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Sample records for relation functions facing

  1. Emerging structure-function relations in the developing face processing system.

    PubMed

    Suzanne Scherf, K; Thomas, Cibu; Doyle, Jaime; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate emerging structure-function relations in a neural circuit that mediates complex behavior, we investigated age-related differences among cortical regions that support face recognition behavior and the fiber tracts through which they transmit and receive signals using functional neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging. In a large sample of human participants (aged 6-23 years), we derived the microstructural and volumetric properties of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and control tracts, using independently defined anatomical markers. We also determined the functional characteristics of core face- and place-selective regions that are distributed along the trajectory of the pathways of interest. We observed disproportionately large age-related differences in the volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean and radial, but not axial, diffusivities of the ILF. Critically, these differences in the structural properties of the ILF were tightly and specifically linked with an age-related increase in the size of a key face-selective functional region, the fusiform face area. This dynamic association between emerging structural and functional architecture in the developing brain may provide important clues about the mechanisms by which neural circuits become organized and optimized in the human cortex. PMID:23765156

  2. Emerging Structure–Function Relations in the Developing Face Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Suzanne Scherf, K.; Thomas, Cibu; Doyle, Jaime; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate emerging structure–function relations in a neural circuit that mediates complex behavior, we investigated age-related differences among cortical regions that support face recognition behavior and the fiber tracts through which they transmit and receive signals using functional neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging. In a large sample of human participants (aged 6–23 years), we derived the microstructural and volumetric properties of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and control tracts, using independently defined anatomical markers. We also determined the functional characteristics of core face- and place-selective regions that are distributed along the trajectory of the pathways of interest. We observed disproportionately large age-related differences in the volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean and radial, but not axial, diffusivities of the ILF. Critically, these differences in the structural properties of the ILF were tightly and specifically linked with an age-related increase in the size of a key face-selective functional region, the fusiform face area. This dynamic association between emerging structural and functional architecture in the developing brain may provide important clues about the mechanisms by which neural circuits become organized and optimized in the human cortex. PMID:23765156

  3. Functional outcomes of face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, S; Kueckelhaus, M; Pauzenberger, R; Bueno, E M; Pomahac, B

    2015-01-01

    In this study we provide a compilation of functional impairments before and improvements after face transplantation (FT) of five FT recipients of our institution and all FTs reported in current literature. Functional outcome included the ability to smell, breath, eat, speak, grimace and facial sensation. Before FT, all our patients revealed compromised ability to breath, eat, speak, grimace and experience facial sensation. The ability to smell was compromised in two of our five patients. Two patients were dependent on tracheostomy and one on gastrostomy tubes. After FT, all abilities were significantly improved and all patients were independent from artificial air airways and feeding tubes. Including data given in current literature about the other 24 FT recipients in the world, the abilities to smell, eat and feel were enhanced in 100% of cases, while the abilities of breathing, speaking and facial expressions were ameliorated in 93%, 71% and 76% of cases, respectively. All patients that required gastrostomy and 91% of patients depending on tracheostomy were decannulated after FT. Unfortunately, outcomes remain unreported in all other cases and therefore we are unable to comment on improvements. PMID:25359281

  4. Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity for Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive processing. We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity in face perception by analyzing time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in four different frequency bands: theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–14 Hz), beta (15–24 Hz), and gamma (25–45 Hz) bands in the early stages of face processing from 30 to 300 ms. High-density EEG were recorded from subjects who were passively viewing faces, buildings, and chairs. The dynamic connectivity within the core system and between the extended system were investigated. Significant differences between faces and non-faces mainly appear in theta band connectivity: (1) at the time segment of 90–120 ms between parietal area and occipito-temporal area in the right hemisphere, and (2) at the time segment of 150–180 ms between bilateral occipito-temporal areas. These results indicate (1) the importance of theta-band connectivity in the face-sensitive processing, and (2) that different parts of network are involved for the initial stage of face categorization and the stage of face structural encoding. PMID:26696870

  5. Relative faces: encoding of family resemblance relative to gender means in face space.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Harry John; McOwan, Peter William; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological (W. A. Freiwald, D. Y. Tsao, & M. S. Livingstone, 2009; D. A. Leopold, I. V. Bondar, & M. A. Giese, 2006) and psychophysical (D. A. Leopold, A. J. O'Toole, T. Vetter, & V. Blanz, 2001; G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery, 2006; R. Robbins, E. McKone, & M. Edwards, 2007) evidence suggests that faces are encoded as differences from a mean or prototypical face, consistent with the conceptual framework of a mean-centered face space (T. Valentine, 1991). However, it remains unclear how we encode facial similarity across classes such as gender, age, or race. We synthesized Caucasian male and female cross-gender "siblings" and "anti-siblings" by projecting vectors representing deviations of faces from one gender mean into another gender. Subjects perceived male and female pairings with similar vector deviations from their gender means as more similar, and those with opposite vector deviations as less similar, than randomly selected cross-gender pairings. Agreement in relative direction in a space describing how facial images differ from a mean can therefore provide a basis for perceived facial similarity. We further demonstrate that relative coding for male and female faces is based on the activation of a shared neural population by the transfer of an identity aftereffect between a face and its cross-gender sibling. These results imply whereas structural similarity may be reflected in the Euclidean distance between points in face space configural similarity may be coded by direction in face space. PMID:22003253

  6. A Face a Mother Could Love: Depression-Related Maternal Neural Responses to Infant Emotion Faces

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants’ emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants’ joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant’s distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant’s joy faces in the orbital-frontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy–distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers. PMID:23330663

  7. A Program in Community Relations: Face-to-Face Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Philip G.; O'Connell, Walter E.

    One of the sources of conflict in our urban centers today is the distrust that exists between the community and the police. In an effort to improve relations between community members and the police, so that both groups might work together more effectively in solving community problems, the Houston Cooperative Crime Prevention Program was…

  8. Categorical and Coordinate Relations in Faces, or Fechner's Law and Face Space Instead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Aitkin, Alex; Edwards, Mark

    2005-01-01

    E. E. Cooper and T. J. Wojan (2000) applied the categorical-coordinate relations distinction to faces on the basis of a finding that two-eyes-up versus one-eye-up distortions had opposite effects in between-class (face normality) and within-class (face identity) tasks. However, Cooper and Wojan failed to match amount of metric change between their…

  9. Early visual deprivation from congenital cataracts disrupts activity and functional connectivity in the face network.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Mondloch, Catherine J; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2014-05-01

    The development of the face-processing network has been examined with functional neuroimaging, but the effect of visual deprivation early in life on this network is not known. We examined this question in a group of young adults who had been born with dense, central cataracts in both eyes that blocked all visual input to the retina until the cataracts were removed during infancy. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine regions in the "core" and "extended" face networks as participants viewed faces and other objects, and performed a face discrimination task. This task required matching faces on the basis of facial features or on the spacing between the facial features. The Cataract group (a) had reduced discrimination performance on the Spacing task relative to Controls; (b) used the same brain regions as Controls when passively viewing faces or making judgments about faces, but showed reduced activation during passive viewing of faces, especially in extended face-network regions; and (c) unlike Controls, showed activation in face-network regions for objects. In addition, the functional connections of the fusiform gyri with the rest of the face network were altered, and these brain changes were related to Cataract participants' performance on the face discrimination task. These results provide evidence that early visual input is necessary to set up or preserve activity and functional connectivity in the face-processing network that will later mediate expert face processing. PMID:24657305

  10. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  11. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  12. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  13. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  14. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  15. The Hierarchical Structure of the Face Network Revealed by Its Functional Connectivity Pattern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhen, Zonglei; Song, Yiying; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-20

    A major principle of human brain organization is "integrating" some regions into networks while "segregating" other sets of regions into separate networks. However, little is known about the cognitive function of the integration and segregation of brain networks. Here, we examined the well-studied brain network for face processing, and asked whether the integration and segregation of the face network (FN) are related to face recognition performance. To do so, we used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) and the between-network connectivity (BNC) of the FN. We found that 95.4% of voxels in the FN had a significantly stronger WNC than BNC, suggesting that the FN is a relatively encapsulated network. Importantly, individuals with a stronger WNC (i.e., integration) in the right fusiform face area were better at recognizing faces, whereas individuals with a weaker BNC (i.e., segregation) in the right occipital face area performed better in the face recognition tasks. In short, our study not only demonstrates the behavioral relevance of integration and segregation of the FN but also provides evidence supporting functional division of labor between the occipital face area and fusiform face area in the hierarchically organized FN. Significance statement: Although the integration and segregation are major principles of human brain organization, little is known about whether they support the cognitive processes. By correlating the within-network connectivity (WNC) and between-network connectivity (BNC) of the face network with face recognition performance, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right fusiform face area or weaker BNC in the right occipital face area were better at recognizing faces. Our study not only demonstrates the behavioral relevance of the integration and segregation but also provides evidence supporting functional division of labor between the

  16. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  17. Amygdala Activation during Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Schwindt, Wolfram; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that critical functions of the human amygdala are to modulate the moment-to-moment vigilance level and to enhance the processing and the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing material. In this functional magnetic resonance study, pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, and happy expressions were presented to…

  18. Written on the Face: Self- and Expert-Rated Impairments in Personality Functioning Are Differently Related to the Expression of Disgust Toward an Interviewer.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Zimmermann, Johannes; Peham, Doris; Bock, Astrid; Mitte, Kristin; Benecke, Cord

    2016-06-01

    Although current theories suggest that impairments in personality functioning are at the core of personality pathology, there is a lack of research on how these impairments play out behaviorally. The aim of the present study was to investigate disgust expressions as indicators of personality dysfunction. Facial expressions were investigated in a sample of 78 female participants during an in-depth clinical interview and coded with the Facial Action Coding System. Personality dysfunction was assessed with self- and expert ratings. By applying a joint regression analysis, the authors found that disgust expressions toward the interviewer were positively associated with expert ratings but negatively associated with self-ratings. In other words, disgust expressions were indicative of an underestimation of personality dysfunction by participants as compared with experts. This suggests that interactional expressions of disgust might be a behavioral marker of personality dysfunction when individuals are unaware of or deny impairments. PMID:26067159

  19. Feminine Faces of Leadership: Beyond Structural- Functionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Hope-Arlene

    1999-01-01

    Reviews four philosophical leadership perspectives: structural-functionalism, constructivism, critical theory, and feminism. Explores the leadership phenomenon through the eyes of six women principals. Although the behaviors of all six fall within a structural-functionalist perspective, each is attempting to construct inclusive, positive, and…

  20. Face processing abilities in relatives of individuals with ASD.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Sebastian, Catherine; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Parr, Jeremy; Bailey, Anthony

    2010-12-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulties identifying familiar faces, recognizing emotional expressions and judging eye-gaze direction. Recent research suggests that relatives of individuals with AS also show impairments in some aspects of face processing but no study has comprehensively assessed the nature and extent of face-processing difficulties in a group of relatives. This study compared the performance of 22 parents/adult siblings of individuals with ASD ("relatives" group), 26 adults with ASD, and 26 typically developing adults on tasks of face discrimination, facial expression recognition and judging eye-gaze direction. Relatives of individuals with ASD were less able to discriminate subtle differences between faces than typically developing adults, but were more sensitive to such differences than adults with ASD. Furthermore, relatives were significantly worse at identifying expressions of fear and disgust than typically developing adults and failed to show the typical sensitivity to direct compared with averted eye-gaze direction--a strikingly similar pattern to that observed in adults with ASD. These findings show that atypical patterns of face processing are found in some relatives of individuals with ASD and suggest that these difficulties may represent a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:21182211

  1. Defining the face processing network: optimization of the functional localizer in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christopher J; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2009-05-01

    Functional localizers that contrast brain signal when viewing faces versus objects are commonly used in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of face processing. However, current protocols do not reliably show all regions of the core system for face processing in all subjects when conservative statistical thresholds are used, which is problematic in the study of single subjects. Furthermore, arbitrary variations in the applied thresholds are associated with inconsistent estimates of the size of face-selective regions-of-interest (ROIs). We hypothesized that the use of more natural dynamic facial images in localizers might increase the likelihood of identifying face-selective ROIs in individual subjects, and we also investigated the use of a method to derive the statistically optimal ROI cluster size independent of thresholds. We found that dynamic facial stimuli were more effective than static stimuli, identifying 98% (versus 72% for static) of ROIs in the core face processing system and 69% (versus 39% for static) of ROIs in the extended face processing system. We then determined for each core face processing ROI, the cluster size associated with maximum statistical face-selectivity, which on average was approximately 50 mm(3) for the fusiform face area, the occipital face area, and the posterior superior temporal sulcus. We suggest that the combination of (a) more robust face-related activity induced by a dynamic face localizer and (b) a cluster-size determination based on maximum face-selectivity increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of the characterization of face-related ROIs in individual subjects. PMID:18661501

  2. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  3. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization. PMID:27250879

  4. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  5. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing.

    PubMed

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization. PMID:27250879

  6. Typical and Atypical Development of Functional Connectivity in the Face Network.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Zhu, Qi; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-10-28

    Extensive studies have demonstrated that face recognition performance does not reach adult levels until adolescence. However, there is no consensus on whether such prolonged improvement stems from development of general cognitive factors or face-specific mechanisms. Here, we used behavioral experiments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate these two hypotheses. With a large cohort of children (n = 379), we found that the ability of face-specific recognition in humans increased with age throughout childhood and into late adolescence in both face memory and face perception. Neurally, to circumvent the potential problem of age differences in task performance, attention, or cognitive strategies in task-state fMRI studies, we measured the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) in human brain and found that the OFA-FFA RSFC increased until 11-13 years of age. Moreover, the OFA-FFA RSFC was selectively impaired in adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). In contrast, no age-related changes or differences between DP and normal adults were observed for RSFCs in the object system. Finally, the OFA-FFA RSFC matured earlier than face selectivity in either the OFA or FFA. These results suggest the critical role of the OFA-FFA RSFC in the development of face recognition. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that prolonged development of face recognition is face specific, not domain general. PMID:26511251

  7. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  8. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  9. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  10. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate public…

  11. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  12. Distinct neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of supraliminally and subliminally presented faces.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawasaki, Iori; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2015-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates involved in the valuation of supraliminally presented targets and the subsequent preference decisions. However, the neural mechanisms of the valuation of subliminally presented targets, which can guide subsequent preference decisions, remain to be explored. In the present study, we determined whether the neural systems associated with the valuation of supraliminally presented faces are involved in the valuation of subliminally presented faces. The subjects were supraliminally and subliminally presented with faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following fMRI, the subjects were presented with pairs of faces and were asked to choose which face they preferred. We analyzed brain activation by back-sorting the fMRI data according to the subjects' choices. The present study yielded two main findings. First, the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex predict preferences only for supraliminally presented faces. Second, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may predict preferences for subliminally presented faces. These findings indicate that neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of faces are dissociable, contingent upon whether the subjects consciously perceive the faces. PMID:25880023

  13. Preserved face inversion effects in adults with autism spectrum disorder: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Paula P; Mouga, Susana S; Oliveira, Guiomar G; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-05-25

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in face recognition and emotional expression identification. According to current models, there are at least three levels of face processing: first order (two eyes, above a nose, which is above a mouth), second order (the relative distance between features), and holistic (ability to recognize as faces images that lack distinctive facial features). Some studies have reported deficits in configural and holistic processing in individuals with ASD. We investigated the neural correlates of these phenomena by measuring event-related potentials in high-functioning adults with ASD and healthy controls, during a face decision task, using a comprehensive set of photographic, schematic and Mooney upright and inverted faces, and scrambled images. Behaviorally, ASD and healthy controls were performance matched. At the electrophysiological level, individuals with ASD showed a bilateral N170 inversion effect in latency and left lateralized in amplitude for photographic faces, with bilaterally longer latencies and left higher amplitudes (more negative) N170 for inverted than upright photographic faces, and a right lateralized N170 inversion effect in latency for schematic faces. We conclude that under performance-matched conditions, adults with ASD show preserved N170 inversion effects and associated sparing of facial configural processing. An oral presentation of this work can be consulted using the following link, Supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A382. PMID:27092469

