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Sample records for relatif aux prescriptions

  1. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  2. Managing Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP Matters • Your Risk for HBP • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of HBP • ... Managing Prescriptions - Types of Medications Keeping HBP Under Control • ...

  3. Prescription Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, especially in brain areas involved in the perception of pain and pleasure. Prescription stimulants , such as ... of drug that causes changes in your mood, perceptions, and behavior can affect judgment and willingness to ...

  4. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Getting a prescription filled is usually easy. But because of the high cost of prescription medicines, most insurance ...

  5. An Inventory of Human Rights Teaching Materials = Repertoire du Materiel Pedagogique Relatif aux Droits de la Personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Human Rights Commission, Winnipeg.

    This document is an inventory designed to help educators more efficiently locate resources for teaching about human rights in the classroom. The types of materials identified in this document include: teaching units and guides, reference books, multi-media kits, filmstrips, tapes, video cassettes, supplementary curricular materials, and other…

  6. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... D is the name of Medicare's prescription drug coverage. It's insurance that helps people pay for prescription ... monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. ...

  7. Partnership for Prescription Assistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... may use our name without our permission. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance will help you find the ... Us Blog Facebook Twitter Start living better. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance helps qualifying patients without prescription ...

  8. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants. Every medicine has ...

  10. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  12. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: ... treatment of addiction. Read more Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know ( ...

  13. Prescriptions for ACME's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Five prescriptions for the future agenda of the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education are (1) a core curriculum; (2) informatics; (3) remedial continuing medical education (CME); (4) focus on the individual learner; and (5) practice-oriented CME. (SK)

  14. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... stored at certain temperatures at a local pharmacy. INTERNET (ONLINE) PHARMACIES Internet pharmacies can be used for ...

  15. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  17. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brand names ConZip®, Ryzolt®, Ultram®) The street drug heroin also is an opioid. What problems can opioids ... to buy them illegally. People often start using heroin after becoming addicted to prescription opioids. Sometimes opioids ...

  18. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... health plan: Call the phone number on the back of your insurance card. Call the pharmacy you want to use to see if they have a contract with your insurance plan. To help the pharmacist fill the prescription: Make sure all of the information ...

  19. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  20. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  1. Deregulating mandatory medical prescription.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C N

    1986-01-01

    This Article links the legal evolution of mandatory medical prescription since 1900 to the police-power's prohibition of alcohol and the opiates as well as to the self-interested monopolization of new drugs by physicians. The Article advances a theory of professionalization consistent with the evidence that mandatory prescription is not in the public interest. The Article suggests that the supremacy of self-medication is consistent with competition policy, the medical profession's fiduciary duty to clients, reduced medical costs and improved health. The author analyzes the consequences of regulating drug production, testing, marketing and consumtion by granting decision-making authority to the lowest-cost risk avoider, suggesting this as a plausible basis for legal reform. PMID:3327377

  2. Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, J.

    2016-03-01

    The light-cone gauge is used frequently in string theory as well as gauge theories and gravitation. Loop integrals, however, have to be infrared regulated to remove spurious poles. The most popular and consistent of these infrared regulators is the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription (ML). The calculations with the ML are rather cumbersome, though. In this work, we show that the ML can be replaced by a symmetry of the regulator. This symmetry simplifies the calculations, reducing them to conventional dimensional regularization integrals.

  3. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions By ... to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  4. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  5. A prescription fraud detection model.

    PubMed

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs. PMID:22088866

  6. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  7. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  8. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  9. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  10. Methadone and prescription drug overdose.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hansen, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    (1) Methadone accounted for 2 percent of painkiller prescriptions and more than 30 percent of prescription painkiller deaths in 2009. (2) Data suggest that the rise in deaths from methadone overdose is not related to its use in treating drug abuse but, rather, to its use for pain management. (3) Preferred drug lists in most Medicaid programs identify methadone as a preferred drug for managing chronic pain, but most experts do no recommend it as a first choice. PMID:25556261

  11. Three arguments against prescription requirements.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2012-10-01

    In this essay, I argue that prescription drug laws violate patients' rights to self-medication. Patients have rights to self-medication for the same reasons they have rights to refuse medical treatment according to the doctrine of informed consent (DIC). Since we should accept the DIC, we ought to reject paternalistic prohibitions of prescription drugs and respect the right of self-medication. In section 1, I frame the puzzle of self-medication; why don't the same considerations that tell in favour of informed consent also justify a right of self-medication? In section 2, I show that the prescription drug system was historically motivated by paternalism. In section 3, I outline the justifications for the DIC in more detail. I show that consequentialist, epistemic, and deontic considerations justify the DIC. In sections 4-6, I argue that these considerations also justify rights of self-medication. I then propose that rights of self-medication require non-prohibitive prescription policies in section 7. I consider two objections in sections 8 and 9: that patients ought not to make medically risky or deadly decisions, and that unrestricted access to prescription-grade pharmaceuticals would result in widespread misuse and abuse. Section 10 concludes. PMID:22844026

  12. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Medicare prescription drug discount cards.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Natasha

    2004-01-01

    With the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 came the creation of a Part D drug benefit through Medicare. Until that benefit is implemented, Medicare has established a drug discount card program to help your clients save money on their outpatient prescription drug expenses. In this brief, we discuss the Medicare-approved discount cards--who is eligible, how they work, how your clients can best make important decisions about them, and what help is out there for people with low incomes. PMID:15224690

  14. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  15. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  16. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  17. Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet » Foot Health Information Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics What are Shoe Inserts? You've seen ... hold on to your receipt.) What are Prescription Custom Orthotics? Custom orthotics are specially-made devices designed ...

  18. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than the number of people abusing cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, and inhalants, combined. "The abuse of prescription ... on the receptors in the brain affected by heroin, morphine, and prescription painkillers. The tablets relieve drug ...

  19. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  20. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  1. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  2. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  3. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  8. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  9. Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Bhanu; Nadig, Prathiba; Nayak, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in dermatological therapy is to use the safest and least number of drugs in order to obtain the best possible effect in the shortest period and at reasonable cost. Rational drug use (RDU) is conventionally defined as the use of an appropriate, efficacious, safe and cost-effective drug given for the right indications in the right dose and formulation, at right time intervals. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly as prescribed by the doctor. The process of Rational prescription for a Dermatologist (RPD) involves a series of steps such as defining the patient's illness, specifying the treatment objectives, using the principle of P-treatment, starting the treatment, providing appropriate information and monitoring the treatment. Reasons for irrational prescription could be physician related, patient related, industry related, regulations related. Practicing medicine irrationally can lead to disastrous events like increased morbidity and mortality, drain of resources, drug resistance etc. Principles to enhance the RDU in our practice and minimize errors of prescription are discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26955092

  10. The Minnesota Prescription Monitoring Program.

    PubMed

    Herman, Cory

    2011-01-01

    We must keep in mind that health care professionals practice in an environment of legal and regulatory influences, where some patients with pain also have an addictive disease. As dentists routinely manage acute oral and dental pain by pharmacological means, people who abuse prescription medications see dentists as easy targets to "score" prescription opioids and controlled substances. This potential for deception must be balanced with our professional responsibility to prescribe and dispense controlled substances appropriately, guarding against abuse while ensuring that patients have medication available when appropriate and necessary. However, dentists also have a personal responsibility to protect themselves and their practices from becoming easy targets for drug abuse and diversion. Becoming aware of the potential signs and symptoms of drug seeking behavior and recognizing the signs of controlled substance misuse will safeguard patients, practices, and practitioners. Utilizing the services of the Minnesota Prescription Monitoring Program may help to not only improve patient care, but to facilitate appropriate pain management and help identify patients having drug seeking behaviors PMID:21667591

  11. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  12. Nurses' Role in Preventing Prescription Opioid Diversion.

    PubMed

    Manworren, Renee C B; Gilson, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is at epidemic levels. Opioids diverted from friends and family members who have legitimate prescriptions are a major source of abused prescription opioids. Nurses are vital to any effort to combat this public health crisis because they have the opportunity to provide essential anticipatory guidance every time a patient receives prescription medication. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses of the magnitude of opioid diversion, the nonmedical use of opioids, and opioids' inappropriate disposal. The authors propose three potential interventions in which nurses can play a critical role: teaching patients about the risks of opioid diversion, providing patients with information on the safekeeping and proper disposal of opioids, and tracking patients' analgesic use to improve our knowledge of prescription analgesic requirements for pain management. Nurses are in an ideal position to help reverse the occurrence and potentially fatal consequences of prescription opioid diversion. PMID:26186473

  13. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  14. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.120 Electronic prescription application requirements. (a) A practitioner may only use an electronic prescription...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.120 Electronic prescription application requirements. (a) A practitioner may only use an electronic prescription...

  16. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  17. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  18. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jin; Xue, Ting; Fu, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of philology, 65 Hui prescriptions for treating cough were been collected to compare Arabic and Chinese names of pennisetum, anemarrhenae, honey, pease, white mustard, perilla and towel gourd stem. The Countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to count frequency of drugs in the prescriptions and summarize eight common Hui medicine for treating cough, namely sugar, honey, almond, fritillaria, liquorice, orange peel, white mulberry root-bark and lily. According to the commonly used drugs, philological studies and theories of Hui medicines, pathology and therapy of Hui medicines for treating cough were preliminarily inferred. In this study, 35 practical prescriptions and 30 simple and convenient Halal dietary prescriptions were summarized from collected prescriptions according to relevant literatures. On the basis of the long-lasting unique dietary therapy culture developed for Hui people, the simple and practical dietary prescriptions were defined according indications, therapy, prescription name and composition, and eight types of drug-admixed foods were summarized to relieve pains and improve health awareness and quality of life. Meanwhile, this study could also enrich and perfect the prescriptions, provide new ideas for improving health of patients, and lay a certain realistic foundation for further study of Hui medicines. PMID:25993806

  19. Prescriptive Authority and Psychology: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…

  20. 49 CFR 1144.2 - Prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prescription. 1144.2 Section 1144.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTRAMODAL RAIL COMPETITION § 1144.2 Prescription. (a) General. A through...

  1. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... preliminary fee calculation is valid and justifies an adjustment to the preliminary fee calculation....

  2. 76 FR 51245 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 51 and 602 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the...

  3. Florida's Tougher Laws May Be Cutting Opioid Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... was the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP), a database that tracks individual prescriptions, including patient names, dates ... should get in the habit of checking the database before they write a prescription, the researchers suggested. ...

  4. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  5. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  6. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems. Use prescription drug monitoring programs to identify ... effective pain treatment. Working to improve access to mental health and substance abuse treatment through implementation of the ...

  8. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... name drugs when you buy them at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. • Some coverage ... savings if you buy your prescriptions at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. The discount ...

  9. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... struggled for years to keep their prescription drug costs under control. Now, they finally have a resource that provides comparative cost and effectiveness of those drugs. Consumer Reports magazine, ...

  10. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called a drug-drug interaction. Vitamins and herbal supplements can affect the way your body processes drugs, ... over-the-counter and prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements that you are taking. Also, talk to your ...

  11. Towards creating the perfect electronic prescription.

    PubMed

    Dhavle, Ajit A; Rupp, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Significant strides have been made in electronic (e)-prescribing standards and software applications that have further fueled the adoption and use of e-prescribing. However, for e-prescribing to realize its full potential for improving the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prescription drug delivery, important work remains to be carried out. This perspective describes the ultimate goal of all e-prescribing stakeholders including prescribers and dispensing pharmacists: a clear, complete, and unambiguous e-prescription order that can be seamlessly received, processed, and fulfilled at the dispensing pharmacy without the need for additional clarification from the prescriber. We discuss the challenges to creating the perfect e-prescription by focusing on selected data segments and data fields that are available in the new e-prescription transaction as defined in the NCPDP SCRIPT Standard and suggest steps that could be taken to move the industry closer to achieving this vision. PMID:25038197

  12. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for addiction to these drugs, which include codeine, morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), and meperidine (Demerol). The ... the receptors in the brain affected by heroin, morphine, and prescription painkillers. The tablets relieve drug cravings ...

  13. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use. PMID:20401276

  14. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  15. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an individual practitioner acting in the usual course of professional practice; (ii) The individual... on which a pharmacy may fill each prescription; (iii) The individual practitioner concludes...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an individual practitioner acting in the usual course of professional practice; (ii) The individual... on which a pharmacy may fill each prescription; (iii) The individual practitioner concludes...

  17. The Continuum of Pharmacist Prescriptive Authority.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alex J; Weaver, Krystalyn K

    2016-09-01

    Recently momentum has been building behind pharmacist prescriptive authority for certain products such as oral contraceptives or naloxone. To some, prescriptive authority by pharmacists represents a departure from the traditional role of pharmacists in dispensing medications. Nearly all states, however, currently enable pharmacist prescriptive authority in some form or fashion. The variety of different state approaches makes it difficult for pharmacists to ascertain the pros and cons of different models. We leverage data available from the National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (NASPA), a trade association that tracks pharmacy legislation and regulations across all states, to characterize models of pharmacist prescriptive authority along a continuum from most restrictive to least restrictive. We identify 2 primary categories of current pharmacist prescriptive authority: (1) collaborative prescribing and (2) autonomous prescribing. Collaborative prescribing models provide a broad framework for the treatment of acute or chronic disease. Current autonomous prescribing models have focused on a limited range of medications for which a specific diagnosis is not needed. Approaches to pharmacist prescriptive authority are not mutually exclusive. We anticipate that more states will pursue the less-restrictive approaches in the years ahead. PMID:27307413

  18. Indices of drug misuse for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Baum, C; Graham, D J

    1991-07-01

    Few studies of prescription-drug misuse have taken into account the numbers of prescriptions dispensed for specific drugs. Using data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) and the National Prescription Audit, we calculated indices of drug misuse for specific prescription drugs that are used mainly in outpatient settings and are either benzodiazepines, barbiturates, other sedative-hypnotics, analgesics, or CNS stimulants. In 1983-1985 the drugs associated with the highest numbers of DAWN medical examiner-reported drug-misuse deaths were codeine, diazepam, propoxyphene, phenobarbital, and secobarbital. However, the drugs with the highest indices of DAWN medical examiner-reported drug-misuse deaths/100,000 dispensed prescriptions were methamphetamine, methaqualone, amobarbital, secobarbital, and glutethimide. An index of fatality risk, calculated as 100 x DAWN medical examiner-reported drug-misuse deaths/DAWN emergency room-reported drug-misuse episodes, suggested that the risk of death from a glutethimide-associated drug-misuse episode had increased 92% from 1975-1979 to 1983-1983 and in 1983-1985 was the highest for the drugs studied. These indices might assist public health authorities attempting to design effective strategies to efficiently address the problem of prescription-drug misuse. PMID:1960000

  19. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.120 Electronic prescription application requirements. (a) A practitioner may only use an electronic...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to either a paper prescription signed by a practitioner, a facsimile of a signed paper prescription... III, IV, or V only pursuant to a paper prescription signed by an individual practitioner, a facsimile of a paper prescription or order for medication transmitted by the practitioner or the...

  1. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to either a paper prescription signed by a practitioner, a facsimile of a signed paper prescription... III, IV, or V only pursuant to a paper prescription signed by an individual practitioner, a facsimile of a paper prescription or order for medication transmitted by the practitioner or the...

  2. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to either a paper prescription signed by a practitioner, a facsimile of a signed paper prescription... III, IV, or V only pursuant to a paper prescription signed by an individual practitioner, a facsimile of a paper prescription or order for medication transmitted by the practitioner or the...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.120 Electronic prescription application requirements. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.05 Manner of issuance of prescriptions. (a) All prescriptions for controlled substances shall be dated as of, and signed on,...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.05 Manner of issuance of prescriptions. (a) All prescriptions for controlled substances shall be dated as of, and signed on,...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.22 Refilling of prescriptions. (a) No prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.22 Refilling of prescriptions. (a) No prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.22 Refilling of prescriptions. (a) No prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of issue of prescription. 1306.04 Section 1306.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.04 Purpose of issue of prescription. (a) A prescription for a controlled substance to...

  10. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Background The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. Methods The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26–30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Results Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD ± 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. Conclusion The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the

  11. Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  12. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    1990-05-01

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim disks. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard alpha-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luiminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic blackhole candidates and LMXBs. It is shown that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations.

  13. Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border.

    PubMed

    Casner, P R; Guerra, L G

    1992-05-01

    Prescription medication can often be purchased in Mexico without a physician's prescription. United States residents living along the border may have access to dangerous medications by crossing the border and purchasing them in Mexican pharmacies. We sought to determine the extent and frequency of this behavior in a sample of our ambulatory clinic population. Patients from the Texas Tech University Internal Medicine Clinic were surveyed to collect information about their use of medications, use of alternative sources of health care in Mexico, and purchasing of prescription medication in Juarez, Mexico. More than 80% of patients stated they had purchased prescription-type medication at a pharmacy without a physician's prescription. The most common reasons for buying prescription medication in Mexico were because it was less expensive or because a prescription was not necessary. These data indicate a potential for US residents along the border to take medications in an unregulated manner, a practice that could pose problems for health care providers on both sides of the border. PMID:1595276

  14. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  15. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations. PMID:3228083

  16. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 31, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-28728 Filed 11-2-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13588 of October 31, 2011 Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages By the... hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Shortages of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious...

  17. Prescriptions for Success in Heterogeneous Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra L.

    This handbook details 28 specific learning strategies for diverse groups of middle school students, each cast as a prescription applicable for students whose diagnosis reveals certain "conditions" such as particular learning styles or high or low reading skills. Reproducible pages accompany most of the strategies. Following are the activities: (1)…

  18. Recreational Prescription Drug Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolek, Ethan A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore recreational prescription drug use among undergraduate students. Although anecdotal accounts on this subject abound, empirical research is extremely limited. Data from a survey of a random sample of 734 students at a large public research university in the Northeast were examined. Results indicate that a…

  19. Electronic prescriptions: just what the doctor ordered.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, B

    1995-11-01

    Electronic prescription systems address many of the ills in the current paper-based system of getting drug orders from physicians to pharmacies. This new automation application shows tremendous potential for saving time and money and reducing the chance for medication errors. But many hurdles must be overcome before electronic prescribing is widely used. PMID:10154417

  20. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  1. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... program. Photo courtesy of Sara Jorde Photography A new Consumer Reports project compares prescription drugs on effectiveness, safety, ... arthritis, or back pain flare up. While the new Medicare Part D program pays a good portion ... Union, the magazine's publisher, translates the drug findings ...

  2. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Butner, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic. PMID:26339205

  3. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tetrault, Jeanette M; Butner, Jenna L

    2015-09-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic. PMID:26339205

  4. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  5. Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heroin Use Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged the ... References for Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use The authors conducted an independent analysis of ...

  6. Constructing a Real-Time Prescription Drug Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Tae; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the possibility of the construction of a real-time prescription drug monitoring system (PDMOS) using data from the nationwide Drug Utilization Review (DUR) system in Korea. Methods The DUR system collects information on drug prescriptions issued by healthcare practitioners and on drugs dispensed by pharmacies. PDMOS was constructed using this data. The screen of PDMOS is designed to exhibit the number of drug prescriptions, the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, and the dispensed prescription drug costs on a daily and weekly basis. Data was sourced from the DUR system between June 1, 2016 and July 18, 2016. The TOGA solution developed by the EYEQMC Co. Ltd. of Seoul, Korea was used to produce the screen shots. Results Prescription numbers by medical facilities were more numerous than the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, as expected. The number of prescriptions per day was between 2 to 3 million. The prescriptions issued by primary care clinics were most numerous, at 75% of the total number of prescriptions. Daily prescription drug costs were found to be approximately US $50 million. The prescription drug costs were highest on Mondays and were reduced towards the end of the week. Prescriptions and dispensed prescriptions numbered approximately 1,200 and 1,000 million, respectively. Conclusions The construction of a real-time PDMOS has been successful to provide daily and weekly information. There was a lag time of only one day at the national level in terms of information extraction, and scarcely any time was required to load the data. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of constructing a PDMOS to monitor the estimate the number of prescriptions and the resulting expenditures from prescriptions. PMID:27525159

  7. [Analysis on composition principles of prescriptions for stranguria in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-Chang; Wang, Miao-Miao

    2014-03-01

    By using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system to analyze the dominant experience and recessive principles of the prescriptions for stranguria in the dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription (DCMP), we aim to define the medication pattern and rule and to acquire new prescriptions. In dominant experience analysis, we were able to find 22 drugs used over 50 times, including drugs of clearing heat, diuresis and relieving stranguria which are the most used and drugs of clearing heat, cooling blood, benefiting Qi and nourishing Yin. In addition, drugs of activating Qi and Xue, eliminating phlegm and removing toxic are often used, including 34 herb pairs and 5 combinations of three-taste drugs are used more than 35 times. These results fully reflect the composition principles and compatibility characteristic of prescriptions for treating stranguria in DCMP. Thirteen new prescriptions by way of recessive principle excavating were acquired. These new prescriptions might be suitable to clinical treatments of variable syndromes. This article provides an useful clue to research and produce new drugs. PMID:24956864

  8. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-exemption procedure. 310.200 Section 310.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements § 310.200 Prescription-exemption procedure....

