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Sample records for relational ethics perspective

  1. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Keyko, Kacey

    2014-12-01

    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

  2. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  3. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  4. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

  5. Ethics in International Business Education: Perspectives from Five Business Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)

  6. Socioscience and Ethics in Science Classrooms: Teacher Perspectives and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative

  7. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER A Quantitative Perspective on Ethics in Large Team

    E-print Network

    ethics education and science policy. Keywords Team science Á Team science ethics Á Team scienceORIGINAL PAPER A Quantitative Perspective on Ethics in Large Team Science Alexander M. Petersen. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science

  9. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited. PMID:22371032

  10. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  11. Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

  12. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  13. Ethical dimensions of psychotherapy: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1996-01-01

    A substantial increase in the interest devoted to ethical issues has been a defining feature of my 50 years in psychotherapeutic practice. Reasons include a shift from a paternalistic to a contractual model of the doctor-patient relationship, increased litigiousness, and greater emphasis on the business rather than professional aspects of practice. Many ethical violations stem from misuse of therapist power in the psychotherapeutic relationship. One of the most egregious of these is overt sexual acting out between therapist and patient, a dereliction now viewed much more sternly, largely because of the rise of the women's movement. Therapist power can also be misused for purposes of psychopathological gratification, such as to dominate patients or impose values, and by emphasizing financial rewards over patient needs. A sea change I have observed has been the gradual replacement of a two-party by a three-party system of payment for psychotherapy. Among its most serious consequences in the ethical domain has been the weakening of the therapist's guarantee of absolute confidentiality to the patient. Managed care has further compounded the ethical dilemma by imposing a need to choose between the interests of patients and the organizations from which therapists receive remuneration. In their efforts to ensure parity coverage for psychotherapy, therapists need to respond to certain questions about their claims that their work promotes both individual welfare and the common good. Questions include the professional qualifications for skillful practice of psychotherapy, the evidence for its efficacy, the delimitation of the conditions properly treated by psychotherapy, and the extent to which these conditions fall within the medical model and thus satisfy the criterion of medical necessity. I conclude that, in spite of the efforts needed to maintain ethical standards, the "ethical revolution" that I have witnessed has enhanced the integrity and value of psychotherapy, both for its practitioners and for the public that they serve. PMID:8886230

  14. Teachers' Professional Ethics from Avicenna's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Mohammad Hossein; Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Mottagi, Zohre; Amini, Mehrnosh; Shiri, Ali Shiravani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to express Avicenna's standpoints in the area of teachers' professional ethics. Making use of a qualitative approach and a descriptive-analytic method, this study attempted to describe and analyze Avicenna's viewpoints on prerequisites of teaching profession by the help of the available resources. In general, the…

  15. An Ethical Perspective for the Religious Persuader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearin, Ray D.

    Because religious communicators deal with issues most profound and consequential to their audiences, it is imperative that they examine their motives, aspirations, and rhetorical methods, as well as the ethical dimensions of their communication. Religion operates, along with every other rhetorical system, in the world of contingency, of the…

  16. Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Diekema, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

  17. Overservicing in dental practice--ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Johan; Hasegawa, Thomas K

    2003-10-01

    Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or economic survival should never justify overservicing by the dentist. If the patients' best interests are always considered, the profession of dentistry can ethically exist within a business structure. PMID:14964050

  18. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

  19. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

  20. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

  1. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  2. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient's consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  3. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  4. A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy. PMID:24919946

  5. Pediatric Nurses’ Information and Applications Related To Ethical Codes

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, Ayse Sonay; Savaser, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethics is defined as the entirety of moral principles that form the basis of individuals’ behavior; it can also be defined as “moral theory” or “theoretical ethics”. Objectives: To determinate information and applications related to ethical codes of pediatric nurses. Patients and Methods: Participants were nurses attending the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nursing Course and the Pediatric Nursing Course conducted in Istanbul between September 2011 and December 2012. A total of nurses attending the courses at the specified dates and who agreed to participate in the study were included in the analysis. Data were collected through a questionnaire that we developed in accordance with current literature on nursing ethics. Results 140 nurses participated in this study. Information and applications were related to ethical codes of nurses including four categories; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. The principle of confidentiality/keeping secrets. Exactly 64.3% of nurses reported having heard of nursing ethical codes. The best-known ethical code was the principle of justice. Furthermore, while the rates were generally low, some nurses engaged in unethical practices such as patient discrimination and prioritizing acquaintances. Conclusions: We conclude that most nurses working in pediatric clinics act in compliance with ethical codes. We also found that the majority of nurses wanted to learn about ethical codes. For this reason, we recommended that nurses working in clinics and future nurses in training be informed of the appropriate ethical behavior and codes. PMID:26199697

  6. International Nursing Consultation: A Perspective on Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Margaret M.; Fargotstein, Barbara P.

