. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  5. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  6. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  7. Predicting 232U Content in Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Peurrung

    1999-01-07

    The minor isotope 232U may ultimately be used for detection or confirmation of uranium in a variety of applications. The primary advantage of 232 U as an indicator of the presence of enriched uranium is the plentiful and penetrating nature of the radiation emitted by its daughter radionuclide 208Tl. A possible drawback to measuring uranium via 232U is the relatively high uncertainty in 232U abundance both within and between material populations. An important step in assessing this problem is to ascertain what determines the 232U concentration within any particular sample of uranium. To this end, we here analyze the production and eventual enrichment of 232 U during fuel-cycle operations. The goal of this analysis is to allow approximate prediction of 232 U quantities, or at least some interpretation of the results of 232U measurements. We have found that 232U is produced via a number of pathways during reactor irradiation of uranium and is subsequently concentrated during the later enrichment of the uranium' s 235U Content. While exact calculations are nearly impossible for both the reactor-production and cascade-enrichment parts of the prediction problem, estimates and physical bounds can be provided as listed below and detailed within the body of the report. Even if precise calculations for the irradiation and enrichment were possible, the ultimate 212U concentration would still depend upon the detailed fuel-cycle history. Assuming that a thennal-diffusion cascade is used to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU), dilution of reactor-processed fuel at the cascade input and the long-term holdup of 232U within the cascade both affect the 232U concentration in the product. Similar issues could be expected to apply for the other isotope-separation technologies that are used in other countries. Results of this analysis are listed below: 0 The 232U concentration depends strongly on the uranium enrichment, with depleted uranium (DU) containing between 1600 and 8000 times

  8. Synmetamorphic carbon mobility and graphite enrichment in metaturbidites as a precursor to orogenic gold mineralisation, Otago Schist, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Anicia; Craw, Dave

    2012-10-01

    The Macraes orogenic gold deposit is hosted by a graphitic micaceous schist containing auriferous porphyroblastic sulphides. The host rock resembles zones of unmineralised micaceous graphitic pyritic schists, derived from argillaceous protoliths, that occur locally in background pelitic Otago Schist metasediments. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between these similar rock types, and whether the relationship had implications for ore formation. Argillites in the protolith turbidites of the Otago Schist metamorphic belt contain minor amounts of detrital organic matter (<0.1 wt.%) and diagenetic pyrite (<0.3 wt.% S). The detrital organic carbon was mobilised by metamorphic-hydrothermal fluids and redeposited as graphite in low-grade metaturbidites (pumpellyite-actinolite and greenschist facies). This carbon mobility occurred through >50 million years of evolution of the metamorphic belt, from development of sheared argillite in the Jurassic, to postmetamorphic ductile extension in the Cretaceous. Introduced graphite is structurally controlled and occurs with metamorphic muscovite and chlorite as veins and slicken-sided shears, with some veins having >50% noncarbonate carbon. Graphitic foliation seams in low-grade micaceous schist and metamorphic quartz veins contain equant graphite porphyroblasts up to 2 mm across that are composed of crystallographically homogeneous graphite crystals. Graphite reflectance is anisotropic and ranges from ~1% to ~8% (green light). Texturally similar porphyroblastic pyrite has grown in micaceous schist (up to 10 wt.% S), metamorphic quartz veins and associated muscovite-rich shears. These pyritic schists are weakly enriched in arsenic (up to 60 ppm). The low-grade metamorphic mobility and concentration of graphite in micaceous schists is interpreted to be a precursor process that structurally and geochemically prepared parts of the Otago Schist belt for later (more restricted) gold mineralisation. Economic amounts of

  9. Thermotectonic history of the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt, Peru: Insights into mineralisation in an evolving orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrenberg, Arne F.; Kohn, Barry P.; Holcombe, Rodney J.; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Fold-thrust belts along convergent margins around the world host major ore deposits. The origin of such ore deposits is commonly episodic and so are the temporal and spatial variations in deformation styles in these fold-thrust belts. Here we focus on the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) of the Peruvian Andes, and demonstrate a link between the spatio-temporal distribution of ore deposits and thick-skinned tectonics. We present low-temperature thermochronology results from the MFTB that document the uplift/exhumation history and timing of thick-skinned tectonics and vergence reversal. Our results suggest that the thermal history of the MFTB involved two discrete intervals of opposed-vergence, large-scale crustal deformation since the Late Cretaceous. An early interval, at ~ 80-20 Ma, was associated with folding and east-vergent thin-skinned tectonics, and was followed by west-vergent thick-skinned deformation at ~ 20-0 Ma. Furthermore, our findings suggest that thick-skinned contraction was coincident with increased focusing of mineralising fluids and ore deposition in the MFTB during the early Miocene, and in the mid-Miocene both mineralisation and deformation were enhanced by subduction of the Nazca Ridge underneath the South American Plate.

  10. Microbial uranium immobilization independent of nitrate reduction.

    PubMed

    Madden, Andrew S; Smith, April C; Balkwill, David L; Fagan, Lisa A; Phelps, Tommy J

    2007-09-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low-pH environments and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This work investigated the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 5.7-6.2 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.2) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate. PMID:17686028

  11. Microbial Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Andrew; Smith, April; Balkwill, Dr. David; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2007-01-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in-situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low pH environments at this study site and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This project investigates the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Successful enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 4.9-5.6 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Higher pH enrichments also demonstrated similar U reduction capacity with 5-30% nitrate loss within one week. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.7) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and T-RFLP profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  12. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-06-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils.

  13. Search for uranium in western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1953-01-01

    The search for uranium in the United States is one of the most intensive ever made for any metal during our history. The number of prospectors and miners involved is difficult to estimate but some measure of the size of the effort is indicated by the fact that about 500 geologists are employed by government and industry in the work--more than the total number of geologists engaged in the study of all other minerals together except oil. The largest part of the effort has been concentrated in the western states. No single deposit of major importance by world standards has been discovered but the search has led to the discovery of important minable deposits of carnotite and related minerals on the Colorado Plateau; of large, low grade deposits of uranium in phosphates in the northwestern states and in lignites in the Dakotas, Wyoming, Idaho and New Mexico; and of many new and some promising occurrences of uranium in carnotite-like deposits and in vein deposits. Despite the fact that a large number of the districts considered favorable for the occurrence of uranium have already been examined, the outlook for future discoveries is bright, particularly for uranium in vein and in carnotite-like deposits in the Rocky Mountain States.

  14. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  15. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  16. Structural controls, temperature-pressure conditions and fluid evolution of orogenic gold mineralisation at the Betam mine, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoheir, Basem A.

    2008-01-01

    The Betam gold deposit, located in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to a series of milky quartz veins along a NNW-trending shear zone, cutting through pelitic metasedimentary rocks and small masses of pink granite. This shear zone, along with a system of discrete shear and fault zones, was developed late in the deformation history of the area. Although slightly sheared and boudinaged within the shear zone, the auriferous quartz veins are characterised by irregular walls with a steeply plunging ridge-in-groove lineation. Shear geometry of rootless intra-folial folds and asymmetrical strain shadows around the quartz lenses suggests that vein emplacement took place under a brittle-ductile shear regime, clearly post-dating the amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism. Hydrothermal alteration is pervasive in the wallrock metapelites and granite including sericitisation, silicification, sulphidisation and minor carbonatisation. Ore mineralogy includes pyrite, arsenopyrite and subordinate galena, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and gold. Gold occurs in the quartz veins and adjacent wallrocks as inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite, blebs and globules associated with galena, fracture fillings in deformed arsenopyrite or as thin, wire-like rims within or around rhythmic goethite. Presence of refractory gold in arsenopyrite and pyrite is inferred from microprobe analyses. Clustered and intra-granular trail-bound aqueous-carbonic (LCO2 + Laq ± VCO2) inclusions are common in cores of the less deformed quartz crystals, whereas carbonic (LCO2 ± VCO2) and aqueous H2O-NaCl (L + V) inclusions occur along inter-granular and trans-granular trails. Clathrate melting temperatures indicate low salinities of the fluid (3-8 wt.% NaCl eq.). Homogenisation temperatures of the aqueous-carbonic inclusions range between 297 and 323°C, slightly higher than those of the intra-granular and inter-granular aqueous inclusions (263-304°C), which are likely formed during grain boundary

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium in process streams of a uranium extraction plant.

    PubMed

    Murty, B N; Jagannath, Y V; Yadav, R B; Ramamurty, C K; Syamsundar, S

    1997-02-01

    This paper deals with the development and standardization of procedures for the determination of uranium on a routine basis in various process streams of a uranium extraction plant, covering a wide range of concentrations from 350 g 1(-1) down to 5 mg 1(-1) using only a spectrophotometric technique. The self-absorption of uranyl ion in dilute phosphoric acid and the violet-blue colour of the UO(2)(2+)-Arsenazo III complex in 4 M HC1 were exploited for high and low concentrations of uranium, respectively. The methods described were applied to samples of varying nature such as aqueous, organics and solids, involve minimal sample preparation and do not require prior separation of uranium from impurities. The interfering impurities in different process streams were also studied. Large quantities of silica as undissolved material poses a serious interference in the case of UNS and UNF. Considerable quantities of iron in UNS, UNF, UNR and UNRC cause interference. Possible remedies in these cases are suggested. Problems with the direct spectrophotometric measurement of organic samples is discussed. The effect of the presence of large quantities of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate in WD samples on the determination of uranium is also discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by volumetry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for higher concentrations of uranium and by extraction-spectrophotometry (ethyl acetate-thiocyanate method) for lower concentrations. Relative standard deviation of 1% and 5% for high and low concentrations, respectively, were obtained, which are adequate as far as process stream samples are concerned. The compared results are in fair agreement. The problems associated with the determination of uranium in these process streams are discussed. Experimental results for 10 different process streams normally encountered in a uranium extraction plant are tabulated. PMID:18966745

  18. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM AND PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Musgrave, W.K.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to the separation of uranium from thorium and protactinium; such mixtures of elements usually being obtained by neutron irradiation of thorium. The method of separating the constituents has been first to dissolve the mixture of elements in concertrated nitric acid and then to remove the protactinium by absorption on manganese dioxide and the uranium by solvent extraction with ether. Prior to now, comparatively large amounts of thorium were extracted with the uranium. According to the invention this is completely prevented by adding sodium diethyldithiocarbamate to the mixture of soluble nitrate salts. The organic salt has the effect of reacting only with the uranyl nitrate to form the corresponding uranyl salt which can then be selectively extracted from the mixture with amyl acetate.

  19. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  20. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  1. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  2. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J. C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1994-09-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl{sub x} alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed.

  3. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  4. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  5. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kesler, R.D.; Rabb, D.D.

    1959-07-28

    An improved process is presented for recovering uranium from a carnotite ore. In the improved process U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is added to the comminuted ore along with the usual amount of NaCl prior to roasting. The amount of U/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is dependent on the amount of free calcium oxide and the uranium in the ore. Specifically, the desirable amount of U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is 3.2% for each 1% of CaO, and 5 to 6% for each 1% of uranium. The mixture is roasted at about 1560 deg C for about 30 min and then leached with a 3 to 9% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate.

  6. [Detection of trace uranium in air with field spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Xin; Xiao, Sai-Jin; Liu, Qing-Cheng; Huang, Long-Zhu; Peng, Dao-Feng; Zheng, Yong-Ming

    2012-07-01

    As a natural radioactive element, uranium and its compounds exist as aerosol and transfer in air. In gas phase, uranium can cause various kinds of radioactive damage to human body. The change in its concentration in a local area is related to the exploration and utilization of nuclear energy. Therefore, the development of field method for rapid uranium detection in air sample is very important. In this contribution, the air samples over uranium ores collected by a general pump was absorbed with 2.0 mol x L(-1) nitrate and then reacted with solid reagent kit. When the reaction between trace uranium and chromogenic reagent was finished, the homemade portable photometer was used to measure the absorbance. The results showed that the concentration of uranium in air samples over low grade uranium ores can be successfully determined by the present method and the values agree with that obtained by ICP-MS. The RSD measured by the new method was 1.72%. The application of the new field spectrometry in discriminating uranium ores from other ores has the potential advantages of easy operation, cost-saving and high accuracy. PMID:23016358

  7. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  8. PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Stethers, H.L.; Johnson, T.R.