  9. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... practitioner may sign a paper prescription in the same manner as he would sign a check or legal document...

  10. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  11. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... is his Social Security identification number. Each paper prescription shall have the name of...

  12. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-exemption procedure. 310.200 Section 310.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements § 310.200 Prescription-exemption procedure....

  13. Do Motives Matter?: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' motives for engaging in nonmedical prescription drug use is somewhat different than their reasons for using other drugs, such as marijuana. For some youth, nonmedical prescription drug use is an attempt to self-treat a medical condition, for others it is an effort to get high, and some youth misuse prescription drugs for both reasons.…

  14. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  15. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The... FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription drug program. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  16. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn...

  2. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirement of prescription. 1306.21 Section 1306.21 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.21 Requirement of prescription. (a) A pharmacist...

  3. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  4. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  5. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  6. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  7. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  9. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  10. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  11. Patterns of Prescription Medication Diversion among Drug Dealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South…

  12. 21 CFR 1308.32 - Exempted prescription products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempted prescription products. 1308.32 Section 1308.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempted Prescription Products § 1308.32 Exempted prescription products. The compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain...

  13. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact lens prescription shall expire: (1) On the...

  14. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to be discussed is ``Prescription Drug Use in Pregnancy.'' Date and Time: The meeting will be held on May 17,...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. 1306.09 Section 1306.09 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. 1306.09 Section 1306.09 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No...

  17. Insight Into Quality of Prescription Writing - An Instituitional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription writing is an important task performed by a doctor during patient management. Prescription refers to written instructions given to a patient regarding medications. Lack of attention during prescription writing can lead to prescription errors which in turn can adversely affect patients’ well-being. Thus, prescriptions are an important target area for improvement. Aim The purpose of the present study was to analyze the quality of prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore and to compare the prescription writing patterns amongst undergraduates, interns and postgraduates of this institution. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 randomly selected prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. All the prescriptions were analyzed for the presence of (a) Patient’s information: Out-Patient file number, name, age, gender, address and contact number (b) Doctors information: Full name, department name, qualification, contact details, date of prescription, superscription, and signature (c) Drug information: Name, strength, dosage form, dosage instructions, duration and total quantity. Each prescription was further categorized into groups A, B, C or D, depending on the scores obtained. Prescription quality was then compared between the undergraduates, interns and postgraduates. Results Analysis of prescriptions performed using Chi-square test showed that groups A, B, C and D had 12 (2%), 155 (31%), 333 (67%) and 0 (0%) students respectively. Association between the groups and qualifications showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). Undergraduate prescriptions were better written in comparison to interns and postgraduates. Conclusion Findings of the current study demonstrate the need for further improvement in the quality of prescription writing by students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore

  18. Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law

  19. Variable torque prescription: state of art.

    PubMed

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R; Teresa, Dinoi M; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the "timeline changes" in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  20. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  1. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers. PMID:24168912

  2. Prescription opioid abuse: Problems and responses.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Boyle, Maureen; Wargo, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Prescription opioid abuse and addiction, along with consequences such as overdose death and increasing transition to heroin use, constitute a devastating public health problem in the United States. Increasingly it is clear that overprescription of these medications over the past two decades has been a major upstream driver of the opioid abuse epidemic. This commentary considers the factors that have led to overprescription of opioids by clinicians, discusses recent evidence casting doubt on the efficacy of opioids for treating chronic pain, and describes the ongoing efforts by federal and community stakeholders to address this epidemic-for example, supporting prescription drug monitoring programs and improved clinician training in pain management to help reduce the supply of opioids, increasing dissemination of evidence-based primary prevention programs to reduce demand for opioids, and expanding access to effective opioid agonist therapies and antagonist medications for both treatment and overdose prevention. PMID:25871819

  3. The Diversion of Prescription Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Lugo, Yamilka; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process -- from the original manufacturing site, to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. Although a number of recent scientific papers have discussed the problems associated with diversion, empirical data on the scope and magnitude of diversion are limited in the literature. This paper presents findings from a national diversion survey being conducted as part of risk management initiatives supported by Denver Health and Hospital Authority, designed to monitor the abuse and diversion of a variety of prescription opioid analgesics. On a quarterly basis, diversion investigators in 300 jurisdictions distributed throughout the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico are sent short questionnaires designed to elicit data on the extent of drug diversion in their areas. During the 20-quarter survey period reported in this paper, a total of 64,655 cases of prescription drug diversion were reported from all of the participating sites. The most widely diverted opioid was hydrocodone, in that it was mentioned in 38.2% of the cases, followed by oxycodone, mentioned in 24.3% of the cases. By contrast, the proportions of cases in which other opioids were mentioned were significantly smaller. The diversion of opioids appears in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, with especially high concentrations in rural areas. How all of these prescription opioids are being diverted to the street, however, is not altogether clear, and in many ways, diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:25267926

  4. Prescription Opioid Epidemic and Infant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Judith; Martin, Peter R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Warren, Michael D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Ely, E. Wesley; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Cooper, William O.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is poorly described. Our objectives were to identify neonatal complications associated with antenatal opioid pain reliever exposure and to establish predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHODS: We used prescription and administrative data linked to vital statistics for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. A random sample of NAS cases was validated by medical record review. The association of antenatal exposures with NAS was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 112 029 pregnant women, 31 354 (28%) filled ≥1 opioid prescription. Women prescribed opioid pain relievers were more likely than those not prescribed opioids (P < .001) to have depression (5.3% vs 2.7%), anxiety disorder (4.3% vs 1.6%) and to smoke tobacco (41.8% vs 25.8%). Infants with NAS and opioid-exposed infants were more likely than unexposed infants to be born at a low birth weight (21.2% vs 11.8% vs 9.9%; P < .001). In a multivariable model, higher cumulative opioid exposure for short-acting preparations (P < .001), opioid type (P < .001), number of daily cigarettes smoked (P < .001), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (odds ratio: 2.08 [95% confidence interval: 1.67–2.60]) were associated with greater risk of developing NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of NAS. PMID:25869370

  5. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-jin; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, by using the method of literature research, 35 prescriptions related to asthma therapy has been screened out from Hui medicine through collecting the ancient and modern literature. A comparison of fragrant medicine between the name in Arab and Chinese herbal medicine is done. The countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to get the prescriptions of the drug on the frequency statistics, summarizing the common drugs of Hui medicine for asthma are Pinellia, almond, white sugar, walnut. According to the commonly used drugs, the pathogeny and treatment principle about Hui medicine for asthma is preliminarily inferred combining literature research and the related Hui medical theory. In this study, those prescriptions have been classified into 21 cases which are effective and can be used in medical therapy according to the relevant literatures with the development of the Hui people in their long process of formation of the unique diet culture, 14 useful and convenient Halal diet therapies are made up according to the indications, therapies, party name and composition. Halal diet and "medicine and food" herbs are preliminarily analyzed and summarized, which can be convenient for the people to reduce pains through the diet and improve health awareness. PMID:26137703

  6. Analysis of prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies in Nablus, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, A F; Sweileh, W M; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F Bni; Odah, A

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prescription quality and prescribing trends of private clinicians in Nablus governorate, Palestine. A total of 363 prescriptions were collected from a random sample of 36 community pharmacies over a study period of 288 working hours. Data regarding elements in the prescription and the types of drugs prescribed were analysed. Physician-related variables were mostly noted, however, patient's address and weight were absent in all prescriptions and less than half included age and sex. Information regarding strength of the medications prescribed was missing in over 70% of prescriptions. Other drug-related variables like frequency and instruction of use were present in over 80% of prescriptions. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. Amoxicillin alone or in combination was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents followed by cefuroxime. Prescription writing quality in Nablus is deficient in certain aspects and improvement is required. PMID:20799538

  7. Care management: agreement between nursing prescriptions and patients' care needs

    PubMed Central

    Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. Method: descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. Results: 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. Conclusion: the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. PMID:27508902

  8. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  9. Interdire aux enfants et aux adolescents de moins de 18 ans l’accès aux établissements commerciaux de bronzage

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Stanwick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Le nombre de mélanomes cutanés malins a plus que triplé depuis 35 ans. Puisque les dommages sont cumulatifs, l’exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets tôt dans la vie accroît le risque, qui augmente davantage avec l’utilisation de sources artificielles de rayonnements ultraviolets. Il peut falloir des années pour évaluer les répercussions et l’étendue complètes des dommages causés par le bronzage artificiel à longueur d’année, compte tenu de la longue période de latence de la plupart des cancers de la peau. Les adolescents fréquentent souvent les salons de bronzage, les filles s’y rendant davantage et de manière soutenue. L’industrie du bronzage conteste la classification de cancérigène physique de groupe 1 qu’attribuent au bronzage artificiel l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer. Les salons de bronzage cherchent à établir et à maintenir une clientèle chez les adolescents. Par conséquent, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie s’ajoute à d’autres organismes de santé réputés pour appuyer l’interdiction des établissements commerciaux de bronzage aux enfants et adolescents de moins de 18 ans.

  10. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of the alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examines demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (18–29) who misuse prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs, more than three quarters reported recent sex without a condom, and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that white race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25569204

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  12. Components of Exercise Prescription and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Michelle F

    2016-09-01

    Physicians should discuss decreasing sedentary time and behavior with their pregnant patients to assist sedentary women to become more active using light activities. Medical screening before engaging or continuing in a moderate aerobic exercise program is vital to ensure a low-risk pregnancy. The FITT principle is important to use in prescription that suggests: Frequency (3 to 4 times per week), Intensity (appropriate target heart rate zone, rating of perceived exertion scale, or the talk test), Time (start at 15 min progressing to 30 min), and Type (moving large muscles groups such as walking, swimming, and cycling) of physical activity. PMID:27135872

  13. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  14. Prescription drug laws: justified hard paternalism.

    PubMed

    Rainbolt, George W

    1989-01-01

    Prescription drug laws are justified as examples of permissible hard paternalism and not as soft paternalism, which is morally legitimated by the defective cognitive or affective state of the individual on whose behalf the action is performed. Other examples of hard paternalism are considered, along with two strategies for determining the limits of paternalism. It is concluded that instances of permissible hard paternalism exist and that the only acceptable strategy is to balance harm and benefit on a case-by-case basis. PMID:11650113

  15. Correlates of Prescription Drug Market Involvement among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background While a significant minority of prescription drug misusers report purchasing prescription drugs, little is known about prescription drug selling. We build upon past research on illicit drug markets, which increasingly recognizes networks and nightlife as influential, by examining prescription drug market involvement. Methods We use data from 404 young adult prescription drug misusers sampled from nightlife scenes. Using logistic regression, we examine recent selling of and being approached to sell prescription drugs, predicted using demographics, misuse, prescription access, and nightlife scene involvement. Results Those from the wealthiest parental class and heterosexuals had higher odds (OR=6.8) of selling. Higher sedative and stimulant misuse (ORs=1.03), having a stimulant prescription (OR=4.14), and having sold other illegal drugs (OR=6.73) increased the odds of selling. College bar scene involvement increased the odds of selling (OR=2.73) and being approached to sell (OR=2.09). Males (OR=1.93), stimulant users (OR=1.03), and sedative prescription holders (OR=2.11) had higher odds of being approached. Discussion College bar scene involvement was the only site associated with selling and being approached; such participation may provide a network for prescription drug markets. There were also differences between actual selling and being approached. Males were more likely to be approached, but not more likely to sell than females, while the opposite held for those in the wealthiest parental class relative to lower socioeconomic statuses. Given that misuse and prescriptions of sedatives and stimulants were associated with prescription drug market involvement, painkiller misusers may be less likely to sell their drugs given the associated physiological dependence. PMID:25175544

  16. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate Prescriptions): Development of a Tool to Identify Inappropriate Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045

  17. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior. PMID:25225369

  18. Summary and recommendations for initial exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations summarized herein constitute a basis on which an initial exercise prescription can be formulated. It is noteworthy that any exercise program designed currently would be an approximation. Examination of the existing space-flight data reveals a scarcity of in-flight data on which to rigorously design an exercise program. The relevant experience within the U.S. space program (with regard to long-duration space flight) is limited to the Skylab Program. Lessons learned from Skylab are relevant to the design of a Space Station exercise program, especially with regard to the total length of exercise time required, cardiovascular (CV) deconditioning/reconditioning, and bone loss. Certain observations of the U.S.S.R. exercise activities can also contribute to the formulation of an exercise prescription of Space Station. Reportedly, the U.S.S.R. uses both a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill device on long-duration missions with some degree of success. Using the third crew of Salyut 6, which was a 175-day stay, as a representative mission, the typical time dedicated to exercise varies from 2 to 3 hours per day. In addition, the cosmonauts wear an elasticized suit, called a penquin suit, for time periods ranging from 12 to 16 hours per day. This device provides a load across the axial skeleton against which the wearer must exert himself. Despite these extensive countermeasures, the effects of adaptation are not totally prevented.

  19. Temporal Resolution with a Prescriptive Fitting Formula

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Marc A.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Souza, Pamela E.; Stecker, G. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous work using laboratory-based paradigms documented that WDRC may improve gap detection compared to linear amplification. The purpose of this study was to measure temporal resolution using WDRC fit with compression ratios set for each listener’s hearing loss. Method Nineteen adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss fitted with WDRC or linear amplification set to a prescriptive fitting method participated in this study. Subjects detected amplitude modulations and gaps. Two noise carriers were used: narrowband (1995–2005 Hz) or broadband (100–8000 Hz). Results Small differences between WDRC and linear amplification were observed in the measures of temporal resolution. Modulation detection thresholds decreased by a mean of 0.7 dB with WDRC compared to linear amplification. This reduction was observed for both carrier types. Gap detection thresholds did not differ between the two amplification conditions. Conclusions WDRC set using a prescriptive fitting method with individualized compression ratios had a small, but statistically significant effect on measures of modulation thresholds. Differences were not observed between the two amplification conditions for the measures of gap detection. These findings contrast with previous work using fixed compression ratios, suggesting that the effect of the fitting method on the compression ratio should be considered when attempting to generalize the effect of WDRC on temporal resolution to the clinic. PMID:23824436

  20. [Off-label prescription: practice and problems].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, António Vaz; Costa, João

    2013-09-01

    Approval of a drug for clinical use requires production of data on efficacy and safety through submission of results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the new molecule is usually compared with placebo (or an active comparator) for a set of outcomes that will serve as the basis for the drug's indications. These indications are crucial, because drugs are approved on the basis of their net clinical benefit for specific and well-defined diseases and--importantly--only for these. Once the drug is available for use in tens or hundreds of thousands of patients, physicians may realize that some medications can be effective in diseases for which they were not approved, i.e., no studies have been presented to the regulatory authorities, and therefore they are not formally approved for those indications. Convinced of the benefits for their patients, some physicians prescribe them for unapproved indications--off-label prescription. In this paper we discuss the prevalence of off-label prescription, and its advantages and problems. PMID:23896300

  1. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S

    2014-09-16

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior. PMID:25225369

  2. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  3. [Authors of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions"].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the career and official ranks of the authors of the Sejong text (1443-1445), Sejo text (1451-1464), and Seongjong text (1475-1477) of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" were investigated. In the completion of Sejong text, Kim Rye-mong (1406-1469), Ryu Seong-won (?-1456), and Min Bohua (?) collected and arranged all medical books inside and outside of Choseon; Kim Moon (?-1448), Shin Seok-jo (1407-1459), Lee Ye (1419-1480), Kim Soo-on (1410-1481), Jeon soon-eui (?), Choi Yun (?), and Kim Yu-ji (?-1469) took part in the edition; Lee Yong (1418-1453), Lee Sa-cheol (1405-1456), Lee Sa-soon (?-1455), and Rho Joon-g-rye (?-1452) participated in the editorial supervision. Ryang Seong-ji (1415-1482), Son So (1433-1484), Ryu Yo (?), Han Chi-ryang (?), An Geuk-sang (?), Han Kye-mi (1421-1471), and Choi Young-rin (?) took part in the completion of Sejo text. Han Kye-heiu (1423-1482), Rym Won-joon (1423-1500), Kueon Chan (1430-1487), Ryu Seo (?), and Baek Soo-heui(?) participated in the completion of Seongjong text. All 96 persons participated in the completion of draft text, revision text, and first-publication text of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions". 14 persons (14.58%) participated in the completion of draft text. 77 persons (80.21%) participated in revision text, and 5 persons (5.21%) participated in first-publication text. Even though "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" is a medical book, civil officials participated in its completion together with medical officials. The scholars of Jiphyeonjeon (The Jade Hall of Scholars) who led the academy at those days and famous medical officials were ordered to complete it by Sejong (1419-1450), Sejo (1455-1468), and Seongjong (1470-1494) who showed special interest in their own health and the health of common people. PMID:12214602

  4. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  5. Enhancing prescription drug innovation and adoption.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G Caleb; O'Connor, Alec B; Stafford, Randall S

    2011-06-21

    The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a marketplace in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

  6. Off-site benefits influence prescriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Benzie, J.W.; Alm, A.A.; Curtin, T.W.; Merritt, C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the past thirty years of forestry practices and predicts trend for the next thirty years. According to the author, seven million acres of commercial forest land has been converted to other uses. However, much of the selective cutting in hardwood stands constituted high grade wood, and the volume of growing stock increased 76 percent. Forestry practices were intensified on industrial and public lands, but changed very little on private lands. The author predicts that in the future, computer software programs will assist foresters with multiple use prescriptions. In addition, forest owners will be more affluent, forest lands will be more fragmented, and wood production will be secondary to esthetics. In spite of this, agroforestry will improve forest production and increase biomass for energy.

  7. Prescriptive Profile Procedure for Children With Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eleanor; Fineman, Carol

    The Prescriptive Profile Procedure (PPP) attempts to provide teachers of learning disabled elementary school children with a procedure of individualized diagnosis and educational prescription which encompasses strengths and weaknesses in prerequisite skills, basic school subjects, and behavioral factors. A competency statement and six to 12…

  8. NATIONAL SURVEY OF PRESCRIPTION DRUG INFORMATION PROVIDED TO PATIENTS (NSPDIPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National telephone surveys were conducted in 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998 to determine how much prescription medicine information consumers receive and through which sources. Approximately 1,000 U.S. consumers who received a new prescription for themselves or a family member at a r...

  9. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.100 Prescription...

  10. Do Physicians Change Prescription Practice in Response to Financial Incentives?

    PubMed

    Park, Sylvia; Han, Euna

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the impact on physician prescription behaviors of an outpatient prescription incentive program providing financial rewards to primary care physicians for saving prescription costs in South Korea. A 10% sample of clinics (N = 1,625) was randomly selected from all clinics in the National Health Insurance claims database for the years 2009-2012, and all claims with the primary diagnosis of peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux diseases were extracted from those clinics' data. A clinic-level random-effects model was used. After the program, clinics in general medicine showed a lower prescription rate (by 0.8 percentage points), lower number of medicines prescribed (by 0.02), lower prescription duration (by 0.15 days), and lower drug expenditure per claim (by 740 won). Small clinics on the <25th percentile of a regional sum of monthly drug expenditure had shorter prescription duration (by 0.76 days), while large clinics on the ≥75th percentile and clinics in group practice had a higher prescription rate (by 1.5 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively) and a higher number of medicines prescribed (by 0.03 for group practice only) after the program. The outpatient prescription incentive program worked as intended only in certain subgroup clinics for the target medicines. PMID:27193920

  11. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  13. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  14. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. PMID:27265843

  15. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ..., August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310). The rules of 26 CFR 601.601(a)(3) apply to the hearing. Persons who wish... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY... proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  16. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  17. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  18. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  19. Prescription Privileges, Psychopharmacology and School Psychology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy; Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on psychopharmacology and prescription privileges for psychologists. Summarizes nine major findings from Task Force on Psychopharmacology in the Schools, created to review literature on prescription privileges for psychologists; identify specific issues attendant to use of psychoactive medications with children; and clarify implications…

  20. Incidence of unlicensed and off-label prescription in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many common drugs have not been licensed for use in children. Methods This study evaluated the incidence of unlicensed and off-label prescriptions at the Department of Pediatrics during a period of six months. A total of 8,559 prescriptions for 4,282 children were processed. Results Off-label and unlicensed prescriptions were found in 9.01% and 1.26% of all prescriptions, respectively. Unlicensed prescriptions were significantly more common in boys (1.5%) than in girls (1.0%) (p = 0.037). There was no significant difference between off-label prescriptions in boys (9.0%) and in girls (9.1%) (p = 0.89). The prescription of unlicensed drugs was significantly more frequent in school age children (p < 0.0001). The most commonly prescribed unlicensed drugs were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; among off-label drugs, antihistamines and bronchodilators. Conclusions This study shows that the incidence of unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions in our patients is not as high as in other studies. PMID:24495454

  1. 10 CFR 430.41 - Prescriptions of a rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prescriptions of a rule. 430.41 Section 430.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Petitions To Exempt State Regulation From Preemption; Petitions To Withdraw Exemption of State Regulation § 430.41 Prescriptions of a rule. (a) Criteria...