    1986-01-01

    The ethical issues faced by international nurse consultants are examined, and the ways in which ethical theories can be useful to nurses dealing with ethical conflicts while serving as consultants of other countries are explored. (Author/MLW)

  7. Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

  8. When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Anne; Dunne, John D

    2015-10-01

    In the past 20 years, mindfulness therapeutic programs have moved firmly into the mainstream of clinical practice and beyond. As they have, we have also seen the development of an increasingly vocal critique. At issue is often less whether or not these mindfulness practices "work," and more whether there is a danger in dissociating them from the ethical frameworks for which they were originally developed. Mindfulness, the argument goes, was never supposed to be about weight loss, better sex, helping children perform better in school, helping employees be more productive in the workplace, or even improving the functioning of anxious, depressed people. It was never supposed to be a merchandized commodity to be bought and sold. The larger clinical and religious community, however, has not always been troubled by the idea that meditation might sometimes be used as a highly pragmatic remedy for various ailments. Why, then, are people troubled now? This essay is an effort to recapture a bigger historical perspective on current ethical qualms: to move beyond criticism and instead to try to understand the anatomy of our discontent. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436312

  9. Social and ethical perspectives of landslide risk mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsnes, Bjørn; Vangelsten, Bjørn V.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide risk may be mitigated by use of a wide range of measures. Mitigation and prevention options may include (1) structural measures to reduce the frequency, severity or exposure to the hazard, (2) non-structural measures, such as land-use planning and early warning systems, to reduce the hazard frequency and consequences, and (3) measures to pool and transfer the risks. In a given situation the appropriate system of mitigation measures may be a combination of various types of measures, both structural and non-structural. In the process of choosing mitigation measures for a given landslide risk situation, the role of the geoscientist is normally to propose possible mitigation measures on basis of the risk level and technical feasibility. Social and ethical perspectives are often neglected in this process. However, awareness of the need to consider social as well as ethical issues in the design and management of mitigating landslide risk is rising. There is a growing understanding that technical experts acting alone cannot determine what will be considered the appropriate set of mitigation and prevention measures. Issues such as environment versus development, questions of acceptable risk, who bears the risks and benefits, and who makes the decisions, also need to be addressed. Policymakers and stakeholders engaged in solving environmental risk problems are increasingly recognising that traditional expert-based decision-making processes are insufficient. This paper analyse the process of choosing appropriate mitigation measures to mitigate landslide risk from a social and ethical perspective, considering technical, cultural, economical, environmental and political elements. The paper focus on stakeholder involvement in the decision making process, and shows how making strategies for risk communication is a key for a successful process. The study is supported by case study examples from Norway and Italy. In the Italian case study, three different risk mitigation options was presented to the local community. The options were based on a thorough stakeholder involvement process ending up in three different views on how to deal with the landslide risk situation: i) protect lives and properties (hierarchical) ; ii) careful stewardship of the mountains (egalitarian); and iii) rational individual choice (individualist).

  10. Ethical considerations in biobanks: how a public health ethics perspective sheds new light on old controversies.

    PubMed

    Virani, Alice Hawkins; Longstaff, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Biobanks, collections of biospecimens with or without linked medical data, have increased dramatically in number in the last two decades. Their potential power to identify the underlying mechanisms of both rare and common disease has catalyzed their proliferation in the academic, medical, and private sectors. Despite demonstrated public support of biobanks, some within the academic, governmental, and public realms have also expressed cautions associated with the ethical, legal, and social (ELSI) implications of biobanks. These issues include concerns related to the privacy and confidentiality of data; return of results and incidental findings to participants; data sharing and secondary use of samples; informed consent mechanisms; ownership of specimens; and benefit sharing (i.e., the distribution of financial or other assets that result from the research). Such apprehensions become amplified as more researchers seek to pursue national and cross-border collaborations between biobanks. This paper provides an overview of two of the most contentious topics in biobank literature - informed consent and return of individual research results or incidental findings - and explores how a public health ethics lens may help to shed new light on how these issues may be best approached and managed. Doing so also demonstrates the important role that genetic counselors can play in the ongoing discussion of ethically appropriate biobank recruitment and management strategies, as well as identifies important areas of ongoing empirical research on these unresolved topics. PMID:25348083

  11. Ethics in scientific publication: historical and international perspectives 

    E-print Network

    Henry, Melissa June

    2013-02-22

    Ethical issues in scientific communication have existed in the scientific community since before the 17[th] century publication of the first scientific journal. To understand the historical development of scientific publication ethics as its own...

  12. Ethics for Professionals in Education: Perspectives for Preparation and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A., Ed.; Ternasky, P. Lance, Ed.

    This book examines ethical principles governing the conduct of teachers, administrators, and other education professionals. The collection of articles, some with conflicting views, provides an overview of the many issues that define the place of ethics in professional preparation and practice. Following the introduction, "Ethics in Educational…

  13. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  14. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  15. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the “price condition”) or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the “production method condition”), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  16. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  17. The Ethics of Writing Instruction: Issues in Theory and Practice. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Michael A., Ed.