  14. Neural networks related to dysfunctional face processing in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Rottschy, Claudia; Thommes, Johanna; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most consistent neuropsychological findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a reduced interest in and impaired processing of human faces. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 14 functional imaging studies on neural correlates of face processing enrolling a total of 164 ASD patients. Subsequently, normative whole-brain functional connectivity maps for the identified regions of significant convergence were computed for the task-independent (resting-state) and task-dependent (co-activations) state in healthy subjects. Quantitative functional decoding was performed by reference to the BrainMap database. Finally, we examined the overlap of the delineated network with the results of a previous meta-analysis on structural abnormalities in ASD as well as with brain regions involved in human action observation/imitation. We found a single cluster in the left fusiform gyrus showing significantly reduced activation during face processing in ASD across all studies. Both task-dependent and task-independent analyses indicated significant functional connectivity of this region with the temporo-occipital and lateral occipital cortex, the inferior frontal and parietal cortices, the thalamus and the amygdala. Quantitative reverse inference then indicated an association of these regions mainly with face processing, affective processing, and language-related tasks. Moreover, we found that the cortex in the region of right area V5 displaying structural changes in ASD patients showed consistent connectivity with the region showing aberrant responses in the context of face processing. Finally, this network was also implicated in the human action observation/imitation network. In summary, our findings thus suggest a functionally and structurally disturbed network of occipital regions related primarily to face (but potentially also language) processing, which interact with inferior frontal as well as limbic regions and may be the core of

  15. Functional aspects of recollective experience in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Parkin, A J; Gardiner, J M; Rosser, R

    1995-12-01

    This article describes two experiments on awareness in recognition memory for novel faces. Two kinds of awareness, recollective experience and feelings of familiarity in the absence of recollective experience, were measured by "remember" and "know" responses. Experiment 1 showed that "remember" but not "know" responses were reduced by divided attention at study. Experiment 2 showed that massed versus spaced repetition of faces in the study list had opposite effects on "remember" and "know" responses. Massed repetition increased "know" responses and reduced "remember" responses. Spaced repetition increased "remember" responses and reduced "know" responses. The results of both experiments replicate previous findings from the verbal domain in the domain of face recognition, and hence they increase the ecological validity of this experimental approach to memory and awareness and the generality of its database. These findings are discussed from a rehearsal perspective on factors influencing the two states of awareness and in relation to the alternative "process dissociation" procedure. PMID:8750414

  16. Recognition of personally familiar faces and functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Sophie; Moyse, Evelyne; Bahri, Mohamed A; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Studies have reported that patients in the severe stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties recognizing their own faces in recent photographs. Two case reports of late-stage AD showed that this loss of self-face recognition was temporally graded: photographs from the remote past were recognized more easily than more recent photographs. Little is known about the neural correlates of own face recognition abilities in AD patients, while neuroimaging studies in healthy adults have related these abilities to a bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital network. In this study, two behavioral experiments (experiments 1 and 2) and one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment (second part of experiment 2) were conducted to compare mild AD patients (experiment 1) and moderate AD patients (experiment 2) with healthy older participants in a recognition task involving self and familiar faces from different decades of the participants' life. In moderate AD patients, variable performance allowed us to examine correlations between scores and resting-state fMRI in order to link behavioral data to cerebral activity. At the behavioral level, the results revealed that, in mild AD, self and familiar face recognition was preserved. Moreover, mild AD patients and healthy older participants showed an inverse temporal gradient, with faster recognition of self and familiar recent photographs than self and familiar remote photographs. However, in moderate AD, both self and familiar face recognition were affected. fMRI results showed that the higher the connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG), the lower the self and familiar face recognition scores in moderate AD patients. Given that previous studies have related the superior frontal region to control processes rather than face recognition processes, these results might reflect less segregation and more interference between brain networks in AD. In

  17. Neural correlates of perceiving emotional faces and bodies in developmental prosopagnosia: an event-related fMRI-study.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; van de Riet, Wim A C; Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP) and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA). Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA), indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits. PMID:18797499

  18. Quantifying interindividual variability and asymmetry of face-selective regions: a probabilistic functional atlas.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Yang, Zetian; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xu; Dang, Xiaobin; Huang, Yangyue; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Face-selective regions (FSRs) are among the most widely studied functional regions in the human brain. However, individual variability of the FSRs has not been well quantified. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize the FSRs and quantify their spatial and functional variabilities in 202 healthy adults. The occipital face area (OFA), posterior and anterior fusiform face areas (pFFA and aFFA), posterior continuation of the superior temporal sulcus (pcSTS), and posterior and anterior STS (pSTS and aSTS) were delineated for each individual with a semi-automated procedure. A probabilistic atlas was constructed to characterize their interindividual variability, revealing that the FSRs were highly variable in location and extent across subjects. The variability of FSRs was further quantified on both functional (i.e., face selectivity) and spatial (i.e., volume, location of peak activation, and anatomical location) features. Considerable interindividual variability and rightward asymmetry were found in all FSRs on these features. Taken together, our work presents the first effort to characterize comprehensively the variability of FSRs in a large sample of healthy subjects, and invites future work on the origin of the variability and its relation to individual differences in behavioral performance. Moreover, the probabilistic functional atlas will provide an adequate spatial reference for mapping the face network. PMID:25772668

  19. Comparison of Power Relations within Electronic and Face-to-Face Classroom Discussions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel

    2002-01-01

    Online discussions and transcriptions of face-to-face discussions by graduate students (14 online, 14 on campus) were analyzed. Technical support was not available 24 hours a day to online students who were predominantly women. Online discussions were more student-to-student, classroom discussions student-to-teacher. The analysis suggests how…

  20. Hard to "tune in": neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD-Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal-Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD-Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal-Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  1. The Extended Functional Neuroanatomy of Emotional Processing Biases for Masked Faces in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Teresa A.; Furey, Maura L.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Öhman, Arne; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. Aims To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. Method Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC; n = 25) underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. Results The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. Conclusions Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli. PMID:23056309

  2. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    PubMed

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition. PMID:21120515

  3. “What” Precedes “Which”: Developmental Neural Tuning in Face- and Place-Related Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Beatriz; Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    Although category-specific activation for faces in the ventral visual pathway appears adult-like in adolescence, recognition abilities for individual faces are still immature. We investigated how the ability to represent “individual” faces and houses develops at the neural level. Category-selective regions of interest (ROIs) for faces in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and for places in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were identified individually in children, adolescents, and adults. Then, using an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation paradigm, we measured category selectivity and individual-level adaptation for faces and houses in each ROI. Only adults exhibited both category selectivity and individual-level adaptation bilaterally for faces in the FG and for houses in the PPA. Adolescents showed category selectivity bilaterally for faces in the FG and houses in the PPA. Despite this profile of category selectivity, adolescents only exhibited individual-level adaptation for houses bilaterally in the PPA and for faces in the “left” FG. Children only showed category-selective responses for houses in the PPA, and they failed to exhibit category-selective responses for faces in the FG and individual-level adaptation effects anywhere in the brain. These results indicate that category-level neural tuning develops prior to individual-level neural tuning and that face-related cortex is disproportionately slower in this developmental transition than is place-related cortex. PMID:21257673

  4. Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

  5. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  6. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  7. Functional Mapping of Face-Selective Regions in the Extrastriate Visual Cortex of the Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Yen, Cecil C.; Ciuchta, Jennifer L.; Papoti, Daniel; Bock, Nicholas A.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of humans and macaques has specialized regions for processing faces and other visual stimulus categories. It is unknown whether a similar functional organization exists in New World monkeys, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a species of growing interest as a primate model in neuroscience. To address this question, we measured selective neural responses in the brain of four awake marmosets trained to fix their gaze upon images of faces, bodies, objects, and control patterns. In two of the subjects, we measured high gamma-range field potentials from electrocorticography arrays implanted over a large portion of the occipital and inferotemporal cortex. In the other two subjects, we measured BOLD fMRI responses across the entire brain. Both techniques revealed robust, regionally specific patterns of category-selective neural responses. We report that at least six face-selective patches mark the occipitotemporal pathway of the marmoset, with the most anterior patches showing the strongest preference for faces over other stimuli. The similar appearance of these patches to previous findings in macaques and humans, including their apparent arrangement in two parallel pathways, suggests that core elements of the face processing network were present in the common anthropoid primate ancestor living ∼35 million years ago. The findings also identify the marmoset as a viable animal model system for studying specialized neural mechanisms related to high-level social visual perception in humans. PMID:25609630

  8. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  9. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  10. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. PMID:23677489

  11. Fearful Face Detection Sensitivity in Healthy Adults Correlates with Anxiety-Related Traits

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Tracy J.; Japee, Shruti; Ingvar, Martin; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2014-01-01

    Threatening faces have a privileged status in the brain, which can be reflected in a processing advantage. However, this effect varies among individuals, even healthy adults. For example, one recent study showed that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with trait anxiety in healthy adults (Japee, Crocker, Carver, Pessoa, & Ungerleider, 2009). Here, we expanded upon those findings by investigating whether intersubject variability in fearful face detection is also associated with state anxiety, as well as more broadly with other traits related to anxiety. To measure fearful face detection sensitivity, we employed a masked face paradigm where the target face was presented for only 33 ms and was immediately followed by a neutral face mask. Subjects then rated their confidence in detecting either fear or no fear in the target face. Fearful face detection sensitivity was calculated for each subject using signal detection theory. Replicating previous results, we found a significant positive correlation between trait anxiety and fearful face detection sensitivity. However, this behavioral advantage did not correlate with state anxiety. We also found that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with other personality measures, including neuroticism and harm avoidance. Our data suggest that fearful face detection sensitivity varies parametrically across the healthy population, is associated broadly with personality traits related to anxiety, but remains largely unaffected by situational fluctuations in anxiety. These results underscore the important contribution of anxiety-related personality traits to threat processing in healthy adults. PMID:23398584

  12. Visual Afterimages of Emotional Faces in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troubridge, Erin K.; Walsh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Fixating an emotional facial expression can create afterimages, such that subsequent faces are seen as having the opposite expression of that fixated. Visual afterimages have been used to map the relationships among emotion categories, and this method was used here to compare ASD and matched control participants. Participants adapted to a facial…

  13. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics. PMID:25248543

  14. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces. PMID:26489213

  15. Reward Promotes Self-Face Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Youlong; Chen, Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Jin; Yang, Zilu; Fan, Wei; Zhong, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study adopted a reward-priming paradigm to investigate whether and how monetary reward cues affected self-face processing. Event-related potentials were recorded during judgments of head orientation of target faces (self, friend, and stranger), with performance associated with a monetary reward. The results showed self-faces elicited larger N2 mean amplitudes than other-faces, and mean N2 amplitudes increased after monetary reward as compared with no reward cue. Moreover, an interaction effect between cue type and face type was observed for the P3 component, suggesting that both self-faces and friend-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than stranger-faces after no reward cue, with no significant difference between self-faces and friend-faces under this condition. However, self-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than friend-faces when monetary reward cues were provided. Interestingly, the enhancement of reward on friend-faces processing was observed at late positive potentials (LPP; 450–600 ms), suggesting that the LPP difference between friend-faces and stranger-faces was enhanced with monetary reward cues. Thus, we found that the enhancement effect of reward on self-relevant processing occurred at the later stages, but not at the early stage. These findings suggest that the activation of the reward expectations can enhance self-face processing, yielding a robust and sustained modulation over their overlapped brain areas where reward and self-relevant processing mechanisms may operate together. PMID:27242637

  16. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26363970

  17. Recognition of faces and names: multimodal physiological correlates of memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Meghan B; Shirk, Steven D; McLaren, Donald G; Dodd, Jessica S; Ezzati, Ali; Ally, Brandon A; Atri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    We sought to characterize electrophysiological, eye-tracking and behavioral correlates of face-name recognition memory in healthy younger adults using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), infrared eye-tracking (ET), and neuropsychological measures. Twenty-one participants first studied 40 face-name (FN) pairs; 20 were presented four times (4R) and 20 were shown once (1R). Recognition memory was assessed by asking participants to make old/new judgments for 80 FN pairs, of which half were previously studied items and half were novel FN pairs (N). Simultaneous EEG and ET recording were collected during recognition trials. Comparisons of event-related potentials (ERPs) for correctly identified FN pairs were compared across the three item types revealing classic ERP old/new effects including 1) relative positivity (1R > N) bi-frontally from 300 to 500 ms, reflecting enhanced familiarity, 2) relative positivity (4R > 1R and 4R > N) in parietal areas from 500 to 800 ms, reflecting enhanced recollection, and 3) late frontal effects (1R > N) from 1000 to 1800 ms in right frontal areas, reflecting post-retrieval monitoring. ET analysis also revealed significant differences in eye movements across conditions. Exploration of cross-modality relationships suggested associations between memory and executive function measures and the three ERP effects. Executive function measures were associated with several indicators of saccadic eye movements and fixations, which were also associated with all three ERP effects. This novel characterization of face-name recognition memory performance using simultaneous EEG and ET reproduced classic ERP and ET effects, supports the construct validity of the multimodal FN paradigm, and holds promise as an integrative tool to probe brain networks supporting memory and executive functioning. PMID:26116280

  18. Problems faced by relatives caring for cancer patients at home.

    PubMed

    Tsigaroppoulos, Thomas; Mazaris, Evangelos; Chatzidarellis, Eleftherios; Skolarikos, Andreas; Varkarakis, Ioannis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos

    2009-02-01

    The care of patients suffering from advanced cancer is not limited in the hospital setting. It continues at home where the burden of care is borne by specific individuals. The aim of the present study was to survey and record the various problems faced by those who care for cancer patients at home. The study was conducted in our hospital during the summer of 2007. All participants completed, during a personal interview, a questionnaire which covered pathologic, social, psychological, spiritual/religious and financial problems. Seventy-six carers returned fully completed questionnaires. The most frequent problems reported were: anxiety regarding the patient's future (61.8%), troublesome symptoms such as pain (54%), increased economic burden-financial difficulty (51.3%), problems with patient's feeding (50%), unhappiness or depression (48,7%), emotional upset (47.4%), worsening of the patient's behaviour and personality (38.2%), difficulty of establishing a positive attitude regarding their current status (34.2%), transport to hospital (32.9%), assistance from the wider family circle (25%). Taking care of cancer patients at home creates several problems among carers. Many of them remain undetected. The acknowledgement and recognition of these problems by health-care professionals might contribute to finding solutions in order to assist the difficult task of these individuals. PMID:19187163

  19. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  20. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600-950 ms). In the 620-640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  1. Faces in commonly experienced configurations enter awareness faster due to their curvature relative to fixation.