  2. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Assessment Strategies for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Donovan, Kimberly A.; Krug, Kevin S.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the article "Prescription Drug Use and Abuse: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Prevention Strategies" (J. H. Isaacson, J. A. Hopper, D. P. Alford, & T. Parran, 2005), which provides an overview of the recent increase in prescription opioid abuse and dependence from the physician's perspective. In the present article, the authors…

  3. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  4. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.100 Prescription drugs for human use. A drug subject to...

  5. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  6. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  7. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  8. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  9. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  10. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the pharmacy or pursuant to an oral prescription made by an individual practitioner and promptly... controlled substance listed in Schedule III, IV, or V in the course of his/her professional practice without... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy, an electronic prescription that meets...

  11. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  12. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  13. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  14. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  15. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.100 Prescription drugs for human use. A drug subject to...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal; (2) Ensure that... receipt of the transmitted prescription, the name of the licensed pharmacist filling the prescription,...

  17. Women Who Abuse Prescription Opioids: Findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version® Connect Prescription Opioid Database

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Methods Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV® Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. Results 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3,821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, p< 0.001) and abuse of any prescription opioid (15.4% females vs. 11.1% males, p < 0.001) in the past month. Route of administration and source of prescription opioids displayed gender-specific tendencies. Women-specific correlates of recent prescription opioid abuse were problem drinking, age <54, inhalant use, residence outside of West US Census region, and history of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age <34, currently living with their children, residence in the South and Midwest, hallucinogen use, and recent depression. Women prescription opioid abusers were less likely to report a pain problem although they were more likely to report medical problems than women who abused other drugs. Conclusions Gender-specific factors should be taken into account in efforts to screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted. PMID:19409735

  18. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  19. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  20. Health Outcomes in Patients Using No-Prescription Online Pharmacies to Purchase Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword “tramadol” and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n=349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n=96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations

  1. Prescription drug abuse. Patient, physician, and cultural responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Smith, D E

    1990-05-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs is one facet of America's drug problem that is particularly complex because access to prescription drugs must be maintained for some purposes and contained for others. The American Medical Association has sponsored two national conferences to grapple with the confluence of the medical access to prescription drugs and a national drug abuse control policy. One result has been a classification of misprescribing physicians that blames physicians for prescription drug abuse. The conceptualization and public policy response to prescription drug abuse have been largely shaped by the emotional response to the epidemic of crack cocaine and other nonprescription drug abuse. A new perspective is needed--one that accommodates the evolving role of physicians in society, the life-style choices that physicians enable in their patients, and the respective responsibilities of both physicians and patients in physician-patient transactions. PMID:2349802

  2. [Study of the Tangut Prescription Sanxiandan unearthed in Heishuicheng].

    PubMed

    Liang, Song-Tao

    2012-09-01

    Prescriptions (ИHB.NO.4384) in the10th Volume of Heishuicheng Manuscripts Collected in Russia covered 9 pages. The 4(th) and the 7(th) pages recorded a prescription with no name and composed of Radix Aconiti, Atractylodes lan and Foeniculumvulgare. By checking Chinese Medical books, the name of this prescription was probably Sanxiandan and it may have been recorded in Chenshi Jingyanfang for the first time. Chenshi Jingyanfang is not extant now but its narrative style, which is different from that of the Tangut prescription, could be speculated upon from other literature that mentioned it. So those Tangut prescriptions could have been compiled according to some Chinese Medical books after Chunyou Periods. PMID:23336311

  3. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  4. Initiation into Prescription Opioid Misuse among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Teti, Michelle; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Harocopos, Alex; Treese, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Background Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drugs among young adults. Initiation into prescription opioid misuse is an important public health concern since opioids are increasingly associated with drug dependence and fatal overdose. Descriptive data about initiation into prescription opioid misuse among young injection drug users (IDUs) are scarce. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken to describe patterns of initiation into prescription opioid misuse among IDUs aged 16 to 25 years. Those young IDUs who had misused a prescription drug at least three times in the past three months were recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles (n=25) and New York (n=25). Informed by an ethno-epidemiological approach, descriptive data from a semi-structured interview guide were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Initiation into prescription opioid misuse was facilitated by easy access to opioids via participant’s own prescription, family, or friends, and occurred earlier than misuse of other illicit drugs, such as heroin. Nearly all transitioned into sniffing opioids, most injected opioids, and many initiated injection drug use with an opioid. Motives for transitions to sniffing and injecting opioids included obtaining a more potent high and/or substituting for heroin; access to multiple sources of opioids was common among those who progressed to sniffing and injecting opioids. Conclusion Prescription opioid misuse was a key feature of trajectories into injection drug use and/or heroin use among this sample of young IDUs. A new pattern of drug use may be emerging whereby IDUs initiate prescription opioid misuse before using heroin. PMID:21689917

  5. Chasing the Bean: Prescription Drug Smoking among Socially Active Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Vuolo, Mike; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative consumption practices of prescription drug misuse have been less well monitored than general prevalence. We describe prescription drug smoking among socially active youth and highlight correlates of this practice. We also examine its association with drug problems, drug dependence, and mental health. Methods We surveyed 404 young adults recruited from nightlife venues in New York via time-space sampling. We use linear and logistic regression models to examine the probability of smoking prescription drugs and its association with drug problems, dependence, and mental health. Qualitative findings supplement the survey data. Results Males have higher odds than females (OR=3.4) and heterosexuals have higher odds than sexual minority youth (OR=2.3) of smoking prescription drugs. Those involved in Electronic Dance Music nightlife have higher odds (OR=2.1) compared to those who do not participate in that scene, while those in college bar scenes have lower odds (OR=0.4) of having smoked prescription drugs. Prescription drug smokers report more drug problems (β=0.322) and greater symptoms of dependence (β=0.298) net of the frequency of misuse and other characteristics. Prescription drug smokers do not report greater mental health problems. Qualitative interview data support these survey findings. Conclusions Prescription drug smoking is a significant drug trend among socially active youth. It is associated with drug problems and symptoms of dependence net of frequency of misuse. Prevention and intervention efforts for youth who misuse prescription drugs should address the issue of prescription drug smoking, and this may be an area for clinicians to address with their adolescent patients. PMID:26003578

  6. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription drug coverage for everyone ... t offer Medicare prescription drug coverage. • A Medicare Cost Plan if it doesn’t offer Medicare prescription ...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.24 - Labeling of substances and filing of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... filing of prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a prescription for a controlled substance listed in... employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to identify the supplier, the product...

  8. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…

  9. Focus on Teacher Education in Diagnostic and Prescriptive Mathematics: Diagnostic/Prescriptive Mathematics as Content for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jon M.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic/prescriptive mathematics was examined to ask whether a sufficient body of professional knowledge and practices exist to warrant its inclusion in teacher preparation. Argues that diagnostic/prescriptive mathematics does constitute an appropriate topic for consideration as content in revised teacher preparation programs. (PK)

  10. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  11. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  12. Patterns of prescription medication diversion among drug dealers

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South Florida. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 50) were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of prescription drug dealers from a variety of milieus to assess patterns of diversion. Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed using the NVivo 8 software program. Dealers relied on a wide array of diversion methods including visiting multiple pain clinics, working with pharmacy employees to steal medications from pharmacies, and purchasing medications from indigent patients. The type of medication most commonly sold by dealers was prescription opioid analgesics, and to a lesser extent benzodiazepines such as alprazolam. These findings inform public health policy makers, criminal justice officials, the pharmaceutical industry and government regulatory agencies in their efforts to reduce the availability of diverted prescription drugs in the illicit market. Specifically, these data support the need for statewide prescription drug monitoring programs and increased training for healthcare workers who have access to controlled medications. PMID:22665955

  13. Determinants of US Prescription Drug Utilization using County Level Data.

    PubMed

    Nianogo, Thierry; Okunade, Albert; Fofana, Demba; Chen, Weiwei

    2016-05-01

    Prescription drugs are the third largest component of US healthcare expenditures. The 2006 Medicare Part D and the 2010 Affordable Care Act are catalysts for further growths in utilization becuase of insurance expansion effects. This research investigating the determinants of prescription drug utilization is timely, methodologically novel, and policy relevant. Differences in population health status, access to care, socioeconomics, demographics, and variations in per capita number of scripts filled at retail pharmacies across the USA justify fitting separate econometric models to county data of the states partitioned into low, medium, and high prescription drug users. Given the skewed distribution of per capita number of filled prescriptions (response variable), we fit the variance stabilizing Box-Cox power transformation regression models to 2011 county level data for investigating the correlates of prescription drug utilization separately for low, medium, and high utilization states. Maximum likelihood regression parameter estimates, including the optimal Box-Cox λ power transformations, differ across high (λ = 0.214), medium (λ = 0.942), and low (λ = 0.302) prescription drug utilization models. The estimated income elasticities of -0.634, 0.031, and -0.532 in high, medium, and low utilization models suggest that the economic behavior of prescriptions is not invariant across different utilization levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25903420

  14. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further. PMID:24000508

  15. Non-prescription antimicrobial use worldwide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Daniel J; Okeke, Iruka N; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Perencevich, Eli N; Weisenberg, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In much of the world antimicrobial drugs are sold without prescription or oversight by health-care professionals. The scale and effect of this practice is unknown. We systematically reviewed published works about non-prescription antimicrobials from 1970–2009, identifying 117 relevant articles. 35 community surveys from five continents showed that non-prescription use occurred worldwide and accounted for 19–100% of antimicrobial use outside of northern Europe and North America. Safety issues associated with non-prescription use included adverse drug reactions and masking of underlying infectious processes. Non-prescription use was common for non-bacterial disease, and antituberculosis drugs were available in many areas. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are common in communities with frequent non-prescription use. In a few settings, control efforts that included regulation decreased antimicrobial use and resistance. Non-prescription antimicrobial and antituberculosis use is common outside of North America and northern Europe and must be accounted for in public health efforts to reduce antimicrobial resistance. PMID:21659004

  16. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  17. Extended possibilities of pharmaceuticals delivery to patients using dematerialized prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Urbański, Andrzej P

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the requirement for e-commerce enabled delivery of pharmaceutical prescriptions. First, currently available solutions are critically reviewed and an ideal solution is specified and then the concept of the proposed solution--Dematerialized Prescription (DP), is outlined. Next, the information flows required to enable such a service are considered. The paper then considers a number of possible services which could be made available with DP to deliver medicals to patients. Finally, a proposed solution, which enables physician to fill dematerialized prescriptions online using inexpensive mobile Internet devices is presented in detail, the advantages of such a model are summarized and future research directions are suggested. PMID:15747902

  18. Prescription medication abuse and illegitimate internet-based pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Foster, Susan E; Califano, Joseph A

    2011-12-20

    Abuse of controlled prescription medications in the United States exceeds that of all illicit drugs combined except marijuana and has grown considerably in the past decade. Although available through traditional channels, controlled prescription medications can also be purchased on the Internet without a prescription. This issue has gained the attention of federal regulators, law enforcement, and the media, but physician awareness of the problem is scarce. This article describes the nature of the problem and its magnitude, discusses the challenges to federal and private efforts to combat illegitimate online pharmacies, and outlines strategies for physicians to recognize and minimize the unwarranted effects of the availability of these medications on the Internet. PMID:22184692

  19. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more than $4.9 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the U.S. Controversy over DTCA has grown since the Food and Drug Administration liberalized its regulations in 1997. Proponents claim that such advertising educates consumers, promotes patient participation in clinical decisions, and improves patient adherence to medication instructions. Opponents argue that such advertising is meant to persuade, not educate, and that it promotes inappropriate use of prescription drugs, or diverts consumers from better alternatives. This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:20469541

  20. Prioritizing environmental risk of prescription pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Senn, David B; Moran, Rebecca E; Shine, James P

    2013-02-01

    Low levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, but their human and ecological health risks associated with low dose environmental exposure is largely unknown due to the large number of these compounds and a lack of information. Therefore prioritization and ranking methods are needed for screening target compounds for research and risk assessment. Previous efforts to rank pharmaceutical compounds have often focused on occurrence data and have paid less attention to removal mechanisms such as human metabolism. This study proposes a simple prioritization approach based on number of prescriptions and toxicity information, accounting for metabolism and wastewater treatment removal, and can be applied to unmeasured compounds. The approach was performed on the 200 most-prescribed drugs in the US in 2009. Our results showed that under-studied compounds such as levothyroxine and montelukast sodium received the highest scores, suggesting the importance of removal mechanisms in influencing the ranking, and the need for future environmental research to include other less-studied but potentially harmful pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22813724

  1. Prioritizing Environmental Risk of Prescription Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Senn, David B.; Moran, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, but their human and ecological health risks associated with low dose environmental exposure is largely unknown due to the large number of these compounds and a lack of information. Therefore prioritization and ranking methods are needed for screening target compounds for research and risk assessment. Previous efforts to rank pharmaceutical compounds have often focused on occurrence data and have paid less attention to removal mechanisms such as human metabolism. This study proposes a simple prioritization approach based on number of prescriptions and toxicity information, accounting for metabolism and wastewater treatment removal, and can be applied to unmeasured compounds. The approach was performed on the 200 most-prescribed drugs in the U.S. in 2009. Our results showed that under-studied compounds such as levothyroxine and montelukast sodium received the highest scores, suggesting the importance of removal mechanisms in influencing the ranking, and the need for future environmental research to include other less-studied but potentially harmful pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22813724

  2. Prescriptions and proscriptions: moralising sleep medicines.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Jonathan; Coveney, Catherine M; Williams, Simon J

    2016-05-01

    The pharmaceuticalisation of sleep is a contentious issue. Sleep medicines get a 'bad press' due to their potential for dependence and other side effects, including studies reporting increased mortality risks for long-term users. Yet relatively little qualitative social science research has been conducted into how people understand and negotiate their use/non-use of sleep medicines in the context of their everyday lives. This paper draws on focus group data collected in the UK to elicit collective views on and experiences of prescription hypnotics across different social contexts. Respondents, we show, drew on a range of moral repertoires which allowed them to present themselves and their relationships with hypnotics in different ways. Six distinct repertoires about hypnotic use are identified in this regard: the 'deserving' patient, the 'responsible' user, the 'compliant' patient, the 'addict', the 'sinful' user and the 'noble' non user. These users and non-users are constructed drawing on cross-cutting themes of addiction and control, ambivalence and reflexivity. Such issues are in turn discussed in relation to recent sociological debates on the pharmaceuticalisation/de-pharmaceuticalisation of everyday life and the consumption of medicines in the UK today. PMID:26586293

  3. Prescription Drug Expenditures and Population Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To provide detailed demographic profiles of prescription drug utilization and expenditures in order to isolate the impact of demographic change from other factors that affect drug expenditure trends. Data Sources/Study Setting Demographic information and drug utilization data were extracted for virtually the entire British Columbia (BC) population of 1996 and 2002. All residents had public medical and hospital insurance; however their drug coverage resembled the mix of private and public insurance in the United States. Study Design A series of research variables were constructed to illustrate profiles of drug expenditures and drug utilization across 96 age/sex strata. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Drug use and expenditure information was extracted from the BC PharmaNet, a computer network connecting all pharmacies in the province. Principal Findings Per capita drug expenditures increased at an average annual rate of 10.8 percent between 1996 and 2002. Population aging explained 1.0 points of this annual rate of expenditure growth; the balance was attributable to rising age/sex-specific drug expenditures. Conclusions Relatively little of the observed increase in drug expenditures in BC could be attributed to demographic change. Most of the expenditure increase stemmed from the age/sex-specific quantity and type of drugs purchased. The sustainability of drug spending therefore depends not on outside forces but on decisions made by policy makers, prescribers, and patients. PMID:16584456

  4. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  5. Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide Share Tweet Linkedin ... A Consumer Safety Guide (PDF - 53KB) Buying your medicine online can be easy. Just make sure you ...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.03 - Persons entitled to issue prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substance may be issued only by an individual practitioner who is: (1) Authorized to prescribe controlled... prescription issued by an individual practitioner may be communicated to a pharmacist by an employee or...

  7. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  8. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  9. Exercise Prescription and the Low Back--Kinesiological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Gina L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article presents kinesiological factors pertaining to the lower back which should be considered in exercise prescription for youth. Three specific areas of concern are reviewed--abdominal muscular strength, trunk flexibility, and postural conditioning in jogging. (IAH)

  10. FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159779.html FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug Differin Gel 0.1% is first retinoid ... July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for acne sufferers: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ...

  11. CDC Issues Tough New Guidelines on Use of Prescription Painkillers

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157775.html CDC Issues Tough New Guidelines on Use of Prescription Painkillers To curb ... and Vicodin, federal officials on Tuesday issued tough new prescribing guidelines to the nation's doctors. The new ...

  12. Fewer Injured Workers Getting Opioid Prescriptions in Some States

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159337.html Fewer Injured Workers Getting Opioid Prescriptions in Some States Study finding ... also be useful for insurance companies and people working with injured workers, Thumula said in an institute news release. ...

  13. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  14. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed. PMID:21751015

  15. An Exercise Prescription Intervention Program with Periodic Ergometric Grading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, C. A.; Beard, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    A long term exercise prescription type of physical conditioning program has been available to executive personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for the past two years. Periodic ergometric testing with a heart rate controlled, automatically programmed, bicycle ergometer is used to follow the individual's progress and appropriately alter his exercise prescription from time to time. Such a program appears feasible, and acceptance is excellent, dropout rates small and periodic testing participation good. Subjects training diligently can maintain satisfactory levels of conditioning.

  16. Rationality of Antimicrobial Prescriptions in Community Pharmacy Users

    PubMed Central

    Egito, Eryvaldo S. T.; Azevedo, Paulo R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is a conflict between the treatment benefits for a single individual and society, restrictions on antibiotic use are needed to reduce the prevalence of resistance to these drugs, which is the main result of irrational use. Brazil, cataloged as a pharmemerging market, has implemented restrictive measures for the consumption of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of antimicrobial prescriptions and user knowledge of their treatment with these drugs. Methods and Findings A two-stage cross-sectional, combined and stratified survey of pharmacy users holding an antimicrobial prescription was conducted in the community between May and November 2014. A pharmacist analyzed each prescription for legibility and completeness, and applied a structured questionnaire to the users or their caregivers on their knowledge regarding treatment and user sociodemographic data. An estimated 29.3% of prescriptions had one or more illegible items, 91.3% had one or more missing items, and 29.0% had both illegible and missing items. Dosing schedule and patient identification were the most commonly unreadable items in prescriptions, 18.81% and 12.14%, respectively. The lack of complete patient identification occurred in 90.53% of the prescriptions. It is estimated that 40.3% of users have used antimicrobials without prescription and that 46.49% did not receive any guidance on the administration of the drug. Conclusions Despite the measures taken by health authorities to restrict the misuse of antimicrobials, it was observed that prescribers still do not follow the criteria of current legislation, particularly relating to items needed for completion of the prescription. Moreover, users receive little information about their antimicrobial treatment. PMID:26517874

  17. Collaboration or coercion? Partnering to divert prescription opioid medications.

    PubMed

    Green, Traci C; Bowman, Sarah E; Ray, Madeline; Zaller, Nickolas; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Diversion of prescription opioids is a widespread problem in the USA. While "doctor shopping" and pill brokering are well-described types of medication diversion, we sought to understand the social dynamic of diversion of prescription opioids and identify other diversion methods. Using qualitative data collected as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response study of prescription opioid overdose and abuse (the RARx Study) conducted in three communities in two New England states, we reviewed and thematically coded 195 interviews. Diversion took many forms: doctor shopping, pill brokering, and, most commonly, siphoning from the family medicine chest. Partnering-of patients with other "patients," of patients with "caregivers"- to obtain prescription opioids was also described. Motivations for partnering indicated doing so out of fear of violence, for financial benefit, or in exchange for transportation or other services. Partnering for prescription opioids exhibited a range of power differentials, from collaboration to coercion, and tended to involve vulnerable populations such as the elderly, disabled, or destitute. Increased awareness among health providers of the ease of access and diversion of prescription opioids is needed to promote patient safety and prevent interpersonal violence. PMID:23371052

  18. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001). African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why. PMID:26562228

  19. How Medicare Prescription Drug Plans & Medicare Advantage Plans with Prescription Drug Coverage (MA-PDs) Use Pharmacies,...

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug. Example of step therapy Step 1 —Dr. Smith wants to prescribe a new sleeping pill to ... sleeping pill available. Some of the drugs Dr. Smith considers prescribing are brand-name only prescription drugs. ...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date....