    This collection of essays reveals a keen awareness of the degree to which ethics and ethical systems are located in particular instructional contexts. The essays consider the implications of these contexts from a variety of perspectives, both theoretical and pedagogical. In the collection's first part, Ethics and the Composition Classroom, are the…

  18. Learning to Care during Storytime in the Current Context: Moral Education from the Perspective of Care Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Through an examination of storytelling in the present context, this study addresses the teaching of moral education from the standpoint of care ethics. Through observations, interviews, and surveys in one school committed to care ethics, this study aims to show how the philosophical perspective of care ethics can inform practice. Teachers engaged…

  19. A Model of Ethical Decision Making from a Multicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun

    2005-01-01

    Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…

  20. Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy 

    E-print Network

    Zoja, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    ethics is, and in de- termining what is right and wrong. Left alone, yet also of necessity more urgently grounded in the enter- prise, Carl Gustav Jung has adhered to the tradition that assumes that ethics is central to every discipline. 3 And he...

  1. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  2. Ethical Perspectives in Open and Distance Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anitha, C.; Harsha, T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death…

  3. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  4. The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    This presentation covers the topic of psychological ethics from two perspectives. One part of the presentation considers how ethics is presented in the classroom through both textbook consideration and specifically designed courses. The other part of the presentation considers ethical issues as they are related to the activity of teaching. Each of…

  5. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  6. [A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients. PMID:25271028

  7. The ethics debate in relation to xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Smetanka, C; Cooper, D K C

    2005-04-01

    Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of organs and cells from one species to another: it has enormous potential to increase the supply of organs and tissues to alleviate human disease. Recent scientific progress has eliminated the obstacle of hyperacute rejection, which is the massive destruction of the transplanted organ within 24 h. Despite this progress and the tremendous clinical potential, a number of ethical issues require careful consideration. These issues involve the human recipients, source animals, biotechnology companies and ultimately, the general public. One of the greatest concerns is the potential risk that an infectious agent will be transferred with the organ to the recipient, from whom it may spread, leading to a possible epidemic. However, there is no current evidence that porcine endogenous retrovirus, which is the agent of greatest concern, will be pathogenic. Using modern biotechnology, it may be possible to generate pigs that are free of this virus in the near future. Addressing these issues deliberately and in a scientific manner, with public involvement and education, will result in a greater understanding of the risks and benefits of xenotransplantation. This knowledge can then be utilised to fulfil the increasing demand for transplantable organs, with minimal risk. PMID:16110900

  8. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

  9. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  10. Ethical Concerns Related to Developing Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Alexandra E.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction threaten to exacerbate already dramatic disparities in the burden of drug dependence for minority and other underserved populations. PMID:22003420

  11. A Circular Evolution of Perspectives regarding Ethical Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, E. Sam

    The contemporary view of ethical communication has come full circle, returning to the approach of Aristotle. Almost every public speaking textbook includes discussion of the basic concepts of what Aristotle called ethos, pathos, and logos. Of particular significance is Aristotle's conception of ethos, as elaborated in his work, "The Rhetoric."…

  12. Codes of Ethics in Australian Education: Towards a National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Daniella J.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…

  13. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  14. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  15. Ethics Instruction in Community College Leadership Programs: Southern Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Nikisha Green

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…

  16. Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

  17. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  18. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  19. Gun control in the United States: ethical perspectives for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Michael

    2003-03-01

    The current author will explore the way we should think about the ethical implications of gun control in the United States today. The generating pedagogy will be: (1) an explication of worldview perspectives, personal and community as per the author's recently published writings; (2) a discussion of the worldviews of both sides of the gun control debate; (3) a critical appraisal of the positions of each side; and (4) some suggestions about a future that is without ordinary citizen ownership of guns. The author argues that based on an ethical rights model of analysis, an ordinary citizen's right to bear arms is outweighed by other competing rights claims. PMID:12616038

  20. The ethics of neonatal research: An ethicist's and a parents' perspective.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Annie; Farlow, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The ethics of neonatal research are complex because vulnerable new parents are asked to provide consent on behalf of their fragile baby. Whereas clinical neonatal care has evolved to value personalized and shared decision-making, the goal of research ethics is still to standardize the informed consent process and make it as complete and thorough as possible. Ethicists, lawyers and physicians have shaped the field of research ethics and consent for research. The goal of detailed informed consent is to protect participants from harm, but procedures were developed without input from the principal stakeholders: ex-neonatal intensive care unit parents/patients. Empirical investigations examining patient and parental perspectives on research and research ethics are lacking. Rigorous investigations are needed to determine how parents of sick neonates want their families to be protected, knowing that a lack of research is also harmful. Large randomized controlled multicenter trials will always be needed to improve neonatal outcomes. These trials are costly and time-consuming. Currently, the way in which research is funded and regulated and the way in which academic merit is recognized lead to inefficiency and a waste of precious resources. Following a review of the history of research ethics, this article examines and discusses the ethics of research in neonatology. In addition, challenges and opportunities are identified and ideas for future investigations are proposed. PMID:26497942

  1. Ethics and Institutional Review Boards The following is a list of resources compiled by UROP that relate to ethics and the teaching of research