    1964-03-24

    A process of preparing uranium monocarbide is de scribed. Uranium metal is dissolved in cadmium, zinc, cadmium-- zinc, or magnesium-- zinc alloy and a small quantity of alkali metal is added. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of carbon at 500 to 820 deg C then precipitates uranium monocarbide. (AEC)

  9. Chemical Equilibrium of the Dissolved Uranium in Groundwaters From a Spanish Uranium-Ore Deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Garralon, Antonio; Gomez, Paloma; Turrero, Maria Jesus; Buil, Belen; Sanchez, Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    The main objectives of this work are to determine the hydrogeochemical evolution of an uranium ore and identify the main water/rock interaction processes that control the dissolved uranium content. The Mina Fe uranium-ore deposit is the most important and biggest mine worked in Spain. Sageras area is located at the north part of the Mina Fe, over the same ore deposit. The uranium deposit was not mined in Sageras and was only perturbed by the exploration activities performed 20 years ago. The studied area is located 10 Km northeast of Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca) at an altitude over 650 m.a.s.l. The uranium mineralization is related to faults affecting the metasediments of the Upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian schist-graywacke complex (CEG), located in the Centro-Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif . The primary uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite but numerous secondary uranium minerals have been formed as a result of the weathering processes: yellow gummite, autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, saleeite, uranotile, ianthinite and uranopilite. The water flow at regional scale is controlled by the topography. Recharge takes place mainly in the surrounding mountains (Sierra Pena de Francia) and discharge at fluvial courses, mainly Agueda and Yeltes rivers, boundaries S-NW and NE of the area, respectively. Deep flows (lower than 100 m depth) should be upwards due to the river vicinity, with flow directions towards the W, NW or N. In Sageras-Mina Fe there are more than 100 boreholes drilled to investigate the mineral resources of the deposit. 35 boreholes were selected in order to analyze the chemical composition of groundwaters based on their depth and situation around the uranium ore. Groundwater samples come from 50 to 150 m depth. The waters are classified as calcium-bicarbonate type waters, with a redox potential that indicates they are slightly reduced (values vary between 50 to -350 mV). The TOC varies between <0.1 and 4.0 mgC/L and the dissolved

  10. Mortality among Navajo uranium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, R J; Deddens, J A; Salvan, A; Schnorr, T M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To update mortality risks for Navajo uranium miners, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of 757 Navajos from the cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners. METHODS. Vital status was followed from 1960 to 1990. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated, with combined New Mexico and Arizona non-White mortality rates used for comparison. Cox regression models were used to evaluate exposure-response relationships. RESULTS. Elevated standardized mortality ratios were found for lung cancer (3.3), tuberculosis (2.6), and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (2.6). Lowered ratios were found for heart disease (0.6), circulatory disease (0.4), and liver cirrhosis (0.5). The estimated relative risk for a 5-year duration of exposure vs none was 3.7 for lung cancer, 2.1 for pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases, and 2.0 for tuberculosis. The relative risk for lung cancer was 6.9 for the midrange of cumulative exposure to radon progeny compared with the least exposed. CONCLUSIONS. Findings were consistent with those from previous studies. Twenty-three years after their last exposure to radon progeny, these light-smoking Navajo miners continue to face excess mortality risks from lung cancer and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases. PMID:7702118

  11. Mineralisation of amethyst-bearing geodes in Ametista do Sul (Brazil) from low-temperature sedimentary brines: evidence from monophase liquid inclusions and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Krüger, Yves; Taubald, Heinrich; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Frenz, Martin; Morteani, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    Fluid inclusion studies in combination with hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur isotope data provide novel insights into the genesis of giant amethyst-bearing geodes in Early Cretaceous Paraná continental flood basalts at Amestita do Sul, Brazil. Monophase liquid inclusions in colourless quartz, amethyst, calcite, barite and gypsum were analysed by microthermometry after stimulating bubble nucleation using single femtosecond laser pulses. The salinity of the fluid inclusions was determined from ice-melting temperatures and a combination of prograde and retrograde homogenisation temperatures via the density maximum of the aqueous solutions. Four mineralisation stages are distinguished. In stage I, celadonite, chalcedony and pyrite formed under reducing conditions in a thermally stable environment. Low δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite (-25 to -32 ‰) suggest biogenic sulphate reduction by organotrophic bacteria. During the subsequent stages II (amethyst, goethite and anhydrite), III (early subhedral calcite) and IV (barite, late subhedral calcite and gypsum), the oxidation state of the fluid changed towards more oxidising conditions and microbial sulphate reduction ceased. Three distinct modes of fluid salinities around 5.3, 3.4 and 0.3 wt% NaCl-equivalent characterise the mineralisation stages II, III and IV, respectively. The salinity of the stage I fluid is unknown due to lack of fluid inclusions. Variation in homogenisation temperatures and in δ18O values of amethyst show evidence of repeated pulses of ascending hydrothermal fluids of up to 80-90 °C infiltrating a basaltic host rock of less than 45 °C. Colourless quartz and amethyst formed at temperatures between 40 and 80 °C, while the different calcite generations and late gypsum precipitated at temperatures below 45 °C. Calculated oxygen isotope composition of the amethyst-precipitating fluid in combination with δD values of amethyst-hosted fluid inclusions (-59 to -51 ‰) show a significant 18O-shift from the

  12. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  13. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  14. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.T.; Hovis, V.M.; Kollie, T.G.; Pullen, W.C.

    1983-05-31

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  15. TREATMENT OF URANIUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Slunder, C.J.

    1959-02-01

    An improved process is presented for prcparation of uranium surfaces prior to electroplating. The surfacc of the uranium to be electroplated is anodized in a bath comprising a solution of approximately 20 to 602 by weight of phosphoric acid which contains about 20 cc per liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anodization is carried out for approximately 20 minutes at a current density of about 0.5 amperes per square inch at a temperature of about 35 to 45 C. The oxidic film produced by anodization is removed by dipping in strong nitric acid, followed by rinsing with water just prior to electroplating.

  16. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  17. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  18. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  19. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  20. Potassium-uranium systematics of apollo 11 and apollo 12 samples: implications for lunar material history.

    PubMed

    Fanale, F P; Nash, D B

    1971-01-22

    Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 lunar rock suites differ in their potassium-uranium abundance systematics. This difference indicates that relatively little exchange of regolith material has occurred between Mare Tranquillitatis and Oceanus Procellarum. The two suites appear to have been derived from materials of identical potassium and uranium content. It appears unlikely that bulk lunar material has the ratio of potassium to uranium found in chondrites. However, systematic differences in the potassium-uranium ratio between Apollo samples and crustal rocks of the earth do not preclude a common potassium-uranium ratio for bulk earth and lunar material. PMID:17736222

  1. Uranium in vegetable foodstuffs: should residents near the Cunha Baixa uranium mine site (Central Northern Portugal) be concerned?

    PubMed

    Neves, M O; Abreu, M M; Figueiredo, V

    2012-04-01

    Large uranium accumulations in vegetable foodstuffs may present risks of human health if they are consumed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the uranium concentrations in different vegetable foodstuffs and grown in agricultural soils, which are then consumed by the residents of the village of Cunha Baixa (Portugal),--located in an former uranium mining area. This study was conducted to address concerns expressed by the local farmers as well as to provide data for uranium-related health risk assessments for the area. Soils, irrigation water and edible tissues of lettuce, potato, green bean, carrot, cabbage, apple and maize (Latuca sativa L., Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L., Malus domestica Borkh, Zea mays L., respectively) were sampled and uranium determined. High uranium concentrations were found in some soils (U(total) > 50 mg/kg), in irrigation waters (218 to 1,035 μg/l) and in some vegetable foodstuffs (up to 234, 110, 30, 26, 22, 16 and 1.6 μg/kg fresh weight for lettuce, potato with peel, green bean pods, cabbage, corn, carrot and apple, respectively). However, the results of the toxicity hazard analysis were reassuring the estimated level of uranium exposure through the ingestion of these vegetable foodstuffs was low, suggesting no chemical health risk (hazard quotient <1) to this uranium exposure pathway for a local residents during their lifetime, even for the most sensitive part of the population (child). PMID:21964853

  2. Reduction kinetics of aqueous U(VI) in acidic chloride brines to uraninite by methane, hydrogen or C-graphite under hydrothermal conditions: Implications for the genesis of unconformity-related uranium ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargent, Maxime; Truche, Laurent; Dubessy, Jean; Bessaque, Gilles; Marmier, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    The formation of hydrothermal uranium ore deposits involves the reduction of dissolved U(VI)(aq) to uraninite. However, the nature of the reducing agent and the kinetics of such a process are currently unknown. These questions are addressed through dedicated experiments performed under conditions relevant for the genesis of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits. We tested the efficiency of the following potential reductants supposed to be involved in the reaction: H2, CH4, C-graphite and dissolved Fe(II). Results demonstrate the great efficiency of H2, CH4 and C-graphite to reduce U(VI)(aq) into uraninite in acidic chloride brines, unlike dissolved Fe(II). Times needed for H2 (1.4 bar), CH4 (2.4 bar) and C-graphite (water/carbon mass ratio = 10) to reduce 1 mM of U(VI)(aq) in an acidic brine (1 m LiCl, pH ≈ 1 fixed by HCl) to uraninite at 200 °C are 12 h, 3 days and 4 months, respectively. The effects of temperature (T) between 100 °C and 200 °C, H2 partial pressure (0.14, 1.4, and 5.4 bar), salinity (0.1, 1 and 3.2 m LiCl) and pH at 25 °C (0.8 and 3.3) on the reduction rate were also investigated. Results show that increasing temperature and H2 partial pressure increase the reaction rate, whereas increasing salinity or pH have the reverse effect. The reduction of uranyl to uraninite follows an apparent zero-order with respect to time, whatever the considered electron donor. From the measured rate constants, the following values of activation energy (Ea), depending on the nature of the electron donor, have been derived: EaC-graphite = 155 ± 3 kJ mol-1, EaCH4 = 143 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and EaH2 = 124 ± 15 kJ mol-1 at T < 150 °C and 32 ± 6 kJ mol-1 at T > 150 °C. An empirical relationship between the reaction rate, the hydrogen partial pressure, the uranyl speciation, and the temperature is also proposed. This allows an estimation of the time of formation of a giant U ore deposit such as McArthur River (Canada). The duration of the mineralizing event is

  3. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  4. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  5. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PITCHBLENDE

    DOEpatents

    Ruehle, A.E.

    1958-06-24

    The decontamination of uranium from molybdenum is described. When acid solutions containing uranyl nitrate are contacted with ether for the purpose of extracting the uranium values, complex molybdenum compounds are coextracted with the uranium and also again back-extracted from the ether with the uranium. This invention provides a process for extracting uranium in which coextraction of molybdenum is avoided. It has been found that polyhydric alcohols form complexes with molybdenum which are preferentially water-soluble are taken up by the ether extractant to only a very minor degree. The preferred embodiment of the process uses mannitol, sorbitol or a mixture of the two as the complexing agent.

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Craig Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, L.C.; Hail, W.J. Jr.; Luft, S.J.; Boudette, E.L.; Snyder, G.L.

    1982-09-01

    The Craig Quadrangle in northwestern Colorado contains five areas that are considered favorable for uranium deposits that could contain at least 100 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at an average grade not less than 100 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and less than 1500 m deep. Three of the areas (A, B, and C) are in the Browns Park Formation (Miocene) in the west-central part of the quadrangle and are classed as favorable for nonchannel-controlled and channel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone-type deposits (Subclasses 244 and 243). Area A also contains fault-controlled vein deposits in sandstone (Class 730). Area A contains most of the Maybell-Lay uranium mining district. Area B differs from Area A mainly in that large uranium deposits have not been discovered and developed. The Browns Park of Area C is poorly exposed and contains only a few uranium occurrences. The area is considered favorable mainly on the likely projection of the same geologic characteristics that are favorable in Area A. Area D is in the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the southwest part of the Craig Quadrangle and uranium deposits are classed as nonchannel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone-type deposits (Subclass 244). The favorable Area is essentially a projection of the Meeker mining district based on the regional stratigraphy of the Salt Wash Member, and the presence of relatively thick, high-energy sandstone beds containing carbonaceous trash. Area E is in the Troublesome Formation (Miocene) in the southeastern part of the Craig Quadrangle and most uranium deposits are classed as channel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone-type deposits (Subclass 243).

  7. U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, R.

    1993-07-12

    After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

  8. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although

  9. STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Crouse, D.J. Jr.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

  10. Multiphoton ionization of uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. P.; Harkins, D. A.; Compton, R. N.; Ding, D.

    1994-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of UF6 are reported using focused light from the Nd:YAG laser fundamental (λ=1064 nm) and its harmonics (λ=532, 355, or 266 nm), as well as other wavelengths provided by a tunable dye laser. The MPI mass spectra are dominated by the singly and multiply charged uranium ions rather than by the UF+x fragment ions, even at the lowest laser power densities at which signal could be detected. In general, the doubly charged uranium ion (U2+) intensity is much greater than that of the singly charged uranium ion (U+). For the case of the tunable dye laser experiments, the Un+ (n=1-4) wavelength dependence is relatively unstructured and does not show observable resonance enhancement at known atomic uranium excitation wavelengths. The MPI-PES studies reveal only very slow electrons (≤0.5 eV) for all wavelengths investigated. The dominance of the U2+ ion, the absence or very small intensities of UF+x (x=1-3) fragments, the unstructured wavelength dependence, and the preponderance of slow electrons all indicate that mechanisms may exist other than ionization of bare U atoms following the stepwise photodissociation of F atoms from the parent molecule. The data also argue against stepwise photodissociation of UF+x (x=5,6) ions. Neither of the traditional MPI mechanisms (``neutral ladder'' or the ``ionic ladder'') are believed to adequately describe the ionization phenomena observed. We propose that the multiphoton excitation of UF6 under these experimental conditions results in a highly excited molecule, superexcited UF6**. The excitation of highly excited UF6** is proposed to be facilitated by the well known ``giant resonance,'' whose energy level lies in the range of 12-14 eV above that of ground state UF6. The highly excited molecule then primarily dissociates, via multiple channels, into Un+, UF+x, fluorine atoms, and ``slow'' electrons, although dissociation

  11. Forms of uranium associated to silica in the environment of the Nopal deposit (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, T.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the transfers of uranium in the environment is necessary for the safety assessement of nuclear waste repositories. In particular, several poorly ordered phases (e.g. Fe oxihydroxides) are expected to play an important role in trapping uranium from surface waters. Among them, natural systems containing amorphous silica are poorly documented. A former study from the environment of the Peny mine (France) showed the importance of silica in uranium speciation [1]. The Nopal uranium deposit is located in volcanic tuff from tertiary period. It hosted several hydrothermal alteration episodes responsible for clay minerals formation. A primary uranium mineralisation occurred in a breccia pipe, consisting in uraninite, subsequently altered in secondary uranium minerals among which several silicates. Eventually, opal was formed and coated uranyl silicates such as uranophane and weeksite [2], [3]. Opals also contain minor amounts of uranium. The Nopal deposit is still considered as a natural analogue of high level nuclear waste repository located in volcanic tuff. It may be used to reveal the low temperature conditions of trapping of uranium in systems devoid of iron oxides such as silica-containing ones. The aim of this study is then to determine the uranium speciation, and its possible complexity, associated to these opals that represent a late trapping episode. It will provide insights ranging from the micrometer scale of electron microscopies to the molecular scale provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. Three samples of green or yellow opals have been analysed by a combination of complementary tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on cross-sections, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on focused ion beam (FIB) films, cathodoluminescence and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Uranium speciation was found to be complex. We first evidence U-bearing microparticles of beta-uranophane Ca[(UO2)(Si

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  13. The neurotoxicology of uranium.