  1. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  2. Why do some patients not cash their prescriptions?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, I; Britten, N

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A small number of studies have used different methodologies to measure primary non-compliance, but they have not established the reasons for patients not cashing their prescriptions. It has been suggested that the number of uncashed prescriptions is a measure of the quality of doctor-patient communication, but this hypothesis remains untested. AIM: To establish the feasibility of obtaining data on a sensitive subject from patients by interview and to seek patients' reasons for not cashing prescriptions using qualitative data. METHOD: Questionnaire administered to 1000 consecutive patients attending surgery, followed by interview with those patients who indicated that they had not cashed the index prescription. RESULTS: The response rate was 93.5%. Twenty-two patients were included in the study. There was wide variation in the number of uncashed prescriptions issued by each doctor (1-13). A total of nine out of 22 patients reported that their medication was cheaper over the counter and obtained it in this way; 13 out of 22 did not obtain their medication. Five patients indicated that cost was a factor in not obtaining their medication. Other factors included the doctor's permission not to cash the prescription, poor understanding of the illness, and the wish to maintain control. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to ask patients about aspects of their behaviour that may indicate, or cause, difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship. Prescribing behaviour varies widely between doctors and, although cost is a factor in determining whether a prescription will be cashed, other variables, such as the patient's desire to maintain control over the illness, may be more important. PMID:9604414

  3. Psychotropic medicine prescriptions in Italian youths: a multiregional study.

    PubMed

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of paediatric psychotropic drug prescriptions in Italy. Data sources were regional, outpatient prescription databases. Seven Italian regions, covering 50 % of the Italian population, provided data from 2006 to 2011. Prevalence and incidence of prescriptions by age and gender were evaluated for psychotropic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) medications. The hospital admission rate for psychiatric conditions was calculated, also at the local health unit (LHU) level. The presence of trends in prescription prevalence and incidence during the 6 year period was assessed. Finally, the correlation between prevalence, prescription, hospital admission rates, latitude, longitude, and average annual income at the LHU level was also investigated. In 2011, 8834 youths received at least one psychotropic drug prescription, with a prevalence of 1.76 ‰ (95 % CI 1.72-1.80). The incidence of new psychotropic drug users was 1.03 ‰ (1.00-1.06). The prevalence of antidepressants was 1.02 ‰ (0.99-1.04), while that of antipsychotics was 0.70 ‰ (0.68-0.72), and that of ADHD medications 0.19 ‰ (0.18-0.21). The psychotropic drug prevalence increased with increasing age. Males were more exposed to psychotropic drugs than females (AUC0-17 male/female = 1.23). Antipsychotics were the most prescribed psychotropic drugs in males, while antidepressants were in females. Between-region prevalence ranged from 1.56 to 2.17 ‰. The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug from 2006 to 2011 was stable (χ(t)2 ≤ 0.001, p = 0.97). No correlation was found between prevalence and the variables investigated. Psychotropic drug prescription was very limited and stable. No geographical patterns were found. PMID:26016693

  4. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  5. Development of PET imaging-based dose-painting prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Stephen R.

    Historically, prescriptions in radiation therapy are based on physician experience drawn from the results of extensive clinical trials in order to establish standard-of-care guidelines. The doses of radiation are generally uniform across target volumes to reflect a fixed level of local neoplastic disease control of the population mean. However, inter-patient and intra-tumor variation in response to uniform doses can result in diminished tumor control and poor clinical outcome for certain patients. Recent research endeavors are emphasizing the need to individualize prescriptions by incorporating patient-specific biological markers with prognostic and predictive value. Quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) of tumor glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and hypoxia has been suggested as a sensitive and specific technique to tailor patient prescriptions in a manner that may significantly improve clinical outcome. The concept of prescribing and delivering non-uniform dose based on molecular imaging, termed dose painting, hinges on the establishment of a dose-response relationship at the image voxel scale that optimizes a particular clinical endpoint. This doctoral thesis presented two methods of defining dose-painting prescriptions based on PET imaging: the first was a heuristic model derivation of hypoxia dose-painting prescriptions in head-and-neck cancer patients; the second was an empirical imaging surrogate endpoint derivation of prescriptions in veterinary sinonasal cancer patients. The clinical implementation of these dose painting prescriptions was investigated, which emphasized treatment planning and delivery solutions. Lastly, a summary and discussion of the future of dose painting to forge links between tumor biology and clinical outcome was presented. The compelling dose painting concept is fast becoming a clinical reality that may positively impact cancer patient lives.

  6. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids: Motive and Ubiquity Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Lichtor, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Two issues relating to prescription opioid nonmedical use that to our knowledge have not been comprehensively addressed in the peer-reviewed literature are discussed: Motives for nonmedical use and the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries. The United States’ national annual survey on illicit drug use in the general population (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) asks respondents whether they have used prescription opioids for nonmedical purposes but does not assess motives for such use. By not assessing motives, nonmedical users who use only for pain relief and nonmedical users who have other motives for use are grouped together, but 2 recent epidemiological studies suggest that these 2 groups may differ in a propensity to have substance use–related problems. We suggest that the survey add a question that assesses motives for nonmedical use. Regarding whether countries besides the United States have problems associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids, after searching for epidemiological surveys and other materials potentially relevant to this issue, we were unable to determine the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries or draw cross-national comparisons. We suggest that more countries include specific questions about nonmedical use of prescription opioids in their national epidemiological surveys. Perspective We believe that critical information surrounding the nonmedical use of prescription opioids is not being gathered. Such information would allow for a better understanding of the problem. We invite discussion and commentaries regarding the issues we raise to more effectively address this public health issue. PMID:18342577

  7. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  8. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  9. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597

  10. The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers. PMID:3080797

  11. Prescription Opioid Abuse: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Nathaniel P.; Birnbaum, Howard; Brennan, Michael J.; Freedman, John D.; Gilmore, Gary P.; Jay, Dennis; Kenna, George A.; Madras, Bertha K.; McElhaney, Lisa; Weiss, Roger D.; White, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prescription opioid abuse and addiction are serious problems with growing societal and medical costs, resulting in billions of dollars of excess costs to private and governmental health insurers annually. Though difficult to accurately assess, prescription opioid abuse also leads to increased insurance costs in the form of property and liability claims, and costs to state and local governments for judicial, emergency, and social services. This manuscript’s objective is to provide payers with strategies to control these costs, while supporting safe use of prescription opioid medications for patients with chronic pain. Method A Tufts Health Care Institute Program on Opioid Risk Management meeting was convened in June 2010 with private and public payer representatives, public health and law enforcement officials, pain specialists, and other stakeholders to present research, and develop recommendations on solutions that payers might implement to combat this problem. Results While protecting access to prescription opioids for patients with pain, private and public payers can implement strategies to mitigate financial risks associated with opioid abuse, using internal strategies, such as formulary controls, claims data surveillance, and claims matching; and external policies and procedures that support and educate physicians on reducing opioid risks among patients with chronic pain. Conclusion Reimbursement policies, incentives, and health technology systems that encourage physicians to use universal precautions, to consult prescription monitoring program (PMP) data, and to implement Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to6Treatment protocols, have a high potential to reduce insurer risks while addressing a serious public health problem. PMID:23725361

  12. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p <0.001). A majority of binder prescriptions have insufficient binding capacity to maintain phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  13. The drug prescription network: a system-level view of drug co-prescription in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Marengoni, Alessandra; Tettamanti, Mauro; Franchi, Carlotta; Pasina, Luca; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Fortino, Ida; Bortolotti, Angela; Merlino, Luca; Nobili, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Networks are well suited to display and analyze complex systems that consist of numerous and interlinked elements. This study aimed at: (1) generating a series of drug prescription networks (DPNs) displaying co-prescription in community-dwelling elderly people; (2) analyzing DPN structure and organization; and (3) comparing various DPNs to unveil possible differences in drug co-prescription patterns across time and space. Data were extracted from the administrative prescription database of the Lombardy Region in northern Italy in 2000 and 2010. DPNs were generated, in which each node represents a drug chemical subclass, whereas each edge linking two nodes represents the co-prescription of the corresponding drugs to the same patient. At a global level, the DPN was a very dense and highly clustered network, whereas at the local level it was organized into anatomically homogeneous modules. In addition, the DPN was assortative by class, because similar nodes (representing drugs with the same anatomic, therapeutic, and pharmacologic annotation) connected to each other more frequently than expected, indicating that similar drugs are often co-prescribed. Finally, temporal changes in the co-prescription of specific drug sub-groups (for instance, proton pump inhibitors) translated into topological changes of the DPN and its modules. In conclusion, complementing more traditional pharmaco-epidemiology methods, the DPN-based method allows appreciatiation (and representation) of general trends in the co-prescription of a specific drug (e.g., its emergence as a heavily co-prescribed hub) in comparison with other drugs. PMID:25531938

  14. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  15. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  16. Precise AuxPt1-x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1-x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1-x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3-12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1-x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  17. [Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America].

    PubMed

    El Burai Félix, Sausan; Mack, Karin

    2014-10-01

    Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  18. Technophobia, prescription checking and the future of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Albisser, A M

    2009-06-01

    Is the medical prescription the root cause of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus? This article presents the argument for introducing prescription checking into diabetes disease management. It discusses an evidence-based need for frequent revisions of the medical prescription as the key to preventing treatment-related complications in diabetes while achieving the now mandated standards in patient care. To do this it will be prudent for diabetes healthcare providers to enrich their clinical services with new information technology-based tools. These are easily acquired by participating in professional workshops focused on advanced diabetes management. In this light, the case presented here challenges leading practitioners to become early participants in the evolution of information technology that will ultimately enhance the management of all patients with diabetes. PMID:19357829

  19. Prescription Extraction from Clinical Notes: Towards Automating EMR Medication Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajuan; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Defilippi, Chrisopher; Ng, Kenney; Ebadollahi, Shahram; Stewart, Walter F.; Byrd, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    Medication in for ma lion is one of [he most important clinical data types in electronic medical records (EMR) This study developed an NLP application (PredMED) to extract full prescriptions and their relevant components from a large corpus of unstructured ambulatory office visit clinical notes and the corresponding structured medication reconciliation (MED REC) data in the EMR. PredMED achieved an 84.4% F-score on office visit encounter notes and 95.0% on MED„REC data, outperforming two available medication extraction systems. To assess the potential for using automatically extracted prescriptions in the medication reconciliation task, we manually analyzed discrepancies between prescriptions found in clinical encounter notes and in matching MED_REC data for sample patient encounters. PMID:26306266

  20. Perverse incentives in the Medicare prescription drug benefit.

    PubMed

    McAdams, David; Schwarz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes some of the perverse incentives that may arise under the current Medicare prescription drug benefit design. In particular, risk adjustment for a stand-alone prescription drug benefit creates perverse incentives for prescription drug plans when making coverage decisions and/or for pharmaceutical companies when setting prices. This problem is new in that it does not arise with risk adjustment for other types of health care coverage. For this and other reasons, Medicare's drug benefit requires especially close regulatory oversight, now and in the future. We also consider a relatively minor change in financing the benefit that could lead to significant changes in how the benefit functions. In particular, if all plans were required to charge the same premium, there would be less diversity in quality, but also less need to regulate formulary composition, less budgetary uncertainty, and less upward pressure on drug prices. PMID:17850042

  1. Implementing New Semi-Convection and Overshooting Prescriptions in KEPLER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin; Garaud, P.; Woosley, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The processes of semi-convection and overshooting convection have been shown to have drastic impacts on the evolution of stars; in particular, the pre-supernova structure of massive stars depends strongly on the mixing prescription of semi-convection used in 1D stellar models. This has a significant impact on the properties of the supernova and the produced nucleosynthesis (Woosley & Heger 2002). There is currently little consensus on the most appropriate 1D models of semi-convection and overshooting convection, so we have implemented the physically-motivated semi-convection prescriptions from Wood, Garaud, & Stellmach (2013) and Moll, Garaud, & Stellmach (in preparation) and overshooting convection prescription from Rempel (2004) into KEPLER. We present the comparisons of these implementations with the previous semi-convection treatment from Langer, Fricke, & Sugimoto (1983) for a range of massive stars.

  2. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  3. Oregon's strategy to confront prescription opioid misuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Dennis; Bovett, Rob; Burns, Thomas; Cushing, Judy; Glynn, Mary Ellen; Kruse, Senator Jeff; Millet, Lisa M; Shames, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Governor John Kitzhaber appointed a Prescription Drug Taskforce to address Oregon's opioid epidemic. This case study reviews the Taskforce's participation in the National Governors Association State Policy Academy on Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse. To address the challenge of the misuse and abuse of prescription opioids, the Taskforce developed a strategy for practice change, community education and enhanced access to safe opioid disposal using stakeholder meetings, consensus development, and five action steps: (1) fewer pills in circulation, (2) educate prescribers and the public on the risks of opioid use, (3) foster safe disposal of unused medication, (4) provide treatment for opioid dependence, and (5) continued leadership from the Governor, health plans and health professionals. Although the story is ongoing, there are lessons for leadership in other states and for public health and medical practitioners throughout the country. PMID:25168199

  4. Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  7. Sources of prescription contraceptives and subsequent pregnancy among young women.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, M; Koenig, M A; Kim, Y J

    1984-01-01

    For more than four in 10 teenage women who first obtained a prescription contraceptive from a private doctor or family planning clinic prior to pregnancy, marriage or interview in 1979, that method was the first they had ever used. Whites were over two times more likely to have previously used a nonprescription method than were blacks. Blacks, on the other hand, were two times more likely than whites to have been virgins before first using a prescription method. Slightly more than half of all young women who used a prescription method first obtained it from a family planning clinic, and the remainder got it from a private physician. Blacks were much more likely to have gone to a clinic than were whites. Nine in 10 of those who obtained a prescription method chose the pill. Among blacks, there was no appreciable difference between those who got the method from a clinic and those whose source was a private doctor. Whites who obtained their method from a private doctor, however, were somewhat more likely to choose the pill than were those who got it from a clinic. Of all who had been sexually active before ever using a prescription method, about eight out of 10 whites, but only about five in 10 blacks, had previously used a nonprescription method. Overall, there was an interval of about one year between first intercourse and the time the young women first got a prescription method. Among whites, there was no difference in parental education or family stability between clinic and private physician patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6714381

  8. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs. PMID:18630234

  9. [Free prescription practices at Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana; Furlan, Julie; Velpry, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Free access to medicines is an important element in the implementation of health care access policies. Paradoxically, this aspect is rarely addressed in the literature on this subject. The Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital introduced so-called "poverty prescriptions" allowing free drug dispensing, independently of specific PASS (Permanent Access to Health_ Care) systems. This paper presents the results of a study of all poverty prescriptions issued by the facility in 2011./t provides an analytical description of this system and shows that, despite the absence of strict controls, it was used relatively rarely. PMID:26752028

  10. Medicaid prescription drug coverage: state efforts to control costs.

    PubMed

    Gencarelli, Dawn M

    2003-05-10

    This paper provides a brief summary of the Medicaid prescription drug benefit. It explains the mechanisms being used by states to control their prescription drug spending within the Medicaid program. The paper also highlights some of the concerns that have been expressed with these mechanisms and the litigation that has been initiated in several states as a result of these efforts. It takes a closer look at three states with cost-containment strategies that have been the focus of increased scrutiny. PMID:12751504

  11. [NSAID prescription in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Rajko; Curković, Bozidar; Babić-Naglić, Durdica; Kehler, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first choice in the tretment of rheumatic diseases. Nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory drugs show high efficacy, but they could be responsible for gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events. When the gastrointestinal risk is generally accepted, cardiovascular risk is still without consensus. Did the discussion about potential cardiovascular risk with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs influenced their prescription in real life? Data on 201 patients with rheumatoid arthritis show that the prescription of nonselective, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remain unchanged. More than two third of the patients use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs despite they have established cardiovascular disease. PMID:17580545

  12. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  13. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007–2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18–65 for ‘non-definitive’ conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or ‘definitive’ conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56–0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical

  14. Electronic e-isotretinoin prescription chart: improving physicians' adherence to isotretinoin prescription guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mark B Y; Tan, Eugene S T; Tian, Elizabeth A L; Loo, S C; Chua, S H

    2009-05-01

    Oral isotretinoin is a highly effective treatment for refractory nodulocystic acne. However, it can be associated with serious adverse effects such as teratogenicity and hepatitis. Inadequate cumulative dosing may also result in reduced therapeutic efficacy and higher disease relapse. A preliminary audit had previously revealed a poor and inconsistent adherence to local isotretinoin prescribing guidelines by physicians. To achieve greater than 90% adherence to isotretinoin guidelines for all acne patients prescribed systemic isotretinoin at the National Skin Centre, Singapore, key areas and the reasons for non-adherence were identified. A specifically designed 'one-stop' electronic isotretinoin chart was launched within the electronic medical records (EMR) system to address important safety areas; namely, informed patient consent, pregnancy testing, baseline laboratory tests, and automatic calculation of cumulative and target doses of isotretinoin. Physician adherence to prescribing guidelines improved from a baseline of 50-60% to greater than 90% (range 95-100%) for 30 consecutive months post intervention. The e-isotretinoin chart has resulted in significant improvement in physicians' adherence to isotretinoin prescription guidelines and highlights the utility of EMR technology in influencing safe prescribing behaviour among doctors. PMID:19397562

  15. Stories of Compliance and Subversion in a Prescriptive Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John

    2008-01-01

    In their commitment to raising standards successive Conservative and Labour governments have moved progressively to tighter prescription of school policy and more far reaching proscription of practices deemed unacceptable. This article examines how 12 headteachers construct the policy environment and how they respond to it in the schools they…

  16. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1 Section 1146.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE...

  17. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  18. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  19. 76 FR 64813 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Cyber attacks are growing in frequency, size and complexity and are of concern as EPCS goes online... Prescriptions for Controlled Substances was published on March 31, 2010 at 75 FR 16236-16319 and became... requirements. 73 FR 36746-47 (June 27, 2008). DEA did not require application of NIST SP 800-53A in the...

  20. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  1. A political history of medicare and prescription drug coverage.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy. PMID:15225331

  2. Prescriptions: Hyperrealism and the Chemical Regulation of Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-01-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as…

  3. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations by Treasury. See generally 31 CFR part 285. (c) Agencies are not limited to the remedies contained... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued)...

  4. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  5. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  6. An Individual Appraisal and Prescription for the Beginning Jogger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Myron W.; VanWoerkom, Carol L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Appraisal and Prescription Program is designed to provide safe initiating procedures for the beginning jogger. By using this procedure, the participant learns how to pace the amount of jogging according to the present level of fitness. A self-administered stress monitor worksheet and a sample exercise workout are included. (JN)

  7. Automating prescription map building for VRI systems using plant feedback

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescription maps for commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) equipment direct the irrigation rates for each sprinkler zone on a sprinkler lateral as the lateral moves across the field. Typically, these maps are manually uploaded at the beginning of the irrigation season; and the maps are based on...

  8. Florida's Tougher Laws May Be Cutting Opioid Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159176.html Florida's Tougher Laws May Be Cutting Opioid Prescriptions But more measures needed to combat ...

  9. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health is seeking information about causes, impact and potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this notice is to provide individuals and organizations with the opportunity to identify issues relevant to all levels of government, as well as......

  10. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. PMID:26522870

  11. (Lack of) Support for Prescriptive Statements in Teacher Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester Dacy, Breana J.; Nihalani, Priya K.; Cestone, Christina M.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) mandates determining what educational practices are demonstrated to be effective through rigorous scientific research. What types of evidence are recommended practices based on? The authors analyzed 304 citations accompanying prescriptive statements in 6 recent teacher education textbooks. Prescriptive…

  12. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electronically archive the digitally signed record. If the practitioner signs the prescription with his own... archive a copy of the digitally signed record, but need not apply the application's digital signature to... application must protect the stored audit records from unauthorized deletion. The electronic...

  13. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51245), the... of FR Doc. 2011-21011, are corrected as follows: 1. On page 51247, column 3, in the preamble, under... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  14. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... INFORMATION: Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310), the notice of proposed rulemaking... subject of FR Doc. 2011-21012, is corrected as follows: 1. On Page 51311, column 2, under the part heading... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  15. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2001 (76 FR 51245), the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... 18, 2011. The temporary regulations provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered...

  16. 77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... was published in the Federal Register on Monday, August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46653) relating to the branded...-reference to temporary regulations (REG-112805-10) which was the subject of FR Doc. 2012- 19074, is... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  17. An Assessment-Prescriptive-Instructional Packet for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.