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    Ethics and Institutional Review Boards The following is a list of resources compiled by UROP that relate to ethics and the teaching of research ethics in a variety of areas. While successful preparing student researchers in ethics. They are available from the UROP library, GT Library

  2. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards. PMID:24465233

  3. Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

  4. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  5. Intercorporeality and Ethical Commitment: An Activity Perspective on Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a sociocultural alternative to contemporary constructivist conceptions of classroom interaction. Drawing on the work of Vygotsky and Leont'ev, we introduce an approach that offers a new perspective through which to understand the "specifically human" forms of knowing that emerge when people engage in joint activity. To…

  6. Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

  7. Brain-computer interfaces: military, neurosurgical, and ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kotchetkov, Ivan S; Hwang, Brian Y; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Kellner, Christopher P; Connolly, E Sander

    2010-05-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that acquire and transform neural signals into actions intended by the user. These devices have been a rapidly developing area of research over the past 2 decades, and the military has made significant contributions to these efforts. Presently, BCIs can provide humans with rudimentary control over computer systems and robotic devices. Continued advances in BCI technology are especially pertinent in the military setting, given the potential for therapeutic applications to restore function after combat injury, and for the evolving use of BCI devices in military operations and performance enhancement. Neurosurgeons will play a central role in the further development and implementation of BCIs, but they will also have to navigate important ethical questions in the translation of this highly promising technology. In the following commentary the authors discuss realistic expectations for BCI use in the military and underscore the intersection of the neurosurgeon's civic and clinical duty to care for those who serve their country. PMID:20568942

  8. Transgressive ethics: Professional work ethics as a perspective on ‘aggressive organ harvesting’

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anja MB

    2013-01-01

    Occasionally brain-dead organ donors go into cardiac arrest before reaching the operating theater. In such cases, the needed resuscitation of the potential donor stimulates a range of concerns among the responsible staff. If the intensive care unit staff are going to carry out the organ retrieval, they must rush in with demanding treatment measures such as defibrillation shock and cardiac massage that may break breast bones and make the donor vomit. Such treatment measures conflict with widespread ideals of tranquility in donor care and yet they are currently under consideration in Danish intensive care units. Why is this type of ‘aggressive organ harvesting’, as it is sometimes called, considered a likely development, even to the extent that the interviewed health professionals request a policy prescribing procurement measures they morally deplore? We suggest that to understand this change of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground and thus can theoretically develop our understanding of the mechanisms associated with increasingly ‘aggressive organ harvesting’.

  9. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  10. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. There is hardly an area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: ...

  11. Special relativity from an accelerated observer perspective

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Special relativity from an accelerated observer perspective Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et 14 June 2010 Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Special relativity and accelerated observers Observatoire de Paris, 14 June 2010 1 / 41 #12;Plan 1 Introduction 2 Accelerated observers in special relativity 3

  12. Varicella-zoster virus vaccination under the exogenous boosting hypothesis: two ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Ogunjimi, Benson; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-12-12

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two diseases: varicella ('chickenpox') and herpes zoster ('shingles'). VZV vaccination of children reduces exposure to chickenpox in the population and it has been hypothesized that this could increase the prevalence of shingles. This 'exogenous boosting' effect of VZV raises an important equity concern: introducing a vaccination program could advance the health of one population group (children) at the expense of another (adults and elderly). We discuss the program's justifiability from two ethical perspectives, classic utilitarianism and contractualism. Whereas the former framework might offer a foundation for the case against introducing this vaccination, the latter offers a basis to justify it. PMID:25454883

  13. Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of natural disasters from the survivors' perspective.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Shainy B

    2010-12-01

    Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of disaster depend on various factors. The impact of a disaster on a particular culture depends on the people in that culture and the strength and resilience of the culture. Disasters may slow cultural development; however, typically the customs, beliefs, and value systems remain the same even if the outward expressions of culture change. Critical to survivors is the implication of aid that is culturally sensitive. Ethical questions and dilemmas associated with disasters and their management are profound. Adhering to ethical principles does not solve all of the issues related to disaster management, but awareness of their utility is important. People affected by a disaster may not be capable of responding to human rights violations, so it is the first responders who must be cognizant of their responsibility to protect the victims’ dignity and rights. Ethical treatment of survivors entails a crucial blend of knowledge about ethnic culture, religious beliefs, and human rights. A strong awareness of ethical principles is merely a beginning step to well-informed decision making in disaster situations. The literature also suggests that during a crisis, spirituality helps victims to cope. Important to any catastrophic event is the understanding that every disaster creates unique circumstances that require relief responses tailored to the specific situation. PMID:21095559

  14. Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

  15. Inequities in access to cancer care in Canada: An ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Purificacion, Sunshine J; French, John G; d'Agincourt-Canning, Lori

    2015-11-01

    The ability to provide quality cancer care largely depends on how accessible the services are to those in need. In the current state, disparities exist in access to Canadian cancer services, and this poses an ethical challenge. This article highlights ethical and strategic considerations related to equity in access to Canadian cancer care. Based on the principles of bioethics-beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice-various action strategies have been recommended in order to improve access to cancer care nationally. PMID:26347478

  16. An Ecological Perspective of Power in Transformational Learning: A Case Study of Ethical Vegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    1999-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…

  17. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  18. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  19. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schleissing, S; Kersten, J; Thaler, C J; von Schönfeldt, V

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an "Ethics of Parenthood" can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child-parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  20. 76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...The Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA), with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is adopting as final, without change, the interim FLRA rule that supplements the executive-branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE and, with certain exceptions, requires FLRA employees to obtain approval before engaging in outside...