    PubMed

    Moors, Pieter; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which perceptually suppressed face stimuli are still processed has been extensively studied using the continuous flash suppression paradigm (CFS). Studies that rely on breaking CFS (b-CFS), in which the time it takes for an initially suppressed stimulus to become detectable is measured, have provided evidence for relatively complex processing of invisible face stimuli. In contrast, adaptation and neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptually suppressed faces are only processed for a limited set of features, such as its general shape. In this study, we asked whether perceptually suppressed face stimuli presented in their commonly experienced configuration would break suppression faster than when presented in an uncommonly experienced configuration. This study was motivated by a recent neuroimaging study showing that commonly experienced face configurations are more strongly represented in the fusiform face area. Our findings revealed that faces presented in commonly experienced configurations indeed broke suppression faster, yet this effect did not interact with face inversion suggesting that, in a b-CFS context, perceptually suppressed faces are potentially not processed by specialized (high-level) face processing mechanisms. Rather, our pattern of results is consistent with an interpretation based on the processing of more basic visual properties such as convexity. PMID:26839746

  2. Faces in commonly experienced configurations enter awareness faster due to their curvature relative to fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which perceptually suppressed face stimuli are still processed has been extensively studied using the continuous flash suppression paradigm (CFS). Studies that rely on breaking CFS (b-CFS), in which the time it takes for an initially suppressed stimulus to become detectable is measured, have provided evidence for relatively complex processing of invisible face stimuli. In contrast, adaptation and neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptually suppressed faces are only processed for a limited set of features, such as its general shape. In this study, we asked whether perceptually suppressed face stimuli presented in their commonly experienced configuration would break suppression faster than when presented in an uncommonly experienced configuration. This study was motivated by a recent neuroimaging study showing that commonly experienced face configurations are more strongly represented in the fusiform face area. Our findings revealed that faces presented in commonly experienced configurations indeed broke suppression faster, yet this effect did not interact with face inversion suggesting that, in a b-CFS context, perceptually suppressed faces are potentially not processed by specialized (high-level) face processing mechanisms. Rather, our pattern of results is consistent with an interpretation based on the processing of more basic visual properties such as convexity. PMID:26839746

  3. Face Processing in Infancy: Developmental Changes in the Use of Different Kinds of Relational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Bertin, Evelin; Hayden, Angela; Reed, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Adults use both first-order, or categorical, relations among features (e.g., the nose is above the mouth), and second-order, or fine spatial relations (e.g., the space between eyes), to process faces. Adults' expertise in face processing is thought to be based on the use of second-order relations. In the current study, 5-month-olds detected…

  4. The effect of face-to-face or group education during pregnancy on sexual function of couples in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; MohammadiMahdiabadzade, Maryam; Nasiri, Hamid; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy can be in conflict with sexual function which can be affected by physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. Therefore, comparison of the effect of face-to-face education with group education on sexual function during pregnancy in couples was the purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study, 64 pregnant couples were selected and randomized in two groups in Isfahan. The data were collected using the triangulation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Brief form of Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI), and demographic characteristics questionnaires. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. Results: No significant difference was found in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Education was effective on sexual function in the two groups of women (P < 0.001), but no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.61). Also, education was effective on sexual function of men in both the groups (P < 0.001) and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between couples regarding the education (P = 0.104). Conclusions: The results of the study showed that type of education plays a role in improvement of sexual function in pregnancy. In addition, sex education is effective in prevention of sexual disorders in pregnancy. Therefore, having a special approach toward sex education classes during pregnancy is important for the health providers, particularly midwifery professionals. PMID:26457096

  5. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awamleh, L; Pun, H; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2015-04-01

    Acute inflammatory dental pain is a prevalent condition often associated with limited jaw movements. Mustard oil (MO, a small-fiber excitant/inflammatory irritant) application to the rat molar tooth pulp induces increased excitability (i.e., central sensitization) of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons that can be modulated by MDH application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO). The objectives of the study were to determine whether MO application to the rat right maxillary first molar tooth pulp affects left face-M1 excitability manifested as altered intracortical microstimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle), and whether MSO application to face-M1 can modulate this MO effect. Under Ketamine general anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley male rats had a microelectrode positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) face-M1 site. Then MO (n = 16) or control solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed tooth pulp, and RAD threshold was monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or saline (n = 8) was then applied to the face-M1, and RAD thresholds were monitored every 15 min for 120 min. ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni was used to analyze data (p < 0.05). Within 15 min of MO (but not control) pulp application, RAD thresholds increased significantly (p < 0.001) as compared to baseline. One hour following MSO (but not saline) application to the face-M1, RAD thresholds decreased significantly (p = 0.005) toward baseline. These novel findings suggest that acute inflammatory dental pain is associated with decreased face-M1 excitability that may be dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes and related to mechanisms underlying limited jaw movements in acute orofacial pain conditions. PMID:25618005

  6. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. PMID:21416563

  7. Functional Compartmentalization and Viewpoint Generalization Within the Macaque Face-Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Freiwald, Winrich A.; Tsao, Doris Y.

    2011-01-01

    Primates can recognize faces across a range of viewing conditions. Representations of individual identity should thus exist that are invariant to accidental image transformations like view direction. We targeted the recently discovered face-processing network of the macaque monkey that consists of six interconnected face-selective regions and recorded from the two middle patches (ML, middle lateral, and MF, middle fundus) and two anterior patches (AL, anterior lateral, and AM, anterior medial). We found that the anatomical position of a face patch was associated with a unique functional identity: Face patches differed qualitatively in how they represented identity across head orientations. Neurons in ML and MF were view-specific; neurons in AL were tuned to identity mirror-symetrically across views, thus achieving partial view invariance; and neurons in AM, the most anterior face patch, achieved almost full view invariance. PMID:21051642

  8. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  9. The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Chris S.; An, Shi-qi; Ryan, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25840766

  10. The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes.

    PubMed

    Earl, Chris S; An, Shi-qi; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25840766

  11. Proteins that associate with lamins: Many faces, many functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Eric C. . E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk; Foisner, Roland . E-mail: roland.foisner@meduniwien.ac.at

    2007-06-10

    Lamin-associated polypeptides (LAPs) comprise inner nuclear membrane proteins tightly associated with the peripheral lamin scaffold as well as proteins forming stable complexes with lamins in the nucleoplasm. The involvement of LAPs in a wide range of human diseases may be linked to an equally bewildering range of their functions, including sterol reduction, histone modification, transcriptional repression, and Smad- and {beta}-catenin signaling. Many LAPs are likely to be at the center of large multi-protein complexes, components of which may dictate their functions, and a few LAPs have defined enzymatic activities. Here we discuss the definition of LAPs, review their many binding partners, elaborate their functions in nuclear architecture, chromatin organization, gene expression and signaling, and describe what is currently known about their links to human disease.

  12. Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study Efforts to improve monitoring and protective equipment ... after 1940 are not at greater risk of death from chronic exposure to low levels of radiation, ...

  13. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged

  14. Age-related changes in processing faces from detection to identification: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Sharon; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of people 70 to 90 years old to apply global, configural and featural face-processing strategies. In addition we investigated age-related changes in the ability to categorize faces at basic, subordinate and individual levels. Using the N170 potential as index of early face processing and the P300 component as index of categorical decision making and effort, we found significant age-related perceptual changes which slowed and somewhat impaired face processing. Specifically, older participants had problems integrating face features into global structures, demonstrating enhanced dependence on distal global information. They did not apply configural computations by default while processing faces which suggests that, unless identification is required, they process faces only at a basic level. These perceptual changes could be the cause for slower and less accurate subordinate categorization, particularly when it is based on details. At the neural levels face processing was not right-lateralized, reflecting excessive involvement of the left hemisphere in perception leading to a more general reduction of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. In addition we found excessive but nonselective activation of frontal regions adding support to the view that executive control and particularly inhibition of irrelevant input are reduced in the elderly. PMID:20961658

  15. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  16. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Dean; D’Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers’ mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker’s overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  17. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces. PMID:23583970

  18. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape. PMID:24045342

  19. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7-19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from greater efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  20. Double dissociation of configural and featural face processing on P1 and P2 components as a function of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailing; Guo, Shichun; Fu, Shimin

    2016-08-01

    Face recognition relies on both configural and featural processing. Previous research has shown that P1 is sensitive to configural face processing, but it is unclear whether any component is sensitive to featural face processing; moreover, if there is such a component, its temporal sequence relative to P1 is unknown. Thus, to avoid confounding physical stimuli differences between configural and featural face processing on ERP components, a spatial attention paradigm was employed by instructing participants to attend an image stream (faces and houses) or an alphanumeric character stream. The interaction between attention and face processing type on P1 and P2 components indicates different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing as a function of spatial attention. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) results clearly demonstrated that participants could selectively attend to different streams of information. Importantly, configural face processing elicited a larger posterior P1 (approximately 128 ms) than featural face processing, whereas P2 (approximately 248 ms) was greater for featural than for configural face processing under attended condition. The interaction between attention and face processing type (configural vs. featural) on P1 and P2 components indicates that there are different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing operating as functions of spatial attention. While the P1 result confirms previous findings separating configural and featural face processing, the newly observed P2 finding in the present study extends this separation to a double dissociation. Therefore, configural and featural face processing are modulated differently by spatial attention, and configural face processing precedes featural face processing. PMID:27167853

  1. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations. PMID:25834058

  2. Early and late event-related potentials are modulated by infant and adult faces of high and low attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Amanda C; Symons, Lawrence A; Kredel, Taylor; Hanson, Kevin; Hodgson, Lianne; Schiavone, Lori; Jantzen, K J

    2016-04-01

    The processing of infant faces may be somewhat distinct from that of adult faces. Indeed, recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of an early, "baby-specific" neural response whereby infant faces are perceived more rapidly than adult faces. Using event-related potentials, the present study aimed to determine whether the preferential response to infant faces is present at both early and late stages of face processing, and to investigate the effects of esthetic appearance on the processing of adult and infant faces by directly manipulating the perceived attractiveness or cuteness within a given face identity. Here, we find evidence for enhanced processing of infant faces, relative to adult faces, at both early (N170, P2) and late (LPC) stages of face processing. We also find that the esthetic appearance of both infant and adult faces modulates early neural responses, with enhanced responses to less attractive/cute faces as compared to more attractive/cute faces. Overall, our results provide additional evidence for a preferential response to infant faces at early stages of processing, and provide new evidence that this preferential response occurs at later stages of face processing as well, independent of the esthetic quality of the face or observer sex. PMID:26160142

  3. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages. PMID:27263973

  4. Visual scanning behavior is related to recognition performance for own- and other-age faces

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Valentina; Macchi Cassia, Viola; dell’Amore, Francesca; Conte, Stefania; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that our recognition ability is enhanced for faces belonging to familiar categories, such as own-race faces and own-age faces. Recent evidence suggests that, for race, the recognition bias is also accompanied by different visual scanning strategies for own- compared to other-race faces. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differences in visual scanning patterns extend also to the comparison between own and other-age faces and contribute to the own-age recognition advantage. Participants (young adults with limited experience with infants) were tested in an old/new recognition memory task where they encoded and subsequently recognized a series of adult and infant faces while their eye movements were recorded. Consistent with findings on the other-race bias, we found evidence of an own-age bias in recognition which was accompanied by differential scanning patterns, and consequently differential encoding strategies, for own-compared to other-age faces. Gaze patterns for own-age faces involved a more dynamic sampling of the internal features and longer viewing time on the eye region compared to the other regions of the face. This latter strategy was extensively employed during learning (vs. recognition) and was positively correlated to discriminability. These results suggest that deeply encoding the eye region is functional for recognition and that the own-age bias is evident not only in differential recognition performance, but also in the employment of different sampling strategies found to be effective for accurate recognition. PMID:26579056

  5. Gaze Direction Modulates the Relation between Neural Responses to Faces and Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rothkirch, Marcus; Guggenmos, Matthias; Heinz, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-09-30

    Gaze direction and especially direct gaze is a powerful nonverbal cue that plays an important role in social interactions. Here we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the privileged access of direct gaze to visual awareness. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy human volunteers who were exposed to faces with direct or averted gaze under continuous flash suppression, thereby manipulating their awareness of the faces. A gaze processing network comprising fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and intraparietal sulcus showed overall reduced neural responses when participants reported to be unaware of the faces. Interestingly, direct gaze elicited greater responses than averted gaze when participants were aware of the faces, but smaller responses when they were unaware. Additional between-subject correlation and single-trial analyses indicated that this pattern of results was due to a modulation of the relationship between neural responses and awareness by gaze direction: with increasing neural activation in the FFA, direct-gaze faces entered awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. These findings suggest that for direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness than for averted gaze, thus providing a neural basis for privileged access of direct gaze to awareness. Significance statement: Another person's eye gaze directed at oneself is a powerful social signal acting as a catalyst for further communication. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the prioritized access of direct gaze to visual awareness in healthy human volunteers and show that with increasing neural activation, direct-gaze faces enter awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. This suggests that for a socially highly relevant cue like direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness compared with averted gaze, possibly because the human brain is attuned

  6. The Motivational Salience of Faces Is Related to Both Their Valence and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-01-01

    Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques' faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component ("valence") was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component ("dominance") was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance. PMID:27513859

  7. Recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel; Treese, Anne-Cécile

    2004-12-01

    This study examined emotional influences on the hypothesized event-related potential (ERP) correlates of familiarity and recollection (Experiment 1) and the states of awareness (Experiment 2) accompanying recognition memory for faces differing in facial affect. Participants made gender judgments to positive, negative, and neutral faces at study and were in the test phase instructed to discriminate between studied and nonstudied faces. Whereas old-new discrimination was unaffected by facial expression, negative faces were recollected to a greater extent than both positive and neutral faces as reflected in the parietal ERP old-new effect and in the proportion of remember judgments. Moreover, emotion-specific modulations were observed in frontally recorded ERPs elicited by correctly rejected new faces that concurred with a more liberal response criterion for emotional as compared to neutral faces. Taken together, the results are consistent with the view that processes promoting recollection are facilitated for negative events and that emotion may affect recognition performance by influencing criterion setting mediated by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:15701233

  8. The Motivational Salience of Faces Is Related to Both Their Valence and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.

    2016-01-01

    Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques’ faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component (“valence”) was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component (“dominance”) was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance. PMID:27513859

  9. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  10. Reduction in white matter connectivity, revealed by diffusion tensor imaging, may account for age-related changes in face perception.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Moya, Linda; Avidan, Galia; Humphreys, Kate; Jung, Kwan Jin; Peterson, Mary A; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-02-01

    An age-related decline in face processing, even under conditions in which learning and memory are not implicated, has been well documented, but the mechanism underlying this perceptual alteration remains unknown. Here, we examine whether this behavioral change may be accounted for by a reduction in white matter connectivity with age. To this end, we acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from 28 individuals aged 18 to 86 years and quantified the number of fibers, voxels, and fractional anisotropy of the two major tracts that pass through the fusiform gyrus, the pre-eminent face processing region in the ventral temporal cortex. We also measured the ability of a subset of these individuals to make fine-grained discriminations between pairs of faces and between pairs of cars. There was a significant reduction in the structural integrity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) in the right hemisphere as a function of age on all dependent measures and there were also some changes in the left hemisphere, albeit to a lesser extent. There was also a clear age-related decrement in accuracy of perceptual discrimination, especially for more challenging perceptual discriminations, and this held to a greater degree for faces than for cars. Of greatest relevance, there was a robust association between the reduction of IFOF integrity in the right hemisphere and the decline in face perception, suggesting that the alteration in structural connectivity between the right ventral temporal and frontal cortices may account for the age-related difficulties in face processing. PMID:18275334

  11. No Prior Entry for Threat-Related Faces: Evidence from Temporal Order Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Previous research showed that threat-related faces, due to their intrinsic motivational relevance, capture attention more readily than neutral faces. Here we used a standard temporal order judgment (TOJ) task to assess whether negative (either angry or fearful) emotional faces, when competing with neutral faces for attention selection, may lead to a prior entry effect and hence be perceived as appearing first, especially when uncertainty is high regarding the order of the two onsets. We did not find evidence for this conjecture across five different experiments, despite the fact that participants were invariably influenced by asynchronies in the respective onsets of the two competing faces in the pair, and could reliably identify the emotion in the faces. Importantly, by systematically varying task demands across experiments, we could rule out confounds related to suboptimal stimulus presentation or inappropriate task demands. These findings challenge the notion of an early automatic capture of attention by (negative) emotion. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the lack of systematic bias of attention by emotion is imputed to the primacy of a non-emotional cue to resolve the TOJ task, which in turn prevents negative emotion to exert an early bottom-up influence on the guidance of spatial and temporal attention. PMID:23646126

  12. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  13. Event-related potential correlates of long-term memory for briefly presented faces.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Carrie A; Kutas, Marta