    The purpose of this document is to suggest an assessment/prescriptive/instructional (API) process for working with older learners experiencing reading difficulties. Following a justification for the designing of materials specifically for older learners, the document explains how to collect data about learner's interests, attitudes, and reading…

  18. Individual Analysis and Prescription Profiles for Deinstitutionalization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavis, H. Kenton; And Others

    To facilitate normalization and deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded individuals, a three-phase assessment/prescription system has been developed to correspond with a concept of community integration as a series of successive transfers from (1) a restricted environment through (2) a specialized program-oriented rehabilitation and to (3) the…

  19. Reinstating Knowledge: Diagnoses and Prescriptions for England's Curriculum Ills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three recent accounts of what has allegedly gone wrong with the school curriculum in England in recent years and their prescriptions for remedying these ills--all three accounts sharing strong proposals to reinstate "knowledge" at the heart of the curriculum. These analyses, despite some significant similarities, come from very…

  20. Off-label prescriptions in Italian hospices: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Franco; Di Giulio, Paola; Campi, Rita; Pellerin, Ivanoe; De Luca, Anna; Casale, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Off-label prescription is part of routine care in palliative medicine, but no information is available about the situation in Italy. A cross-sectional observational survey was undertaken on all 66 Italian palliative care freestanding inpatient units to describe off-label prescriptions. Data were collected on 507 patients. Each prescribed drug was matched with Italian Marketing Authorization indications: 159 drugs off-label (4.5% of all prescribed drugs) for the stated indication were given to 128 patients (25.2%), and drugs unlicensed for subcutaneous injection were given to 147 patients (85.4% of all subcutaneous prescriptions, excluding insulin and heparin). The off-label prescriptions were subsequently evaluated by referring to the Italian National Pharmaceutical Formulary (INPF) and the British Palliative Care Formulary (PCF2). Although drugs are frequently prescribed off-label in inpatient palliative care units in Italy, this strategy was not always backed by clinical evidence, and in some cases, official/authoritative sources, such as INPF and PCF2 did not support it. Clinical trials and/or agreed international guidelines are needed to support the off-label use of the most widely prescribed drugs in palliation. PMID:19564095

  1. Prescription Stimulant Use and Hospitalization for Psychosis or Mania

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Alex M.; Macdonald, Erin M.; Huang, Anjie; Gomes, Tara; Paterson, Michael J.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small studies suggest that prescription stimulants can precipitate psychosis and mania. We conducted a population-based case-crossover study to examine whether hospitalization for psychosis or mania was associated with initiation of stimulant therapy. Between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2013, we studied 12,856 young people who received a stimulant prescription and were subsequently hospitalized for psychosis or mania. Of these, 183 commenced treatment during 1 of 2 prespecified 60-day intervals (defined as the “risk interval” and “control interval,” respectively) prior to admission. We found that stimulant initiation was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for psychosis or mania in the subsequent 60 days (odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.39–2.56). The risk was marginally higher in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.38–3.28), but remained in patients with no such history (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.66). One third of subjects received another stimulant prescription after hospital discharge. Of these, 45% were readmitted with psychosis or mania shortly thereafter. We conclude that initiation of prescription stimulants is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for psychosis or mania. Resumption of therapy is common, which may reflect a lack of awareness of the potential causative role of these drugs. PMID:26485338

  2. RSVP [Response System with Variable Prescriptions]: Instructional Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandam, Kamala; Myers, Donald E.

    This report provides information on the operation and potential uses of the Response System with Variable Prescriptions (RSVP), a computer-based program of individualized instruction implemented at Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). Following introductory material, Section A describes RSVP and outlines its uses in maintaining records on each…

  3. A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy. PMID:15225331

  4. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  5. Characterizing Adolescent Prescription Misusers: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with the abuse of opiods, stimulants, tranquilizers and other sedatives among adolescents aged between 12 to 17 years and the presence of one more symptoms of a substance use disorder from prescription misuse. Results indicated that poor academic performance; enjoyment of…

  6. Prescriptive Early Intervention With Culturally Diverse Populations: Some Initial Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Walter S.; Pedro-Carroll, JoAnne

    The Social Skills Development Program (SSDP) is a prevention program for inner-city primary-age school children. The services provided by SSDP are for children experiencing moderate school maladjustment. Included are descriptions of program rationale and operations, staffing, prescriptive early intervention, preventive health interventions and…

  7. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  8. How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  9. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  10. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  11. Utilizing VA Information Technology to Develop Psychiatric Resident Prescription Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Federman, Daniel G.; Borysiuk, Lydia; Sernyak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Feedback about resident prescription practices allows psychiatry educators to ensure that residents have broad prescribing experience and can facilitate practice-based learning initiatives. The authors report on a procedure utilizing U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' computerized pharmacy records to efficiently construct…

  12. Using Noncontingent Reinforcement to Increase Compliance with Wearing Prescription Prostheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richling, Sarah M.; Rapp, John T.; Carroll, Regina A.; Smith, Jeanette N.; Nystedt, Aaron; Siewert, Brook

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants' compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions.…

  13. 21 CFR 1306.11 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to a pharmacy via facsimile equipment, provided that the original... his professional practice without a prescription, subject to § 1306.07. (c) An institutional... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy by facsimile. The facsimile serves as the...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is...., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall...

  15. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

  17. Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  19. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  20. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  1. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...

  2. 76 FR 79194 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Product Labeling: Medication Guide Requirements AGENCY: Food... concern requiring distribution of FDA-approved patient medication. DATES: Submit either electronic or... information technology. Prescription Drug Product Labeling; Medication Guide Requirements (OMB Control...

  3. Number Of Medicaid Prescriptions Grew, Drug Spending Was Steady In Medicaid Expansion States.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hefei; Borders, Tyrone F; Druss, Benjamin G

    2016-09-01

    Expansions of eligibility for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act may have increased the number of Medicaid drug prescriptions. However, the expansions did not drive Medicaid spending on prescription drugs overall in 2014. PMID:27605639

  4. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  5. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  6. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  7. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  8. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  9. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS.... (b) Service. NMFS will serve a copy of its preliminary prescription on each license party....

  10. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS.... (b) Service. NMFS will serve a copy of its preliminary prescription on each license party....

  11. Respiratory Viral Testing and Influenza Antiviral Prescriptions During Hospitalization for Acute Respiratory Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Rolfes, Melissa A.; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly M.; Meek, James I.; Fry, Alicia M.; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined respiratory viral testing and influenza antiviral prescriptions at a US tertiary care hospital. During the 2010–11 to 2012–13 influenza seasons, antiviral prescriptions among acute respiratory illness (ARI) hospitalizations were associated with viral testing (rate ratio = 15.0), and empiric prescriptions were rare (<1% of ARI hospitalizations). PMID:26885545

  12. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  13. [The textual research on FANG Dao's life and Fangshijiacangjiyaofang (Collected prescription of Fang family's).].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2009-11-01

    Fangshijiacangjiyaofang (Collected prescription of Fang family's) is a prescription book compiled by Fang Dao in Southern Song Dynasty, and most of these prescriptions from experience have important clinical guiding values. However, few recorders about the book and its compiler could be found in relevant literature, it is necessary for them to be further verified. PMID:20193449

  14. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... individual practitioner's private key. 1311.145 Section 1311.145 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Prescriptions § 1311.145 Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key. (a... digitally sign a controlled substance prescription using the private key associated with his...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... individual practitioner's private key. 1311.145 Section 1311.145 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Prescriptions § 1311.145 Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key. (a... digitally sign a controlled substance prescription using the private key associated with his...

  16. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... individual practitioner's private key. 1311.145 Section 1311.145 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Prescriptions § 1311.145 Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key. (a... digitally sign a controlled substance prescription using the private key associated with his...

  17. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... individual practitioner's private key. 1311.145 Section 1311.145 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Prescriptions § 1311.145 Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key. (a... digitally sign a controlled substance prescription using the private key associated with his...

  18. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS.... (b) Service. NMFS will serve a copy of its preliminary prescription on each license party....

  19. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS.... (b) Service. NMFS will serve a copy of its preliminary prescription on each license party....

  20. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  1. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  2. Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Uzelac, Zeljko; Zeiss, René; Connemann, Bernhard J; Lang, Dirk; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Person's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual "search share" values; coefficients of determination (R) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the 2 variables. Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volumes were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968, R = 0.932, P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962, R = 0.925, P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970, R = 0.941, P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824, R = 0.682, P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885, R = 0.783, P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801, R = 0.641, P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880, R = 0.689, P = 0.01). Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution (quarters, months), our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behavior. However, further studies analyzing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitate an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26355849

  3. Evaluation of Hand Written and Computerized Out-Patient Prescriptions in Urban Part of Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Jatin; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription order is an important therapeutic transaction between physician and patient. A good quality prescription is an extremely important factor for minimizing errors in dispensing medication and it should be adherent to guidelines for prescription writing for benefit of the patient. Aim To evaluate frequency and type of prescription errors in outpatient prescriptions and find whether prescription writing abides with WHO standards of prescription writing. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Anand city. Allopathic private practitioners practising at Anand city of different specialities were included in study. Collection of prescriptions was started a month after the consent to minimize bias in prescription writing. The prescriptions were collected from local pharmacy stores of Anand city over a period of six months. Prescriptions were analysed for errors in standard information, according to WHO guide to good prescribing. Statistical Analysis Descriptive analysis was performed to estimate frequency of errors, data were expressed as numbers and percentage. Results Total 749 (549 handwritten and 200 computerised) prescriptions were collected. Abundant omission errors were identified in handwritten prescriptions e.g., OPD number was mentioned in 6.19%, patient’s age was mentioned in 25.50%, gender in 17.30%, address in 9.29% and weight of patient mentioned in 11.29%, while in drug items only 2.97% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Route and Dosage form was mentioned in 77.35%-78.15%, dose mentioned in 47.25%, unit in 13.91%, regimens were mentioned in 72.93% while signa (direction for drug use) in 62.35%. Total 4384 errors out of 549 handwritten prescriptions and 501 errors out of 200 computerized prescriptions were found in clinicians and patient details. While in drug item details, total number of errors identified were 5015 and 621 in handwritten and computerized prescriptions respectively

  4. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data. PMID:26677719

  5. Obstacles to the recognition of medical prescriptions issued in one EU country and presented in another.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Lorena; Baeten, Rita; Remmen, Roy; Busse, Reinhard; Gil, Joan; Knai, Cecile; Mäkinen, Mia; Rubert, Gloria; McKee, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A study involving the presentation of 192 Belgian or Finnish prescriptions in pharmacies in five other member states was undertaken to assess whether, as envisaged by European Union law, prescriptions issued in one member state are dispensed by pharmacists in another and to identify factors that influence such decisions. Overall, pharmacists were willing to dispense in 108 cases. Detailed results show important differences depending on the country where prescriptions are presented and whether prescriptions were written by International Nonproprietary Name and in English, as opposed to prescriptions written by brand in a national language. PMID:23756646

  6. Proton pump inhibitor prescription abuse and sepsis in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Antonio; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent one of the most extensively prescribed classes of drugs in general and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Many prescriptions are made without a clear adherence to standard indications. As a class of ordinarily well tolerated drug, PPIs are not free of side-effects and concerns have been raised about a possible role for PPIs in predisposing patients to an increased risk of bacterial infections and sepsis. As evidences of different power are accumulating on this topic, prospective studies are needed to reach a more universal agreement, but definitely more attention is needed by prescribers in being more adherent to the few recognized indications for the use of PPIs, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Otherwise, doctors could run the risk of being accused of “abused” prescription. PMID:26855807

  7. Beneficiary price sensitivity in the Medicare prescription drug plan market.

    PubMed

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) came into existence in 2006 as part of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is the most popular plan type among Medicare drug plans and large numbers of plans are available to all beneficiaries. In this article we present the first analysis of beneficiary price sensitivity in the PDP market. Our estimate of elasticity of enrollment with respect to premium, -1.45, is larger in magnitude than has been found in the Medicare HMO market. This high degree of beneficiary price sensitivity for PDPs is consistent with relatively low product differentiation, low fixed costs of entry in the PDP market, and the fact that, in contrast to changing HMOs, beneficiaries can select a PDP without disrupting doctor-patient relationships. PMID:19191252

  8. Changing roles for psychiatric clinical nurse specialists: prescriptive privileges.

    PubMed

    Rufli, G M

    1996-01-01

    Interest was expressed at the mental health center in expanding the role of psychiatric clinical nurse specialists to include prescribing medications. There is a definite need for this expanded prescriptive role. The goals of improving patient access to care, offering quality service and cost effectiveness can be met by the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist certified by ANA. The functions of a CNS in a collaborative role with psychiatrists would involve promotion and health maintenance, evaluation, intake screening, health teaching, community action, and advanced psychobiological interventions including the prescribing of pharmacological agents. The ARNP, CS could alleviate the case load for pharmacological evaluation for the psychiatrists and enhance access to pharmacological management. The change in the Kentucky law giving prescriptive privileges to ARNPs makes this role feasible. PMID:9416059

  9. Prescription co-pay reduction program for diabetic employees.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kavita V; Miller, Kerri; Park, Jinhee; Allen, Richard R; Saseen, Joseph J; Biddle, Vinita

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of reducing the prescription co-pay for diabetes medications on pharmacy utilization, medication adherence, medical utilization, and expenditures. The co-pay reduction involved placing all diabetic drugs and testing supplies on the lowest co-pay tier for one employer group. The sample comprised members with diabetes who were both continuously enrolled in the 12-month pre period and the 2 years following co-pay reduction. Measured outcomes included diabetic prescription utilization, medication adherence, medical utilization, and expenditures. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures were used to estimate differences between the pre period and years 1 and 2, while adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidity risk. Diabetic prescription utilization and medication adherence increased by approximately 3.0% in year 1 and dropped in year 2. The increases were primarily in brand name diabetes medications, which increased by approximately 5%, while generic use decreased in both years. Decreases in emergency room visits and hospitalizations were also observed in both years, followed by a decrease in health care expenditures in year 2. Adherent members experienced greater decreases in emergency room visits following the co-pay reduction compared to nonadherent members. After the implementation of a co-pay reduction, a modest increase in adherence and use of diabetes medications was observed. There were some compensatory cost savings for the employer from lower medical expenditures in year 1. In addition to financial strategies, additional strategies to reinforce medication adherence are needed to gain and sustain more meaningful increases in prescription utilization. PMID:20879904

  10. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  11. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  12. Evaluation of Measuring Devices Packaged With Prescription Oral Liquid Medications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The US Food and Drug Administration industry guidelines for manufacturers of oral, over-the-counter, liquid medications recommend that these products be packaged with dosage-delivery devices. This study describes the prevalence of these devices and instructions packaged with prescription, oral, liquid medications. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of prescription oral-liquid medications dispensed during a 6-month period at a community pharmacy. Product information was obtained from the National Library of Medicine's DailyMed database and from the products themselves. Endpoints included provision of a measuring device, the type of device, the maximum dose measurable and intervals on the provided device, and inclusion of instructions to the pharmacist. RESULTS: A total of 382 liquid prescription medications were included in the study. Forty-nine of the 382 products (12.8%) were packaged with a measuring device. The most commonly provided device was a calibrated dropper (n = 18; 36.7%), followed by an oral syringe with a bottle adaptor (n = 9, 18.4%). Specific instructions on proper use of the provided measuring device were included with 20 products (40.8%). Among the products that did not provide a measuring device, only 70 of the 333 package inserts (21%) included instructions to the pharmacist regarding counseling the patient on proper administration. CONCLUSIONS: Packaging of prescription oral-liquid medications is inconsistent and leaves room for vast variability in patient or parent administration practices. In the future, patterns of actual dispensing practices among pharmacies and pharmacists would help determine the true incidence of dispensing of measuring devices. PMID:26997931

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised. PMID:10142385

  14. Medical cost offsets from prescription drug utilization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, M Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This brief commentary extends earlier work on the value of adherence to derive medical cost offset estimates from prescription drug utilization. Among seniors with chronic vascular disease, 1% increases in condition-specific medication use were associated with significant (P  less than  0.001) reductions in gross nonpharmacy medical costs in the amounts of 0.63% for dyslipidemia, 0.77% for congestive heart failure, 0.83% for diabetes, and 1.17% for hypertension. PMID:25278321

  15. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time. PMID:21676345

  16. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    PubMed Central

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  17. USING NONCONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT TO INCREASE COMPLIANCE WITH WEARING PRESCRIPTION PROSTHESES

    PubMed Central

    Richling, Sarah M; Rapp, John T; Carroll, Regina A; Smith, Jeanette N; Nystedt, Aaron; Siewert, Brook

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants' compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions. The results are discussed in terms of the potential value-altering effects of NCR. PMID:21709796

  18. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  19. The Common Prescription Patterns Based on the Hierarchical Clustering of Herb-Pairs Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prescription patterns are rules or regularities used to generate, recognize, or judge a prescription. Most of existing studies focused on the specific prescription patterns for diverse diseases or syndromes, while little attention was paid to the common patterns, which reflect the global view of the regularities of prescriptions. In this paper, we designed a method CPPM to find the common prescription patterns. The CPPM is based on the hierarchical clustering of herb-pair efficacies (HPEs). Firstly, HPEs were hierarchically clustered; secondly, the individual herbs are labeled by the HPEC (the clusters of HPEs); and then the prescription patterns were extracted from the combinations of HPEC; finally the common patterns are recognized statistically. The results showed that HPEs have hierarchical clustering structure. When the clustering level is 2 and the HPEs were classified into two clusters, the common prescription patterns are obvious. Among 332 candidate prescriptions, 319 prescriptions follow the common patterns. The description of the patterns is that if a prescription contains the herbs of the cluster (C 1), it is very likely to have other herbs of another cluster (C 2); while a prescription has the herbs of C 2, it may have no herbs of C 1. Finally, we discussed that the common patterns are mathematically coincident with the Blood-Qi theory. PMID:27190534

  20. Ontological approach for safe and effective polypharmacy prescription

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Adela; Farrish, Susan; Boyd, Cynthia; Boxwala, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The intake of multiple medications in patients with various medical conditions challenges the delivery of medical care. Initial empirical studies and pilot implementations seem to indicate that generic safe and effective multi-drug prescription principles could be defined and reused to reduce adverse drug events and to support compliance with medical guidelines and drug formularies. Given that ontologies are known to provide well-principled, sharable, setting-independent and machine-interpretable declarative specification frameworks for modeling and reasoning on biomedical problems, we explore here their use in the context of multi-drug prescription. We propose an ontology for modeling drug-related knowledge and a repository of safe and effective generic prescription principles. To test the usability and the level of granularity of the developed ontology-based specification models and heuristic we implemented a tool that computes the complexity of multi-drug treatments, and a decision aid to check the safeness and effectiveness of prescribed multi-drug treatments. PMID:23304299

  1. Ontological approach for safe and effective polypharmacy prescription.

    PubMed

    Grando, Adela; Farrish, Susan; Boyd, Cynthia; Boxwala, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The intake of multiple medications in patients with various medical conditions challenges the delivery of medical care. Initial empirical studies and pilot implementations seem to indicate that generic safe and effective multi-drug prescription principles could be defined and reused to reduce adverse drug events and to support compliance with medical guidelines and drug formularies. Given that ontologies are known to provide well-principled, sharable, setting-independent and machine-interpretable declarative specification frameworks for modeling and reasoning on biomedical problems, we explore here their use in the context of multi-drug prescription. We propose an ontology for modeling drug-related knowledge and a repository of safe and effective generic prescription principles. To test the usability and the level of granularity of the developed ontology-based specification models and heuristic we implemented a tool that computes the complexity of multi-drug treatments, and a decision aid to check the safeness and effectiveness of prescribed multi-drug treatments. PMID:23304299

  2. Methods of providing prescription drug benefits in health plans.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1986-10-01

    Drug-benefit programs in health plans that offer varying degrees of risk to pharmacy providers are described. Administrators of health plans attempt to control the total cost of a drug benefit by controlling the cost per prescription, number of prescriptions, and administrative expenses. Specific ways to control these factors, such as through discounted product costs, patient copayments, and audits of prescribing practices, are described. Drug-benefit programs generally follow one of three models: fee-for-service contracts, hybrid fee-for-service risk contracts, and full-risk contracts. Examples of plans within each model are described. Full-risk contracts that provide drug benefits on a capitation basis put pharmacy providers at most risk of financial loss since physicians control prescribing. Pharmacists can control their risk by establishing a joint pharmacist and physician prescription fund that includes contract provisions limiting maximum losses, defining exceptions to the drug benefit, and paying close attention to payment schedules and characteristics of the program administrator. Antitrust issues associated with these new types of drug-benefit plans are described. Drug-benefit programs involving risk contracts can aid pharmacy practice by improving cash flow via negotiated prepayments, defining an enrolled patient population, and creating opportunities for generating additional revenue. Drug-benefit programs involving full-risk contracts and hybrid fee-for-service risk contracts will continue to develop, and understanding these models is the first step toward successful risk contracting by pharmacists. PMID:3788994