    PubMed

    Dinocourt, Céline; Legrand, Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The brain is a target of environmental toxic pollutants that impair cerebral functions. Uranium is present in the environment as a result of natural deposits and release by human applications. The first part of this review describes the passage of uranium into the brain, and its effects on neurological functions and cognitive abilities. Very few human studies have looked at its cognitive effects. Experimental studies show that after exposure, uranium can reach the brain and lead to neurobehavioral impairments, including increased locomotor activity, perturbation of the sleep-wake cycle, decreased memory, and increased anxiety. The mechanisms underlying these neurobehavioral disturbances are not clearly understood. It is evident that there must be more than one toxic mechanism and that it might include different targets in the brain. In the second part, we therefore review the principal mechanisms that have been investigated in experimental models: imbalance of the anti/pro-oxidant system and neurochemical and neurophysiological pathways. Uranium effects are clearly specific according to brain area, dose, and time. Nonetheless, this review demonstrates the paucity of data about its effects on developmental processes and the need for more attention to the consequences of exposure during development. PMID:26277741

  14. Diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of uranium hexafluoride

  15. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  17. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  18. Detection of uranium using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Rosemarie C; Cremers, David A; Radziemski, Leon J; Bostian, Melissa; Navarro-Northrup, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this work is a detailed study of uranium detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to activities associated with environmental surveillance and detecting weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The study was used to assist development of LIBS instruments for standoff detection of bulk radiological and nuclear materials and these materials distributed as contaminants on surfaces. Uranium spectra were analyzed under a variety of different conditions at room pressure, reduced pressures, and in an argon atmosphere. All spectra displayed a high apparent background due to the high density of uranium lines. Time decay curves of selected uranium lines were monitored and compared to other elements in an attempt to maximize detection capabilities for each species in the complicated uranium spectrum. A survey of the LIBS uranium spectra was conducted and relative emission line strengths were determined over the range of 260 to 800 nm. These spectra provide a guide for selection of the strongest LIBS analytical lines for uranium detection in different spectral regions. A detection limit for uranium in soil of 0.26% w/w was obtained at close range and 0.5% w/w was achieved at a distance of 30 m. Surface detection limits were substrate dependent and ranged from 13 to 150 microg/cm2. Double-pulse experiments (both collinear and orthogonal arrangements) were shown to enhance the uranium signal in some cases. Based on the results of this work, a short critique is given of the applicability of LIBS for the detection of uranium residues on surfaces for environmental monitoring and WMD surveillance. PMID:19891832

  19. Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasi, Alireza; Jafarirad, Alireza; Kheyrollahi, Hasan; Rahimi, Mana; Afzal, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    The Piranshahr-Sardasht-Saqqez Zone (PSSZ) in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSZ) hosts some major Iranian gold deposits. In the south-east of PSSZ, there is a north-east trending orogenic gold belt which contains three gold deposits/occurrences (Qolqoleh, Kervian and Ghabaghloujeh). In this research, studies are focused on processing and analysing airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to find applicable indicators for prospecting gold in this area. Former studies on the gold deposits/occurrences in the study area suggest three essential factors in local orogenic gold mineralisation: (1) intersecting deep bending structures/shear zones, (2) Fe-rich mafic meta-volcanic lithologies (primary source and host rocks) and (3) altered mylonitic granites (secondary host rock). Geological structures and lithological contacts can be mapped based on locating edges in the magnetic field at different depths. In this study, we extracted the structure from aeromagnetic data by reduction to the pole, upward continuation and applying a tilt derivative filter to the horizontal derivative of the upward continued data. Upward continuation was to several levels from 500 to 4000 m. Afterwards, a 3D architecture was built based on extracted subsurface lineaments in different levels. This 3D model can assist in the visualisation of the underground shape of structures that may influence gold mineralisation. Moreover, mafic meta-volcanic rocks in the study area, which contain magnetic minerals such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and ilmenite, can be mapped using aeromagnetic data. Mylonitic granites, which are the other host rock in the deposits, were mapped using airborne radiometric data.

  20. The Permo-Triassic uranium deposits of Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. P.; Toens, P. D.

    The world's uranium provinces are time bound and occur in five distinct periods ranging from the Proterozoic to the Recent. One of these periods embraces the time of Gondwana sedimentation and probably is related to the proliferation of land plants from the Devonian on-ward. Decaying vegetal matter produced reducing conditions that enhanced uranium precipitation. The association of uranium with molassic basins adjacent to uplifted granitic and volcanic arcs suggests that lithospheric plate subduction, leading to anatexis of basement rocks and andesitic volcanism, created favorable conditions for uranium mineralization. Uranium occurrences of Gondwana age are of four main types: sandstone-hosted, coal-hosted, pelite-hosted, and vein-type deposits. Sandstone-hosted deposits commonly occur in fluviodeltaic sediments and are related to the presence of organic matter. These deposits commonly are enriched in molybdenum and other base metal sulfides and have been found in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Niger, Madagascar, India, Australia, Argentina, and Brazil. Coalhosted deposits contain large reserves of uranium but are of low grade. In Africa they are mostly within the Permian Ecca Group and its lateral equivalents, as in the Springbok Flats, Limpopo, Botswana, and Tanzania basins. Uraniferous black shales are present in the Gabon and Amazon basins but grades are low. Vein-type uranium is found in Argentina, where it occurs in clustered veins crosscutting sedimentary rocks and quartz porphyries.

  1. Uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  2. Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from spent uranium alloy fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghusen, J. J.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gunderson, G. E.; Holmes, J. T.; Jonke, A. A.; Kincinas, J. E.; Levitz, N. M.; Potts, G. L.; Ramaswami, D.; Stethers, H.; Turner, K. S.

    1967-01-01

    Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from uranium fuels containing either zirconium or aluminum. The uranium is recovered as uranium hexafluoride. The process requires few operations in simple, compact equipment, and eliminates aqueous radioactive wastes.

  3. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; McGinn, Wilson; Meck, Dr. Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.

  4. Biogeochemical prospecting for uranium with conifers: results from the Midnite Mine area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Ward, Frederick Norville

    1977-01-01

    The ash of needles, cones, and duff from Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) growing near uranium deposits of the Midnite mine, Stevens County, Wash., contain as much as 200 parts per million (ppm) uranium. Needle samples containing more than 10 ppm uranium define zones that correlate well with known uranium deposits or dumps. Dispersion is as much as 300 m but generally is less. Background is about 1 ppm. Tree roots are judged to be sampling ore, low-grade uranium halo, or ground water to a depth of about 15 m. Uptake of uranium by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) needles appears to be about the same as by Ponderosa pine needles. Cones and duff are generally enriched in uranium relate to needles. Needles, cones, and duff are recommended as easily collected, uncomplicated sample media for geochemical surveys. Samples can be analyzed by standard methods and total cost per sample kept to about $6.

  5. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM METAL BY CARBON REDUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Holden, R.B.; Powers, R.M.; Blaber, O.J.

    1959-09-22

    The preparation of uranium metal by the carbon reduction of an oxide of uranium is described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a charge composed of carbon and uranium oxide is heated to a solid mass after which it is further heated under vacuum to a temperature of about 2000 deg C to produce a fused uranium metal. Slowly ccoling the fused mass produces a dendritic structure of uranium carbide in uranium metal. Reacting the solidified charge with deionized water hydrolyzes the uranium carbide to finely divide uranium dioxide which can be separated from the coarser uranium metal by ordinary filtration methods.

  6. Anomalous occurrence of uranium in alpine peats, Summit County, Colorado, and results of a simple sample fractionation procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, Joel S.; Jennings, Joan K.; Lemke, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    Samples from Summit County, Colo., were fractionated for analyses of organic content and uranium. The uranium is related to organic content but not to type of organic matter. In one area uranium values are around 100 ppm in bulk samples and as much as 200 ppm in certain separated fractions of the samples; this is much higher than the 1-10 ppm normal uranium values for peat.

  7. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  8. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  9. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  10. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  11. Development of sorbers for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Part 2. The accumulation of uranium from seawater by resins containing amidoxime and imidoxime functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Witte, E.G.; Schwochau, K.

    1983-04-01

    Hydroxylamine derivatives of cross-linked poly(acrylonitriles), so-called poly(acrylamidoxime) resins, are suitable for the accumulation of uranium from natural seawater of pH = 8.1 to 8.3. Depending on the method of manufacture, these sorbers yield excellent uranium loadings up to some thousand ppM which roughly equals the average uranium content of actually explored uranium ores. The rate of uranium uptake, which is 5 to 30 ppM/d at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature of seawater. Uranium can be eluted by 1 M HCl with an elution efficiency of more than 90%. Owing to a certain instability of the uranium binding groups in acid eluants, the uranium uptake decreases with increasing number of sorption-elution cycles. Hydroxylamine derivatives of poly(acrylonitrile) are shown to contain simultaneously at least two kinds of functional groups: open-chain amidoxime groups which are stable and cyclic imidoxime groups which are unstable in 1 M HCl. Experimental evidence is presented that the uptake of uranium from natural seawater is closely related to the presence of cyclic imidoxime configurations in the polyacrylic lattice. Polystyrene and poly(glycidylmethacrylate)-based amidoxime and imide dioxime resins are less effective in extracting uranium from natural seawater. 10 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Comparative sensitivity of three populations of the cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Semaan, M; Holdway, D A; van Dam, R A

    2001-10-01

    Assessment of differences in the response of three different populations of the tropical cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to uranium exposure was evaluated. The populations tested included a laboratory stock (maintained for 10 years), a wild population collected from Bowerbird Billabong (an uncontaminated environment), and a population collected from Djalkmara Billabong (a relatively contaminated environment with elevated levels of uranium), located on the Ranger uranium mine site, Jabiru East, NT, Australia. Chronic and acute toxicity of uranium was determined for all three populations. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC; reproduction) and lowest observed-effect-concentration (LOEC; reproduction) for uranium ranged between 8-31 micrograms L-1 and 20-49 micrograms L-1, respectively, for all three populations. The 48 h EC50 (immobilization-lethality) for uranium ranged between 160-390 micrograms L-1 for all three populations. There was little difference in the response of the three populations of M. macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure, although the response of the laboratory population to chronic uranium exposure appeared more variable than the "wild" populations. There was no apparent tolerance in the population of M. macleayi obtained from Djalkmara Billabong when exposed to elevated levels of uranium. M. macleayi was significantly more sensitive to uranium exposure than other species previously tested. It was concluded that the sensitivity of the laboratory population (to uranium) is still representative of natural M. macleayi populations. PMID:11594022

  13. Method of preparing uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, Harley A.; McClusky, James K.

    1976-04-27

    Sintered uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies having a controlled final carbon-to-uranium ratio are prepared, in an essentially continuous process, from U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and carbon by varying the weight ratio of carbon to U.sub.3 O.sub.8 in the feed mixture, which is compressed into a green body and sintered in a continuous heating process under various controlled atmospheric conditions to prepare the sintered bodies.

  14. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  15. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-12-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  16. The multiphoton ionization of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.P. . UEO Enrichment Technical Operations Div.)

    1992-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of UF{sub 6} have been conducted using focused light from the Nd:YAG laser fundamental ({lambda}=1064 nm) and its harmonics ({lambda}=532, 355, or 266 nm), as well as other wavelengths provided by a tunable dye laser. The MPI mass spectra are dominated by the singly and multiply charged uranium ions rather than by the UF{sub x}{sup +} fragment ions even at the lowest laser power densities at which signal could be detected. The laser power dependence of U{sup n+} ions signals indicates that saturation can occur for many of the steps required for their ionization. In general, the doubly-charged uranium ion (U{sup 2+}) intensity is much greater than that of the singly-charged uranium ion (U{sup +}). For the case of the tunable dye laser experiments, the U{sup n+} (n = 1- 4) wavelength dependence is relatively unstructured and does not show observable resonance enhancement at known atomic uranium excitation wavelengths. The dominance of the U{sup 2+} ion and the absence or very small intensities of UF{sub x}{sup +} fragments, along with the unsaturated wavelength dependence, indicate that mechanisms may exist other than ionization of bare U atoms after the stepwise photodissociation of F atoms from the parent molecule.

  17. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  18. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, STEVEN H.