  1. Uncovering a Relational Epistemology of Ethical Dilemmas in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Husu, Jukka

    This paper discusses ethical dilemmas in early childhood education as identified by 26 kindergarten and early elementary school teachers. Ethical dilemmas are investigated in the theoretical framework of virtue epistemology. The method used in the study is a relational reading of teachers' narratives. Interpretive accounts are created to allow…

  2. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  3. The Roles, Duties, and Ethical Responsibilities of the Chief Financial Officer. Perspectives…Presenting Thought Leaders' Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Released in conjunction with the "Sustaining an Ethical Culture on Campus" webcast, this essay in the "Perspectives" series examines the complexities of the role of the chief financial officer. This white paper focuses on how the financial leader of an institution must balance technical knowledge along with stellar…

  4. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  5. Throwing Out the Relativity Bath Water without Losing the Diversity Baby: Teaching Diversity versus Relativity in a Communication Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Jay; Haughey, Paul

    This paper holds that despite, or perhaps because of, the development of recent ideas about diversity and cultural relativity, universities are obligated to teach communication ethics. Further, it holds that the implications of giving bachelor's degrees to students who do not have a solid grasp of universal ethical guidelines are potentially…

  6. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel – Ethical and Systems Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code’s articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles – giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand – was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health personnel through international recruitment, given that it calls on all member states "to educate, retain and sustain a health workforce that is appropriate for their (need) ..." (Article 5.4), to ensure health systems’ sustainability. However, in some wealthy destination countries, this means tackling national inequities and poorly designed health workforce strategies that result in foreign-trained doctors being recruited to work among disadvantaged populations and in primary care settings, allowing domestically trained doctors work in more attractive hospital settings. PMID:26029891

  7. Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2011-06-01

    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052

  8. Policy on code of ethics 1 Current Revision: 01/2013 Policy on Development and Alumni Relations code of

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    Policy on code of ethics 1 Current Revision: 01/2013 Policy on Development and Alumni Relations code of ethics Policy Type: Local Responsible Office: Office of Development and Alumni Relations Code of Ethics. Table of Contents Policy Statement and Purpose 1 Who Should

  9. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  10. Nanotechnology and environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Tomoki, Kihira

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the relation between human and nature is not direct, but mediated by the technology. Therefore, it seems that characteristics of the technology defines the relation. If this is true, the problem is whether new technology always makes new relation or not. In this paper I take a brief look at the relation between technology in general and the environmental crisis from the ethical perspective. And then, I investigate the concept of responsible development and the principle of stewardship that is adopted in two reports concerning nanotechnologies. Through these explorations, an ethical stance on the application of nanotechnology is proposed. PMID:21850974

  11. European survey on ethical and legal framework of clinical trials in paediatrics: results and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Altavilla, Annagrazia; Giaquinto, Carlo; Ceci, Adriana

    2008-09-01

    This article constitutes a synthesis and analysis of the results of the "Survey on the ethical and legal frameworks existing in Europe for paediatric clinical trials" carried out by the European network TEDDY. TEDDY is a "Network of Excellence" funded by the Sixth EU Framework Programme (FP6). It began its activities in June 2005 and it is scheduled to run until 2010. It involves 19 partners in 11 countries. The overall goal of TEDDY is to promote the availability of safe and effective medicines to children in Europe by integrating existing expertise and the good practices. In the domain of ethics, the main aim of TEDDY is raise the awareness of the public and researchers concerning issues linked to biomedical research in paediatrics, by contributing to developing the debate on the ethical and legal stakes, as well as the potential deviations, in order to ensure the best possible protection of children participating in clinical trials. This study, with twenty-seven participating countries (23 EU Member States and 4 countries associated to the Fifth and Sixth EU Framework Programme), proposes to highlight the existing differences in the legislation of European countries concerning the procedure of consent, as well as the guarantee of the paediatric expertise within the Ethics Committees which are in charge of evaluating research protocols. The study shows that, even though the Directive 2001/20/EC has been transposed, the value attributed to the consent of minors who participate in clinical trials is different depending on the European state. Despite the general rule of having the written consent of the legal representative of the minor, over a certain age (different in relation to each state) and under certain conditions, to give the consent alone to participate in biomedical research. Furthermore, there is an Ethics Committee for minors in only four countries. In addition, we illustrate the lack of information and in-depth debate in Europe concerning the ethical stakes of clinical trials in paediatrics. An overview of possible legal deviations is also presented. PMID:19244940

  12. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…

  13. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation. PMID:11954992

  14. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  15. A survey of students` ethical attitudes using computer-related scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, C.M.; Kingsbury, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students ascending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper will present data accumulated by an on-going study in which students are presented seven scenarios--all of which involve some aspect of computing technology. These students were randomly selected from a small, Christian, liberal-arts university.