  3. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches. PMID:18494180

  4. Computer-aided auditing of prescription drug claims.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Vijay S; Hermiz, Keith B; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2014-09-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying and ranking candidate audit targets from a database of prescription drug claims. The relevant audit targets may include various entities such as prescribers, patients and pharmacies, who exhibit certain statistical behavior indicative of potential fraud and abuse over the prescription claims during a specified period of interest. Our overall approach is consistent with related work in statistical methods for detection of fraud and abuse, but has a relative emphasis on three specific aspects: first, based on the assessment of domain experts, certain focus areas are selected and data elements pertinent to the audit analysis in each focus area are identified; second, specialized statistical models are developed to characterize the normalized baseline behavior in each focus area; and third, statistical hypothesis testing is used to identify entities that diverge significantly from their expected behavior according to the relevant baseline model. The application of this overall methodology to a prescription claims database from a large health plan is considered in detail. PMID:23821344

  5. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  6. Influences of Motivational Contexts on Prescription Drug Misuse and Related Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

  7. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

  8. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  9. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  10. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  11. Hypoglycemia After Antimicrobial Drug Prescription for Older Patients Using Sulfonylureas

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Trisha M.; Raji, Mukaila; Lin, Yu-Li; Tan, Alai; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Certain antimicrobial drugs interact with sulfonylureas to increase the risk of hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of hypoglycemia and associated costs in older patients prescribed glipizide or glyburide who fill a prescription for an antimicrobial drug. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a retrospective cohort study of Texas Medicare claims from 2006 to 2009 for patients 66 years or older who were prescribed glipizide or glyburide and who also filled a prescription for 1 of the 16 antimicrobials most commonly prescribed for this population. METHODS We assessed hypoglycemia events and associated Medicare costs in patients prescribed 1 of 7 antimicrobial agents thought to interact with sulfonylureas, using noninteracting antimicrobials as a comparison. We used a repeated measure logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, Medicaid eligibility, comorbidity, prior emergency department visits for hypoglycemia, prior hospitalizations for any cause, nursing home residence, and indication for the antimicrobial. We estimated odds of hypoglycemia, number needed to harm, deaths during hospitalization for hypoglycemia, and Medicare costs for hypoglycemia treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Any hospitalization or emergency department visit owing to hypoglycemia within 14 days of antimicrobial exposure. RESULTS In multivariable analyses controlling for patient characteristics and indication for antimicrobial drug use, clarithromycin (odds ratio [OR], 3.96 [95% CI, 2.42–6.49]), levofloxacin (OR, 2.60 [95% CI, 2.18–3.10]), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (OR, 2.56 [95% CI, 2.12–3.10]), metronidazole (OR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.28–3.47]), and ciprofloxacin (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.33–1.97]) were associated with higher rates of hypoglycemia compared with a panel of noninteracting antimicrobials. The number needed to harm ranged from 71 for clarithromycin to 334 for ciprofloxacin. Patient factors associated with hypoglycemia included older

  12. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  13. Use of Prescription and Non-Prescription Medications and Supplements by Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy; Questionnaire Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Marie H.; Cruz, Brian L. dela; Thompson, David M.; Farmer, Kevin C.; Medina, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cancer patients take medications for coexisting disease and self medicate with over-the-counter drugs (OTCs). A complete analysis of the use of prescription drugs, OTCs and supplements during cancer treatment has never been done. Methods The study developed and validated a self-administered questionnaire on the use of concomitant medications by patients undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. The questionnaire listed 510 prescription medications, OTCs, and supplements (including vitamins, minerals and herbs). Fifty-two subjects completed the questionnaire while visiting the infusion clinic to receive chemotherapy. On a subsequent visit the subjects brought their medications to the clinic and a pharmacist reviewed their completed questionnaire. Results Ninety-six percent of the subjects reported taking prescription medications within three days prior to chemotherapy, 71% reported taking OTCs and 69% reported use of supplements. The subjects took an average of 5.5 (range 0-13) prescription drugs, 2.2 (0-20) OTCs and 1.9 (0-11) supplements. Twenty-one drugs were each taken by at least 10% of the subjects. Acetaminophen was taken by 59.6% of the subjects. One subject reported taking five acetaminophen-containing drugs. The questionnaire’s sensitivity was 92.0%, specificity 99.9%. Conclusion Within 3 days prior to chemotherapy, subjects took an average of 9.6 concomitant medications, many of which alter drug metabolism and or disposition. In clinical trials, multivariate analysis of all concomitant medications could add to clinically relevant data to identify drug interactions that negate or potentiate the efficacy of cancer treatment regimens. In some instances, apparent resistance of tumors to chemotherapy may be the result of drug interactions. PMID:18719067

  14. Aux Vases Sandstone diagenesis: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery from southern Illinois reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, B.D.; Beaty, D.S.; Huff, B.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) is a problematic yet productive reservoir in the Illinois basin. The Aux Vases Formation was deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate offshore environment. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are dominantly elongate sandstone bodies interpreted as subtidal facies within a prograding tidally influenced deposystem. Oil saturated zones, in most cases, are composed of fine-grained, cross-bedded, friable, feldspathic quartz sandstone. Resistivity logs, even from productive wells, are typically characterized by unusually low resistivities (2-4 ohms) that lead to high calculated water saturations. X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDS, and thin section studies were used to analyze diagenetic processes that may affect hydrocarbon production in several Aux Vases reservoirs. Diagenetic processes common to the field studied include: (1) early calcite cementation occluding primary porosity and inhibiting compaction, (2) dissolution of feldspar grains to form authigenic clay, (3) dissolution of early calcite cement, (4) diagenesis of detrital clay minerals into new authigenic clay minerals, and (5) multiple stages of quartz overgrowths that reduce porosity. Commonly used drilling and completion practices may adversely affect reservoir quality by reacting with diagenetic products. Loosening of the fine mineral fraction that causes migration of fines and swelling of expandable clay minerals are examples of this type of damage. Knowledge of reservoir mineralogy and diagenesis may influence drilling and completion practices and affect selection of secondary and tertiary recovery methods.

  15. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescription pursuant to 21 CFR 1306.05 and include: (i) Date of issuance of original prescription; (ii... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS...

  16. Meyer Children's Rehabilitation Institute Teaching Program for Young Children. [Prescriptive Teaching Program for Multiply Handicapped Nursery School Children].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Edward; And Others

    The prescriptive teaching program for multiply handicapped nursery school children is presented in three manuals: prescriptive teaching, integration of prescriptions into classroom activities; and equipment and materials. Given in the prescriptive teaching manual are directions for assessing a child's strengths and weaknesses in functioning on a…

  17. Application of computer vision to automatic prescription verification in pharmaceutical mail order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouani, Ali T.

    2005-05-01

    In large volume pharmaceutical mail order, before shipping out prescriptions, licensed pharmacists ensure that the drug in the bottle matches the information provided in the patient prescription. Typically, the pharmacist has about 2 sec to complete the prescription verification process of one prescription. Performing about 1800 prescription verification per hour is tedious and can generate human errors as a result of visual and brain fatigue. Available automatic drug verification systems are limited to a single pill at a time. This is not suitable for large volume pharmaceutical mail order, where a prescription can have as many as 60 pills and where thousands of prescriptions are filled every day. In an attempt to reduce human fatigue, cost, and limit human error, the automatic prescription verification system (APVS) was invented to meet the need of large scale pharmaceutical mail order. This paper deals with the design and implementation of the first prototype online automatic prescription verification machine to perform the same task currently done by a pharmacist. The emphasis here is on the visual aspects of the machine. The system has been successfully tested on 43,000 prescriptions.

  18. [The Pharmacist as Gatekeeper of Prescription Drug Abuse: Return to "Community Scientists"].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2016-01-01

      The non-medical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including benzodiazepines, is a growing health problem in Japan. An association between prescription drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has expected pharmacists to act as "gatekeepers", facilitating early identification of individuals at high risk of prescription drug abuse including overdose, supplying medication counseling to patients, and helping to introduce these patients to appropriate medical care. Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are widely used in psychiatry. However, these drugs are prescribed not only by psychiatrists but also by other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians. Moreover, in recent years, the dispensing of prescriptions has moved rapidly from inside to outside hospitals, with prescription drugs being dispensed mainly at community pharmacies. Although all healthcare professionals including hospital pharmacists can play a role in preventing prescription drug abuse, the role of the community pharmacist is vital in addressing this problem. Formerly, community pharmacists were recognized as "community scientists", low-threshold accessible healthcare advisors. Now, community pharmacists should return to the role of community scientists to prevent prescription drug abuse. This article begins by reviewing the current situation of prescription drug abuse and dependence in Japan. The role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing prescription drug abuse is then examined. Finally, this article discusses the effect of intervention in the form of gatekeeper training for community pharmacists. PMID:26725672

  19. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions in patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Lisby, Marianne; Mainz, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Background Very little is known about the general appropriateness of prescribing for psychiatric patients. Aims To identify prevalence and types of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) of psychotropic and somatic medications, to assess the severity of potential clinical consequences and to identify possible predictive factors of PIP in a sample of adult psychiatric in-patients. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional design using medication reviews by clinical pharmacologists to identify PIP during a 3-month period. The setting was in-patient units in a psychiatric department of a Danish university hospital during a 3-month period (September 2013-November 2013). Patients medication lists (n = 207) were reviewed at the time of admission and all identified PIPs were assessed for potential consequences by clinical pharmacologists. Results There were 349 PIP identified in 1291 prescriptions. The proportion of patients found to have at least one PIP was 123/207 (59%) and the proportions of patients with at least one PIP assessed to be potentially serious or fatal was 69/207 (33%) and 24/207 (12%), respectively. Interactions between drugs 125/207 (36%) and too high doses of drugs 56/207 (16%) were the most frequent PIP. Predictive factors for PIP were polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and having one or more somatic diagnoses. Conclusion PIP is common in psychiatric patients and potentially fatal. Particularly polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and concomitant somatic illness were associated with the probability of PIP. Improving the quality of prescribing might benefit from an interprofessional approach and thus better training of physicians and nurses is needed in order to minimize PIP. PMID:26824679

  20. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  1. Improving Patient Understanding of Prescription Drug Label Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Federman, Alex D.; Bass, Pat F.; Jackson, Robert H.; Middlebrooks, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Patient misunderstanding of instructions on prescription drug labels is common and a likely cause of medication error and less effective treatment. Objective To test whether the use of more explicit language to describe dose and frequency of use for prescribed drugs could improve comprehension, especially among patients with limited literacy. Design Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews. Patients Three hundred and fifty-nine adults waiting for an appointment in two hospital-based primary care clinics and one federally qualified health center in Shreveport, Louisiana; Chicago, Illinois; and New York, New York, respectively. Measurement Correct understanding of each of ten label instructions as determined by a blinded panel review of patients’ verbatim responses. Results Patient understanding of prescription label instructions ranged from 53% for the least understood to 89% for the most commonly understood label. Patients were significantly more likely to understand instructions with explicit times periods (i.e., morning) or precise times of day compared to instructions stating times per day (i.e., twice) or hourly intervals (89%, 77%, 61%, and 53%, respectively,  < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, dosage instructions with specific times or time periods were significantly more likely to be understood compared to instructions stating times per day (time periods — adjusted relative risk ratio (ARR) 0.42, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.34–0.52; specific times — ARR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.74). Low and marginal literacy remained statistically significant independent predictors of misinterpreting instructions (low - ARR 2.70, 95% CI 1.81–4.03; marginal -ARR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.32). Conclusions Use of precise wording on prescription drug label instructions can improve patient comprehension. However, patients with limited literacy were more likely to misinterpret instructions despite use of more explicit language. PMID

  2. [Prescription of generic drugs to privately insured persons].

    PubMed

    Wild, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The system-related differences between private health insurance and statutory health insurance in Germany could lead to divergent prescriptions of medication. The study shows that doctors whose privately insured patients have been prescribed the same medication over a long period of time will frequently continue to prescribe the original medication even after its patent protection has expired. By contrast, patients in the statutory health insurance system will usually be switched to generic drugs. However, physicians prescribing medication to a privately insured person for the first time will frequently select generics in the first place. PMID:23236709

  3. Prescription Drug Misuse Among Club Drug-Using Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

  4. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  5. The Drivers of Overspending on Prescription Drugs in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steve

    2014-01-01

    According to data from the most recent edition of the Canadian Rx Atlas, Quebec was the province with the highest total spending per capita on prescription drugs. The difference between Quebec and the rest of Canada was 35%, which translates into $1.5 billion dollars of extra spending. This analysis explores the economic cost drivers of the higher level of pharmaceutical spending in Quebec. While much of the additional spending was driven by a higher volume of drugs being prescribed overall, the factors contributing to higher spending differed greatly within particular therapeutic categories. The results and their implications are discussed in the context of pharmaceutical policy environment. PMID:25617512

  6. Determination of the prescription dose for biradionuclide permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttens, V. E.; Lucas, S.

    2008-12-15

    A model based on the linear quadratic model that has been corrected for repopulation, sublethal cell damage repair, and RBE effect has been used to determine the prescription dose for prostate permanent brachytherapy using seeds loaded with a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I or a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 131}Cs. The prescription dose was determined by comparing the tumor cell survival fractions between the considered biradionuclide seed implant and one monoradionuclide seed implant chosen from {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs. Prostate edema is included in the model. The influence of the value of the radiobiological parameters and RBE were also investigated. Two mixtures of radionuclides were considered: {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.75}-{sup 125}I{sub 0.25} and {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.25}-{sup 131}Cs{sub 0.75}, where the subscripts indicate the fractions of total initial internal activity in the biradionuclide seed. These fractions were selected in order to obtain a dose distribution that lies between that of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I/{sup 131}Cs. As expected, the computed prescription dose values are dependent on the model parameters (edema half-life and magnitude, radiobiogical parameters, and RBE). The radionuclide used as a benchmark also has a strong impact on the derived prescribed dose. The large uncertainties in the radiobiological parameters and RBE values produce big errors in the computed prescribed dose. Averaged over the range of all the parameters and depending on the radionuclide used as a benchmark (in subscript), the derived prescription dose for the first mixture (PdI) would be: D{sub Pd}{sup PdI}=142{sub -16}{sup +15} Gy and D{sub I}{sup PdI}=142{sub -8}{sup +6} Gy; and D{sub Pd}{sup PdCs}=128{sub -13}{sup +13} Gy and D{sub Cs}{sup PdCs}=115{sub -7}{sup +6} Gy for the PdCs mixture. The uncertainties could be reduced if the radiobiological parameters and RBE value were known more accurately. However, as edema characteristics are patient

  7. Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion Among Impaired Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Simone Marie; Merlo, Lisa; Cottler, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    The diversion of medications by physicians is a seldom discussed problem in the United States. A better understanding of the mechanisms of diversion could assist decision-makers as they seek to develop preventive. To identify these mechanisms, nine focus groups of physicians undergoing monitoring for substance abuse by a state-based physician health program (PHP) were conducted. The content analysis revealed that physicians divert medications by stealing from the office or hospital, by defrauding patients and insurers, by using medication samples, and by misusing valid prescriptions. The implementation of policy interventions targeting these mechanisms has the potential to mitigate the amount of physician diversion that occurs. PMID:21745042

  8. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Editor’s Note: From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting—and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  9. Trends in Testosterone Prescription and Public Health Concerns.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Joseph Scott; Najari, Bobby B; Alukal, Joseph P; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) has become increasingly popular since the turn of the century. Most prescriptions in the U.S. are written by primary care providers, endocrinologists, or urologists. The FDA has requests pharmaceutical companies provide more long term data on efficacy and safety of testosterone products. Results from these studies will help define the appropriate population for TST going forward. It is hoped that these data combined with physician and public education will minimize inappropriate prescribing and allow those likely to benefit from TST to receive it. PMID:27132584

  10. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. PMID:22899231

  11. Prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users in a multi-state community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Jennifer R.; Stoops, William W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current analysis was to examine the factors associated with prescription opiate misuse among stimulant users from rural counties in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio (N=714). Methods Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of recent (prior 6 months) prescription opiate misuse. Results More than half of participants (53.2%) reported prescription opiate misuse in the previous 6 months. Other drug use (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana) and anxiety (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.60, 2.59) were independently associated with prescription opiate misuse. Chronic pain and other health indicators were not associated with prescription opiate misuse after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions Results indicate that illicit drug involvement and psychiatric symptoms may be driving the high rates of prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users. These findings have implications for the provision of treatment in resource-deprived rural areas. PMID:19152201

  12. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  13. Patient’s Comprehension of Prescriptions at Municipal Urban Health Centre, Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Velhal, Gajanan D; Khismatrao, Deepak S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient’s often fail to follow the prescription given by the doctor. Patients understanding of the prescription play an important role in completion of treatment and quick recovery from the illness. The understanding of prescription is dependent on factors which could be both patient and doctor related. These factors need to be studied in order to improve the therapeutic outcome. Aim Hence this study was undertaken to identify the various factors which affect patient’s comprehension of prescription. Materials and Methods Observational, cross-sectional study based on exit interviews were carried out for 370 patients at Cheeta Camp Urban Health Centre, Mumbai over a period of 15 working days of OPD and 25 patients were selected randomly on each day. For data analysis, SPSS 15.0 with Chi-square test were used as test of significance. Results In the present study it was found that in the patients above 45 years, 19.4% have not understood the prescription completely compared to 5.8% below the age of 45 years. The difference was statistically significant. There is no difference between gender and understanding of prescription. Among the illiterate patients it was found that 16.3% have not completely understood the prescription compared to 5.6% of the literate patients. Also, socio-economic status was significantly associated with patients understanding of prescription. There was no significant difference associated with number of prescription and understanding of prescription. Conclusion The patient related factors play an important role in understanding of prescription. It was found that patient’s comprehension of prescription was significantly associated with age, socioeconomic status and Education. PMID:27134903

  14. Free vector propagator in the light-cone gauge and the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetto, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova )

    1992-10-15

    We show that the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription in the light-cone gauge leads to a free vector propagator which is a tempered distribution, at variance with the Cauchy principal-value prescription and other ones related to it by residual gauge transformations, which unavoidably entail infrared singularities already at the free level of the theory. In this respect the causal prescription seems to enjoy a privileged status.

  15. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality. PMID:15055801

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Prescription Drug Misuse among Socially Active Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse represents an emerging global drug trend. Data indicate that young adults are misusing prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is critical, particularly for those engaged in social scenes known to accommodate drug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent prescription drug misuse among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results In a diverse sample of 1,207 young adults, 44.1% reported lifetime prescription drug misuse, and 20.3% reported misuse during the past three months. Stimulants were the most common class of drug respondents misused within the past six months (16.7%), followed by pain killers (16.5%) and sedatives (14.5%). While no gender or sexual orientation differences in misuse prevalence existed, Black youth reported the lowest prevalence of misuse. In multivariate analyses, increased age was associated with lower odds of recent misuse, females report lower odds of recent use, and Black, Asian, and Latino individuals had lower odds of recent misuse than Whites. These odds varied by prescription drug type. Negative binomial regression analyses indicate that, among prescription drug misusers, women misuse prescription drugs less frequently. Younger individuals more frequently misuse stimulants and older individuals more frequently misuse sedatives. Racial variation existed with frequency of use across classes. Conclusions This study illustrates the need for health promotion efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among young adults who are highly socially active. Future research should focus on motivations for and factors associated with prescription drug misuse within youth cultures. Further research may provide a fuller sense of how to reduce the impact of prescription drug misuse for nations whose

  17. Windmills and pill mills: can PDMPs tilt the prescription drug epidemic?

    PubMed

    Gugelmann, Hallam; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are state-based registries of prescriptions for specific controlled substances. This overview will describe the history and funding of these databases, address those characteristics thought to be of greatest utility for PDMPs and review current literature regarding PDMP effectiveness and their potential limitations. Although more extensive research on PDMP outcomes is needed, these databases are an essential component in ongoing efforts to establish safe and compassionate prescription opioid stewardship. PMID:23180357

  18. [Discussion on the contribution of Thousand golden prescriptions to the art of tuina].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Li, W; Wei, Y

    2000-01-01

    Thousand Golden Prescriptions, including Thousand Golden Prescriptions for Emergencies and Supplements to Thousand Golden Prescriptions is an important medical book containing the main medical achievements before the Tang dynasty. It attaches great attention to daily tuina for health-care, enriches its contents, and makes a description to the method of tuina for children, offering detailed materials for later ages with significant reference value, and makes an important contribution to the art of tuina. PMID:11624478

  19. Inappropriateness of Medication Prescriptions to Elderly Patients in the Primary Care Setting: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Opondo, Dedan; Eslami, Saied; Visscher, Stefan; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Verheij, Robert; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Background Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. Methods We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. Results We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52(0.10–23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30(0.02–4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05–20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. Conclusions Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly

  20. The Effects of Bairesi Complex Prescription (a Uyghur Medicine Prescription) and Its Five Crude Herbal Extracts on Melanogenesis in G-361 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuedan; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Mansur, Arkin; Emet, Aynur; Nasir, Ezimet; Semet, Repket; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is considered a preimmune stage of a disease that is not well clarified. This condition is difficult to treat because there is no definite cure. Uyghur medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. There are many types of prescriptions that are used for the treatment of vitiligo. Bairesi complex prescription is one of the active prescriptions for vitiligo that is used in the clinic. However, the intensities of melanogenesis due to uses of Bairesi complex prescription and its five constituent crude herbs have not been reported yet. In the present study, we found that the hot water extracts of Bairesi complex prescription and the crude herbs were more effective in eliciting melanin production in G-361 cells than the EtOH extracts. Furthermore, the Bairesi complex prescription exhibited less cytotoxicity and was more effective in melanin formation than the five crude herbal extracts. In the present study, we also discuss the mechanisms of melanogenesis due to the use of the Bairesi complex prescription and its single crude herbal extracts. PMID:27069495

  1. Widening Consumer Access to Medicines: A Comparison of Prescription to Non-Prescription Medicine Switch in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Natalie J.; Kelly, Fiona S.; Emmerton, Lynne M.; Buetow, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in ‘switching’ (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. Objectives To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. Methods We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000–2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher’s knowledge and experience. Results The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ (‘third-party switch’), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Conclusion Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch. PMID:25785589

  2. [Efficiency in the prescription of drugs. Impact of a health policy: automatic change to prescription by active ingredient].