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in

  19. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically < 10 ppm) and the expense of collecting large number of cores. An in-situ technique has been developed for studying uranium, iron and sulfur reduction dynamics during such bioremediation episodes. This technique uses in-well columns to obtain direct access to chemical and physical forms of U(IV) produced in the aquifer, evolving microbial communities, and trace and major ion groundwater constituents. While several studies have explored bioreduction of uranium under sulfate-reducing conditions, less attention has been paid to the initial iron-reducing phase, noted as being of particular importance to uranium removal. The aim of this work was to assess the formation of U(IV) during the early stages of a bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution

  20. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  1. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  2. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOEpatents

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Knighton, Gaven C.; Clark, Curtis R.

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  3. Portable field kit for determining uranium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, John B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressing need for on-site field analyses of the uranium content of surface and ground waters has promoted the development of a simple, light-weight, relatively cheap, portable kit to make such determinations in the field. Forty to sixty water samples per day can be analyzed for uranium to less than 0.2 parts per billion. The kit was tested in the field with excellent results.

  4. METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foster, L.S.; Magel, T.T.

    1958-05-13

    A modified process is described for the production of uranium metal by means of a bomb reduction of UF/sub 4/. Difficulty is sometimes experienced in obtaining complete separation of the uranium from the slag when the process is carried out on a snnall scale, i.e., for the production of 10 grams of U or less. Complete separation may be obtained by incorporating in the reaction mixture a quantity of MnCl/sub 2/, so that this compound is reduced along with the UF/sub 4/ . As a result a U--Mn alloy is formed which has a melting point lower than that of pure U, and consequently the metal remains molten for a longer period allowing more complete separation from the slag.

  5. FORMATION OF URANIUM PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M. Jr.

    1959-03-17

    A method is described for precipitation of uranium peroxide from uranium- containing solutions so as to obtain larger aggregates which facilitates washings decantations filtrations centrifugations and the like. The desired larger aggregate form is obtained by maintaining the pH of the solution in the approximate range of 1 to 3 and the temperature at about 25 deg C or below while carrytng out the precipitation. Then prior to removal of the precipitate a surface active sulfonated bicarboxyacids such as di-octyl sodium sulfo-succinates is incorporated in an anount of the order of 0.01 to 0.05 percent by weights and the slurry is allowed to ripen for about one-half hour at a temperatare below 10 deg C.

  6. A2MnU3O11 (A = K, Rb) and Li3.2Mn1.8U6O22: Three New Alkali-Metal Manganese Uranium(VI) Oxides Related to Natrotantite.

    PubMed

    Read, Cory Michael; Morrison, Gregory; Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-07-20

    Single crystals of three new alkali-metal manganese uranium oxides, K2MnU3O11, Rb2MnU3O11, and Li3.2Mn1.8U6O22, have been grown from molten chloride fluxes and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The first two compounds crystallize in the trigonal space group, R3̅c, in the three-dimensional (3D), natrotantite structure composed of α-U3O8-topological layers connected via MnO6 octahedra. The Li-containing compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, Cc, with a related 3D structure, composed of β-U3O8-topological sheets connected via irregular MnO7 polyhedra. All three compounds exhibit typical uranyl, UO2(2+), coordination environments consisting of either UO7 pentagonal bipyramids or UO6 flattened octahedra. The lattice parameters of the new oxides are K2MnU3O11, a = 6.8280(2) Å, c = 36.8354(17) Å; Rb2MnU3O11, a = 6.8407(2) Å, c = 37.5520(17) Å; and Li3.2Mn1.8U6O22, a = 11.8958(8) Å, b = 10.9639(7) Å, c = 13.3269(8) Å, and β = 91.442(4)°. The magnetic susceptibilities of the K and Rb phases are discussed. PMID:26158295

  7. World uranium production in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    For the first time since the political and economic opening of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, world uranium production actually increased in 1995. Preliminary estimates for 1996 continue this trend, indicating additional (if slight) production increases over 1995 levels. Natural uranium production increased by about 5% in 1995 to 34,218 tons uranium or 89 Mlbs U3O8. This is an increase of approximately 1700 tons of uranium or 4.3 Mlbs of U3O8 over the updated 1994 quantities. Data is presented for each of the major uranium producing countries, for each of the world`s largest uranium mines, for each of the world`s largest corporate producers, and for major regions of the world.

  8. ELECTROLYSIS OF THORIUM AND URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, W.N.

    1960-09-01

    An electrolytic method is given for obtaining pure thorium, uranium, and thorium-uranium alloys. The electrolytic cell comprises a cathode composed of a metal selected from the class consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth, an anode composed of at least one of the metals selected from the group consisting of thorium and uranium in an impure state, and an electrolyte composed of a fused salt containing at least one of the salts of the metals selected from the class consisting of thorium, uranium. zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth. Electrolysis of the fused salt while the cathode is maintained in the molten condition deposits thorium, uranium, or thorium-uranium alloys in pure form in the molten cathode which thereafter may be separated from the molten cathode product by distillation.

  9. WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-08-26

    A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

  10. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

  11. Sputtering of uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, R.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the sputtering of U-235 atoms from foil targets by hydrogen, helium, and argon ions, which was performed by observing tracks produced in mica by fission fragments following thermal-neutron-induced fission. The technique used allowed measurements of uranium sputtering yields of less than 0.0001 atom/ion as well as yields involving the removal of less than 0.01 monolayer of the uranium target surface. The results reported include measurements of the sputtering yields for 40-120-keV protons, 40-120-keV He-4(+) ions, and 40- and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the mass distribution of chunks emitted during sputtering by the protons and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the total chunk yield during He-4(+) sputtering, and some limited data on molecular sputtering by H2(+) and H3(+). The angular distribution of the sputtered uranium is discussed, and the yields obtained are compared with the predictions of collision cascade theory.

  12. Depleted Uranium in Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Croff, A.G.

    1997-12-31

    For uranium to be useful in most fission nuclear reactors, it must be enriched (i.e. the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased). Therefore, depleted uranium (DU)-uranium which has less than naturally occurring concentrations of 235U-is a co-product of the enrichment process. Four to six tons of DU exist for every ton of fresh light water reactor fuel. There were 407,006 MgU 407,000 metric tons (t) of DU stored on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as of July 1993. If this DU were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and emplaced in a near surface disposal facility, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that near surface disposal of large quantities of DU tails is not appropriate. Thus, there is the possibility that disposition via disposal will be in a deep geological repository. One alternative that may significantly reduce the cost of DU disposition is to use it beneficially. In fact, DOE has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large scale uses of DU and to encourage its reuse. Several beneficial uses, many of which involve applications in the repository per se or in managing the wastes to go into the repository, are discussed in this report.

  13. PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

  14. METHOD OF JACKETING URANIUM BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Maloney, J.O.; Haines, E.B.; Tepe, J.B.

    1958-08-26

    An improved process is presented for providing uranium slugs with thin walled aluminum jackets. Since aluminum has a slightiy higher coefficient of thermal expansion than does uraaium, both uranium slugs and aluminum cans are heated to an elevated temperature of about 180 C, and the slug are inserted in the cans at that temperature. During the subsequent cooling of the assembly, the aluminum contracts more than does the uranium and a tight shrink fit is thus assured.

  15. PROCESS FOR REMOVING NOBLE METALS FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.

    1961-01-31

    A pyrometallurgical method is given for purifying uranium containing ruthenium and palladium. The uranium is disintegrated and oxidized by exposure to air and then the ruthenium and palladium are extracted from the uranium with molten zinc.

  16. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.; Brewer, L.

    1959-02-10

    A method is presented of preparing uranium metal of high purity consisting contacting impure U metal with halogen vapor at between 450 and 550 C to form uranium halide vapor, contacting the uranium halide vapor in the presence of H/sub 2/ with a refractory surface at about 1400 C to thermally decompose the uranium halides and deposit molten U on the refractory surface and collecting the molten U dripping from the surface. The entire operation is carried on at a sub-atmospheric pressure of below 1 mm mercury.

  17. Uranium droplet core nuclear rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1991-01-01

    Uranium droplet nuclear rocket is conceptually designed to utilize the broad temperature range ofthe liquid phase of metallic uranium in droplet configuration which maximizes the energy transfer area per unit fuel volume. In a baseline system dissociated hydrogen at 100 bar is heated to 6000 K, providing 2000 second of Isp. Fission fragments and intense radian field enhance the dissociation of molecular hydrogen beyond the equilibrium thermodynamic level. Uranium droplets in the core are confined and separated by an axisymmetric vortex flow generated by high velocity tangential injection of hydrogen in the mid-core regions. Droplet uranium flow to the core is controlled and adjusted by a twin flow nozzle injection system.

  18. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed. PMID:20195447

  19. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bane, R.W.

    1959-09-01

    A description is given for the separation of thorium from uranium by forming an aqueous acidic solution containing ionic species of thorium, uranyl uranium, and hydroxylamine, flowing the solution through a column containing the phenol-formaldehyde type cation exchange resin to selectively adsorb substantially all the thorium values and a portion of the uranium values, flowing a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid through the column to desorb the uranium values, and then flowing a dilute aqueous acidic solution containing an ion, such as bisulfate, which has a complexing effect upon thortum through the column to desorb substantially all of the thorium.

  20. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, F. F., Jr.; Sackett, W. M.

    1981-08-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and δ 13C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores frm the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and δ 13C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments.

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  2. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  3. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  4. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  5. PROCESS OF PRODUCING REFRACTORY URANIUM OXIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, N.E.

    1957-12-01

    A method is presented for fabricating uranium oxide into a shaped refractory article by introducing a uranium halide fluxing reagent into the uranium oxide, and then mixing and compressing the materials into a shaped composite mass. The shaped mass of uranium oxide and uranium halide is then fired at an elevated temperature so as to form a refractory sintered article. It was found in the present invention that the introduction of a uraninm halide fluxing agent afforded a fluxing action with the uranium oxide particles and that excellent cohesion between these oxide particles was obtained. Approximately 90% of uranium dioxide and 10% of uranium tetrafluoride represent a preferred composition.

  6. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOEpatents

    Rothman, Alan B.; Graczyk, Donald G.; Essling, Alice M.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2001-01-01

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  7. Kinetics of Uranium Extraction from Uranium Tailings by Oxidative Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Extraction of uranium from uranium tailings by oxidative leaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. The effects of various extraction factors were investigated to optimize the dissolution conditions, as well as to determine the leaching kinetic parameters. The behavior of H2O2 in the leaching process was determined through scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction analysis of leaching residues. Results suggest that H2O2 can significantly improve uranium extraction by decomposing the complex gangue structures in uranium tailings and by enhancing the reaction rate between uranium phases and the leaching agent. The extraction kinetics expression was changed from 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)-0.14903(S/L)-1.80435(R o)0.20023 e -1670.93/T t (t ≥ 5) to 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)0.01382(S/L)-1.83275(R o)0.25763 e -1654.59/T t (t ≥ 5) by the addition of H2O2 in the leaching process. The use of H2O2 in uranium leaching may help in extracting uranium more efficiently and rapidly from low-uranium-containing ores or tailings.

  8. 12. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLDS. DEPLETED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLDS. DEPLETED URANIUM CASTING OPERATIONS CEASED IN 1988. (11/14/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

    1962-06-26

    A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

  10. Kinetics of Uranium Extraction from Uranium Tailings by Oxidative Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of uranium from uranium tailings by oxidative leaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. The effects of various extraction factors were investigated to optimize the dissolution conditions, as well as to determine the leaching kinetic parameters. The behavior of H2O2 in the leaching process was determined through scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction analysis of leaching residues. Results suggest that H2O2 can significantly improve uranium extraction by decomposing the complex gangue structures in uranium tailings and by enhancing the reaction rate between uranium phases and the leaching agent. The extraction kinetics expression was changed from 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)-0.14903(S/L)-1.80435( R o)0.20023 e -1670.93/T t ( t ≥ 5) to 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)0.01382(S/L)-1.83275( R o)0.25763 e -1654.59/T t ( t ≥ 5) by the addition of H2O2 in the leaching process. The use of H2O2 in uranium leaching may help in extracting uranium more efficiently and rapidly from low-uranium-containing ores or tailings.

  11. Uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Kutvirt, D.M.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Key, C.R.

    1984-06-07

    We performed a population-based case-control study to examine the association between uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men, a predominantly nonsmoking population. The 32 cases included all those occurring among Navajo men between 1969 and 1982, as ascertained by the New Mexico Tumor Registry. For each case in a Navajo man, two controls with nonrespiratory cancer were selected. Of the 32 Navajo patients, 72 per cent had been employed as uranium miners, whereas no controls had documented experience in this industry. The lower 95 per cent confidence limit for the relative risk of lung cancer associated with uranium mining was 14.4. Information on cigarette smoking was available for 21 of the 23 affected uranium miners; eight were nonsmokers and median consumption by the remainder was one to three cigarettes daily. These results demonstrate that in a rural nonsmoking population most of the lung cancer may be attributable to one hazardous occupation.

  12. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado. They are the Hansen orebody, which contains about 12 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and the Picnic Tree orebody, which contains about 1 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Host rock for the Hansen is the upper Eocene Echo Park Alluvium, and host rock for the Picnic Tree is the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek onglomerate. Average ore grade for both deposits is about 0.08 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The principal source rock for the uranium depsoits is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff, although a younger volcanic rock, the Oligocene Thirtynine Mile Andesite, and Precambrian granitic rocks probably also contributed some uranium. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the ground water to favorable sites where it was deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by ground-water flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. Ground-water flow, which was apparently to the southeast in Echo Park Alluvium that is confined in the Echo Park graben, was impeded by a fault that offsets the southern end of the graben. This offset prevented efficient discharge into the ancestral Arkansas River drainage, and protected chemically reducing areas from destruction by the influx of large amounts of oxidizing ground water. The location of orebodies in the Echo Park Alluvium also may be related to areas where overlying rocks of low permeability were breached by erosion during deposition of the fluvial Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate allowing localized entry of uranium-bearing water.