  16. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

  17. [Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].

    PubMed

    Friedel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

  18. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  19. The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

  20. Relational Ethics, Depressive Symptoms, and Relationship Satisfaction in Couples in Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, Rashmi; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Hartwell, Erica E; Glebova, Tatiana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction as problems related to relational ethics in one's family of origin and current partner relationships in a sample of 68 other-sex couples seeking therapy at a large university clinic. We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to analyze dyadic data collected prior to beginning therapy. Specifically, we found significant actor effects between relational ethics in one's family of origin and depressive symptoms, as well as between depressive symptoms and low relationship satisfaction for both male and female partners. We also found significant partner effects for relational ethics in current partner relationship, depressive symptoms, and low relationship satisfaction. Clinical application of contextual therapy theory is discussed. PMID:24798508

  1. A phenomenological-contextual, existential, and ethical perspective on emotional trauma.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    After a brief overview of the author's phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective, the paper traces the evolution of the author's conception of emotional trauma over the course of three decades, as it developed in concert with his efforts to grasp his own traumatized states and his studies of existential philosophy. The author illuminates two of trauma's essential features: (1) its context-embeddedness-painful or frightening affect becomes traumatic when it cannot find a context of emotional understanding in which it can be held and integrated, and (2) its existential significance-emotional trauma shatters our illusions of safety and plunges us into an authentic Being-toward-death, wherein we must face up to our finitude and the finitude of all those we love. The paper also describes the impact of trauma on the phenomenology of time and the sense of alienation from others that accompanies traumatic temporality. The author contends that the proper therapeutic comportment toward trauma is a form of emotional dwelling. He concludes with a discussion of the implications of all these formulations for the development of an ethics of finitude. PMID:25688682

  2. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

  3. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

  4. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  5. Ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS: case reports.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-06-01

    The continents of Africa and Asia have the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world. Worldwide there are 42 million and 29.7 million (70%) are in sub Saharan Africa [United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). Available from: www.unaids.org]. The stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS are hampering control of the disease. Family life has greatly been disrupted by the pandemic. AIDS causes illness, disability and death as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to the families. The epidemic is well established in South Africa. The mortality will be doubled over the next five years. A broad range of coercive measures has been considered to be applied internationally in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Responsibility of the employers to their HIV/AIDS employees at workplace, choice of termination of pregnancy when a woman is HIV positive, attitude of health care provider to their HIV infected patients, informed consent for taking blood to protect from transmission of infection in a case of accidental prick, and forced resignation from employment, are discussed in this manuscript. The ethical problems are highlighted, and possible solutions recommended. PMID:15914310

  6. 75 FR 79261 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority...intends to issue an interim regulation for employees of the FLRA that supplements the executive-branch-wide...certain outside employment; and requires employees who disqualify themselves from...

  7. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

  8. Ethical Perspectives in Biogerontology Sebastian Sethe and Joo Pedro de Magalhes

    E-print Network

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    , Health Policy and (Anti-) Aging: Mixed Blessings, 173 Ethics and Health Policy 1, DOI 10 on the biology of aging, ethical themes can be classified as either belonging to an `inner sphere' where the conduct of the aging research itself is under ethi- cal scrutiny; or, secondly, an `outer sphere' where

  9. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  10. Addressing Religious Plurality--A Teacher Perspective on Minority Religion and Secular Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilliacus, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    The Finnish education system recognizes religious plurality by offering education in pupils' own religion or in secular ethics. However, little research has been undertaken on how plurality is addressed in classroom practice. This study investigates how 31 minority religion and secular ethics teachers view the task of supporting and including…

  11. Bringing Ethics into the Classroom: Making a Case for Frameworks, Multiple Perspectives and Narrative Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Corley, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for the need to discuss the topic of ethics in the classroom and presents five frameworks of ethics that have been applied to education. A case analysis used in workshops with educators in the field of Special Education is described, and the benefits of sharing narratives are discussed. The authors offer suggestions, grounded…

  12. Triangulation of Bayesian Networks: a Relational Database Perspective

    E-print Network

    Butz, Cory J.

    Triangulation of Bayesian Networks: a Relational Database Perspective S.K.M. Wong, D. Wu, and C, danwu, butz}@cs.uregina.ca Abstract. In this paper, we study the problem of triangulation of Bayesian networks from a relational database perspective. We show that the prob- lem of triangulating a Bayesian

  13. Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations: Cross-cultural Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewstone, M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses intergroup relations, focusing on three issues: the social psychology of intergroup relations; the value of a cross-cultural perspective; and the contributions of this issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development." (SED)

  14. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis-obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs-seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), the founding father of artificial parthenogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  15. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  16. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    E-print Network

    Cherry, Joseph Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jason L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-04-01

    concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether...