    PubMed

    López de Landache, Isabel Elizondo; Braceras Izaguirre, Leire; Echeto García, Ainara; Gardeazabal Romillo, Maria José; Acevedo Heranz, Paloma

    2013-11-01

    In the Basque Country in June 2010 were changed in the electronic prescription system the treatments prescribed by a brand by active ingredients, all the patients who had prescribed these molecules: atorvastatin, clopidogrel, weekly risedronate and losartan-hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of this change automated done in June 2010. Retrospective study of the prescriptions made in the Basque Country of the selected active ingredients. The use of generics of these molecules from May to December 2010 increased from 64 points to 87. Particularly clopidogrel increased from 6.25% in generic prescriptions to 93.76%, losartan + hydrochlorothiazide from 17.94% to 93.83%, 18.92% for atorvastatin acid and 96.03% risedronic 1.76% to 65.97%. If we make the estimation of the amount of active ingredient in generic containers that have been dispensed from June to December 2010. If they had dispensed brand drugs you get this quantity of total savings: 8 104 762.22 euros. This work suggests that a program to promote use of generics increased efficiency in the use of drugs. To promote the use of generic drugs is an efficiency measure implemented in the NHS and in the neighboring countries, in recent figures are reached 40% in securities of U.S.A packaging and around 65% in the Basque Country the consume in early 2010 was much lower than these figures stand at 20% and at the end of the year stood at 27% thanks to the measures taken. PMID:24404717

  3. Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    PubMed Central

    Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L. S.; Regensburg-Tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations was restored, showing that the Ri aux genes are able to complement the Ti aux genes. Agrobacterium strains with an agropine-type Ri plasmid not only cause hairy root on certain plant species, but they also induce tumors on other plant species. In this paper it is shown that a mutation in either of the aux genes in the Ri plasmid leads to a total loss of tumorigenicity and a strongly diminished rhizogenicity of the host bacterium, revealing that the aux genes are important for tumor and root induction. Agrobacterium strains containing the TR-region but not the TL (left)-region of the Ri plasmid are still tumorigenic on certain plant species but are no longer capable of hairy-root induction. Images PMID:16593762

  4. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultra- Rapid Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Beard, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion is a topic about which comparatively little is known, and systematic information garnered from prescription drug abusers and dealers on the specific mechanisms of diversion is extremely limited. Design A pilot ultra-rapid assessment was carried out in Wilmington, Delaware, during December 2006 to better understand the scope and dynamics of prescription drug abuse and diversion. This involved focus groups with prescription drug abusers, and key informant interviews with police, regulatory officials, prescription drug dealers, and pill brokers. Results The primary sources of prescription drugs on the street were the elderly, pain patients, and doctor shoppers, as well as pill brokers and dealers who work with all of the former. The popularity of prescription drugs in the street market was rooted in the abusers’ perceptions of these drugs as: 1) less stigmatizing; 2) less dangerous; and, 3) less subject to legal consequences than illicit drugs. For many, the abuse of prescription opioids also appeared to serve as a gateway to heroin use. Conclusion The diversion of prescription opioids might be reduced through physician education focusing on: 1) recognizing that a patient is misusing and/or diverting prescribed medications; 2) considering a patient’s risk for opioid misuse before initiating opioid therapy; and, 3) understanding the variation in the abuse potential of different opioid medications currently on the market. Patient education also appears appropriate in the areas of safeguarding medications, disposal of unused medications, and understanding the consequences of manipulating physicians and selling their medications. PMID:19416440

  5. Do free or low-cost antibiotic promotions alter prescription filling habits?

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Jeremy; Wojcik, Susan M.; Fisher, Andrew; Grant, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because free sample of prescription medications have been shown to influence prescribing habits of physicians, we sought to discern if promotional efforts of a retail pharmacy influenced prescriptions filled in our county after a free antibiotic program was initiated. Methods Retrospective analysis of prescription antibiotics filled throughout the county was performed. Prescriptions filled during the first 6 months of the year before the program was initiated were compared to prescriptions filled during the first 6 months of the year immediately following initiation of the promotion. Results A total of 436,372 antibiotic prescriptions were dispensed during that time. The number of antibiotics filled that were included in the promotion increased by 13.4% while the number of antibiotics filled that were excluded from the promotion decreased by 20.4%. Conclusion These data suggest that the promotional pricing of the antibiotics had a significant impact on the number of prescriptions filled in each category. Because a prescription written does not always equate to a prescription filled, further investigation is needed to confirm the relationship between these promotions and actual prescriber habits. PMID:25243028

  6. Prescription errors in Brazilian hospitals: a multi-centre exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Oliveira, Regina Célia de; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Lyra Junior, Divaldo Pereira de; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Fakih, Flávio Trevisan; Cassiani, Sílvia Helena De Bortoli

    2009-02-01

    In Brazil, millions of prescriptions do not follow the legal requirements necessary to guarantee the correct dispensing and administration of medication. This multi-centre exploratory study aimed to analyze the appropriateness of prescriptions at four Brazilian hospitals and to identify possible errors caused by inadequacies. The sample consisted of 864 prescriptions obtained at hospital medical clinics in January 2003. Data was collected by three nurse researchers during one week using a standard data sheet that included items about: the type of prescription; legibility; completeness; use of abbreviations; existence of changes and erasures. There were statistically significant differences between incomplete electronic prescriptions at hospital A, and handwritten ones from hospitals C (C2 = 12.703 and p < 0.001) and D (C2 = 14.074 and p < 0.001). Abbreviations were used in more than 80% of prescriptions at hospitals B, C and D. Changes were found in prescriptions at all hospitals, with higher levels at hospitals B (35.2%) and A (25.3%). This study identified a range of vulnerable points in the prescription phase of the medication system at the hospitals. Physicians, pharmacists and nurses should therefore jointly propose strategies to avoid these prescription errors. PMID:19219238

  7. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. PMID:24508156

  8. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research†

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50–75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26136187

  9. Multiple Determinants of Specific Modes of Prescription Opioid Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Ibanez, Gladys E.; Ellis, Matthew S.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Inciardi, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous national surveys and surveillance programs have shown a substantial rise in the abuse of prescription opioids over the past 15 years. Accessibility of these drugs to non-patients is the result of their unlawful channeling from legal sources to the illicit marketplace (diversion). Empirical data on diversion remain absent from the literature. This paper examines abusers’ sources of diverted drugs from two large studies: 1) a national sample of opioid treatment clients (N=1983), and 2) a South Florida study targeting diverse populations of opioid abusers (N=782). The most common sources of diverted medications were dealers, sharing/trading, legitimate medical practice (e.g., unknowing medical providers), illegitimate medical practice (e.g., pill mills), and theft, in that order. Sources varied by users’ age, gender, ethnicity, risk-aversiveness, primary opioid of abuse, injection drug use, physical health, drug dependence, and either access to health insurance or relative financial wealth. Implications for prescription drug control policy are discussed. PMID:22287798

  10. GPs as citizens' agents: prescription behavior and altruism.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kim Rose; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Boegh, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie Hartung

    2009-10-01

    To curb the heavily increasing drug budgets some Danish counties have introduced voluntary agreements between general practitioners (GPs) and health authorities. We extend the models of generic prescription by Hellerstein (Rand J Econ 29(1):108-136, 1998) and Lundin (J Health Econ 19:639-662, 2000) to allow for substitution between analogues and use difference-in-difference models to assess the effect on two drug groups (lipid-lowering and rheumatism drugs). For both drug groups we find evidence of a significant effect of the intervention. In the case of lipid-lowering drugs, we found a significant larger impact on GPs with low loyalty to the insurer and with indication of low prescription quality. In contrast we found that the intervention had a significantly lower impact on this group of GPs in the case of rheumatism drugs. We conclude that the effectiveness of the voluntary approach may partly be due to its indirect effect on GPs' altruistic motivation, which makes the GPs and the authorities collide in a common agency role. PMID:19083035

  11. Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and the Public

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied. Consumers' awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising were examined. DESIGN Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates, 58% and 69%, respectively). SETTING Respondents were interviewed while they were at their residences. PARTICIPANTS Complete data were obtained from 329 adults in Sacramento County, California. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Outcome measures included awareness of advertisements for 10 selected drugs, misconceptions about DTC advertising, attitudes toward DTC ads, and behavioral responses to such promotions. The influence of demographic characteristics, health status, attitudes, beliefs, and media exposure on awareness and behaviors was examined. On average, respondents were aware of advertisements for 3.7 of the 10 drugs; awareness varied from 8% for Buspar (buspirone) to 72% for Claritin (loratadine). Awareness was associated with prescription drug use, media exposure, positive attitudes toward DTC advertising, poorer health, and insurance status. Substantial misconceptions were revealed; e.g., 43% thought that only “completely safe” drugs could be advertised. Direct-to-consumer advertisements had led one third of respondents to ask their physicians for drug information and one fifth to request a prescription. CONCLUSIONS Direct-to-consumer advertisements are reaching the public, but selectively so, and affecting their behaviors. Implications for public policy are examined. PMID:10571712

  12. Are non-prescription medications needed for weight control?

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2008-03-01

    At any one time large numbers of people are attempting to control their weight. Women are the principal consumers of weight-control programs. Their options, outside the prescription drug market and surgical treatment, include diets and diet books, exercise alone or with supervision in exercise facilities, dietary supplements, group programs, doctors, dietitians, psychologists, and other health-care professionals. Non-prescription products available to help people control their weight cover a wide range, including herbal dietary supplements, diet drinks and portion-controlled foods, meal replacements, and low-carbohydrate diets and foods. The introduction of orlistat as an over-the-counter (OTC) product will provide the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product for weight loss currently in that category since phenylpropanolamine (PPA) was withdrawn by the FDA. The FDA approval process is considerably more expensive than allowing untested herbal supplements to be marketed without testing, but the added safety evaluation by the FDA will reduce the risk of disastrous outcomes that have plagued many approaches to weight control. Support for a place for orlistat as an OTC product includes the inadequacy of current programs, empowerment of the public, lower cost, and bringing pharmacists into weight-control programs. The downside includes improper use of OTC orlistat that may not result in achieving individual expectations. PMID:18239604

  13. A Comparative Overview of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 25% of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This is of particular concern given the evidence for a causal role of TG in the pathway of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Approved prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOM3FAs) contain the long-chain fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and are effective options for the treatment of high TG levels. RxOM3FAs that contain both EPA and DHA include omega-3-acid ethyl esters (ethyl esters of EPA and DHA; brand and generic products) and omega-3-carboxylic acids (free fatty acids primarily composed of EPA and DHA), while the RxOM3FA icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) contains EPA only. All RxOM3FA products produce substantial TG reduction and other beneficial effects on atherogenic lipid and inflammation-related parameters, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, but products that contain DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). This commentary provides an overview of hypertriglyceridemia while summarizing the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of prescription RxOM3FAs. PMID:26681905

  14. HOW CLINICIANS USE PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAMS: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY

    PubMed Central

    Hildebran, Christi; Cohen, Deborah J.; Irvine, Jessica M.; Foley, Carol; O’Kane, Nicole; Beran, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) are now active in most states to assist clinicians in identifying potential controlled drug misuse, diversion or excessive prescribing. Little is still known about the ways in which they are incorporated into workflow and clinical decision making, what barriers continue to exist, and how clinicians are sharing PDMP results with their patients. Design Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups and telephone interviews Setting Clinicians from pain management, emergency and family medicine, psychiatry/behavioral health, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine and dentistry. Subjects 35 clinicians from 9 states participated. Methods We conducted two online focus groups and seven telephone interviews. A multidisciplinary team then used a grounded theory approach coupled with an immersion-crystallization strategy for identifying key themes in the resulting transcripts. Results Some participants, mainly from pain clinics, reported checking the PDMP with every patient, every time. Others checked only for new patients, for new opioid prescriptions, or for patients for whom they suspected abuse. Participants described varied approaches to sharing PDMP information with patients, including openly discussing potential addiction or safety concerns; avoiding discussion altogether; and approaching discussion confrontationally. Participants described patient anger or denial as a common response and noted the role of patient satisfaction surveys as an influence on prescribing. Conclusion Routines for accessing PDMP data and how clinicians respond to it vary widely. As PDMP use becomes more widespread, it will be important to understand what approaches are most effective for identifying and addressing unsafe medication use. PMID:24833113

  15. A prescription for protecting the doctor-patient relationship.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas H; Levinson, Wendy

    2004-02-01

    The relationship between patients and their physicians is fundamental to high-quality care, yet this relationship is under stress in the current healthcare environment. Health plans have instituted a variety of policies to contain costs, not fully appreciating the adverse effect these decisions have on the doctor-patient interaction. Legislators have responded to the public's concern about managed care with "patient protection" bills that fail to address the fundamental causes of tension between doctors and patients. This paper presents a model describing how the need to contain costs affects the doctor-patient interaction and proposes a prescription for protecting the relationship. The model highlights how the healthcare environment affects patients' and physicians' expectations before a medical visit, the nature of their interaction during a visit, and patients' health outcomes. This prescription for protecting the doctor-patient relationship contains 4 key ingredients: (1) definition and promulgation of evidence-based standards for the doctor-patient relationship; (2) joint doctor-patient advocacy on behalf of the relationship; (3) positive incentives for exemplary doctor-patient relationships; and (4) expanded training and assessment of physicians' communication skills, both in general and related to discussing cost containment with patients. These measures will help restore the essential element of superb healthcare: a strong doctor-patient relationship. PMID:15011806

  16. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  17. Antibiotic prescriptions and cycles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Norway: can a nationwide prescription register be used for surveillance?

    PubMed

    Blix, H S; Vestrheim, D F; Hjellvik, V; Skaare, D; Christensen, A; Steinbakk, M

    2015-07-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreaks cause increased use of macrolides and tetracyclines. We aimed to investigate whether drug use data, in addition to laboratory data, could improve understanding of the spread of M. pneumoniae epidemics. Number of users of Mycoplasma antibiotics (erythromycin, doxycycline, clarithromycin) per week and county of residence in an indicator age group (6-12 years) was retrieved from the Norwegian prescription database for the epidemic season 2011-2012 and compared to non-epidemic seasons. In 2011, increased use of Mycoplasma antibiotics was first observed in September on the west coast of Norway. The Norwegian laboratory-based surveillance system showed the first increase in positive tests in August 2011 and an epidemic was announced on 25 October 2011. At that time the use of Mycoplasma antibiotics had already exceeded three times the use in non-epidemic periods. Data for three counties from the regional microbiological laboratories showed that the increase in number of positive samples coincided in time with the increase in prescription data. Laboratory data cannot accurately determine the extent of an epidemic, and drug use data cannot identify the cause. Establishing a systematic interaction between the two monitoring systems will enhance surveillance and probably contribute to improved infection control and prudent antibiotic prescribing. PMID:25388750

  18. Nonmedical Use of Prescription ADHD Stimulants and Preexisting Patterns of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Christine T.; Sembower, Mark A.; Ertischek, Michelle D.; Shiffman, Saul; Schnoll, Sidney H.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug use is well documented among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We sought to provide insight into the drug use patterns of those reporting nonmedical use of prescription attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulants in an attempt to discern whether such use is a first step in a pattern of drug-abusing behavior or, conversely, is a later development accompanied or preceded by a history of drug abuse. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 12 years and older was analyzed for lifetime nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants, lifetime nonmedical use of another prescription drug, illicit drug use, and drug use initiation patterns. This included 443,041 respondents from the 2002–2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Lifetime nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants was reported by 3.4% of those aged 12 years and older. Of these, 95.3% also reported use of an illicit drug (i.e., marijuana, cocaine/crack, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants) or nonmedical use of another prescription drug (i.e., tranquilizers, pain relievers, or sedatives), and such use preceded nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants in 77.6% of cases. On average, 2.40 drugs were used prior to the first nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants. These data suggest that nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants is not commonly an initiating factor leading to the nonmedical use of other prescription medications or abuse of illicit drugs. Rather, nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants appears to be adopted by individuals already engaged in broader patterns of drug abuse and misuse. PMID:23480243

  19. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  20. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  1. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  2. Nature, frequency and determinants of prescription modifications in Dutch community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Buurma, Henk; de Smet, Peter A G M; van den Hoff, Olga P; Egberts, Antoine C G

    2001-01-01

    Aims To examine the nature, frequency and determinants of prescription modifications in Dutch community pharmacies. Methods A prospective case-control study comparing modified prescriptions with nonmodified prescriptions was carried out in 141 Dutch community pharmacies. 2014 modified prescriptions (cases), collected in the selected pharmacies on a predetermined day in a specific period (25th February until 12th March 1999) and 2581 nonmodified prescriptions (controls) randomly selected on the same day were studied. The nature and frequency of prescription modifications and patient, drug and prescriber related determinants for a modified prescription were assessed. Results The overall incidence of prescription modifications was 4.3%, with a mean of 14.3 modifications per pharmacy per day. For prescription only medicines (POM) the incidence was 4.9%. The majority of POM modifications concerned a clarification (71.8%). In 22.2% a prescription could potentially have had clinical consequences when not altered; in more than half of the latter it concerned a dose error (13.7% of all cases). POM prescriptions of patients of 40–65 years had a significantly lower chance of modification compared with those of younger people (OR = 0.74 [0.64–0.86]). With respect to medication-class, we found a higher chance of POM modifications in the respiratory domain (OR = 1.48 [1.23-1.79]) and a decreased chance for nervous system POMs (OR = 0.71 [0.61–0.83]). With regard to prescriber-related determinants modifications were found three times more often in non printed prescriptions than in printed ones (OR = 3.30 [2.90-3.75]). Compared with prescriptions by the patient's own GP, prescriptions of specialists (OR = 1.82 [1.57-2.11]), other GP's (OR = 1.49 [1.02-2.17]) and other prescribers such as dentists and midwives (OR = 1.95 [1.06-3.57]) gave a higher probability of prescription modifications. When a GP had no on-line access to the computer of the pharmacy the chance of a

  3. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    PubMed

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim's paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim's findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  4. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  5. COMPARING THE LIFE CONCERNS OF PRESCRIPTION OPIOID AND HEROIN USERS

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Thurmond, Portia; Bailey, Genie L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (n = 529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (p<.001), but were more concerned about alcohol use (p<.001) than heroin users. There were no significant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients’ lives. PMID:25171955

  6. New Medicare-approved prescription drug discount card.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2004-05-28

    Patients who are on Medicare and have income under 135% of Federal poverty level and are not on Medicaid probably should obtain one of the new Medicare discount cards that became available on June 1, 2004, because all these cards include $600 annual credit for prescription-drug purchases for persons within that income limit. Unfortunately this program is complex, no one yet knows how it will work in practice, and after choosing a card one is locked in and cannot change cards until November 15. The most difficult part of the choice of which card to get may involve how it interacts with other programs, including ADAP, and pharmaceutical company patient assistance programs. PMID:15241856

  7. [A new measurement of pharmaceutical prescriptions of the Ebers papyrus].