    2005-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have investigated the nature of face recognition in a variety of paradigms; some have contrasted famous and novel faces in explicit memory paradigms, others have repeated faces to examine implicit memory/priming. If the general finding that implicit memory can last for up to several months also holds for novel faces, a reliable measure of it could have practical application for eyewitness testimony, given that explicit measures of eyewitness memory have at times proven fallible. The current study aimed to determine whether indirect behavioral and electrophysiological measures might yield reliable estimates of face memory over longer intervals than have typically been obtained with priming manipulations. Participants were shown 192 faces and then tested for recognition at four test delays ranging from immediately up to 1 week later. Three event-related brain potential components (e.g., N250r, N400f, and LPC) varied with memory measures although only the N250r varied regardless of explicit recognition, that is, with both repetition and recognition. PMID:15904542

  14. Recalibrating gender perception: face aftereffects and the perceptual underpinnings of gender-related biases.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary perceivers encounter highly gendered imagery in media, social networks, and the workplace. Perceivers also express strong interpersonal biases related to targets' gendered appearances after mere glimpses at their faces. In the current studies, we explored adaptation to gendered facial features as a perceptual mechanism underlying these biases. In Study 1, brief visual exposure to highly gendered exemplars shifted perceptual norms for men's and women's faces. Studies 2-4 revealed that changes in perceptual norms were accompanied by notable shifts in social evaluations. Specifically, exposure to feminine phenotypes exacerbated biases against hypermasculine faces, whereas exposure to masculine phenotypes mitigated them. These findings replicated across multiple independent samples with diverse stimulus sets and outcome measures, revealing that perceptual gender norms are calibrated on the basis of recent visual encounters, with notable implications for downstream evaluations of others. As such, visual adaptation is a useful tool for understanding and altering social biases related to gendered facial features. PMID:24079449

  15. The relativity of biological function.

    PubMed

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail. PMID:26449352

  16. Hard to “tune in”: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N.; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  17. Smoking History, and Not Depression, is Related to Deficits in Detection of Happy and Sad Faces

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, K.K.; Crane, N.A.; O’Day, R.; Zubieta, J.K.; Giordani, B.; Pomerleau, C.S.; Horowitz, J.C.; Langenecker, S.A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that chronic cigarette smoking and major depressive disorder (MDD) are each associated with cognitive decrements. Further, these conditions co-occur commonly, though mechanisms in the comorbid condition are poorly understood. There may be distinct, additive, or overlapping factors underlying comorbid cigarette smoking and MDD. The present study investigated the impact of smoking and MDD on executive function and emotion processing. Participants (N=198) were grouped by diagnostic category (MDD and healthy controls, HC) and smoking status (ever-smokers, ES and never-smokers, NS). Participants completed the Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT), a measure of emotional processing, and the parametric Go/No-go task (PGNG), a measure of executive function. FEPT performance was analyzed using ANCOVA with accuracy and reaction time as separate dependent variables. Repeated measures MANCOVA was conducted for PGNG with performance measure and task level as dependent variables. Analyses for each task included diagnostic and smoking group as independent variables, and gender was controlled for. Results for FEPT reveal lower overall accuracy was found for ES relative to NS, though MDD did not differ from HC. Post-hoc analyses revealed ES were poorer at identifying happy and sad, but not fearful or angry, faces. For PGNG, poorer performance was observed in MDD relative to HC in response time to Go targets, but there were no differences for ES and NS. Interaction of diagnosis and smoking group was not observed for performance on either task. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence for distinctive cognitive decrements in smokers and individuals with depression. PMID:25452067

  18. Gender Differences in Memory Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials to Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Mograss, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on memory processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data and ERPs were recorded in 16 males and 10 females during a recognition memory task for faces. The behavioral data results showed that females performed better than males. Gender differences on ERPs were evidenced over anterior…

  19. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  20. Callous-Unemotional Traits Are Related to Combined Deficits in Recognizing Afraid Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a study that involves letting boys aged 8-16 years label emotional faces and static body poses show that callous-unemotional traits are related to poor accuracy in the tests. The results imply that a general "fear-blindness" is associated to a lack of empathy and to violence and antisocial behavior.

  1. Abnormal fusiform activation during emotional-face encoding assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Nancy E; Kayser, Reilly R; Olsavsky, Aviva K; Bones, Brian L; Muhrer, Eli J; Fromm, Stephen J; Pine, Daniel S; Zarate, Carlos; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A

    2013-05-30

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study shows that children and adults with bipolar disorder (BD), compared with healthy subjects, exhibit impaired memory for emotional faces and abnormal fusiform activation during encoding. Fusiform activation abnormalities in BD were correlated with mania severity and may therefore represent a trait and state BD biomarker. PMID:23541333

  2. Theta function solutions of the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equation for a face model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Peter E.; Weston, Robert; Zinn-Justin, Paul

    2016-02-01

    We consider the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equation for a face model with elliptic weights, the SOS model. We provide explicit solutions as theta functions. On the so-called combinatorial line, in which the model is equivalent to the three-colour model, these solutions are shown to be eigenvectors of the transfer matrix with periodic boundary conditions.

  3. Hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging during a face-name learning task in adolescents with antecedents of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere; Caldú, Xavier; Narberhaus, Ana; Bargalló, Núria; Falcón, Carles; Botet, Francesc; Mercader, Josep Maria

    2005-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map hippocampal activation during a declarative memory task in a sample of 14 adolescents with antecedents of prematurity (AP). The sample with AP was matched by age, sex and handedness with 14 full-term controls with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness. The target task consisted in learning 16 novel face-name pairs, and the control task involved the examination of two repeated face-name pairs. Stereological methods were also used to quantify hippocampal volumes. In both groups, we observed increased activation in the learning condition compared to the control task in the right fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, but only premature subjects activated the hippocampus. Group comparison of the activation versus control conditions showed that prematures had greater activity in the right hippocampus than controls during the encoding of the word-face association. Volumetric analyses showed a significant left hippocampal volume loss in adolescents with AP. In addition, we found a significant positive correlation in the premature group between right hippocampal activation and face-name recognition. Functional MRI data also correlated with structural MRI data: right hippocampal activation correlated positively with right hippocampal volume. Our findings are consistent with previous studies of brain plasticity after focal lesions. Left hippocampal tissue loss may be related to an increase in contralateral brain activity, probably reflecting a compensatory mechanism. Our data also suggest that this plasticity is not enough to achieve normal performance. PMID:15784435

  4. Oxytocin modulation of amygdala functional connectivity to fearful faces in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Labuschagne, Izelle; Hosanagar, Avinash; Wood, Amanda G; Nathan, Pradeep J; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is thought to attenuate anxiety by dampening amygdala reactivity to threat in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). Because the brain is organized into networks of interconnected areas, it is likely that OXT impacts functional coupling between the amygdala and other socio-emotional areas of the brain. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of OXT on amygdala functional connectivity during the processing of fearful faces in GSAD subjects and healthy controls (HCs). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, within-subjects design, 18 HCs and 17 GSAD subjects performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task designed to probe amygdala response to fearful faces following acute intranasal administration of PBO or OXT. Functional connectivity between the amygdala and the rest of the brain was compared between OXT and PBO sessions using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Results indicated that within individuals with GSAD, but not HCs, OXT enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the bilateral insula and middle cingulate/dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus during the processing of fearful faces. These findings suggest that OXT may have broad pro-social implications such as enhancing the integration and modulation of social responses. PMID:24998619

  5. Oxytocin Modulation of Amygdala Functional Connectivity to Fearful Faces in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Labuschagne, Izelle; Hosanagar, Avinash; Wood, Amanda G; Nathan, Pradeep J; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is thought to attenuate anxiety by dampening amygdala reactivity to threat in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). Because the brain is organized into networks of interconnected areas, it is likely that OXT impacts functional coupling between the amygdala and other socio-emotional areas of the brain. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of OXT on amygdala functional connectivity during the processing of fearful faces in GSAD subjects and healthy controls (HCs). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, within-subjects design, 18 HCs and 17 GSAD subjects performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task designed to probe amygdala response to fearful faces following acute intranasal administration of PBO or OXT. Functional connectivity between the amygdala and the rest of the brain was compared between OXT and PBO sessions using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Results indicated that within individuals with GSAD, but not HCs, OXT enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the bilateral insula and middle cingulate/dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus during the processing of fearful faces. These findings suggest that OXT may have broad pro-social implications such as enhancing the integration and modulation of social responses. PMID:24998619

  6. The Functional Architecture for Face-processing Expertise: FMRI Evidence of the Developmental Trajectory of the Core and the Extended Face Systems

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Adamo, Maha; Han, Jarnet; Lee, Kang; Stiles, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Expertise in processing faces is a cornerstone of human social interaction. However, the developmental course of many key brain regions supporting face preferential processing in the human brain remains undefined. Here, we present findings from an FMRI study using a simple viewing paradigm of faces and objects in a continuous age sample covering the age range from 6 years through adulthood. These findings are the first to use such a sample paired with whole-brain FMRI analyses to investigate development within the core and extended face networks across the developmental spectrum from middle childhood to adulthood. We found evidence, albeit modest, for a developmental trend in the volume of the right fusiform face area (rFFA) but no developmental change in the intensity of activation. From a spatial perspective, the middle portion of the right fusiform gyrus most commonly found in adult studies of face processing was increasingly likely to be included in the FFA as age increased to adulthood. Outside of the FFA, the most striking finding was that children hyperactivated nearly every aspect of the extended face system relative to adults, including the amygdala, anterior temporal pole, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parietal cortex. Overall, the findings suggest that development is best characterized by increasing modulation of face-sensitive regions throughout the brain to engage only those systems necessary for task requirements. PMID:23948645

  7. Optimized face recognition algorithm using radial basis function neural networks and its practical applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung-Hoon; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we propose a hybrid method of face recognition by using face region information extracted from the detected face region. In the preprocessing part, we develop a hybrid approach based on the Active Shape Model (ASM) and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm. At this step, we use a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera to acquire a facial image by using AdaBoost and then Histogram Equalization (HE) is employed to improve the quality of the image. ASM extracts the face contour and image shape to produce a personal profile. Then we use a PCA method to reduce dimensionality of face images. In the recognition part, we consider the improved Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBF NNs) to identify a unique pattern associated with each person. The proposed RBF NN architecture consists of three functional modules realizing the condition phase, the conclusion phase, and the inference phase completed with the help of fuzzy rules coming in the standard 'if-then' format. In the formation of the condition part of the fuzzy rules, the input space is partitioned with the use of Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering. In the conclusion part of the fuzzy rules, the connections (weights) of the RBF NNs are represented by four kinds of polynomials such as constant, linear, quadratic, and reduced quadratic. The values of the coefficients are determined by running a gradient descent method. The output of the RBF NNs model is obtained by running a fuzzy inference method. The essential design parameters of the network (including learning rate, momentum coefficient and fuzzification coefficient used by the FCM) are optimized by means of Differential Evolution (DE). The proposed P-RBF NNs (Polynomial based RBF NNs) are applied to facial recognition and its performance is quantified from the viewpoint of the output performance and recognition rate. PMID:26163042

  8. [The function of a face on person perception: the effect of the number of targets and degree of facial attractiveness].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, C

    1995-10-01

    The present study investigated how the influence and the function of a face on person perception might vary with the number of targets (one, two or four) and the degree of facial attractiveness (positive or negative). One hundred sixty-seven female undergraduates were tested. After studying behavioral descriptions and photographs of targets, each subject was asked to form impressions and recall the descriptions of the targets. The main results were as follows: (a) A face became more influential as the number of targets increased. (b) A positive face exerted greater influence than a negative face. (c) The effect of the number of targets was greater for negative faces. PMID:8822307

  9. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17–88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  10. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    PubMed

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident. PMID:26321998

  11. Density-functional study of the La2Zr2O7 low-index faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Yves; Duan, Yuhua

    2014-03-01

    The (001), (011), and (111) faces of the catalytic host lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) are studied at the level of density-functional theory (DFT), including all surfaces formed by cleaving a perfect crystal (``bulk-truncated'') and a subset of defective surfaces. Surface free energies are computed, dependent on O chemical potential for (001) and (011) surfaces and O and La or Zr chemical potentials for (111) surfaces, with vibrational contributions obtained from computed atomic frequencies and/or phonon dispersions. Taking into account error in determining the conditions where a given surface is thermodynamically preferred, a relaxed defective (001) or (011) surface is shown to be preferred to any relaxed bulk-truncated (001) or (011) surface over a subset of temperatures and oxygen gas partial pressures. Thus, the existence is proven of (001) and (011) faces that cannot be relaxed bulk-truncated, e.g., are defective or reconstructed. Extending this work, the existence of a (111) face that is not relaxed bulk-truncated is addressed. The main finding, of faces that are not relaxed bulk-truncated, is discussed in the context of comparing predicted versus experimental crystallite thicknesses obtained from a data analysis.

  12. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. PMID:27340151

  13. The dysfunction of face processing in patients with internet addiction disorders: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Lun

    2016-10-19

    To investigate face processing in patients with internet addiction disorders (IAD), an event-related brain potential experiment was conducted in IAD patients and healthy age-matched controls in which participants were instructed to classify each stimulus (face vs. nonface object) as quickly and accurately as possible. Although we did not find a significant difference in the performance between two groups, both the N110 and the P2 components in response to faces were larger in the IAD group than in the control group, whereas the N170 to faces decreased in the IAD group than in the control group. In addition, the source analysis of event-related potential components showed different generators between two groups. These data indicated that there was a dysfunction of face processing in IAD patients and the underlying mechanism of processing faces could be different from healthy individuals. PMID:27563738

  14. Altered Brain Activation during Emotional Face Processing in Relation to Both Diagnosis and Polygenic Risk of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tesli, Martin; Kauppi, Karolina; Bettella, Francesco; Brandt, Christine Lycke; Kaufmann, Tobias; Espeseth, Thomas; Mattingsdal, Morten; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Westlye, Lars T.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disorder with polygenic inheritance. Among the most consistent findings from functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies are limbic hyperactivation and dorsal hypoactivation. However, the relation between reported brain functional abnormalities and underlying genetic risk remains elusive. This is the first cross-sectional study applying a whole-brain explorative approach to investigate potential influence of BD case-control status and polygenic risk on brain activation. Methods A BD polygenic risk score (PGRS) was estimated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD case-control study, and assigned to each individual in our independent sample (N=85 BD cases and 121 healthy controls (HC)), all of whom participated in an fMRI emotional faces matching paradigm. Potential differences in BOLD response across diagnostic groups were explored at whole-brain level in addition to amygdala as a region of interest. Putative effects of BD PGRS on brain activation were also investigated. Results At whole-brain level, BD cases presented with significantly lower cuneus/precuneus activation than HC during negative face processing (Z-threshold=2.3 as cluster-level correction). The PGRS was associated positively with increased right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) activation during negative face processing. For amygdala activation, there were no correlations with diagnostic status or PGRS. Conclusions These findings are in line with previous reports of reduced precuneus and altered rIFG activation in BD. While these results demonstrate the ability of PGRS to reveal underlying genetic risk of altered brain activation in BD, the lack of convergence of effects at diagnostic and PGRS level suggests that this relation is a complex one. PMID:26222050

  15. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  16. The influence of variations in eating disorder-related symptoms on processing of emotional faces in a non-clinical female sample: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine if the attention bias towards angry faces reported in eating disorders generalises to a non-clinical sample varying in eating disorder-related symptoms; (ii) examine if the bias occurs during initial orientation or later strategic processing; and (iii) confirm previous findings of impaired facial emotion recognition in non-clinical disordered eating. Fifty-two females viewed a series of face-pairs (happy or angry paired with neutral) whilst their attentional deployment was continuously monitored using an eye-tracker. They subsequently identified the emotion portrayed in a separate series of faces. The highest (n=18) and lowest scorers (n=17) on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were compared on the attention and facial emotion recognition tasks. Those with relatively high scores exhibited impaired facial emotion recognition, confirming previous findings in similar non-clinical samples. They also displayed biased attention away from emotional faces during later strategic processing, which is consistent with previously observed impairments in clinical samples. These differences were related to drive-for-thinness. Although we found no evidence of a bias towards angry faces, it is plausible that the observed impairments in emotion recognition and avoidance of emotional faces could disrupt social functioning and act as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders. PMID:27138825