  13. The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Morten B.; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high 238U/235U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have 238U/235U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years.

  14. The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Morten B; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W W; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A

    2015-01-15

    Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high (238)U/(235)U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have (238)U/(235)U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years. PMID:25592542

  15. Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, Anders I.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Edlund, Bror; Hoegdahl, Camilla; Ek, Britt-Marie; Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis

  16. Analysis of technetium in SRP uranium product streams

    SciTech Connect

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1984-04-06

    Technetium (Tc) is a major fission product with a fission yield similar to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. All traces of the natural element have disappeared due to decay over the earth`s history. The major isotope present in cooled nuclear fuel is {sup 99}Tc with a half life of 2.12 {times} 10{sup 5} years. This isotope decays via low energy (0.292 Mev) beta emission which is easily absorbed and contributes little penetrating radiation hazards in fuel reprocessing. Because it is difficult to detect, the distribution of {sup 99}Tc in the F and H area process streams is not generally well known. Previous studies have shown that a significant fraction of Tc follows uranium through the solvent extraction process. This study was conducted to analyze the {sup 99}Tc content of SRP uranium product streams, to assess any hazard due to {sup 99}Tc and to evaluate the impact of future higher burnup fuels on {sup 99}Tc levels in uranium products. This summary report presents {sup 99}Tc assays in uranium streams in F and H areas, relates these concentrations to solvent extraction conditions in the two areas, and compares the incremental radioactivity from {sup 99}Tc in the product streams to the uranium itself. Presently the radioactivity contributed by {sup 99}Tc is small relative to uranium. The proposed production using Mark 15 assemblies will also result in negligible increase in radioactivity due to {sup 99}Tc.

  17. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  18. METHOD OF DISSOLVING METALLIC URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-07-28

    A process is presented for more rapidly dissolving metallic uranium which comprises contacting the uranium with a mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids. The preferred concentration is a mixture which is about 10 M in nitric acid and between 0.1 to 0.15 M in phosphoric acid.

  19. Uranium thorium hydride nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simnad, M.T.

    1985-01-15

    A nuclear fuel includes uranium dispersed within a thorium hydride matrix. The uranium may be in the form of particles including fissile and non-fissile isotopes. Various hydrogen to thorium ratios may be included in the matrix. The matrix with the fissile dispersion may be used as a complete fuel for a metal hydride reactor or may be combined with other fuels.

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  1. Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    WILMARTH, WILLIAM

    2006-03-10

    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

  2. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  3. The distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the basin and range province, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeal, J.M.; Lee, D.E.; Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Some secondary uranium deposits are thought to have formed from uranium derived by the weathering of silicic igneous rocks such as granites, rhyolites, and tuffs. A regional geochemical survey was made to determine the distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the Basin and Range province in order to evaluate the potential for secondary uranium occurrences in the area. The resulting geochemical maps of uranium, thorium, and the Th:U ratio may be useful in locating target areas for uranium exploration. The granites were sampled according to a five-level, nested, analysis-of-variance design, permitting estimates to be made of the variance due to differences between:(1) two-degree cells; (2) one-degree cells; (3) plutons; (4) samples; and (5) analyses. The cells are areas described in units of degrees of latitude and longitude. The results show that individual plutons tend to differ in uranium and thorium concentrations, but that each pluton tends to be relatively homogeneous. Only small amounts of variance occur at the two degree and the between-analyses levels. The three geochemical maps that were prepared are based on one-degree cell means. The reproducibility of the maps is U > Th ??? Th:U. These geochemical maps may be used in three methods of locating target areas for uranium exploration. The first method uses the concept that plutons containing the greatest amounts of uranium may supply the greatest amounts of uranium for the formation of secondary uranium occurrences. The second method is to examine areas with high thorium contents, because thorium and uranium are initially highly correlated but much uranium could be lost by weathering. The third method is to locate areas in which the plutons have particularly high Th:U ratios. Because uranium, but not thorium, is leached by chemical weathering, high Th:U ratios suggest a possible loss of uranium and possibly a greater potential for secondary uranium occurrences to be found in the area. ?? 1981.

  4. Magnitude and variability of disequilibrium in San Antonio Valley uranium deposit, Valencia County

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.C.; Lavery, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    The San Antonio Valley deposit is elongate northwest-southeast, is approximately 1 mile long and 1,000 wide and averages 6 to 12 ft in thickness. This trend-type deposit has a chemically reduced mineralogy and occurs below the water table. The average disequilibrium factor for the deposit shows a 6 percent enrichment in chemical uranium; however, systematic variations occur throughout the deposit. The northeastern edge averages 14 percent excessive chemical uranium relative to equivalent uranium, and the southwestern edge is deficient in chemical uranium. Instead of applying a single correction factor to the ore reserves calculated from radiometric data, three correction factors can be used, one for each of the three northwest-southeast elongate zones. The use of multiple correction factors can improve mine planning and should increase the total amount of uranium recovered from the deposit. Vertical profiles of chemical uranium and closed-can equivalent uranium through mineralized intervals suggest dispersion of uranium daughter isotopes away from uranium concentrations in some core holes and deposition of daughter isotopes in other core holes. Horizontal data plots suggest that depletion of daughter isotopes is pronounced along the northeast edge of the deposit and that their redeposition occurs in the central and soutwest parts. Groundwater flow from northeast to southwest through the deposit may have caused the transport and redeposition of the daughter isotopes, which in turn created the longitudinal zones of uranium excess and deficiency. This flow system caused both the local migration of daughter isotopes away from uranium concentrations seen in drill cores and also the larger scale transport of daughter isotopes in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. This model is based on chemical-uranium assays and on closed-can equivalent-uranium assays.

  5. A follow-up study on indoor 222Rn, 220Rn their decay product concentrations in a mineralised zone of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, B S; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Prabhjot; Saini, Komal; Singh, Surinder; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K

    2016-03-01

    A follow-up study was taken up in a mineralised zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, to investigate high values of radon concentrations reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, the concentrations of indoor radon, thoron and their decay products have been measured using the newly developed radon/thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS), respectively. The measurements have been carried out in 75 dwellings of 14 different villages where the previous studies were carried out using bare SSNTD technique. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly due to thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12 to 157±73 Bq m(-3) and 44±11 to 240±125 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10 to 63 and 1 to 5 Bq m(-3), respectively. PMID:26184660

  6. The effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Viateau, Véronique; Guérard, Sandra; Anagnostou, Fani; Manassero, Mathieu; Castner, David G; Migonney, Véronique

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of polystyrene sodium sulfonate (PolyNaSS) grafting onto the osseo-integration of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament (Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System, LARS™) used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). The performance of grafted and non-grafted ligaments was assessed in vitro by culturing human osteoblasts under osteogenic induction and this demonstrated that the surface modification was capable of up-regulating the secretion of ALP and induced higher level of mineralisation as measured 6 weeks post-seeding by Micro-Computed Tomography. Grafted and non-grafted LARS™ were subsequently implanted in an ovine model for ACL reconstruction and the ligament-to-bone interface was evaluated by histology and biomechanical testings 3 and 12 months post-implantation. The grafted ligaments exhibited more frequent direct ligament-to-bone contact and bone formation in the core of the ligament at the later time point than the non-grafted specimens, the grafting also significantly reduced the fibrous encapsulation of the ligament 12 months post-implantation. However, this improved osseo-integration was not translated into a significant increase in the biomechanical pull-out loads. These results provide evidences that PolyNaSS grafting improved the osseo-integration of the artificial ligament within the bone tunnels. This might positively influence the outcome of the surgical reconstructions, as higher ligament stability is believed to limit micro-movement and therefore permits earlier and enhanced healing. PMID:23790438

  7. The importance of colloids and mires for the transport of uranium isotopes through the Kalix River watershed and Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Porcelli, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Andersson, P.S.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of colloids and organic deposits for the transport of uranium isotopes from continental source regions and through the estuarine environment was investigated in the mire-rich Kalix River drainage basin in northern Sweden and the Baltic Sea. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to separate uranium and other elements associated with colloids > 10 kD and >3 kD from {open_quotes}solute{close_quotes} uranium and provided consistent results and high recovery rates for uranium as well as for other elements from large volume samples. Uranium concentrations in 0.45 {mu}m-filtered Kalix River water samples increased by a factor of 3 from near the headwaters in the Caledonides to the river mouth while major cation concentrations were relatively constant. {sup 234}U {sup 238}U ratios were high ({delta}{sup 234}U = 770-1500) throughout the basin, without showing any simple pattern, and required a supply of {sup 234}U-rich water. Throughout the Kalix River, a large fraction (30-90%) of the uranium is carried by >10 kD colloids, which is compatible with uranium complexation with humic acids. No isotopic differences were found between colloid-associated and solute uranium. Within the Baltic Sea, about half of the uranium is removed at low salinities. The proportion that is lost is equivalent to that of river-derived colloid-bound uranium, suggesting that while solute uranium behaves conservatively during estuarine mixing, colloid-bound uranium is lost due to rapid flocculation of colloidal material. The association of uranium with colloids therefore may be an important parameter in determining uranium estuarine behavior. Mire peats in the Kalix River highly concentrate uranium and are potentially a significant source of recoil {sup 234}U to the mirewaters and river waters. However, mirewater data clearly demonstrate that only small {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U shifts are generated relative to inflowing groundwater. 63 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Uranium in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

  9. Chemical aspects of uranium behavior in soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2011-08-01

    Uranium has varying degrees of oxidation (+4 and +6) and is responsive to changes in the redox potential of the environment. It is deposited at the reduction barrier with the participation of biota and at the sorption barrier under oxidative conditions. Iron (hydr)oxides are the strongest sorbents of uranium. Uranium, being an element of medium biological absorption, can accumulate (relative to thorium) in the humus horizons of some soils. The high content of uranium in uncontaminated soils is most frequently inherited from the parent rocks in the regions of positive U anomalies: in the soils developed on oil shales and in the marginal zone of bogs at the reduction barrier. The development of nuclear and coal-fired power engineering resulted in the environmental contamination with uranium. The immobilization of anthropogenic uranium at artificial geochemical barriers is based on two preconditions: the stimulation of on-site metal-reducing bacteria or the introduction of strong mineral reducers, e.g., Fe at low degrees of oxidation.

  10. Recovery and Detection of Uranium (VI) From Building Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Philip A.; Copper, Christine L.; Berv, David; Ramsey, Jeremy D.; Collins, Greg E.

    2004-03-29

    As a legacy of the United States' 50 year old nuclear weapons program, the Department of Energy is responsible for cleaning up and decommissioning contaminated sites that were used for the production of these weapons. The method presented here addresses the problem of detecting and quantifying uranium (VI) in concrete. Specifically, the uranium (VI) is removed from concrete surfaces using a low pH buffer rinse that dissolves the surface layer. The amount of uranium in the wash solution can be quite low, even with extraction efficiencies exceeding 50 %. Therefore, the uranium is complexed with an organic chelating agent (arsenazo III) and concentrated using C18 solid phase extraction. Because the absorbance maximum of arsenazo III shifts upon binding to uranium, the concentrated complex can be detected using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Low part-per-billion levels of uranium (VI) in cement can be detected by this method. Results of work related to other building material s such as stainless steel and plexiglass will also be reported.

  11. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  12. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  13. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  14. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  15. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  16. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  17. THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM GAS MIXTURE

    DOEpatents

    Jury, S.H.

    1964-03-17

    A method of separating uranium from a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and other gases is described that comprises bringing the mixture into contact with anhydrous calcium sulfate to preferentially absorb the uranium hexafluoride on the sulfate. The calcium sulfate is then leached with a selective solvent for the adsorbed uranium. (AEC)

  18. Process for removing carbon from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Powell, George L.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

  19. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FROM URANIUM/MOLYBDENUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R; Ann Visser, A; James Laurinat, J

    2007-10-15

    The Savannah River Site will recycle a nuclear fuel comprised of 90% uranium-10% molybdenum by weight. The process flowsheet calls for dissolution of the material in nitric acid to a uranium concentration of 15-20 g/L without the formation of precipitates. The dissolution will be followed by separation of uranium from molybdenum using solvent extraction with 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin. Testing with the fuel validated dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature. Batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed for the extraction, strip and wash stages with particular focus on the distribution of molybdenum.

  20. Application of phytoextraction for uranium contaminated soil in korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y.; Han, Y.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The soils having high concentration of uranium, sampled from Goesan Deokpyungri area in Korea, were identified with the uranium removal efficiency of phytoextraction by using several plants. According to the results of physicochemical properties, uranium concentration from soil was 28.85mg/kg, pH 5.43 and soil texture was "Sand". Results of SEP(Sequential Extraction Procedure) test, uranium concentrations ratio of soil in the status of exchangeable/carbonate was 13.4%. Five plants such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Sesame (Perilla frutescens var. japonica) were cultivated during 56 days in phytotron. All the cultivation processes were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 degrees celsius, 70% relative humidity, 4000 Lux illumination (16 hours/day) and CO2 concentration of 600 ppm. Four times at intervals of 2 weeks leaves and roots collected were analyzed for uranium concentration. Ranges of uranium concentration of the roots and leaves from the five plants were measured to 206.81-721.22μg/kg and 3.45-10.21μg/kg respectively. The majority of uranium was found to accumulate in the roots. Uranium concentration in the leaves, regardless of the type of plants were presented below standard of drinking water(30μg/l) by U.S EPA. Phytoextraction pot experiments with citric acid were conducted. Citric acid as chelating agent was applied to soil to enhance uranium accumulation in five crop plants. 6 days before harvest crops, Each citric acid 25mM and 50mM was injected into the soil by 300ml. After injecting citric acid 25mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.95. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 2-4times and 7-30times compared to control soil. Injected with citric acid 50mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.79. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 3-10times and 10

  1. Determination of uranium in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Daniels, G.J.

    1959-01-01

    A routine fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in zircon. It employs the direct extraction of uranyl nitrate with ethyl acetate using phosphate as a retainer for zirconium. Submicrogram amounts or uranium are separated in the presence of 100,000 times the amount of zirconium. The modified procedure has been worked out using synthetic mixtures of known composition and zircon. Results of analyses have an accuracy of 97-98% of the contained uranium and a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. ?? 1959.