    PubMed

    Pommerening, Tanja

    2003-03-01

    Starting point of this article is a problem obvious to anybody who reads the medical papyri of ancient Egypt from the New Kingdom and the Late Period: the prescriptions contain two dyadic systems of notation for measures of capacity without specifying the unit of measurement, firstly the Horus eye fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 and 1/64 which are unanimously assumed to refer to the single Heqat and secondly the, normal' dyadic fractions from 1/2 to 1/128, which have been interpreted in widely different ways, as fractions of the Henu-, the Ro-, the single Heqat-, the 5-Ro- or the Dja-measure, respectively. Interpretations suggested in translations and commentaries have remained inconclusive and unsatisfactory. PMID:12769101

  8. Concerns about substandard training for prescription privileges for psychologists.

    PubMed

    Heiby, Elaine M

    2010-01-01

    This Commentary on the Muse and McGrath study (this issue, pp. 96-103) refutes its conclusion that the amount of training for prescription privileges for psychologists (RxP) is equal to or greater than that for psychiatric nurse practitioners and physicians. First, the sample failed to include only training programs for nurses and psychologists that lead to independent prescribing. Second, training was defined by an arbitrary, nonvalidated list of "key content areas" that excluded much of the standard medical curricula for nurses and physicians to prescribe. Third, the levels of training for which the "key content areas" were assessed omitted undergraduate prerequisites, apprenticeships, supervised practice, and residencies that are a standard part of the nursing and physician programs studied. RxP training remains substandard. PMID:19904808

  9. Treatment of Chronic Constipation: Prescription Medications and Surgical Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Kelly; Lacy, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is a highly prevalent disorder that affects people regardless of age, race, gender, or socioeconomic status. For many patients, constipation is a chronic condition that reduces quality of life. Chronic constipation also imposes a significant economic burden on the health care system. The treatment of constipation remains problematic for both patients and providers for a variety of reasons, including a lack of specificity of symptoms, an inconsistent relationship between underlying pathophysiology and symptom generation, and different and unpredictable patient responses to medications. A large number of over-the-counter agents are used to treat symptoms of constipation, although many of these agents are not effective, and data to support their use are limited and generally of poor quality. Patients referred for consultation typically have failed therapy with over-the-counter agents and require prescription medications or possibly even surgical therapy. This article discusses medical treatments and surgical options for chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:27099579

  10. Treatment of Chronic Constipation: Prescription Medications and Surgical Therapies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zilla H; Everhart, Kelly; Lacy, Brian E

    2015-02-01

    Constipation is a highly prevalent disorder that affects people regardless of age, race, gender, or socioeconomic status. For many patients, constipation is a chronic condition that reduces quality of life. Chronic constipation also imposes a significant economic burden on the health care system. The treatment of constipation remains problematic for both patients and providers for a variety of reasons, including a lack of specificity of symptoms, an inconsistent relationship between underlying pathophysiology and symptom generation, and different and unpredictable patient responses to medications. A large number of over-the-counter agents are used to treat symptoms of constipation, although many of these agents are not effective, and data to support their use are limited and generally of poor quality. Patients referred for consultation typically have failed therapy with over-the-counter agents and require prescription medications or possibly even surgical therapy. This article discusses medical treatments and surgical options for chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:27099579

  11. The federal regulation of prescription drug advertising and promotion.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A; Pines, W L

    1990-11-14

    Prescription drug advertising has been regulated by the Food and Drug Administration since 1962. In the past decade, pharmaceutical companies have employed new communication mechanisms to reach physicians and, with increasing frequency, consumers. Examples of physician-oriented promotional activities are medical symposia and teleconferences. Consumer-oriented efforts include press conferences, use of celebrity spokespeople, and direct-to-consumer advertising. The Food and Drug Administration has asserted its legal jurisdiction over these nontraditional promotional activities and is regulating them on a case-by-case basis. As nontraditional promotional efforts become more prevalent, the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory framework must be able to meet the challenges of a changing environment. PMID:2231998

  12. Prescription Opioid Analgesics: Promoting Patient Safety with Better Patient Education.

    PubMed

    Costello, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Patients expect and deserve adequate postoperative pain relief. Opioid analgesics are widely used and effective in controlling postoperative pain, but their use poses risks that many patients don't understand and that all too often result in adverse outcomes. Inappropriate and often dangerous use of prescription medication has increased sharply in the past two decades in the United States. Patients and caregivers must have an adequate understanding of safe use, storage, and disposal of opioids to prevent adverse drug events in patients and others. Nurses play a key role in providing this patient education. This article provides a case study that highlights the risks and important aspects of opioid medication use in the postoperative patient. PMID:26510070

  13. Peritoneal dialysis prescription during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Batarse, Rodolfo R; Steiger, Ralph M; Guest, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Management of the pregnant patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is potentially challenging because uterine enlargement may negatively affect catheter function and prescribed dwell volumes. Additional reports of the management of these patients are needed. Here, we describe a near-full-term delivery in a 27-year-old woman who had been on dialysis for 7 years. Peritoneal dialysis was continued during the entire pregnancy. In the third trimester, a higher delivered automated PD volume allowed for adequate clearance and control of volume status. A decision to hospitalize the patient to limit activity and facilitate the delivery of increased dialysate is believed to have contributed to the successful outcome for mother and infant. Our report discusses the management of this patient and reviews published dialysis prescriptions used during the third trimester of pregnancy in patients treated with PD. PMID:24711639

  14. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tapscott, Brian E.; Schepis, Ty S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly in young adults. Young adults aged 18 to 25 have the highest annual and monthly rates of NUPM of any age group in the US, with notable consequences from using opioid, stimulant, tranquilizer and sedative medication. This article will review the literature on young adult NUPM, focusing first on the characteristics of those young adults engaged in NUPM. Then, we will examine the most common motives for NUPM, the sources young adults use to engage in nonmedical use and the related process of medication diversion. Finally, we will outline treatment and make specific recommendations of ways clinicians can help prevent the spread of NUPM in young adults, completing the work by covering future directions for research. PMID:24654550

  15. How we move beyond a policy prescription to action.

    PubMed

    Ellen, Moriah; Shamian, Judith

    2011-01-01

    In response to "Evidence-Based Policy Prescription for an Aging Population," by Chappell and Hollander, this paper proposes that efforts be made to execute strategies to build the political momentum and public support necessary for concrete action toward achieving the recommended policies. It also suggests the implementation of knowledge translation strategies to assist in disseminating and integrating existing successful programs across the wider health system. Finally, this paper proposes a concerted and robust mobilization of forces in order to move from evidence-based agenda setting into active policy implementation. A key element of this transition involves placing greater emphasis on interest group activation and public policy deliberation. Such a focus would enable consensus between policy makers, decision-makers, interest groups and the public, garnering the political traction necessary to allow for the implementation of healthy public policy that best serves the needs of an aging population. PMID:21464633

  16. Comparing the life concerns of prescription opioid and heroin users.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Thurmond, Portia; Bailey, Genie L

    2015-01-01

    This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (N=529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (p<.001), but were more concerned about alcohol use (p<.001) than heroin users. There were no significant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients' lives. PMID:25171955

  17. Motivations for Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Ibañez, Gladys E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users, their motives for abusing prescription drugs are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to 1) determine the motivations for engaging in the non-medical use of prescription opioids and sedatives among street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and residential drug treatment clients, 2) examine associations between prescription drug abuse motivations and gender, age, race/ethnicity, and user group, and 3) examine associations between specific motivations and prescription drug abuse patterns. Quantitative surveys (n = 684) and in-depth interviews (n = 45) were conducted with a diverse sample of prescription drug abusers in South Florida between March 2008 and November 2009. The three most common motivations reported were “to get high”, “to sleep”, and “for anxiety/stress”. There were age, race/ethnicity, and gender differences by motives. Prescription drug abuse patterns were also found to be associated with specific motivations. While additional research is needed, these findings serve to inform appropriate prevention and treatment initiatives for prescription drug abusers. PMID:20667680

  18. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. The Food and...

  19. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  20. Income and the Use of Prescription Drugs by the Elderly: Evidence from the Notch Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, John R.; Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma

    2006-01-01

    We use exogenous variation in Social Security payments created by the Social Security benefits notch to estimate how retirees' use of prescription medications responds to changes in their incomes. Using data from the 1993 Wave of the AHEAD, we obtain instrumental variables estimates of the income elasticity of prescription drug use that are…

  1. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and...

  2. Behavioral Prescription Guide. Manual IIc: Social. Parent/Child Home Stimulation 'The Marshalltown Project.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda I.; And Others

    Presented is the Marshalltown Behavioral Prescription Guide for social development which consists of incremental behavioral objectives and strategies to aid parents in the prescriptive teaching of handicapped and culturally deprived infants and preschool children. The guide is intended for use prior to a weekly home visit, which results in a…

  3. The economics of prescription drug prices, government intervention, and the importation of drugs from Canada.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Matthew S

    2005-01-01

    Popular attention has focused on the skyrocketing health care costs in the United States and specifically on increasing insurance and prescription drug prices. Individuals and some local governments have advocated importing price-controlled prescription drugs from Canada to help ease the financial burden. What effects would this have on consumer prices, drug companies' incentives, and the development of new medications? PMID:16459902

  4. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. The Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs...

  6. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... therapy. 410.30 Section 410.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  7. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  8. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  9. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. 250.101 Section 250.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of...

  10. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  11. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  12. Risk factors for medication errors in the electronic and manual prescription 1

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; de Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães; de Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. Method: descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. Results: compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. Conclusion: generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. PMID:27508913

  13. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Adolescents: The Influence of Bonds to Family and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents in recent years. Research now indicates that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use is greater than the prevalence of other illicit drug use, excluding marijuana. Despite these recent trends, there is a dearth of research in the…

  14. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction involving the drug, starting with the manufacturer; and (7) The date of each previous transaction... prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  15. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transaction involving the drug, starting with the manufacturer; and (7) The date of each previous transaction... prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  16. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transaction involving the drug, starting with the manufacturer; and (7) The date of each previous transaction... prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  17. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transaction involving the drug, starting with the manufacturer; and (7) The date of each previous transaction... prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  18. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  19. Prescription Drug Misuse among University Staff and Students: A Survey of Motives, Nature and Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Katy; Bennett, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and nature of prescription drug misuse among university staff and students in the UK. Methods: In 2009, an online questionnaire regarding non-medical use of prescription drugs was completed by 1614 students and 489 staff registered at a large university in Wales. The sample data were weighted to match the…

  20. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  1. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  2. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and...

  3. A Ritualized Prescription in Family Therapy: Odd Days and Even Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzoli, Mara Selvini; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a therapeutic tactic called ritualized prescription which is specifically aimed at breaking up those behaviors through which each parent disqualifies and sabotages the initiatives and directions of the other parent in his relation with the children. With families following the prescription, fast and satisfying changes are observed.…

  4. The diversion of stimulant medications among a convenience sample of college students with current prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart L

    2015-03-01

    Diversion is defined as the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace. Persons with legal prescriptions often give away or sell their medications to others. The misuse of prescription stimulant medications continues to be a problem on college campuses and a need to understand how students are obtaining stimulant medications exists. The object of the study was to identify the prevalence, correlates, and motivations associated with diversion of prescription stimulants among current prescription holders. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,022) between the ages of 18 and 24 enrolled at a large public university in the southeastern United States completed an in class questionnaire. Among those respondents, we identified 151 current stimulant prescription holders and analyzed the prevalence, motivations, and correlates associated with lifetime and current diversion. Overall, 58.9% of current prescription holders had given away or sold their stimulant medication during their lifetime. Those with a history of nonmedical use of prescription stimulants were almost 5 times more likely to divert their medication during their lifetime. The majority of those engaging in lifetime and current diversion medication did so infrequently. The most common motivations reported for both lifetime and current diversion were "to make extra money" and to "help during a time of high academic stress." Students who reported a history of prescription misuse were also more likely to engage in current diversion. Diversion-related behaviors should be explored further and programs aimed at the reducing these behaviors should be considered. PMID:25134041

  5. 77 FR 32407 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Medicare Program; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for...; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year...-9364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2012-8071 of April 12, 2012 (77 FR...

  6. 75 FR 71064 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit... Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year 2012 and Other... CONTACT: Sabrina Ahmed, (410) 786-7499. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc....

  7. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  8. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  9. A Computer Program for the Management of Prescription-Based Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Patricia M.; Gumtow, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    The Prescription Management Program, a software program using Apple's HyperCard on a MacIntosh, was developed to simplify the creation, storage, modification, and general management of prescription-based problems. Pharmacy instructors may customize the program to serve their individual teaching needs. (Author/DB)

  10. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  11. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  12. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  13. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  14. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  15. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. The Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs...

  17. A simpler prescription for MHV graviton tree amplitudes in superstring theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursulino, Tiago

    2013-11-01

    We extend the Berkovits-Maldacena prescription for MHV amplitudes of the open superstring to the closed superstring, showing that in the α' = 0 limit it reduces to the result of supergravity found recently by Hodges. We also verify that this prescription calculates the correct superstring tree level MHV amplitude for 4 gravitons including α' corrections.

  18. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs...

  19. Are Direct to Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs Educational?: Comparing 1992 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Timothy Jon; Jarosch, Jeff; Pacholok, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the educational value of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements from 58 popular magazines published in 1992 and 2002. We find that the number of DTC prescription drug ads increased nine-fold from 1992 to 2002, while the advertisements for other health care products increased only slightly. We examine changes in…

  20. Total and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Prescription Drugs among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shea, Dennis; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The burden of prescription drug costs on Medicare beneficiaries has become a critical policy issue in improving the Medicare program, yet few studies have provided detailed and current information on that burden. The present study estimates total and out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs and the burden of these costs in…

  1. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination...

  2. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination...

  3. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiary premiums or lower covered Part D drug prices at the point of sale. (ii) Information on negotiated... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements related to qualified prescription drug... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG...

  4. Behavioral Prescription Guide. Manual IIa: Communication. Parent/Child Home Stimulation 'The Marshalltown Project.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecker, Vicky L.; And Others

    Presented is the Marshalltown Behavioral Prescription Guide for communication which consists of incremental behavioral objectives and strategies to aid parents in the prescriptive teaching of preschool handicapped and culturally deprived infants and children. The guide is intended for use prior to a weekly home visit resulting in a weekly…

  5. Behavioral Prescription Guide. Manual IIb: Motor. Parent/Child Home Stimulation 'The Marshalltown Project.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Arlene F.; And Others

    Presented is the Marshalltown Behavioral Prescription Guide for motor development which consists of incremental behavioral objectives and strategies to aid parents in the prescriptive teaching of handicapped and culturally deprived infants and preschool children. The guide is intended for use prior to a weekly home visit resulting in a weekly…

  6. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs...

  7. 71 FR 66448 - Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203 Compliance Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-15

    ... 92N-0297), 1988N-0258 (Formerly 88N- 0258), 2006D-0226] Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree... Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements Questions and Answers; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... ``Prescription Drug Marketing Act--Pedigree Requirements under 21 CFR Part 203'' (PDMA CPG). This CPG...

  8. 71 FR 34249 - Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements; Effective Date and Compliance Policy Guide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-06-14

    ...), 1988N-0258 (Formerly 88N- 0258), 2006D-0226] Prescription Drug Marketing Act Pedigree Requirements... provisions of the final regulation published in the Federal Register of ] December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The... of a new compliance policy guide (CPG) 160.900 entitled ``Prescription Drug Marketing Act...

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse: A Fast-Growing Problem | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... also pose serious health risks related to their abuse. The medications most commonly abused are: Pain relievers - 5.1 ... million Among adolescents, prescription and over-the-counter ... 20 reported abuse of OxyContin. When asked how prescription pain relievers ...

  10. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  11. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  12. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  13. Prescription of Protective Paternalism for Men in Romantic and Work Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarlet, Marie; Dumont, Muriel; Delacollette, Nathalie; Dardenne, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic…

  14. Knowledge of exercise prescription guidelines among certified exercise professionals.

    PubMed

    Zenko, Zachary; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2015-05-01

    This survey assessed the knowledge of the "Guidance for prescribing exercise" issued by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in 2011 among certified exercise professionals. A sample of 1,808 certified exercise professionals (66.70% women, mean (± SD) age = 38.28 ± 12.56 years) responded to electronic invitations. The 11-question online questionnaire assessed knowledge of the recommended frequency, duration, and intensity ranges in terms of heart rate, metabolic equivalents, and ratings of perceived exertion. Respondents had 7.45 ± 8.07 years of work experience and represented all 50 U.S. states. On average, participants answered 42.87 ± 1.69% of the questions correctly. Gender, age, and years of professional experience were not associated with overall knowledge of the guidelines. Likewise, having 1, 2, or 3+ certifications made no difference in overall knowledge. However, there were significant differences between levels of education (F = 7.12, p < 0.001), from 38.72 ± 1.62% for "some college" to 47.01 ± 1.71% for "doctorate." There were also significant differences by primary job role (F = 3.45, p < 0.001) but no category exceeded 49% (e.g., personal trainers: 40.59 ± 1.66%; clinical exercise physiologists: 44.18 ± 1.70%). The respondents rated their knowledge of the exercise prescription guidelines as 7.01 ± 1.69 of 10 but rated the level of knowledge necessary to practice safely and effectively as 8.32 ± 1.64 (t = 28.60, p < 0.001). This survey, the first at this scale to investigate the knowledge of exercise prescription guidelines among certified exercise professionals, showed that there is room for improvement, considering that the average score was below 50%. PMID:25474334

  15. LIDAR Metrology for Prescription Characterization and Alignment of Large Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eegholm, B.; Eichhorn, W.; von Handorf, R.; Hayden, J.; Ohl, R.; Wenzel, G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of LIDAR, or "laser radar," (LR) as a fast, accurate, and non-contact tool for the measurement of the radius of curvature (RoC) of large mirrors. We report the results of a demonstration of this concept using a commercial laser radar system. We measured the RoC of a 1.4m x 1m spherical mirror with a nominal RoC of 4.6 m with a manufacturing tolerance of 4600mm +/- 6mm. The prescription of the mirror is related to its role as ground support equipment used in the test of part of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The RoC of such a large mirror is not easily measured without contacting the surface. From a position near the center of curvature of the mirror, the LIDAR scanned the mirror surface, sampling it with 1 point per 3.5 sq cm. The measurement consisted of 3983 points and lasted only a few minutes. The laser radar uses the LIDAR signal to provide range, and encoder information from angular azimuth and elevation rotation stages provide the spherical coordinates of a given point. A best-fit to a sphere of the measured points was performed. The resulting RoC was within 20 ppm of the nominal RoC, also showing good agreement with the results of a laser tracker-based, contact metrology. This paper also discusses parameters such as test alignment, scan density, and optical surface type, as well as future possible application for full prescription characterization of aspherical mirrors, including radius, conic, off-axis distance, and aperture.

  16. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  17. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients’ understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0–6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including ‘WARNING’ on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  18. Prevalence and Patterns of Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Ketamine Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi S.; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological monitoring data has indicated sharp increases in prescription drug misuse. Despite these increases, little is known about the context or patterns associated with prescription drug misuse, particularly among youth or young injection drug users (IDUs). A three-city study of 213 young IDUs found prescription drug misuse to be pervasive, specifically the use of opioids and benzodiazepines. Particular practices not commonly associated with prescription drugs were reported, such as sniffing, smoking, and injection. Associated health risks included initiation into injection drug use, polydrug use, drug overdose, and drug dependency. A greater awareness of the potential health risks associated with prescription drug misuse should be incorporated into services that target IDUs, including street outreach, syringe exchanges, and drug treatment. PMID:18612374

  19. Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Enrollees Report Less Positive Experiences Than Their Medicare Advantage Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Marc N; Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Edwards, Carol; Orr, Nathan; Beckett, Megan K; Mallett, Joshua; Cleary, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Since 2006, Medicare beneficiaries have been able to obtain prescription drug coverage through standalone prescription drug plans or their Medicare Advantage (MA) health plan, options exercised in 2015 by 72 percent of beneficiaries. Using data from community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries older than age sixty-four in 700 plans surveyed from 2007 to 2014, we compared beneficiaries' assessments of Medicare prescription drug coverage when provided by standalone plans or integrated into an MA plan. Beneficiaries in standalone plans consistently reported less positive experiences with prescription drug plans (ease of getting medications, getting coverage information, and getting cost information) than their MA counterparts. Because MA plans are responsible for overall health care costs, they might have more integrated systems and greater incentives than standalone prescription drug plans to provide enrollees medications and information effectively, including, since 2010, quality bonus payments to these MA plans under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:26953300

  20. Act Your (Old) Age: Prescriptive, Ageist Biases Over Succession, Consumption, and Identity

    PubMed Central

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Perspectives on ageism have focused on descriptive stereotypes concerning what older people allegedly are. By contrast, we introduce prescriptive stereotypes that attempt to control how older people should be: encouraging active Succession of envied resources, preventing passive Consumption of shared resources, and avoidance of symbolic, ingroup identity resources. Six studies test these domains, utilizing vignette experiments and simulated behavioral interactions. Across studies, younger (compared with middle-aged and older) raters most resented elder violators of prescriptive stereotypes. Moreover, these younger participants were most polarized toward older targets (compared with middle-aged and younger analogues) – rewarding elders most for prescription adherences and punishing them most for violations. Taken together, these findings offer a novel approach to ageist prescriptions, which disproportionately target older people, are most endorsed by younger people, and suggest how elders shift from receiving the default prejudice of pity to either prescriptive resentment or reward. PMID:23471317