  17. Emotion Recognition in Faces and the Use of Visual Context in Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Barry; Clarke, Natalie; Jordan, Jo; Young, Andrew W.; Clarke, Paula; Miles, Jeremy; Nation, Kate; Clarke, Leesa; Williams, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We compared young people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with age, sex and IQ matched controls on emotion recognition of faces and pictorial context. Each participant completed two tests of emotion recognition. The first used Ekman series faces. The second used facial expressions in visual context. A control task involved…

  18. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  19. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  20. [Atipical antipsychotics in relation with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Marijo; Sesar, Marijan Alfonso; Ivezić, Sladana Strkalj

    2007-01-01

    We studied influence of type of antipsychotics in relation with social functioning in sample of 123 patients diagnozed with schizophrenia accordingto lCD 10 criteria. On atypicals (olanzapin, risperidon, clozapin) were 39 patients, 26 female and 13 male. The social functioning scale according to Bellak et al was used for assessment of social functioning. Results of our study show that there is no difference in social functioning between patients on atypical in comapration with patients on typical antipsychotics. We observed a positive trend of better social functioning in group of patients who takes atypicals. Results also showed that women had better social functioning comparing to males Education and duration of illness were not in relation with social functioning. PMID:18298001

  1. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  2. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Rogers, Alistair; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Plant responses to the projected future levels of CO(2) were first characterized in short-term experiments lasting days to weeks. However, longer term acclimation responses to elevated CO(2) were subsequently discovered to be very important in determining plant and ecosystem function. Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) experiments are the culmination of efforts to assess the impact of elevated CO(2) on plants over multiple seasons and, in the case of crops, over their entire lifetime. FACE has been used to expose vegetation to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) under completely open-air conditions for nearly two decades. This review describes some of the lessons learned from the long-term investment in these experiments. First, elevated CO(2) stimulates photosynthetic carbon gain and net primary production over the long term despite down-regulation of Rubisco activity. Second, elevated CO(2) improves nitrogen use efficiency and, third, decreases water use at both the leaf and canopy scale. Fourth, elevated CO(2) stimulates dark respiration via a transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism. Fifth, elevated CO(2) does not directly stimulate C(4) photosynthesis, but can indirectly stimulate carbon gain in times and places of drought. Finally, the stimulation of yield by elevated CO(2) in crop species is much smaller than expected. While many of these lessons have been most clearly demonstrated in crop systems, all of the lessons have important implications for natural systems. PMID:19401412

  3. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  4. Neuroanatomic localization of priming effects for famous faces with latency-corrected event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Rajan; Ouyang, Guang; Sommer, Werner; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-02-01

    The late components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) pose a difficult problem in source localization. One of the reasons is the smearing of these components in conventional averaging because of trial-to-trial latency-variability. The smearing problem may be addressed by reconstructing the ERPs after latency synchronization with the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method. Here we assessed whether the benefits of RIDE at the surface level also improve source localization of RIDE-reconstructed ERPs (RERPs) measured in a face priming paradigm. Separate source models for conventionally averaged ERPs and RERPs were derived and sources were localized for both early and late components. Jackknife averaging on the data was used to reduce the residual variance during source localization compared to conventional source model fitting on individual subject data. Distances between corresponding sources of both ERP and RERP models were measured to check consistency in both source models. Sources for activity around P100, N170, early repetition effect (ERE/N250r) and late repetition effect (LRE/N400) were reported and priming effects in these sources were evaluated for six time windows. Significant improvement in priming effect of the late sources was found from the RERP source model, especially in the Medio-Temporal Lobe, Prefrontal Cortex, and Anterior Temporal Lobe. Consistent with previous studies, we found early priming effects in the right hemisphere and late priming effects in the left hemisphere. Also, the priming effects in right hemisphere outnumbered the left hemisphere, signifying dominance of right hemisphere in face recognition. In conclusion, RIDE reconstructed ERPs promise a comprehensive understanding of the time-resolved dynamics the late sources play during face recognition. PMID:26683085

  5. Cross-Modal Face Identity Aftereffects and Their Relation to Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Elward, Rachael L.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the magnitude of the face identity aftereffect following adaptation to different modes of adaptors in four experiments. The perceptual midpoint between two morphed famous faces was measured pre- and post-adaptation. Significant aftereffects were observed for visual (faces) and nonvisual adaptors (voices and names) but not nonspecific…

  6. Neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition in children: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children’s own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children’s recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age. PMID:23891903

  7. Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming.

    PubMed

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Glazer, James; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that when an image of a face is presented immediately prior to each trial of a speeded cognitive task (face-priming), the error-related negativity (ERN) is upregulated for Asians, but it is downregulated for Caucasians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that images of "generalized other" vary cross-culturally such that they evoke anxiety for Asians, whereas they serve as safety cues for Caucasians. Here, we tested whether the cross-cultural variation in the face-priming effect would be observed in a gambling paradigm. Caucasian Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian sojourners were exposed to a brief flash of a schematic face during a gamble. For Asian Americans, face-priming resulted in significant increases of both negative-going deflection of ERP upon negative feedback (feedback-related negativity [FRN]) and positive-going deflection of ERP upon positive feedback (feedback-related positivity [FRP]). For Caucasian Americans, face-priming showed a significant reversal, decreasing both FRN and FRP. The cultural difference in the face-priming effect in FRN and FRP was partially mediated by interdependent self-construal. Curiously, Asian sojourners showed a pattern similar to the one for Caucasian Americans. Our findings suggest that culture shapes neural pathways in both systematic and highly dynamic fashion. PMID:26681617

  8. Simple Method for Converting Conventional Face-bow to Postural Face-bow for Recording the Relationship of Maxilla Relative to the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Gooya, Ali; Zarakani, Houman; Memari, Yeganeh

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP). PMID:26005456

  9. Functions of health fatalism: fatalistic talk as face saving, uncertainty management, stress relief and sense making.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Bethany; Wright, Lanelle; Condit, Celeste M

    2009-07-01

    Much research on fatalism assumes that fatalistic statements represent a global outlook that conflicts with belief in the efficacy of health behaviours. Other scholars have suggested a more contextual approach, suggesting that fatalism fulfils personal and social functions. This study analyses 96 in-depth lay interviews in the US, most with low-income members of the general public, about four diseases: heart disease, lung cancer, diabetes and depression. Within these interviews, fatalistic statements always occurred alongside statements endorsing the utility of behaviours for protecting health. This usage pattern suggests that these statements may have useful functions, rather than being simply a repudiation of the utility of health choices. We examine four functions that are suggested by previous researchers or by the participants' comments: stress relief, uncertainty management, sense making and (less strongly) face saving. As these themes indicate, individuals often make fatalistic statements to express an understanding of locally or broadly limiting factors for health efficacy, including genes, spiritual agents, prior behaviours, personality, and other factors. PMID:19392939

  10. Withholding response in the face of a smile: age-related differences in prefrontal sensitivity to Nogo cues following happy and angry faces.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Lee, Wayne; Evans, Jennifer W; Lewis, Marc D; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-07-01

    The modulation of control processes by stimulus salience, as well as associated neural activation, changes over development. We investigated age-related differences in the influence of facial emotion on brain activation when an action had to be withheld, focusing on a developmental period characterized by rapid social-emotional and cognitive change. Groups of kindergarten and young school-aged children and a group of young adults performed a modified Go/Nogo task. Response cues were preceded by happy or angry faces. After controlling for task performance, left orbitofrontal regions discriminated trials with happy vs. angry faces in children but not in adults when a response was withheld, and this effect decreased parametrically with age group. Age-related changes in prefrontal responsiveness to facial expression were not observed when an action was required, nor did this region show age-related activation changes with the demand to withhold a response in general. Such results reveal age-related differences in prefrontal activation that are specific to stimulus valence and depend on the action required. PMID:22669035

  11. Functional connectivity between face-movement and speech-intelligibility areas during auditory-only speech perception.

    PubMed

    Schall, Sonja; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that internal simulation of the talking face of visually-known speakers facilitates auditory speech recognition. One prediction of this view is that brain areas involved in auditory-only speech comprehension interact with visual face-movement sensitive areas, even under auditory-only listening conditions. Here, we test this hypothesis using connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Participants (17 normal participants, 17 developmental prosopagnosics) first learned six speakers via brief voice-face or voice-occupation training (<2 min/speaker). This was followed by an auditory-only speech recognition task and a control task (voice recognition) involving the learned speakers' voices in the MRI scanner. As hypothesized, we found that, during speech recognition, familiarity with the speaker's face increased the functional connectivity between the face-movement sensitive posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) and an anterior STS region that supports auditory speech intelligibility. There was no difference between normal participants and prosopagnosics. This was expected because previous findings have shown that both groups use the face-movement sensitive STS to optimize auditory-only speech comprehension. Overall, the present findings indicate that learned visual information is integrated into the analysis of auditory-only speech and that this integration results from the interaction of task-relevant face-movement and auditory speech-sensitive areas. PMID:24466026

  12. Relations between Prosodic Variables and Communicative Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three children were observed interacting with their mothers before the onset of single words, when vocabulary consisted of 10 words, and when it consisted of 50 words. Relations between communicative functions and acoustic analysis of prosodic variables were studied. Considerable variability was found in the number of rises produced overall and…

  13. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. PMID:26178527

  14. On the genetic basis of face cognition and its relation to fluid cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Kiy, A; Wilhelm, O; Hildebrandt, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W

    2013-06-01

    The oxytocin and the dopaminergic systems have turned out to be highly relevant for social abilities and cognition. Therefore, we examined the association between two functional gene polymorphisms and face cognition (FC) in a multivariate study (N = 250) by applying structural equation modeling. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism influences the enzyme activity of COMT, which affects the prefrontal dopamine concentration. The rs226849 is a single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, modulating the mRNA expression. By modeling a general fluid ability factor (defined by working memory and reasoning) and nested FC factors, we tested genetic contributions to FC, after controlling for variance in FC that was also associated with fluid abilities. In line with several previous studies, we found a significant association between the COMT genotype and fluid abilities (Gf) but not with FC. The association between the oxytocin polymorphism and Gf was opposite in direction for men and women. Women with the C(+) genotype performed better on Gf tasks than those with the C(-) genotype. Conversely, men with the C(-) genotype performed better than those with the C(+) genotype. There was no significant association between OXTR and the nested FC factor. Therefore, the relationship between the oxytocin polymorphism and FC can be fully accounted for by Gf. The sex specificity of this relationship is a novel finding and warrants a mechanistic explanation. PMID:23489762

  15. Interactive Explanations: The Functional Role of Gestural and Bodily Action for Explaining and Learning Scientific Concepts in Face-to-Face Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopelitis, Stephanie A.

    As human beings, we live in, live with, and live through our bodies. And because of this it is no wonder that our hands and bodies are in motion as we interact with others in our world. Hands and body move as we give directions to another, anticipate which way to turn the screwdriver, and direct our friend to come sit next to us. Gestures, indeed, fill our everyday lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional role of the body in the parts of our lives where we teach and learn with another. This project is an investigation into, what I call, "interactive explanations". I explore how the hands and body work toward the joint achievement of explanation and learning in face-to-face arrangements. The study aims to uncover how the body participates in teaching and learning in and across events as it slides between the multiple, interdependent roles of (1) a communicative entity, (2) a tool for thinking, and (3) a resource to shape interaction. Understanding gestures functional roles as flexible and diverse better explains how the body participates in teaching and learning interactions. The study further aims to show that these roles and functions are dynamic and changeable based on the interests, goals and contingencies of participants' changing roles and aims in interactions, and within and across events. I employed the methodology of comparative microanalysis of pairs of videotaped conversations in which, first, experts in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) explained concepts to non-experts, and second, these non-experts re-explained the concept to other non-experts. The principle finding is that people strategically, creatively and collaboratively employ the hands and body as vital and flexible resources for the joint achievement of explanation and understanding. Findings further show that gestures used to explain complex STEM concepts travel across time with the non-expert into re-explanations of the concept. My

  16. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  17. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner's face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner's face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  18. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  19. The Development of Expert Face Processing: Are Infants Sensitive to Normal Differences in Second-Order Relational Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Reed, Andrea; Corbly, Christine R.; Joseph, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined…

  20. Attentional Biases toward Face-Related Stimuli among Face Dissatisfied Women: Orienting and Maintenance of Attention Revealed by Eye-Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Hui; Su, Yanhua; Bi, Taiyong; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine attentional biases toward attractive and unattractive faces among face dissatisfied women. Twenty-seven women with high face dissatisfaction (HFD) and 27 women with low face dissatisfaction (LFD) completed a visual dot-probe task while their eye-movements were tracking. Under the condition of faces-neutral stimuli (vases) pairs, compared to LFD women, HFD women directed their first fixations more often toward faces, directed their first fixations toward unattractive faces more quickly, and had longer first fixation duration on such faces. All participants had longer overall gaze duration on attractive faces than on unattractive ones. Our behavioral data revealed that HFD women had difficulty in disengaging their attention from faces. However, there are no group differences in stimulus pairs containing an attractive and an unattractive face. In sum, when faces were paired with neutral stimuli (vases) HFD women showed an attention pattern characterized by orienting and maintenance, at least initially, toward unattractive faces but showed overall attention maintenance to attractive ones, but any attention bias wasn’t found in attractive - unattractive face pairs. PMID:27445892

  1. [Pathophysiological functions of follistatin related protein].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Yu-Yang

    2009-10-01

    Follistatin related protein (FRP) is an extra-cellular glycoprotein, involved in several pathological and physiological processes such as cell proliferation, migration, tissue remodeling, embryonic development, and cell-cell interaction. Nowadays researches showed that FRP possesses dual functions, including inhibiting cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. In myocardial ischemia model, FRP is certified to have the effect of protecting myocardial cell and inhibiting apoptosis. At the same time FRP promotes endothelial cell proliferation. FRP is also synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) to regulate the functions of VSMC via feedback mechanism. FRP can induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date data to show the structure, functions, mechanisms and regulation pathways of the protein. PMID:21417029

  2. The amygdala's response to face and emotional information and potential category-specific modulation of temporal cortex as a function of emotion.

    PubMed

    White, Stuart F; Adalio, Christopher; Nolan, Zachary T; Yang, Jiongjiong; Martin, Alex; Blair, James R

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala has been implicated in the processing of emotion and animacy information and to be responsive to novelty. However, the way in which these functions interact is poorly understood. Subjects (N = 30) viewed threatening or neutral images that could be either animate (facial expressions) or inanimate (objects) in the context of a dot probe task. The amygdala showed responses to both emotional and animacy information, but no emotion by stimulus-type interaction; i.e., emotional face and object stimuli, when matched for arousal and valence, generate comparable amygdala activity relative to neutral face and object stimuli. Additionally, a habituation effect was not seen in amygdala; however, increased amygdala activity was observed for incongruent relative to congruent negative trials in second vs. first exposures. Furthermore, medial fusiform gyrus showed increased response to inanimate stimuli, while superior temporal sulcus showed increased response to animate stimuli. Greater functional connectivity between bilateral amygdala and medial fusiform gyrus was observed to negative vs. neutral objects, but not to fearful vs. neutral faces. The current data suggest that the amygdala is responsive to animate and emotional stimuli. Additionally, these data suggest that the interaction between the various functions of the amygdala may need to be considered simultaneously to fully understand how they interact. Moreover, they suggest category-specific modulation of medial fusiform cortex as a function of emotion. PMID:25309390

  3. Viewing preferences of rhesus monkeys related to memory for complex pictures, colours and faces.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1994-01-31

    In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to

  4. Infants' Vagal Regulation in the Still-Face Paradigm Is Related to Dyadic Coordination of Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated relations between mother-infant dyadic coordination and infants' physiological responses. Mothers (N=73) and 3-month-old male and female infants were observed in the still-face paradigm, and mothers' and infants' affective states were coded at 1-s intervals. Synchrony and levels of matching between mother-infant affective…

  5. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  6. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  7. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen and water relations: Six important lessons from FACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both natural and managed ecosystems are currently exposed to an elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) level that has not been experienced by terrestrial vegetation since the early Miocene and are facing a future that portends uncertain consequences of ever increasing [CO2]. Understanding how...