  2. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hellman, N.N.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for separating uranium from thorium wherein the ratio of thorium to uranium is between 100 to 10,000. According to the invention the thoriumuranium mixture is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is prepared so as to obtain the desired concentration within a critical range of from 4 to 8 N with regard to the total nitrate due to thorium nitrate, with or without nitric acid or any nitrate salting out agent. The solution is then contacted with an ether, such as diethyl ether, whereby uranium is extracted into ihe organic phase while thorium remains in the aqueous phase.

  3. URANIUM RECOVERY FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, R.C.; Rodger, W.A.

    1962-04-24

    A process of recovering uranium from a UF/sub 4/-NaFZrF/sub 4/ mixture by spraying the molten mixture at about 200 deg C in nitrogen of super- atmospheric pressure into droplets not larger than 100 microns, and contacting the molten droplets with fluorine at about 200 deg C for 0.01 to 10 seconds in a container the walls of which have a temperature below the melting point of the mixture is described. Uranium hexafluoride is formed and volatilized and the uranium-free salt is solidified. (AEC)

  4. Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    The behavior of uranium during interaction of subsurface water with crystalline rocks and uranium ores is considered in connection with the problem of safe underground insulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since subsurface water interacts with crystalline rocks formed at a high temperature, the mineral composition of these rocks and uranium species therein are thermodynamically unstable. Therefore, reactions directed toward the establishment of equilibrium proceed in the water-rock system. At great depths that are characterized by hindered water exchange, where subsurface water acquires near-neutral and reducing properties, the interaction is extremely sluggish and is expressed in the formation of micro- and nanoparticles of secondary minerals. Under such conditions, the slow diffusion redistribution of uranium with enrichment in absorbed forms relative to all other uranium species is realized as well. The products of secondary alteration of Fe- and Ti-bearing minerals serve as the main sorbents of uranium. The rate of alteration of minerals and conversion of uranium species into absorbed forms is slow, and the results of these processes are insignificant, so that the rocks and uranium species therein may be regarded as unaltered. Under reducing conditions, subsurface water is always saturated with uranium. Whether water interacts with rock or uranium ore, the equilibrium uranium concentration in water is only ≤10-8 mol/l. Uraninite ore under such conditions always remains stable irrespective of its age. The stability conditions of uranium ore are quite suitable for safe insulation of SNF, which consists of 95% uraninite (UO2) and is a confinement matrix for all other radionuclides. The disposal of SNF in massifs of crystalline rocks at depths below 500 m, where reducing conditions are predominant, is a reliable guarantee of high SNF stability. Under oxidizing conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone, the rate of interaction of rocks with subsurface water

  5. Isotopic disequilibrium of uranium: alpha-recoil damage and preferential solution effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, R.L.

    1980-02-29

    Preferential loss of uranium-234 relative to uranium-238 from rocks into solutions has long been attributed to recoiling alpha-emitting nuclei. Direct evidence has been obtained for two mechanisms, first, recoil ejection from grains, and now release by natural etching of alpha-recoil tracks. The observations have implications for radon emanation and for the storage of alpha-emitting radioactive waste.

  6. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of...

  7. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of...

  8. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of...

  10. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the National... documents. The ADAMS accession numbers for the documents related to this document are: Inspection...

  11. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of...

  12. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  13. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  14. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  15. Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Workman, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (μg/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will

  16. Investigating Freshwater Periphyton Community Response to Uranium with Phospholipid Fatty Acid and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Jack A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Peacock, A. D.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2008-04-01

    Periphyton communities can be used as monitors of ecosystem health and as indicators of contamination in lotic systems. Measures of biomass, community structure and genetic diversity were used to investigate impacts of uranium exposure on periphyton. Laboratory exposures of periphyton in river water amended with uranium were performed for 5 days, followed by 2 days of uranium depuration in unamended river water. Productivity as measured by biomass was not affected by concentrations up to 100 µg L-1 uranium. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns found no changes in community or genetic structure related to uranium exposure. We suggest that the periphyton community as a whole is not impacted by exposures of uranium up to a dose of 100 µg L-1. These findings have significance for the assessment and prediction of uranium impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

  18. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

  19. Uranium hexafluoride bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports written about the transportation, handling, safety, and processing of uranium hexafluoride. An on-line literature search was executed using the DOE Energy files and the Nuclear Science Abstracts file to identify pertinent reports. The DOE Energy files contain unclassified information that is processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information of the US Department of Energy. The reports selected from these files were published between 1974 and 1983. Nuclear Science Abstracts contains unclassified international nuclear science and technology literature published from 1948 to 1976. In addition, scientific and technical reports published by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration, as well as those published by other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations, are included in the Nuclear Science Abstracts file. An alphabetical listing of the acronyms used to denote the corporate sponsors follows the bibliography.

  20. URANIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ruhoff, J.R.; Winters, C.E.

    1957-11-12

    A process is described for the purification of uranyl nitrate by an extraction process. A solution is formed consisting of uranyl nitrate, together with the associated impurities arising from the HNO/sub 3/ leaching of the ore, in an organic solvent such as ether. If this were back extracted with water to remove the impurities, large quantities of uranyl nitrate will also be extracted and lost. To prevent this, the impure organic solution is extracted with small amounts of saturated aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate thereby effectively accomplishing the removal of impurities while not allowing any further extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent. After the impurities have been removed, the uranium values are extracted with large quantities of water.

  1. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  2. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1989 US uranium potential resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, R.B. ); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. )

    1990-12-31

    Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the EIA, US Department of Energy, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Department of the Interior, the USGS develops estimates of uranium endowment for selected geological environments in the United States. New estimates of endowment are used to update the Uranium Resources Assessment Data (URAD) System which, beginning in 1990, is maintained for EIA by the USGS. For 1989, estimates of US undiscovered resources were generated using revised economic index values (current to December 1989) in the URAD system's cost model. The increase in the estimates for the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) and Speculative Resources (SR) classes resulted primarily from increases in the estimates of uranium endowment for the solution-collapse, breccia-pipe uranium deposit environment in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The mean values for $30-, $50-, and $100-per-pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} forward-cost categories of EAR increased by about 8, 48, and 32 percent, respectively, as compared to 1988. Estimates of the 1989 undiscovered resources in the SR class also increased in all three forward-cost categories by 10, 5, and 9 percent, respectively. The original cost equations in the URAD System were designed to cover drilling costs related to extensive flat-lying tabular ore bodies. The equations do not adequately treat drilling costs for the smaller areas of vertical breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The development of appropriate cost equations for describing the economics of mining this type of deposit represents a major new task. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  4. Ore petrography of a sedimentary uranium deposit, Live Oak County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, B.J.; Ledger, E.B.; Tieh, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    Samples from the McLean 5 open-pit uranium mine, a small high-grade deposit located along a normal fault in the Miocene Oakville sandstone of Live Oak County, Texas, have been studied for uranium abundance, distribution, and nature of occurrence on the microscopic level. The host sandstone is composed of quartz, feldspars, and volcanic rock fragments, cemented by sparry calcite. Authigenic minerals include iron disulfide minerals (dominantly pyrite and some marcasite) and small amounts of clays, Ti oxides, and opal. High-grade ore (to 3% U) occurs along the fault, decreasing to less than 1,000 ppm within 10 m from the fault. The ore mineral is amorphous pitchblende and exhibits botryoidal morphology. The microscopic occurrence of uranium, documented by fission-track mapping of petrographic thin sections, is presented in detail. Uranium occurs abundantly as grain coatings and fillings in intergranular spaces in samples with high uranium content, where calcite cement has been partially or totally leached as mineralization proceeded. Lesser amounts are adsorbed onto leucoxene (microcrystalline anatase), mud clasts, and altered igneous rock fragments. Adsorbed uranium is the major code of occurrence in samples, with lower uranium contents farther from the orebody. Textural relations indicate that iron sulfides formed both before and after mineralization. Initial mineralization was by adsorption onto aggregates of fine particles of Ti oxide and clay minerals of various origins. With dissolution of cement and continued uranium influx, uranium precipitated as grain coatings and pore fillings.

  5. National uranium resource evaluation: Silver City Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, A J; Thiede, D S

    1982-05-01

    Reconnaissance and detailed geologic, geochemical, and radiometric studies were conducted throughout the Silver City Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona, to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and limited subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys. Results of the investigations indicate several areas favorable for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits. They include Precambrian granitic, gneissic, and diabasic rocks; the Cretaceous Beartooth Quartzite where it overlies Precambrian granite; certain Laramide to mid-Tertiary monzonitic rocks; and Tertiary volcanic rocks adjacent to a quartz monzonitic stock. Studies also indicate environments favorable for allogenic deposits in the Tyrone laccolith and for uranium deposits in upper Cenozoic volcaniclastic lacustrine rocks. Formations judged unfavorable for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits include large areas of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks, almost all Laramide and mid-Tertiary intrusive rocks, and intruded Paleozoic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Precambrian metamorphic rocks are also considered unfavorable for contact metasomatic as well as for unconformity-related and vein-type uranium deposits. The entire Paleozoic and Cretaceous sedimentary section is considered unfavorable for sandstone and marine-black-shale uranium deposits. Moreover, mid-Tertiary rocks were judged unfavorable for volcanogenic uranium deposits, and upper Cenozoic basin-fill and surficial deposits are unfavorable for sandstone-type deposits and for uranium deposits associated with volcaniclastic lacustrine environments.

  6. Examination of long-stored uranium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, A.M.; Hambley, D.I.

    2013-07-01

    A small quantity of unirradiated uranium from Magnox fuel elements is currently held in archive storage. Some of these samples date back to the late fifties. This material has been stored, untreated, in unsealed containers in air at ambient temperature, humidity and pressure conditions. Such conditions are relevant to those that may exist in a passive storage facility. A sample of this material has been subject to optical, electron-optical and Raman spectroscopic examination to determine the extent of corrosion and the composition of corrosion product arising from long-term, low-temperature oxidation of uranium metal in air. The examinations have established that, even after a period in excess of 40 years, there was no observable spalling of uranium oxide from the sample during storage. The extent of oxidation of the metal, derived by SEM analysis, was slight and insignificant in relation to overall structural stability of the material. Raman spectroscopy data showed that the bulk of the oxide layer was comprised of hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2}, with U{sub 4}O{sub 9} being the dominant component. The oxygen/uranium ratio was observed to be decreased at the metal/oxide interface, with a very thin layer that consisted of mainly UO{sub 2} at the metal surface. At the oxide/air interface, a very thin U{sub 3}O{sub 8} layer was detected. U{sub 4}O{sub 9} is relatively mechanically stable, due to a significantly higher density than UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. It is likely that the lower internal stresses in the thick U{sub 4}O{sub 9} layer have resulted in less oxide film cracking than would be expected from UO{sub 2} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and hence the low oxidation rate observed. These results suggest that storage of uranium metal in air over decades is a safe and credible option. (authors)

  7. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  8. MELTING AND PURIFICATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Gray, C.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for treating uranium ingots having inner metal portions and an outer oxide skin. The method consists in partially supporting such an ingot on the surface of a grid or pierced plate. A sufficient weight of uranium is provided so that when the mass becomes molten, the oxide skin bursts at the unsupported portions of its bottom surface, allowing molten urantum to flow through the burst skin and into a container provided below.

  9. METHOD OF DEHYDRATING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.O.; Fogel, C.C.; Palmer, W.E.

    1962-12-18

    Drying and dehydration of aqueous-precipitated uranium tetrafluoride are described. The UF/sub 4/ which normally contains 3 to 4% water, is dispersed into the reaction zone of an operating reactor wherein uranium hexafluoride is being reduced to UF/sub 4/ with hydrogen. The water-containing UF/sub 4/ is dried and blended with the UF/sub 4/ produced in the reactor without interfering with the reduction reaction. (AEC)

  10. Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

  11. Heavy Fermion Scaling: Uranium versus Cerium and Ytterbium Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J. M.; Wang, Cuihuan; Christianson, Andrew D; Bauer, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to explore the differences between rare-earth-based and uranium-based heavy fermion (HF) compounds that reflect the underlying difference between local 4f moments and itinerant 5f moments we analyze scaling laws that relate the low temperature neutron spectra of the primary ('Kondo-esque') spin fluctuation to the specific heat and susceptibility. While the scaling appears to work very well for the rare earth intermediate valence (IV) compounds, for a number of key uranium compounds the scaling laws fail badly. There are two main reasons for this failure. First, the presence of antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations, which contribute significantly to the specific heat, alters the scaling ratios. Second, the scaling laws require knowledge of the high temperature moment degeneracy, which is often undetermined for itinerant 5f electrons. By making plausible corrections for both effects, better scaling ratios are obtained for some uranium compounds. We point out that, while both the uranium HF compounds and the rare earth IV compounds have spin fluctuation characteristic energies of order 5-25 meV, they differ in that the AF fluctuations that are usually seen in the uranium compounds are never seen in the rare earth IV compounds. This suggests that the 5f itineracy increases the f-f exchange relative to the rare earth case.