  17. Lived Relationality as Fulcrum for Pedagogical-Ethical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saevi, Tone

    2011-01-01

    What is the core of pedagogical practice? Which qualities are primary to the student-teacher relationship? What is a suitable language for pedagogical practice? What might be the significance of an everyday presentational pedagogical act like for example the glance of a teacher? The pedagogical relation as lived relationality experientially…

  18. Ethical Guidelines for PhD Projects -draft1 LERH acknowledges its responsibility for standard-setting in environmental related

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    Ethical Guidelines for PhD Projects - draft1 LERH acknowledges its responsibility for standard-setting in environmental related research within both the natural and social sciences. Consequently, LERH is committed to maintaining an up-to-date set of ethical guidelines. All LERH doctoral

  19. Information, consent and treatment of patients with Morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

  20. Three perspectives on the ethics of immigration: utilitarian, liberal egalitarian and libertarian 

    E-print Network

    Todea, Virginia Diana

    2010-11-24

    The focal point of this dissertation is the recent discussion on the ethics of immigration. The main question considered is: “Should a state promote immigration?” Promoting immigration means allowing immigrants to enter ...

  1. Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake. PMID:11953789

  2. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

  3. How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse. PMID:23150079

  4. Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Itaru

    Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

  5. Ethical challenges in integrating patient-care with clinical research in a resource-limited setting: perspectives from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings where healthcare services are limited and poverty is common, it is difficult to ethically conduct clinical research without providing patient-care. Therefore, integration of patient-care with clinical research appears as an attractive way of conducting research while providing patient-care. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of such approach with perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Discussion Considering the difficulties of providing basic healthcare services in developing countries, it may be argued that integration of clinical research with patient-care is an effective, rational and ethical way of conducting research. However, blending patient-care with clinical research may increase the risk of subordinating patient-care in favour of scientific gains; therapeutic misconception and inappropriate inducement; and the risk of causing health system failures due to limited capacity in developing countries to sustain the level of healthcare services sponsored by the research. Nevertheless, these ethical and administrative implications can be minimised if patient-care takes precedence over research; the input of local ethics committees and institutions are considered; and funding agencies acknowledge their ethical obligation when sponsoring research in resource-limited settings. Summary Although integration of patient-care with clinical research in developing countries appears as an attractive way of conducting research when resources are limited, careful planning and consideration on the ethical implications of such approach must be considered. PMID:23885908

  6. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

  7. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, C; Deakin, L; Docking, M; Jones, J; Joshua, S; McKerahan, T; Ottmar, M; Stevens, A; Wates, E; Wyatt, D

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329600

  8. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  9. Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman,

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    CHANCE 51 Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman, Column Editor A n ethics problem arises when you, and (c) violates some rule. Other definitionsarepossible;thereisavastlit- erature on professional ethics that I will not discuss, instead focusing here on my own perspective as a statistician. Any ethical

  10. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  11. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel--Ethical and Systems Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-06-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code's articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles--giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand--was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health personnel through international recruitment, given that it calls on all member states "to educate, retain and sustain a health workforce that is appropriate for their (need) ..." (Article 5.4), to ensure health systems' sustainability. However, in some wealthy destination countries, this means tackling national inequities and poorly designed health workforce strategies that result in foreign-trained doctors being recruited to work among disadvantaged populations and in primary care settings, allowing domestically trained doctors work in more attractive hospital settings. PMID:26029891

  12. Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

  13. Ethical Leadership Development as Care of the Self: A Foucauldian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignatelli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This essay addresses the care of the self as an important aspect in the development of educational leaders. It draws upon Michel Foucault's analysis of power and its relationship to his understanding of ethics as a practice one cultivates and takes on in the interests of leadership development. Foucault's work in these areas is timely for graduate…

  14. How an Exchange of Perspectives Led to Tentative Ethical Guidelines for Visual Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Clive C.; De Luca, Rosemary; Tolich, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…

  15. The Relationship between Ethical Positions and Methodological Approaches: A Scandinavian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Eriksson, Anita

    2010-01-01

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of…

  16. Reflections on "Social Justice,", "Race," "Ethnicity" and "Identity" from an Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-01-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, "social justice," "race," "ethnicity" and "identity." This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with…

  17. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  18. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of primary and secondary sources identifies five basic properties of professional ethics codes. The author's own theory, which is related directly to intra- and extraprofessional statuses, is added to the two traditional theories (functional and monopoly) which explain these properties. Professional ethics in America since 1900 are…

  19. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should include the development of a website for ongoing discussion that could contribute to a raised awareness of these concerns and potentially increase social responsibility in the medical tourism industry. PMID:24314027

  20. Everyday ethics in an acute psychiatric unit

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V; Briscoe, J

    2002-01-01

    The paper begins with a brief statement about the centrality of autonomy or self governance as a core ethical value in the interaction between health care worker and patient. Then there are three stories describing everyday interactions in an acute psychiatric unit. These are used to help unravel ethical issues relating to patient autonomy. Each story is analysed for its ethical components by describing the protagonists' different perspectives, and their reactions to the events. Attention is also paid to institutional policy. Suggestions are made for small changes in both staff behaviour and institutional procedures. Such changes could enhance rather than diminish patient autonomy. PMID:12042403