  8. A U-Shaped Relation between Sitting Ability and Upright Face Processing in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Allen, Casey L.; Barna, Amelia Cevelle

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates connections exist between action, perception, and cognition in infants. In this study, associated changes between sitting ability and upright face processing were tested in 111 infants. Using the visual habituation "switch" task (C. H. Cashon & L. B. Cohen, 2004; L. B. Cohen & C. H. Cashon, 2001), holistic…

  9. A Normed Study of Face Recognition in Autism and Related Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klin, Ami; Sparrow, Sara S.; de Bildt, Annelies; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Cohen, Donald J.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This study used a well-normed task of face recognition with 102 young children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) not otherwise specified, and non-PDD disorders (mental retardation and language disorders) matched for chronological age and either verbal or nonverbal mental age. Autistic subjects exhibited pronounced deficits in…

  10. Geometric Figure-Rotation Task and Face Representation in Dyslexia: Role of Spatial Relations and Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Anneliese A.

    1981-01-01

    Compared to normal readers, the dyslexic children not only drew significantly more "neolithic faces" but also made more errors of spatial displacement (up/down or right/left) on parts of asymmetric figures, while among both groups there were similar percentages who made no errors in the global rotation of figures. (Author/SJL)

  11. The two faces of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocyte function and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Castro, José Pedro; Grune, Tilman; Speckmann, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is actively involved in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis via storage/release of lipids and adipokine secretion. Current research links WAT dysfunction to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The expansion of WAT during oversupply of nutrients prevents ectopic fat accumulation and requires proper preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation. An assumed link between excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), WAT dysfunction and T2D has been discussed controversially. While oxidative stress conditions have conclusively been detected in WAT of T2D patients and related animal models, clinical trials with antioxidants failed to prevent T2D or to improve glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, animal studies yielded inconsistent results regarding the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetes. Here, we discuss the contribution of ROS to the (patho)physiology of adipocyte function and differentiation, with particular emphasis on sources and nutritional modulators of adipocyte ROS and their functions in signaling mechanisms controlling adipogenesis and functions of mature fat cells. We propose a concept of ROS balance that is required for normal functioning of WAT. We explain how both excessive and diminished levels of ROS, e.g. resulting from over supplementation with antioxidants, contribute to WAT dysfunction and subsequently insulin resistance. PMID:27031218

  12. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13-15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments. PMID:26793139

  13. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13–15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments. PMID:26793139

  14. Lattice Green functions: the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice, d = 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, S.; Koutschan, Ch; Maillard, J.-M.; Zenine, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported on a recursive method to generate the expansion of the lattice Green function (LGF) of the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice (fcc). The method was used to generate many coefficients for d=7 and the corresponding linear differential equation has been obtained. In this paper, we show the strength and the limit of the method by producing the series and the corresponding linear differential equations for d=8,9,10,11,12. The differential Galois groups of these linear differential equations are shown to be symplectic for d=8,10,12 and orthogonal for d=9,11. The recursion relation naturally provides a two-dimensional array {t}d(n,j) where only the coefficients {t}d(n,0) correspond to the coefficients of the LGF of the d-dimensional fcc. The coefficients {t}d(n,j) are associated to D-finite bivariate series annihilated by linear partial differential equations that we analyze. Dedicated to Guttmann, for his 70th birthday.

  15. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

  16. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  17. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Eva Henje; Connolly, Colm G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P.; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad- happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Methods Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. Results The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Limitations Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Conclusions Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25827506

  18. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression. PMID:12042334

  19. Event-related potentials in face naming and tip-of-the-tongue state: further results.

    PubMed

    Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the ERP correlates (some of which were characterized in a previous study) of the "tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) state, in a face naming task, and to determine how dissociation of the manual and verbal responses (delaying the verbal response 2s from the stimulus onset) affects the Late Negative Wave (LNW). The results showed: 1) new ERP correlates of the TOT state, as the latency of both the Early P3 and N450 components was significantly longer in TOT than in successful naming, reflecting slower access in TOT, from the 300 ms post-stimulus, to information about the famous people, and 2) no differences in the amplitude of LNW among response categories, which suggests that the LNW amplitude is modulated by the brain activity associated with the verbal response. PMID:20433881

  20. White-faced ibis DDE-related reproductive problems continue at Carson Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Herron, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Organochlorine, mercury, and selenium contamination was studied in White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada in 1985 and 1986. DDE was detected in 138 of 140 eggs sampled. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with residues of DDE. DDE residues in ibis eggs, unlike residues in most other wading bird eggs from the Great Basin have not declined during the last decade. At DDE levels in eggs above 4 ppm (wet weight), clutch size and productivity decreased, and the incidence of cracked eggs increased. Assuming that 4 ppm DOE is the critical residue level, 40% of the nesting population in 1985 and 1986 was adversely impacted by DDE, with a net loss of 20% of the population' s expected .production. Most eggs containing high levels (up to 29 ppm) also contained DDT, which implies the source was recently-used DDT. No evidence of breeding ground DDE-DDT contamination was found.

  1. White-faced ibis DDE-related reproductive problems continue at Carson Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Herron, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Organochlorine, mercury, and selenium contamination was studied in White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada in 1985 and 1986. DOE was detected in 138 of 140 eggs sampled: Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with residues of DOE. ODE residues in ibis eggs, unlike residues in most other wading bird eggs from the Great Basin have not declined during the last decade. At ODE levels in eggs above 4ppm (wet weight), clutch size and productivity decreased, and the incidence of cracked eggs increased. Assuming that 4ppm DOE is the critical residue level, 40% of the nesting population in 1985 and 1986 was adversely impacted by DOE, with a net loss of 20% of the population's expected production. Most eggs containing high levels (up to 29ppm) also contained DDT, which implies the source was recently-used DDT. No evidence of breeding ground DOE-DDT contamination was found.

  2. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image

  3. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. PMID:27345597

  4. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  5. The cold face test: a non-baroreflex mediated test of cardiac vagal function.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Ramesh K; Wu, Roger

    2006-06-01

    Application of cold to the face evokes potent bradycardia and a pressor response, similar to the diving reflex. However, the role of the baroreceptors in this response is unclear. Ten healthy controls and two patients with baroreflex impairment were recruited. A cold face test (CFT) was induced by the application of three cold packs (0.5 degrees C) to the face. Heart rate (ECG), blood pressure (Finapres) and skin temperature (forehead electrode) were recorded continuously. All data were analyzed using unpaired Students t-tests, and expressed as mean +/- SD. In all controls, CFT induced bradycardia. The mean onset latency was 5.6 +/- 4.6 s, and the maximal bradycardia was seen at 35.8 +/- 15.8 s. Systolic blood pressure increased in eight controls, with a mean onset latency of 18.8 +/- 16.6 s and a peak rise at 38.7 +/- 22.7 s. In the controls, bradycardia preceded the pressor response. The heart rate and blood pressure changes during CFT had a longer latency than baroreflex evoked responses. Moreover, one subject had bradycardia despite a fall in blood pressure. The two patients had abnormal Valsalva ratios and no change in heart rate during tilt, indicating impairment of the baroreflex. However, both their heart rate and blood pressure responses to CFT were normal. These data are further evidence of the limited role of the baroreflex in the autonomic responses to CFT. They suggest that the CFT may be of use in assessing the integrity of the efferent cardiovascular autonomic pathways in patients with suspected baroreflex impairment. PMID:16491317

  6. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  7. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  8. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change.

    PubMed

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional-trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning. PMID:24452245

  9. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B.; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning. PMID:24452245

  10. An Assessment of Sexual Dimorphism in Relation to Facial Asymmetry in Esthetically Pleasing Faces

    PubMed Central

    Rajpara, Yagnesh; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to detect gender-wise difference in the skeletal asymmetry in the esthetically pleasing faces. Materials and methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 25 females and 25 males of age 18 -25 years using the posterior-anterior cephalograms. The selected part of grummon’s frontal analysis for analyzing the vertical skeletal asymmetries, mandibular morphology, transverse asymmetry and mandibular deviation was used. The obtained data was subjected to independent student’s‘t’ test for comparing the difference between males and females. Results: there was statistically significant difference between the males and females for the measurements like Gonion-Menton length for the mandibular morphology and for the transverse parameters like zygomatico frontal suture length, jular length and antegonial notch length. There was no significant difference for the sidedness of asymmetry for the males and females. Conclusion: frontal facial asymmetry showed sexual dimorphism with males showing greater asymmetric values than the females. The asymmetry showed right sided prominence for both the males and females. This knowledge can be utilized for planning facial reconstruction and remodeling surgeries. PMID:25870491

  11. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. PMID:26900774

  12. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  13. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  14. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes – but Not Natural Faces – Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer’s-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel J.; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs – which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings – was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an “island of stability” in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies. PMID:23471005

  15. Medicaid Program; Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and Clarifications Related to Home Health. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    This final rule revises the Medicaid home health service definition consistent with section 6407 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (the Affordable Care Act) and section 504 of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) to add requirements that, for home health services, physicians document, and, for certain medical equipment, physicians or certain authorized non-physician practitioners (NPP) document the occurrence of a face-to-face encounter (including through the use of telehealth) with the Medicaid eligible beneficiary within reasonable timeframes. This rule also aligns the timeframes for the face-to-face encounter with similar regulatory requirements for Medicare home health services. In addition, this rule amends the definitions of medical supplies, equipment, and appliances. We expect minimal impact with the implementation of section 6407 of the Affordable Care Act and section 504 of MACRA. We recognize that states may have budgetary implications as a result of the amended definitions of medical supplies, equipment and appliances. Specifically, this rule may expand coverage of medical supplies, equipment and appliances under the home health benefit. There will be items that had previously only been offered under certain sections of the Act that will now be covered under the home health benefit. PMID:26859898

  16. Design of a W/steel functionally graded material for plasma facing components of DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missiaen, J. M.; Raharijaona, J. J.; Antoni, A.; Pascal, C.; Richou, M.; Magaud, P.

    2011-09-01

    The design of a graded transition between tungsten and steel for plasma facing components of a nuclear fusion reactor is proposed and the interest of such a transition is demonstrated by FEM calculations of the thermo-mechanical behaviour in the operating conditions of the DEMO reactor. The transition consists in stacked layers of W-WC and WC-Fe between W and Eurofer steel. The maximum surface temperature of the structural component could be maintained below 1300 °C for a very simple multilayer geometry, from FEM calculations. The maximum strains and equivalent elastic stresses could be reduced by a factor of about 3 as compared to a direct W/steel joint. Considerations about processing techniques of such a component are discussed, based on the literature background and a few preliminary tests.

  17. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  18. Weighted sharing of meromorphic functions relative to small functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Min; Yi, Hong-Xun

    2008-07-01

    Using the idea of weighted sharing, we prove some results on uniqueness of meromorphic functions with three weighted sharing values. The results in this paper improve those given by H.X. Yi, T.C. Alzahary and H.X. Yi, T.C. Alzahary, I. Lahiri and N. Mandal, and other authors.

  19. Telling one face from another: electrocortical correlates of facial characteristics among individual female faces.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Mondloch, Catherine J; Nishimura, Mayu; Vida, Mark D; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-10-01

    Research investigating the neural correlates of face processing has emphasized differences in neural activity when participants view faces versus other stimulus categories (e.g., houses). Much less is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the discrimination among individual faces. Using a large number of female faces, here we show that the amplitude of the face-sensitive N170 electrocortical component is related to a range of facial characteristics. The right N170 amplitude was related to eye color and face width. The left N170 amplitude was related to eye shape and face proportions, suggesting a functional dissociation between hemispheres. In contrast, the amplitude of the P100 and N250 components was largely unaffected by these facial characteristics. Consistent with recent findings in non-human primates, we identify for the first time evidence of human electrocortical brain potentials that are sensitive to variations in specific facial characteristics, a prerequisite for recognizing the identity of individual faces. PMID:21843540

  20. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  1. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  2. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed. PMID:27388227

  3. Functional neuroimaging of dressing-related skills.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, George F; Lovelace, Christopher T; Foster, Donald J; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-09-01

    Restoration of motor function following stroke involves reorganization of motor output through intact pathways, with compensatory brain activity likely variable by task. One class of motor tasks, those involved in self-care, is particularly important in stroke rehabilitation. Identifying the brain areas that are engaged in self-care and how they reorganize after stroke may enable development of more effective rehabilitation strategies. We piloted a paradigm for functional MRI assessment of self-care activity. In two groups, young adults and older adults, two self-care tasks (buttoning and zipping) produce activation similar to a bimanual tapping task, with bilateral activation of primary and secondary motor cortices, primary sensory cortex, and cerebellum. Quantitative differences include more activation of sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum in buttoning than bimanual tapping. Pilot subjects with stroke showed greater superior parietal activity across tasks than controls, potentially representing an increased need for sensorimotor integration to perform motor tasks. PMID:23070748

  4. Functional neuroimaging of dressing-related skills

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Christopher T.; Foster, Donald J.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of motor function following stroke involves reorganization of motor output through intact pathways, with compensatory brain activity likely variable by task. One class of motor tasks, those involved in self-care, is particularly important in stroke rehabilitation. Identifying the brain areas that are engaged in self-care and how they reorganize after stroke may enable development of more effective rehabilitation strategies. We piloted a paradigm for functional MRI assessment of self-care activity. In two groups, young adults and older adults, two self-care tasks (buttoning and zipping) produce activation similar to a bimanual tapping task, with bilateral activation of primary and secondary motor cortices, primary sensory cortex, and cerebellum. Quantitative differences include more activation of sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum in buttoning than bimanual tapping. Pilot subjects with stroke showed greater superior parietal activity across tasks than controls, potentially representing an increased need for sensorimotor integration to perform motor tasks. PMID:23070748

  5. Age Related Changes in Autonomic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Mohammed; Pakhare, Abhijit; Rathi, Preeti; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) imbalance may trigger or enhance pathology in different organ systems that varies in different age groups hence objective of present study was to evaluate association of different Age-groups with autonomic functions. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers in Department of Physiology LLRM Medical College Meerut, India. Volunteers were divided into three groups as younger (15-45 years), middle (45-60) and elder age (above 60), Autonomic functions were tested in three domains viz. Cardio-vagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Numerical data was summarized as mean and standard deviation and categorical data as count and percentage. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to find difference among groups, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean ± standard deviation OHT(Orthostatic Hypotension Test) among of younger, middle and elder age groups were 8.80±2.28, 13.40±4.64 and 21.82±6.04 respectively which represent decrease in sympathetic functions with age (p<0.001). Cardio-vagal or parasympathetic responses indicated by DBT (Deep Breathing Test) Valsalva and 30:15 ratio of HR response to standing tests has shown statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in mean response with increasing age. Sudomotor response appeared normal in younger and middle group but was interrupted in more than half of elderly people (p<0.001). Conclusion Sympathetic responses & para-sympathetic responses have shown the significant decline with increasing age group. Sudomotor responses were partially interrupted in elderly age group. PMID:27134865

  6. Assessment of Institutional and Personnel-Related Challenges Facing Educational Programme for the Mentally Challenged Persons at Kaimosi Special School, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmbwanga, Daniel M.; Matemba, Collins K.; Bota, Kennedy N.