  12. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  13. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  14. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-10-22

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ convented to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reaction chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. The oven is then swept clean of hydrogen and the water vapor formed by means of nitrogen and then while continuing to maintain the temperature between 400 and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion to uranium tetrafluoride, the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to ahout 400 deg C, and elemental fluorine is used as the fluorinating agent for the conversion of UF/sub 4/ into UF/sub 6/. The fluorine gas is passed into the chamber, and the UF/sub 6/ formed passes out and is delivered to a condenser.

  15. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-07-05

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV’s) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV’s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the

  16. Atomistic Properties of Y Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Beeler; Chaitanya Deo; Mmichael Baskes; Maria Okuniewski

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the body-centered cubic y phase of uranium (U) are calculated using atomistic simulations. First, a modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential is developed for the high temperature body-centered cubic (y) phase of U. This phase is stable only at high temperatures and is thus relatively inaccessible to first principles calculations and room temperature experiments. Using this potential, equilibrium volume and elastic constants are calculated at 0 K and found to be in close agreement with previous first principles calculations. Further, the melting point, heat capacity, enthalpy of fusion, thermal expansion and volume change upon melting are calculated and found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. The low temperature mechanical instability of y U is correctly predicted and investigated as a function of pressure. The mechanical instability is suppressed at pressures greater than 17.2 GPa. The vacancy formation energy is analyzed as a function of pressure and shows a linear trend, allowing for the calculation of the extrapolated zero pressure vacancy formation energy. Finally, the self-defect formation energy is analyzed as a function of temperature. This is the first atomistic y calculation of U properties above 0 K with interatomic potentials.

  17. Paleodrainage-unconformity model as guide to uranium deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Seeland, D.

    1984-04-01

    This paper considers a uranium occurrence model that shows how early Eocene and Oligocene depositional patterns and paleography can be used to identify favorable host rocks and to suggest where uraniferous ground water passed through these rocks. The uranium in the ground water was derived mostly from volcanic ash of the Oligocene White River Group. This model accounts for most known uranium deposits and occurrences in eastern Wyoming, western South Dakota, and western Nebraska. All major deposits in Eocene sandstones are in rocks of the fan-channel facies that were identified by sand grain size and shape studies, and most deposits are basinward of present-day major mountain valleys. Deposits occur only where rocks of this facies are less than 300 m (980 ft) below the reconstructed basal Oligocene surface, a distance calculated from roll-front migration and erosion rates. Uranium deposits in other than Eocene rocks also are related to the configuration of the pre-Oligocene surface. White River channel sandstones have deposits and occurrences along a 200-km (125-mi) section of a major Oligocene river in eastern Wyoming and Nebraska. Oligocene trans-mountain drainages localized uranium occurrences in Precambrian granitic rocks in the Laramie Mountains. Deposits in Cretaceous rocks in northern Colorado and along the flanks of the Black Hills lie beneath the axes of Oligocene channels. The channels were the major conduits that localized the movement of the uranium-bearing solutions. Rocks underlying the divides between the channels are unfavorable for uranium deposits where the channels are parallel to the regional dip, because the divides have a thick impervious lateritic soil cover.

  18. Polyphosphate Amendments for In-Situ Remediation of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Bargar, John R.; Webb, Samuel M.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2009-10-11

    Environmental contamination of surface and subsurface geologic media by uranium is a lasting legacy of past operations related to nuclear energy and weapons production. Operations conducted at United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) sites including research activities, nuclear fuel processing, weapons development and testing, construction of nuclear energy reactors, and waste management have resulted significant surface and subsurface contamination of geologic media by heavy metals and radionuclides. Despite several decades of studies, effective uranium remediation strategies remain elusive for contamination in deep subsurface settings that prevail in the western United States. Polyphosphate technology has been demonstrated to delay the precipitation of phosphate phases for controlled in situ precipitation of stabile phosphate phases to control the long-term fate of uranium. Precipitation of phosphate minerals occurs when phosphate compounds undergo hydrolysis to yield orthophosphate. Accordingly, a detailed understanding of polyphosphate degradation and reaction kinetics, in the context of site specific information, allows the technology to be tailored as a time-released source of phosphate for subsurface treatment. Results of 1) a labortory testing program, providing a detailed understanding of the fundamental underpinnings necessary to evaluate the efficacy and potential use of polyphosphate technology for implementation through a field-scale demonstration, 2) field-scale injection into the aquifer demonstrating a reduction in the concentration of aqueous uranium and presenting field-scale challenges to implementation, and 3) infiltration into the vadose zone and capillary fringe stabilizing the inventory of uranium and mitigating a portion of the persistent flux of uranium to the aquifer will be presented. The data from field-scale demonstrations provide valuable information for designing a full-scale remediation of uranium

  19. The distribution of uranium over Europe: Geological and environmental significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, J.A.; Reeder, S.; Salminen, R.; Smith, D.B.; Tarvainen, T.; de Vivo, B.; Petterson, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The variation of baseline levels of uranium in soil and stream sediments over Europe is described, based on new data prepared by the Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS). The samples have been collected and analysed according to the protocols established for the International Union of Geological Sciences/International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (IUGS/IAGC) Working Group on Global Geochemical Baselines. The baseline levels of U vary between 0??21 to 53 mg kg-1 in topsoils, 0??19 to 30 mg kg-1 in subsoils and < 1 to 59 mg kg-1 in stream sediments. There is generally good agreement between the levels of U in the three sample types, and the median concentration in all three media is approximately 2 mg kg-1. The most anomalous baseline levels occur over the Variscan orogen, especially areas into which late post-orogenic radiothermal high heat production (HHP) granites were emplaced. Spiderdiagrams based on trace element levels and rare earth element (REE) plots, confirm the association between the highest U anomalies and evolved radiothermal granites. High values are also associated with parts of the Alpine terrain especially in Slovenia, where there are historical U workings, and Southern Italy, where high values of U reflect contemporary volcanism. In contrast, much of the Caledonides of North West Europe and the Precambrian of the Baltic Shield and East European craton and its overlying sedimentary cover have very low values, generally < 4 mg kg-1. The results suggest that the main concern for the environment and human health from U, and the Th and K with which it is generally associated, is the naturally occurring total gamma radiation and radon potential associated with radiothermal granites. This is likely to be especially important where the granites are mineralised and have been worked historically, for example in the North West of the Iberian Peninsula where U and its decay products are likely to be more dispersed in the surface

  20. Field Testing of Downgradient Uranium Mobility at an In-Situ Recovery Uranium Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Clay, J. T.; Rearick, M.; Perkins, G.; Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Chamberlain, K.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ recovery (ISR) mining of uranium involves the injection of O2 and CO2 (or NaHCO3) into saturated roll-front deposits to oxidize and solubilize the uranium, which is then removed by ion exchange at the surface and processed into U3O8. While ISR is economical and environmentally-friendly relative to conventional mining, one of the challenges of extracting uranium by this process is that it leaves behind a geochemically-altered aquifer that is exceedingly difficult to restore to pre-mining geochemical conditions, a regulatory objective. In this research, we evaluated the ability of the aquifer downgradient of an ISR mining area to attenuate the transport of uranium and other problem constituents that are mobilized by the mining process. Such an evaluation can help inform both regulators and the mining industry as to how much restoration of the mined ore zone is necessary to achieve regulatory compliance at various distances downgradient of the mining zone even if complete restoration of the ore zone proves to be difficult or impossible. Three single-well push-pull tests and one cross-well test were conducted in which water from an unrestored, previously-mined ore zone was injected into an unmined ore zone that served as a geochemical proxy for the downgradient aquifer. In all tests, non-reactive tracers were injected with the previously-mined ore zone water to allow the transport of uranium and other constituents to be compared to that of the nonreactive species. In the single-well tests, it was shown that the recovery of uranium relative to the nonreactive tracers ranged from 12-25%, suggesting significant attenuation capacity of the aquifer. In the cross-well test, selenate, molybdate and metavanadate were injected with the unrestored water to provide information on the transport of these potentially-problematic anionic constituents. In addition to the species-specific transport information, this test provided valuable constraints on redox conditions within

  1. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  4. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E.; Northcutt, W.G.; Masters, D.R.; Chapman, L.R.

    1990-12-31

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uranium sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  5. Monitoring of Uranium Mining and Milling Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2004-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Additional Protocol has engendered the monitoring of past and present uranium mining and milling operations by the IAEA. This activity requires tools, instruments, and expertise unfamiliar to Agency safeguards inspectors, but methods and instruments for effecting such monitoring are currently being employed by geologists, geophysicists, mining engineers, environmental officials, and archaeologists. Remote sensing in the form of photography, radar imagery, and gamma ray spectroscopy complements field data by disclosing prior mine-related activities or the magnitude of present ones, including: surveying pit volumes, mapping the spatial distribution of mine tailings over time, identifying soil and mineral disparities, and revealing biophysical data.

  6. Decay Chain Deduction of Uranium Fission Products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiping; Tian, Chenyang; Wang, Xiaotian; Lv, Ning; Ma, Meng; Wei, Yingguang

    2016-07-01

    Delayed gamma spectrum is the fingerprint of uranium materials in arms control verification technology. The decay chain is simplified into basic state linear chain and excitation state linear chain to calculate and analyze the delayed gamma spectra of fission products. Formulas of the changing rule for nuclide number before and after zero-time are deduced. The C program for calculating the delayed gamma ray spectra data is constructed, and related experiments are conducted to verify this theory. Through analysis of the delayed gamma counts of several nuclides, the calculated results are found to be consistent with experimental values. PMID:27218290

  7. Microbial populations stimulated for hexavalent uranium reduction in uranium mine sediment.

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Banfield, J. F.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; Univ. of California-Berkeley

    2003-03-01

    Uranium-contaminated sediment and water collected from an inactive uranium mine were incubated anaerobically with organic substrates. Stimulated microbial populations removed U almost entirely from solution within 1 month. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis showed that U(VI) was reduced to U(IV) during the incubation. Observations by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction pattern analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis showed two distinct types of prokaryotic cells that precipitated only a U(IV) mineral uraninite (UO{sub 2}) or both uraninite and metal sulfides. Prokaryotic cells associated with uraninite and metal sulfides were inferred to be sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA obtained from the original and incubated sediments revealed that microbial populations were changed from microaerophilic Proteobacteria to anaerobic low-G+C gram-positive sporeforming bacteria by the incubation. Forty-two out of 94 clones from the incubated sediment were related to sulfate-reducing Desulfosporosinus spp., and 23 were related to fermentative Clostridium spp. The results suggest that, if in situ bioremediation were attempted in the uranium mine ponds, Desulfosporosinus spp. would be a major contributor to U(VI) and sulfate reduction and Clostridium spp. to U(VI) reduction.

  8. Microbial Populations Stimulated for Hexavalent Uranium Reduction in Uranium Mine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yohey; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated sediment and water collected from an inactive uranium mine were incubated anaerobically with organic substrates. Stimulated microbial populations removed U almost entirely from solution within 1 month. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis showed that U(VI) was reduced to U(IV) during the incubation. Observations by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction pattern analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis showed two distinct types of prokaryotic cells that precipitated only a U(IV) mineral uraninite (UO2) or both uraninite and metal sulfides. Prokaryotic cells associated with uraninite and metal sulfides were inferred to be sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA obtained from the original and incubated sediments revealed that microbial populations were changed from microaerophilic Proteobacteria to anaerobic low-G+C gram-positive sporeforming bacteria by the incubation. Forty-two out of 94 clones from the incubated sediment were related to sulfate-reducing Desulfosporosinus spp., and 23 were related to fermentative Clostridium spp. The results suggest that, if in situ bioremediation were attempted in the uranium mine ponds, Desulfosporosinus spp. would be a major contributor to U(VI) and sulfate reduction and Clostridium spp. to U(VI) reduction. PMID:12620814

  9. Depleted uranium disposal options.

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Ranek, N. L.; Goldberg, M.; Avci, H. I.

    2000-04-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been produced in the United States since the 1940s as part of both the military program and the civilian nuclear energy program. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the agency responsible for managing most of the depleted UF{sub 6} that has been produced in the United States. The total quantity of depleted UF{sub 6} that DOE has to or will have to manage is approximately 700,000 Mg. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the various alternatives for managing this material. This paper evaluates and summarizes the alternative of disposal as low-level waste (LLW). Results of the analysis indicate that UF{sub 6} needs to be converted to a more stable form, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, before disposal as LLW. Estimates of the environmental impacts of disposal in a dry environment are within the currently applicable standards and regulations. Of the currently operating LLW disposal facilities, available information indicates that either of two DOE facilities--the Hanford Site or the Nevada Test Site--or a commercial facility--Envirocare of Utah--would be able to dispose of up to the entire DOE inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}.

  10. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  11. Uranium, thorium, and lead systematics in Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.; Bartel, A.J.

    1969-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and lead concentrations and isotopic compositions were determined on total rocks and a feldspar sample from widely separated parts of the Granite Mountains in central Wyoming. Linear relations defined by 206Pb/204Pb - 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb - 232Th/204Pb for the total rock samples define 2.8 billion-year isochrons. In contrast, 238U/206Pb ages are anomalously old by a factor of at least four. The low 238U/204Pb values, coupled with the radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb and radiogenic 207Pb/204Pb ratios, indicate that contents of uranium in near-surface rocks would have had to have been considerably greater than those presently observed to have generated the radiogenic lead. It is possible that more than 1011 kg of uranium has been removed from the Granite Mountains, and the most feasible interpretation is that most of this uranium was leached from near-surface rocks at some time during the Cenozoic, thus providing a major source for the uranium deposits in the central Wyoming basins. ?? 1969.

  12. The paradox of uranium development: A Polanyian analysis of social movements surrounding the Pinon Ridge Uranium Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Stephanie A.

    Renewal of nuclear energy development has been proposed as one viable solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and impacts of climate change. This discussion became concrete as the first uranium mill proposed since the end of the Cold War, the Pinon Ridge Uranium Mill, received state permits in January 2011 to process uranium in southwest Colorado's Paradox Valley. Though environmental contamination from previous uranium activity caused one local community to be bulldozed to the ground, local support for renewed uranium activity emerges among local residents in communities like Nucla, Naturita, and Bedrock, Colorado. Regionally, however, a coalition of organized, oppositionbased grassroots groups fights the decision to permit the mill. Combined, these events allow social scientists a natural laboratory through which to view social repercussions of nuclear energy development. In this dissertation, I use a Polanyian theoretical framework to analyze social, political-economic, and environmental contexts of social movements surrounding PR Mill. My overarching research problem is: How might Polanyian double movement theory be applied to and made empirically testable within the social and environmental context of uranium development? I intended this analysis to inform energy policy debates regarding renewable energy. In Chapter 1, I found various forms of social dislocation lead to two divergent social movement outcomes. Economic social dislocation led to strong mill support among most local residents, according to archival, in-depth interview, and survey data. On the other hand, residents in regional communities experienced two other types of social dislocation -- another kind of economic dislocation, related to concern over boom-bust economies, and environmental health dislocations related to uranium exposure, creating conditions for a regional movement in opposition to PR Mill. In Chapter 2, I focus on regulations and find that two divergent social movements

  13. Remote sensing and uranium exploration at Lisbon Valley, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Niesen, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the joint NASA-Geosat uranium test case program, aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data are used to investigate the distribution of bleaching in Windgate sandstone exposed in Lisbon Valley anticline, Utah. It is noted that all of the large ore bodies contained in lower Chinle Triassic age or Cutler Permian age strata in this area lie beneath or closely adjacent to such bleached outcrops. The geographic coincidences reported here are seen as inviting renewed interest in speculation of a causal relation between occurrences of Mississippian-Pennsylvanian oil and gas in this area and of Triassic uranium accumulation and rock bleaching.

  14. Hypertension and hematologic parameters in a community near a uranium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Pinney, Susan M.; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Vena, John E.; Hebert, James R.

    2010-11-15

    Background: Environmental uranium exposure originating as a byproduct of uranium processing can impact human health. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center functioned as a uranium processing facility from 1951 to 1989, and potential health effects among residents living near this plant were investigated via the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program (FMMP). Methods: Data from 8216 adult FMMP participants were used to test the hypothesis that elevated uranium exposure was associated with indicators of hypertension or changes in hematologic parameters at entry into the program. A cumulative uranium exposure estimate, developed by FMMP investigators, was used to classify exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and physician diagnoses were used to assess hypertension; and red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cell differential counts were used to characterize hematology. The relationship between uranium exposure and hypertension or hematologic parameters was evaluated using generalized linear models and quantile regression for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression or ordinal logistic regression for categorical outcomes, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: Of 8216 adult FMMP participants 4187 (51%) had low cumulative uranium exposure, 1273 (15%) had moderate exposure, and 2756 (34%) were in the high (>0.50 Sievert) cumulative lifetime uranium exposure category. Participants with elevated uranium exposure had decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Female participants with higher uranium exposures had elevated systolic blood pressure compared to women with lower exposures. However, no exposure-related changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure or hypertension diagnoses among female or male participants. Conclusions: Results from this investigation suggest that residents in the vicinity of the Fernald plant with elevated exposure to uranium primarily via inhalation exhibited

  15. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  16. Origin of uranium isotope variations in early solar nebula condensates

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grossman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature condensates found in meteorites display uranium isotopic variations (235U/238U), which complicate dating the solar system’s formation and whose origin remains mysterious. It is possible that these variations are due to the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 247Cm (t1/2 = 15.6 My) into 235U, but they could also be due to uranium kinetic isotopic fractionation during condensation. We report uranium isotope measurements of meteoritic refractory inclusions that reveal excesses of 235U reaching ~+6% relative to average solar system composition, which can only be due to the decay of 247Cm. This allows us to constrain the 247Cm/235U ratio at solar system formation to (1.1 ± 0.3) × 10−4. This value provides new clues on the universality of the nucleosynthetic r-process of rapid neutron capture. PMID:26973874

  17. Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Emily; Guéneau, Christine; Crocombette, Jean-Paul

    2013-07-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U-O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation.

  18. Landsat analysis for uranium exploration in Northeast Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Keenan

    1983-01-01

    No uranium deposits are known in the Trabzon, Turkey region, and consequently, exploration criteria have not been defined. Nonetheless, by analogy with uranium deposits studied elsewhere, exploration guides are suggested to include dense concentrations of linear features, lineaments -- especially with northwest trend, acidic plutonic rocks, and alteration indicated by limonite. A suite of digitally processed images of a single Landsat scene served as the image base for mapping 3,376 linear features. Analysis of the linear feature data yielded two statistically significant trends, which in turn defined two sets of strong lineaments. Color composite images were used to map acidic plutonic rocks and areas of surficial limonitic materials. The Landsat interpretation yielded a map of these exploration guides that may be used to evaluate relative uranium potential. One area in particular shows a high coincidence of favorable indicators.

  19. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Waldrop, F.B.

    1981-08-25

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electrodeposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  20. Origin of uranium isotope variations in early solar nebula condensates.

    PubMed

    Tissot, François L H; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grossman, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature condensates found in meteorites display uranium isotopic variations ((235)U/(238)U), which complicate dating the solar system's formation and whose origin remains mysterious. It is possible that these variations are due to the decay of the short-lived radionuclide (247)Cm (t 1/2 = 15.6 My) into (235)U, but they could also be due to uranium kinetic isotopic fractionation during condensation. We report uranium isotope measurements of meteoritic refractory inclusions that reveal excesses of (235)U reaching ~+6% relative to average solar system composition, which can only be due to the decay of (247)Cm. This allows us to constrain the (247)Cm/(235)U ratio at solar system formation to (1.1 ± 0.3) × 10(-4). This value provides new clues on the universality of the nucleosynthetic r-process of rapid neutron capture. PMID:26973874

  1. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  2. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  3. Political economy of African uranium and its role in international markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.C.; Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    The history of uranium development in Africa is briefly summarized. Today there are 4 major uranium producing countries in Africa: Gabon, Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. These nations have the possibility of political instability. In addition, the uranium market has undergone a series of radical changes over the past decade. How these African nations have responded to this changing market, and how their roles in the international market relate to domestic political and economic factors are the topics of this report. (DMC)

  4. The Electrolytic Production of Metallic Uranium

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, R.

    1950-08-22

    This patent covers a process for producing metallic uranium by electrolyzing uranium tetrafluoride at an elevated temperature in a fused bath consisting essentially of mixed alkali and alkaline earth halides.

  5. Absorption of Thermal Neutrons in Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Creutz, E. C.; Wilson, R. R.; Wigner, E. P.

    1941-09-26

    A knowledge of the absorption processes for neutrons in uranium is important for planning a chain reaction experiment. The absorption of thermal neutrons in uranium and uranium oxide has been studied. Neutrons from the cyclotron were slowed down by passage through a graphite block. A uranium or uranium oxide sphere was placed at various positions in the block. The neutron intensity at different points in the sphere and in the graphite was measured by observing the activity induced in detectors or uranium oxide or manganese. It was found that both the fission activity in the uranium oxide and the activity induced in manganese was affected by non-thermal neutrons. An experimental correction for such effects was made by making measurements with the detectors surrounded by cadmium. After such corrections the results from three methods of procedure with the uranium oxide detectors and from the manganese detectors were consistent to within a few per cent.

  6. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  7. POTENTIAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nephrotoxic responses of mammalian species, including humans, to injected, inhaled, ingested, and topically applied uranium compounds have been thoroughly investigated. Because there appears to be on unequivocal reports of uranium-induced radiation effects in humans, it is ne...

  8. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM BEARING RAW MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.

    1959-06-16

    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  9. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  10. Surface Reactions of Uranium Oxide Powder, Thin Films and Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Idriss, H.

    2010-01-01

    The review deals with surface reactions of the complex uranium oxide systems with relevance to catalysis and the environment. After a brief introduction on the properties of uranium oxides, the focus of the review is on surface science studies of defined structures of uranium oxides which are entirely on UO{sub 2} because of the lack of available model on other uranium oxide systems. Powder work is also included as it has given considerable information related to the dynamics between the many phases of uranium oxides. Many chemical reactions are mapped and these include water dissociative adsorption and reaction, CO oxidation and reductive coupling, as well as the reaction of oxygen containing organic compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids in addition to a few examples of sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds.

  11. Study of uranium matrix interference on ten analytes using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, A. A.; Qamar, Sajid; Atta, M. A.

    1993-08-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of 12 elements in uranium hexafluoride feed for enrichment to reactor grade material (about 3%), vary from 1 to 100 ppm ( μg/g). Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, 51 lines of ten of these elements (B, Cr, Mo, P, Sb, Si, Ta, Ti, V and W) have been studied with a uranium matrix to investigate the matrix interference on the basis of signal to background (SBR), and background to background ratios (BBR). Detection limits and limits of quantitative determination (LQDs) were calculated for these elements in a uranium matrix using SBR and relative standard deviation of the background signal (RSD B) approach. In almost all cases, the uranium matrix interference reduces the SBRs to the extent that direct trace analysis is impossible. A uranium sample having known concentrations of impurities (around LQDs) was directly analysed with results that showed reasonable accuracy and precision.

  12. Uranium effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Ho, T.C.

    1993-07-01

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator has been undergoing a series of routine tests to determine uranium partitioning to the stack, scrubber waters, and bottom ash. This paper discusses the results of the most recent experiment in which relatively high rates of uranium stack gas emissions were identified: 6.11 g/h or 8 wt % based on the uranium feed. These data are compared with earlier data, and an empirical correlation is suggested between the stack emissions of uranium and the product of the uranium and chlorine concentration of the feed. This is consistent with certain findings with other metals, in which increasing chlorine feed contents led to increasing emissions.

  13. Surface reactions of uranium oxide powder, thin films and single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, H.

    2010-03-01

    The review deals with surface reactions of the complex uranium oxide systems with relevance to catalysis and the environment. After a brief introduction on the properties of uranium oxides, the focus of the review is on surface science studies of defined structures of uranium oxides which are entirely on UO 2 because of the lack of available model on other uranium oxide systems. Powder work is also included as it has given considerable information related to the dynamics between the many phases of uranium oxides. Many chemical reactions are mapped and these include water dissociative adsorption and reaction, CO oxidation and reductive coupling, as well as the reaction of oxygen containing organic compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids in addition to a few examples of sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds.

  14. 40 CFR 421.320 - Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary uranium subcategory. 421.320 Section 421.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.320 Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium... uranium (including depleted uranium) by secondary uranium facilities....

  15. 40 CFR 421.320 - Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary uranium subcategory. 421.320 Section 421.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.320 Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium... uranium (including depleted uranium) by secondary uranium facilities....

  16. 40 CFR 421.320 - Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary uranium subcategory. 421.320 Section 421.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.320 Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium... uranium (including depleted uranium) by secondary uranium facilities....

  17. 40 CFR 421.320 - Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary uranium subcategory. 421.320 Section 421.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.320 Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium... uranium (including depleted uranium) by secondary uranium facilities....

  18. 40 CFR 421.320 - Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary uranium subcategory. 421.320 Section 421.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Uranium Subcategory § 421.320 Applicability: Description of the secondary uranium... uranium (including depleted uranium) by secondary uranium facilities....

  19. Uranium-series dating of secondary carbonate and silica precipitates relating to fault movements in the Nevada Test Site region and of caliche and travertine samples from the Amargosa Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; O`Malley, P.A.

    1985-12-31

    Fault associated secondary carbonate and opal samples from the Nevada Test Site area together with travertine samples from the Amargosa Desert were dated by the uranium-series disequilibrium method. Analyses of secondary carbonate samples from Yucca Mountain and from Crater and Yucca Flats yielded minimum ages for the last significant displacements of associated faults between 27,000 and 219,000 years. Dating results of an opaline carbonate rock sample from a fault on the east side of Yucca Mountain indicate that the age of the deposit is greater than 360,000 years. Two dates of travertine vein samples show that spring discharge was occurring before about 360,000 years ago in the Kinney area of the Amargosa Desert. Ages obtained for travertine laminae from the Furnace Creek Wash area suggest that significant movement along this low-angle fault occurred more than 132,000 years ago. 5 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on US uranium reserves, potential resources, exploration, mining, drilling, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1980. The compendium reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Office. Statistics are based primarily on information provided by the uranium exploration, mining, and milling companies. Data on commercial U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ sales and purchases are included. Data on non-US uranium production and resources are presented in the appendix. (DMC)