    2015-01-01

    The mentally challenged child (MC) can achieve a lot if the right environment and curriculum are designed for him/her. However, the realization of the desirable outcomes faces many challenges. The objective of the study was to examine institutional and personnel-related challenges facing education programs for the MC persons at Kaimosi Special…

  7. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers’ and infants’ cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother’s difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant’s cues, which in turn has implications for the infant’s reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy. PMID:25506272

  8. Optical fiber relative-humidity sensor with evaporated dielectric coatings on fiber end-face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weijing; Yang, Minghong; Cheng, Yun; Li, Dongwen; Zhang, Yi; Zhuang, Zhi

    2014-08-01

    An optical fiber relative-humidity sensor (OFRHS) with evaporated dielectric coatings is proposed and demonstrated. The sensitive coatings, composed of multilayers of Ti3O5 and SiO2, form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity on the distal end of the multimode fiber. As the effective refractive index of the porous coatings were correlated with the change of ambient Relative-humidity (RH), which will at last result in the shift of interference fringe. By monitoring the drift of reflected interference fringe under different RH levels, the information about RH of the environment under test can be extracted. Experimental results show that the average sensitivity is 0.43 nm/% RH when environmental RH changes from 1.8% RH to 74.7% RH. The proposed sensor was proved to be high repeatability, little hysteresis and especially highly sensitive to lower moisture measure.

  9. Inhibition of Personally-Relevant Angry Faces Moderates the Effect of Empathy on Interpersonal Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Vanessa; Ellenbogen, Mark A.; Wilson, Alexa L.; Desormeau, Philip; Nijjar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    While empathy is typically assumed to promote effective social interactions, it can sometimes be detrimental when it is unrestrained and overgeneralized. The present study explored whether cognitive inhibition would moderate the effect of empathy on social functioning. Eighty healthy young adults underwent two assessments six months apart. Participants’ ability to suppress interference from distracting emotional stimuli was assessed using a Negative Affective Priming Task that included both generic and personally-relevant (i.e., participants’ intimate partners) facial expressions of emotion. The UCLA Life Stress Interview and Empathy Quotient were administered to measure interpersonal functioning and empathy respectively. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with worse concurrent interpersonal outcomes for individuals who showed weak inhibition of the personally-relevant depictions of anger. The effect of empathy on social functioning might be dependent on individuals’ ability to suppress interference from meaningful emotional distractors in their environment. PMID:25695426

  10. Inhibition of personally-relevant angry faces moderates the effect of empathy on interpersonal functioning.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Vanessa; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Wilson, Alexa L; Desormeau, Philip; Nijjar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    While empathy is typically assumed to promote effective social interactions, it can sometimes be detrimental when it is unrestrained and overgeneralized. The present study explored whether cognitive inhibition would moderate the effect of empathy on social functioning. Eighty healthy young adults underwent two assessments six months apart. Participants' ability to suppress interference from distracting emotional stimuli was assessed using a Negative Affective Priming Task that included both generic and personally-relevant (i.e., participants' intimate partners) facial expressions of emotion. The UCLA Life Stress Interview and Empathy Quotient were administered to measure interpersonal functioning and empathy respectively. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with worse concurrent interpersonal outcomes for individuals who showed weak inhibition of the personally-relevant depictions of anger. The effect of empathy on social functioning might be dependent on individuals' ability to suppress interference from meaningful emotional distractors in their environment. PMID:25695426

  11. Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand the perspective of providers of malaria-related healthcare services to VFRs about factors impacting on the quality of these and to make recommendations about improvements. Methods Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice nurses providing pre-travel health advice (n = 10), general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), hospital consultants (n = 3), and community pharmacists (n = 7) working in areas of London with large African communities and a relatively high burden of imported malaria. A thematic analysis of the results was undertaken. Results Time constraints in GPs’ surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions Some issues raised by respondents are relevant to all travellers, irrespective of their reason for travel. The challenge for healthcare providers to reduce the burden of imported malaria in VFRs is to provide services of sufficient quality to persuade them to adopt these in preference to those with which they may be familiar in their country of birth. Although no single intervention will significantly lower the burden of imported malaria, addressing the issues raised in this research could make a significant impact. PMID:24405512

  12. Structure-function relations in flavodoxins.

    PubMed

    Simondsen, R P; Tollin, G

    1980-12-10

    Flavodoxins are low molecular weight, FMN containing, proteins which function as electron transfer agents in a variety of microbial metabolic processes, including nitrogen fixation. Utilizing structural information obtained from x-ray crystal analysis, it has been possible to derive some new and important insights into the relationships which exist between flavin properties and protein environment by comparing the spectroscopic, thermodynamic and kinetic behavior of the flavodoxins with that of free flavin. Thus, for example, a qualitative understanding of the contribution of the protein to flavin redox potentials, semiquinone reactivity and mechanism of electron transfer is beginning to emerge. The highly negative redox potential required for the biochemical activity of the flavodoxins is accomplished by stabilizing the semiquinone via a hydrogen bond to the N-5 position of the flavin and destabilizing the fully-reduced form by constraining it to assume an unfavorable planar conformation. The reactivity of the semiquinone form is lowered by the aforementioned hydrogen bond, as well as by an interaction with a tryptophan residue in the binding site. Electron transfer is accomplished through the exposed dimethylbenzene ring of the bound coenzyme. Although it is not possible at present to determine the extent to which this understanding can be generalized to other flavoproteins, it is clear that a study of the flavodoxins will provide us with at least some of the principles which biological systems have used to modify flavin properties to fulfill a biochemical need. PMID:6782445

  13. Psychotherapy with a narcissistic playboy facing the end of his life: a self-psychology and object relations perspective.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Eugenio M

    2010-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder is considered to be one of the most tenacious and stable types of personality organization. It usually presents a challenge to clinicians and is often resistant to treatment. The continuous search for the affirmation by others of the grandiose self and the devaluation of others in an attempt to stabilize their self-esteem is typically seen in individuals with narcissistic personality organization. On the other hand, corrective life events such as personal achievements, long-term nurturing relationships, and the management of loss and disillusionment can contribute to a more realistic realignment of the person's Ego Ideals and self-esteem. One such example is the case of Don Joaquin, a 69-year-old playboy who was facing death from leukemia. This article will describe the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy treatment approach that was utilized, and how Self-Psychology and Object Relations Theory provided a useful framework to bring help and relief to this patient, as he prepared to face the end of his life. PMID:20528136

  14. Effects of aromatherapy massage on face-down posture-related pain after vitrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naho; Munesada, Minako; Yamada, Noriko; Suzuki, Haruka; Futohashi, Ayano; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kato, Satoshi; Nishigaki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative face-down posturing (FDP) is recommended to optimize the effects of intraocular gas tamponade after vitrectomy. However, patients undergoing FDP usually experience physical and psychological burdens. This 3-armed, randomized, single-center trial investigated the effects of aromatherapy on FDP-related physical pain. Sixty-three patients under FDP were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: aromatherapy massage with essential oil (AT), oil massage without essential oil (OT), and a control group. The AT and OT groups received 10 minutes of massage by ward nurses trained by an aromatherapist, while the control group received usual care. Outcomes were assessed as short-term (pre- to post-intervention) and long-term (first to third postoperative day) changes in physical pain in five body regions using face-scale. The AT and OT groups both revealed similar short-term pain reductions after intervention, compared with the control group. Regarding long-term effects, neither group experienced significant effects until the second day. Significantly more pain reduction compared with usual care occurred on the third day, mainly in the AT group, though there were few significant differences between the AT and OT groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple oil massage is an effective strategy for immediate pain reduction in patients undergoing FDP, while aromatherapy may have a long-term effect on pain reduction. PMID:23466193

  15. IgG4- related disease: an orphan disease with many faces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4- related disease (IgG4-RD) is a rare systemic fibro-inflammatory disorder (ORPHA284264). Although patients have been described more than 100 years ago, the systemic nature of this disease has been recognized in the 21st century only. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is the most frequent manifestation of IgG4-RD. However, IgG4-RD can affect any organ such as salivary glands, orbits, retroperitoneum and many others. Recent research enabled a clear clinical and histopathological description of IgG4-RD. Typically, lymphoplasmacellular inflammation, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis are found in IgG4-RD biopsies and the tissue invading plasma cells largely produce IgG4. Elevated serum IgG4 levels are found in many but not all patients. Consequently, diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD have been proposed recently. Treatment is largely based on clinical experience and retrospective case series. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of therapy, although adjunctive immunosuppressive agents are used in relapsing patients. This review summarizes current knowledge on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and treatment of IgG4-RD. PMID:25026959

  16. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  17. Multiple faces of protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1): Structure, function, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Shen, Ying; Wang, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) has received considerable attention because it is the only protein that contains both PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Through PDZ and BAR domains, PICK1 binds to a large number of membrane proteins and lipid molecules, and is thereby of multiple functions. PICK1 is widely expressed in various tissues, particularly abundant in the brain and testis. In the central nervous system (CNS), PICK1 interacts with numerous neurotransmitters receptors, transporters, ion channels, and enzymes, and controls their trafficking. The best characterized function of PICK1 is that it regulates trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA2 during long-term depression and long-term potentiation. Recent evidence shows that PICK1 participates in various diseases including neurobiological disorders, such as chronic pain, epilepsy, oxidative stress, stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and non-neurological disorders, such as globozoospermia, breast cancer, and heart failure. In this review, we will summarize recent advances focusing on the structure and regulation of PICK1 and its functions in protein trafficking, neurological and non-neurological diseases. PMID:26970394

  18. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  19. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  20. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  1. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the record of a case, such as the notices of...

  2. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.4 Material relating to representation function. (a) The documents constituting the...

  3. Legal and Regulatory Challenges Currently Facing Diabetes Treatment Providers and Related Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government’s ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets. PMID:23566989

  4. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    PubMed

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences. PMID:20483821

  5. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  6. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  7. How family members manage risk around functional decline: the autonomy management process in households facing dementia.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-04-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of in-depth interviewing in 2012-2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual's natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual's deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual's ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual's autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder's functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  8. Is empathy necessary to comprehend the emotional faces? The empathic effect on attentional mechanisms (eye movements), cortical correlates (N200 event-related potentials) and facial behaviour (electromyography) in face processing.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of social empathy on processing emotional facial expressions. Previous evidence suggested a close relationship between emotional empathy and both the ability to detect facial emotions and the attentional mechanisms involved. A multi-measure approach was adopted: we investigated the association between trait empathy (Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale) and individuals' performance (response times; RTs), attentional mechanisms (eye movements; number and duration of fixations), correlates of cortical activation (event-related potential (ERP) N200 component), and facial responsiveness (facial zygomatic and corrugator activity). Trait empathy was found to affect face detection performance (reduced RTs), attentional processes (more scanning eye movements in specific areas of interest), ERP salience effect (increased N200 amplitude), and electromyographic activity (more facial responses). A second important result was the demonstration of strong, direct correlations among these measures. We suggest that empathy may function as a social facilitator of the processes underlying the detection of facial emotion, and a general "facial response effect" is proposed to explain these results. We assumed that empathy influences cognitive and the facial responsiveness, such that empathic individuals are more skilful in processing facial emotion. PMID:25531027

  9. Using en-face optical coherence tomography to analyse gene function in Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Ma, Lisha; Bloor, Jim; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In-vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging of the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart allows non invasive visualizations and assessment of its cardiac function. In order to image Drosophila heart, we have developed a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous OCT and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. Here we have used targeted gene expression to knockdown the myospheroid (mys) gene in the larval heart using a specific RNAi construct. By knocking down a β integrin subunit encoded by mys we have recorded an enlarged heart chamber in both diastolic and systolic states. Also, the fraction of reduction of the chamber diameter was smaller in the knockdown heart. These phenotypic differences indicate that impaired cardiac contractility occurs in the heart where the integrin gene express level is reduced. At our knowledge, this is for the first time when it is shown that integrins have a direct relationship to a dilated heart defect.

  10. Functional differences in face processing between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, K; Konoike, N; Nakamura, K

    2015-09-24

    The ability to categorize social information is essential to survive in a primate's social group. In the monkey brain, there are neural systems to categorize social information. Among these, the relationship between the amygdala and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) has recently gained focus with regard to emotion regulation. However, the processing of facial information and the functional differences in these two areas remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we examined the response properties of single neurons in the amygdala and vlPFC while presenting video clips of three types of facial emotions (aggressive threat, coo, and scream) in Macaca mulatta. Neurons in the amygdala were preferentially activated upon presentation of a scream facial expression, which is strongly negative, whereas the neurons in the vlPFC were activated upon presentation of coo, a facial expression with multiple meanings depending on the social context. Information analyses revealed that the amount of information conveyed by the amygdala neurons about the type of emotion transiently increased immediately after stimulus presentation. In contrast, the information conveyed by the vlPFC neurons showed sustained elevation during stimulus presentation. Therefore, our results suggest that the amygdala processes strong emotion roughly but rapidly, whereas the vlPFC spends a great deal of time processing ambiguous facial information in communication, and make an accurate decision from multiple possibilities based on memory. PMID:26208842

  11. Functional Architecture for Disparity in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex and Its Relationship to the Architecture for Faces, Color, Scenes, and Visual Field

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Bohon, Kaitlin S.

    2015-01-01

    Binocular disparity is a powerful depth cue for object perception. The computations for object vision culminate in inferior temporal cortex (IT), but the functional organization for disparity in IT is unknown. Here we addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in alert monkeys to stimuli that appeared in front of (near), behind (far), or at the fixation plane. We discovered three regions that showed preferential responses for near and far stimuli, relative to zero-disparity stimuli at the fixation plane. These “near/far” disparity-biased regions were located within dorsal IT, as predicted by microelectrode studies, and on the posterior inferotemporal gyrus. In a second analysis, we instead compared responses to near stimuli with responses to far stimuli and discovered a separate network of “near” disparity-biased regions that extended along the crest of the superior temporal sulcus. We also measured in the same animals fMRI responses to faces, scenes, color, and checkerboard annuli at different visual field eccentricities. Disparity-biased regions defined in either analysis did not show a color bias, suggesting that disparity and color contribute to different computations within IT. Scene-biased regions responded preferentially to near and far stimuli (compared with stimuli without disparity) and had a peripheral visual field bias, whereas face patches had a marked near bias and a central visual field bias. These results support the idea that IT is organized by a coarse eccentricity map, and show that disparity likely contributes to computations associated with both central (face processing) and peripheral (scene processing) visual field biases, but likely does not contribute much to computations within IT that are implicated in processing color. PMID:25926470

  12. Functional architecture for disparity in macaque inferior temporal cortex and its relationship to the architecture for faces, color, scenes, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-04-29

    Binocular disparity is a powerful depth cue for object perception. The computations for object vision culminate in inferior temporal cortex (IT), but the functional organization for disparity in IT is unknown. Here we addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in alert monkeys to stimuli that appeared in front of (near), behind (far), or at the fixation plane. We discovered three regions that showed preferential responses for near and far stimuli, relative to zero-disparity stimuli at the fixation plane. These "near/far" disparity-biased regions were located within dorsal IT, as predicted by microelectrode studies, and on the posterior inferotemporal gyrus. In a second analysis, we instead compared responses to near stimuli with responses to far stimuli and discovered a separate network of "near" disparity-biased regions that extended along the crest of the superior temporal sulcus. We also measured in the same animals fMRI responses to faces, scenes, color, and checkerboard annuli at different visual field eccentricities. Disparity-biased regions defined in either analysis did not show a color bias, suggesting that disparity and color contribute to different computations within IT. Scene-biased regions responded preferentially to near and far stimuli (compared with stimuli without disparity) and had a peripheral visual field bias, whereas face patches had a marked near bias and a central visual field bias. These results support the idea that IT is organized by a coarse eccentricity map, and show that disparity likely contributes to computations associated with both central (face processing) and peripheral (scene processing) visual field biases, but likely does not contribute much to computations within IT that are implicated in processing color. PMID:25926470

  13. The face and its emotion: right N170 deficits in structural processing and early emotional discrimination in schizophrenic patients and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Riveros, Rodrigo; Hurtado, Esteban; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Urquina, Hugo; Herrera, Eduar; Amoruso, Lucía; Reyes, Migdyrai Martin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-30

    Previous studies have reported facial emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenic patients, as well as abnormalities in the N170 component of the event-related potential. Current research on schizophrenia highlights the importance of complexly-inherited brain-based deficits. In order to examine the N170 markers of face structural and emotional processing, DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenia probands (n=13), unaffected first-degree relatives from multiplex families (n=13), and control subjects (n=13) matched by age, gender and educational level, performed a categorization task which involved words and faces with positive and negative valence. The N170 component, while present in relatives and control subjects, was reduced in patients, not only for faces, but also for face-word differences, suggesting a deficit in structural processing of stimuli. Control subjects showed N170 modulation according to the valence of facial stimuli. However, this discrimination effect was found to be reduced both in patients and relatives. This is the first report showing N170 valence deficits in relatives. Our results suggest a generalized deficit affecting the structural encoding of faces in patients, as well as the emotion discrimination both in patients and relatives. Finally, these findings lend support to the notion that cortical markers of facial discrimination can be validly considered as vulnerability markers. PMID:21824666

  14. The own-age bias in face memory is unrelated to differences in attention--evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; End, Albert; Luttmann, Stefanie; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Participants are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different age group (the own-age bias, or OAB). A recent socio-cognitive account has suggested that differential allocation of attention to old versus young faces underlies this phenomenon. Critically, empirical evidence for a direct relationship between attention to own- versus other-age faces and the OAB in memory is lacking. To fill this gap, we tested the roles of attention in three different experimental paradigms, and additionally analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In Experiment 1, we compared the learning of old and young faces during focused versus divided attention, but revealed similar OABs in subsequent memory for both attention conditions. Similarly, manipulating attention during learning did not differentially affect the ERPs elicited by young versus old faces. In Experiment 2, we examined the repetition effects from task-irrelevant old and young faces presented under varying attentional loads on the N250r ERP component as an index of face recognition. Independent of load, the N250r effects were comparable for both age categories. Finally, in Experiment 3 we measured the N2pc as an index of attentional selection of old versus young target faces in a visual search task. The N2pc was not significantly different for the young versus the old target search conditions, suggesting similar orientations of attention to either face age group. Overall, we propose that the OAB in memory is largely unrelated to early attentional processes. Our findings therefore contrast with the predictions from socio-cognitive accounts on own-group biases in recognition memory, and are more easily reconciled with expertise-based models. PMID:24934133

  15. The fusiform face area is enlarged in Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Hong, Sungjin; Haas, Brian W.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Mills, Debra L.; Bellugi, Ursula; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by atypical brain structure, cognitive deficits, and a life-long fascination with faces. Face recognition is relatively spared in WS, despite abnormalities in aspects of face processing, and structural alterations in the fusiform gyrus, part of the ventral visual stream. Thus, face recognition in WS may be subserved by abnormal neural substrates in the ventral stream. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the fusiform face area (FFA), which is implicated in face recognition in typically developed individuals (TD), but its role in WS is not well understood. We found that the FFA size was approximately twice larger among WS than TDs, (both absolutely and relative the fusiform gyrus), despite apparently normal levels of face recognition performance on a Benton face recognition test. Thus, a larger FFA may play a role in face recognition proficiency among WS. PMID:20463232

  16. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type. PMID:23537126

  17. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively. PMID:24962465

  18. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  19. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  20. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in the body. ...

  1. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination – just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al. 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. PMID:25659502

  2. Face transplantation: a leading surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, M

    2011-10-01

    Twenty years of experience in the field of vascularized composite allografts (VCA) leading to the first US face transplantation is presented. Different experimental models and cadaveric studies in the VCA models are outlined. Development of face transplantation protocol and consent forms for Institutional Review Board approval is discussed. Different scientific, regulatory, and financial considerations that were required before approval of face transplantation are presented. The effort, importance, and role of multidisciplinary team approach are emphasized. Finally, the technical aspects of face transplantation and related immunologic and functional outcomes of the patients are discussed. PMID:21996172

  3. The N170 observed 'in the wild': robust event-related potentials to faces in cluttered dynamic visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Patrick; Molyneux, Rebecca; Young, Andrew W

    2015-07-01

    As a social species in a constantly changing environment, humans rely heavily on the informational richness and communicative capacity of the face. Thus, understanding how the brain processes information about faces in real-time is of paramount importance. The N170 is a high-temporal resolution electrophysiological index of the brain's early response to visual stimuli that is reliably elicited in carefully controlled laboratory-based studies. Although the N170 has often been reported to be of greatest amplitude to faces, there has been debate regarding whether this effect might be an artefact of certain aspects of the controlled experimental stimulation schedules and materials. To investigate whether the N170 can be identified in more realistic conditions with highly variable and cluttered visual images and accompanying auditory stimuli we recorded EEG 'in the wild', while participants watched pop videos. Scene-cuts to faces generated a clear N170 response, and this was larger than the N170 to transitions where the videos cut to non-face stimuli. Within participants, wild-type face N170 amplitudes were moderately correlated to those observed in a typical laboratory experiment. Thus, we demonstrate that the face N170 is a robust and ecologically valid phenomenon and not an artefact arising as an unintended consequence of some property of the more typical laboratory paradigm. PMID:25344945

  4. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Brian R.; Dekker, Peter H.; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  5. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    PubMed

    Spisak, Brian R; Dekker, Peter H; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  6. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  7. Applications of dispersion relations to the geomagnetic transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.

    2005-05-01

    The geomagnetic transfer function is nowadays used to constrain the magnetotelluric inversion procedure given that this function contains complementary information to the impedance tensor. For the models usually employed by inversions, the real and imaginary parts of the geomagnetic transfer function are related by dispersion relations. The computation of the dispersion relations involves the Hilbert transform, and here we discuss different expressions to compute them. This computation was verified using synthetically generated geomagnetic transfer function from 2D and 3D models. The dispersion relations were applied on two cases: (a) to study the consistency between the real and imaginary parts of field recorded data, and (b) to develop a procedure to complete or extend the amount of measured data.

  8. Face it: collecting mental health and disaster related data using Facebook vs. personal interview: the case of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Aviel, Or; Dubiner, Yonit; Evelyn Baruch; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-30

    Collecting mental health data during disaster is a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare reported sensitive information regarding the disaster and general questions on physical or psychological functioning between social network (Facebook) interview and face-to-face interview after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Data were collected from a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 133 face-to-face participants and to 40 Facebook interviewees, during March-April 2011. The face-to-face interview group showed a significantly higher level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated risk for clinical level of PTSD and reported more worries about another disaster, lower life satisfaction, less perceived social support and lower self-rated health than the Facebook group. Our data may suggest that the reliability of internet surveys is jeopardized during extreme conditions such as large-scale disasters as it tends to underestimate the reactions to such events. This indicates the discrepancy from data collected in situ to data collected using social networks. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23200780

  9. Face-related segregation reversal at Pt 50Ni 50 surfaces studied with the embedded atom method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deurinck, P.; Creemers, C.

    1999-11-01

    The segregation to the three low-index surfaces of a Pt50Ni50 single crystal is modelled by Monte Carlo simulations combined with the embedded atom method (EAM). Using the best fit EAM parameters from the literature for the six transition metals of the Ni and Cu groups does not yield satisfactory results. In this work the EAM parameters are recalculated and optimised exclusively for the Pt-Ni alloy system under study. Only then does EAM reliably reproduce the driving forces for segregation. The experimental results [Y. Gauthier et al., Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 6216; Y. Gauthier et al., Phys. Rev. B 35 (1987) 7867; S.M. Foiles, in: P.A. Dobson, A. Miller (Eds.), Surface Segregation Phenomena, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1990, p. 79] reveal a face-related segregation reversal for the Pt50Ni50 single crystal. It appears from the simulations that this is caused by a relatively small difference in surface energy in close competition with the elastic strain release. At the open (110) surface the difference in surface energy dominates causing Ni segregation. At the (100) and (111) surfaces the difference in surface energy is overpowered by the elastic strain leading to Pt segregation. The simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results and reproduce quantitatively the Ni segregation to the (110) surface and the Pt segregation to the (100) and (111) surfaces. Only at the (110) surface significant relaxations are predicted in good agreement with experimental evidence. Atomic vibrations can be included by allowing a large number of very small displacements or with a more classical treatment of vibrational entropy. Both approaches yield the same results and show that the inclusion of atomic vibrations is important only for the (110) surface and tend to attenuate the Ni segregation profile.

  10. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  11. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  12. Functional Communication Patterns and Relational Concern in Interpersonal Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Stephen J.; Miller, Larry D.

    A study explored the relationship between the functional communication patterns occurring in conflict and post conflict impressions of relational concern. The first part of the study involved the development and testing of an instrument to measure perceived relational concern, while the second part investigated whether varying styles of functional…

  13. Constructing and Deriving Reciprocal Trigonometric Relations: A Functional Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K.; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed…

  14. BASCO: a toolbox for task-related functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Göttlich, Martin; Beyer, Frederike; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    BASCO (BetA Series COrrelation) is a user-friendly MATLAB toolbox with a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows investigating functional connectivity in event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Connectivity analyses extend and compliment univariate activation analyses since the actual interaction between brain regions involved in a task can be explored. BASCO supports seed-based functional connectivity as well as brain network analyses. Although there are a multitude of advanced toolboxes for investigating resting-state functional connectivity, BASCO is the first toolbox for evaluating task-related whole-brain functional connectivity employing a large number of network nodes. Thus, BASCO allows investigating task-specific rather than resting-state networks. Here, we summarize the main features of the toolbox and describe the methods and algorithms. PMID:26441558

  15. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires. PMID:19949509

  16. CONSTRUCTING AND DERIVING RECIPROCAL TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONS: A FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires. PMID:19949509

  17. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy. PMID:19042525

  18. Treatment of Age-related Mid-face Atrophy by Injection of Cohesive Polydensified Matrix Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer

    PubMed Central

    Micheels, Patrick; Kravtsov, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer is designed to be injected subcutaneously or in deeper soft tissue layers to restore facial volumes. This post-marketing clinical follow-up was performed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of the product up to 18 months. Design: Injections were performed according to standard clinical practice and patients were followed-up at Months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and optionally at Month 18. Effectiveness measures included facial volume loss scale, global aesthetic improvement scale and patients’ satisfaction. Injection site reactions were recorded to evaluate safety. Results: Twenty patients with intermediate-to-severe volume loss in the lateral cheek hollows and/or cheekbone area were treated. Facial volume loss scale scores dropped significantly from a mean value of 3.1 at baseline to 1.3 at Day 1. Significant volume enhancement was maintained at each follow-up visit with mean scores ranging from 1.3 at Month 1 to 1.8 at Month 12. Investigators’ global aesthetic improvement scale assessment showed that up to Month 6 at least 94 percent of patients were rated as “very much improved” or “much improved.” At Month 9, all patients still showed a benefit of treatment with 81 percent rated as “very much” or “much improved” and 19 percent as “improved.” Patients’ evaluation was consistent with investigators’ results. A few expected transient injection site reactions of mild-to-moderate intensity were reported immediately after treatment. These reactions were considered related to the injection procedure, rather than the product. Conclusion: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix Hyaluronic Acid Volumizer is safe and effective for mid-face volume augmentation lasting up to Month 12 and most probably up to Month 18. The aesthetic effect was demonstrated by the effectiveness evaluations and high patient satisfaction. PMID:25852812

  19. Entanglement criteria via concave-function uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yichen

    2010-07-15

    A general theorem as a necessary condition for the separability of quantum states in both finite and infinite dimensional systems, based on concave-function uncertainty relations, is derived. Two special cases of the general theorem are stronger than two known entanglement criteria based on the Shannon entropic uncertainty relation and the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation, respectively; other special cases are able to detect entanglement where some famous entanglement criteria fail.

  20. Electron work function and surface energy of body-centered and face-centered cubic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, L. P.; Shebzukhova, I. G.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for the evaluation of the electron work function of metallic single crystals and the electron work function anisotropy has been developed in the framework of the electron-statistical method. The surface energy and the electron work function have been calculated for crystal faces of allotropic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals. A change in the electron work function due to the allotropic transformations has been estimated, and the periodic dependence of the electron work function has been determined. It has been shown that the results obtained using the proposed technique correlate with the available experimental data for polycrystals.

  1. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  2. Attention to Faces Modulates Early Face Processing during Low but not High Face Discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Goldstein, Jonathan M.; Lustig, Audrey G.; Rivas, Luis R.; Jha, Amishi P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated if attention to faces results in sensory gain modulation. Participants were cued to attend to faces or scenes in superimposed face-scene images while face discriminability was parametrically manipulated across images. The face-sensitive N170 event-related potential component was used as a measure of early face processing. Attention to faces modulated N170 amplitude, but only when faces were not highly discriminable. Additionally, directing attention to faces modulated later processing (~230–300 msec) for all discriminability levels. These results demonstrate that attention to faces can modulate perceptual processing of faces at multiple stages of processing, including early sensory levels. Critically, the early attentional benefit is present only when the “face signal” (i.e., the perceptual quality of the face) in the environment is suboptimal. PMID:19429962

  3. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  4. Correlation between physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the quality of life of elderly people related to physical function, cognitive function, and health, and devised methods to enhance their health-related quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in 140 people over 65 registered at welfare centers. Those with a functional psychological disorder or difficulty communicating were excluded. Data were collected for physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using an assessment tool and questionnaire for healthy elderly people over 65. Physical function was measured using muscle strength muscle endurance, reaction time, and balance. [Results] Correlations were observed between cognitive function and endurance, reaction time, and balance. Physical HRQOL showed correlations with all domains of physical function; mental HRQOL showed correlations with all items of physical function except muscle strength. Among factors that influence HRQOL, all items except educational background were significant variables. Educational background had no influence on HRQOL. [Conclusion] Interventions will correct factors with a negative influence on HRQOL, utilizing regular checks on physical, cognitive, and other functions of elderly people, with early detection and intervention to enhance HRQOL. Cognitive intervention related to physical and other functions will be applied. PMID:27390430

  5. Functional Imaging and Related Techniques: An Introduction for Rehabilitation Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Ford, Anastasia; McGregor, Keith M.; Meinzer, Marcus; Cheshkov, Sergey; Li, Xiufeng; Walker-Batson, Delaina; Briggs, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging and related neuroimaging techniques are becoming important tools for rehabilitation research. Functional neuroimaging techniques can be used to determine the effects of brain injury or disease on brain systems related to cognition and behavior and to determine how rehabilitation changes brain systems. These techniques include: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Related diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques (DWI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), can quantify white matter integrity. With the proliferation of these imaging techniques in rehabilitation research, it is critical that rehabilitation researchers, as well as consumers of rehabilitation research, become familiar with neuroimaging techniques, what they can offer, and their strengths and weaknesses The purpose to this review is to provide such an introduction to these neuroimaging techniques. PMID:20593321

  6. Recurrence relations of Kummer functions and Regge string scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jen-Chi; Mitsuka, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    We discover an infinite number of recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes [11, 30] of different string states at arbitrary mass levels in the open bosonic string theory. As a result, all Regge string scattering amplitudes can be algebraically solved up to multiplicative factors. Instead of decoupling zero-norm states in the fixed angle regime, the calculation is based on recurrence relations and addition theorem of Kummer functions of the second kind. These recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes are dual to linear relations or symmetries among high-energy fixed angle string scattering amplitudes discovered previously.

  7. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions. PMID:26672902

  8. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  9. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  10. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…