  1. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  2. Ethical Implications of Case-Based Payment in China: A Systematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pingyue; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

    2015-12-01

    How health care providers are paid affects how medicine is practiced. It is thus important to assess provider payment models not only from the economic perspective but also from the ethical perspective. China recently started to reform the provider payment model in the health care system from fee-for-service to case-based payment. This paper aims to examine this transition from an ethical perspective. We collected empirical studies on the impact of case-based payment in the Chinese health care system and applied a systematic ethical matrix that integrates clinical ethics and public health ethics to analyze the empirical findings. We identified eleven prominent ethical issues related to case-based payment. Some ethical problems of case-based payment in China are comparable to ethical problems of managed care and diagnosis related groups in high-income countries. However, in this paper we discuss in greater detail four specific ethical issues in the Chinese context: professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, access to care and patient autonomy. Based on the analysis, we cautiously infer that case-based payment is currently more ethically acceptable than fee-for-service in the context of China, mainly because it seems to lower financial barriers to access care. Nonetheless, it will be difficult to justify the implementation of case-based payment if no additional measures are taken to monitor and minimize its existing negative ethical implications. PMID:24750551

  3. Reproductive cloning and human health: an ethical, international, and nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sweatman, L R

    2000-03-01

    Human reproductive cloning came to the public's attention when Dolly, a sheep, was cloned in Scotland in 1997. This news quickly spread around the world causing both excitement at the possibilities that cloning techniques could offer, as well as apprehension about the ethical, social and legal implications should human reproductive cloning become possible. Many international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and governments were concerned about the impact of human reproductive cloning on human health, dignity and human rights. To this end, many institutions have drafted resolutions, protocols and position statements outlining their concerns. This paper will outline some of the major ethical issues surrounding human reproductive cloning, the position of various international organizations and governments, and specifically the position of the International Council of Nurses. PMID:10765496

  4. One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

    2012-11-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

  5. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25327898

  6. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2015-01-14

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. These guidelines are also published in: Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25330311

  7. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sarnaik, Ajit A.

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  8. Researchers’ perspectives on scientific and ethical issues with transcranial direct current stimulation: An international survey

    PubMed Central

    Riggall, Kate; Forlini, Cynthia; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Weier, Megan; Partridge, Brad; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance brain function in healthy individuals, and ameliorate cognitive and other symptoms in patients suffering from various medical conditions. This, along with its presumed safety, simplicity, and affordability, has generated great enthusiasm amongst researchers, clinicians, patient populations, and the public (including a growing “do-it-yourself” community). However, discussion about the effectiveness and ethics of tDCS thus far has been confined to small groups of tDCS researchers and bioethicists. We conducted an international online survey targeting the opinions of researchers using tDCS who were asked to rate the technique’s efficacy in different contexts. We also surveyed opinions about ethical concerns, self-enhancement and public availability. 265 complete responses were received and analyzed statistically and thematically. Our results emphasize the potential uses of tDCS in clinical and research contexts, but also highlight a number of emerging methodological and safety concerns, ethical challenges and the need for improved communication between researchers and bioethicists with regard to regulation of the device. Neither the media reputation of tDCS as a “miracle device” nor concerns expressed in recent neuroethical publications were entirely borne out in expert opinion. PMID:26068889

  9. What makes the best medical ethics journal? A North American perspective

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J; Viens, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish which factors contribute to medical ethicists reviewing articles for or submitting them to medical ethics journals by consulting those who are active in this capacity. Methods: Medical ethicists were surveyed to determine their incentives and disincentives for reviewing articles for or submitting them to medical ethics journals. Survey participants were chosen based on a review of the academic and research record of medical ethicists working in North America in higher education institutions. Results: The most frequent incentives to reviewing journal articles were: an opportunity to contribute to the field/profession, the good reputation of the journal, the high impact factor of the journal, and to keep up to date on current research. The most frequent disincentives to reviewing journal articles were: time constraints due to academic commitments, the poor reputation of the journal, and time constraints caused by other editorial commitments (for example, reviewing for other journals/publishers). The most important incentives to submitting journal articles were: the good reputation of the journal, the quality of scholarship previously published in the journal, the impact factor of the journal, and a fast turn-around from acceptance to publication. The most important disincentives to submitting journal articles were: the poor reputation of the journal, the poor quality of work previously published in the journal, and a slow turn-around from acceptance to publication. Conclusion: A series of factors that medical ethics journals should strive to employ to encourage reviewing and submission of articles are recommended. PMID:16199602

  10. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. PMID:25050064

  11. Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning. PMID:24447658

  12. A critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

    2015-04-01

    The centenary of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology was recognised in 2013 with the publication of a volume of essays dedicated to his work (edited by Stanghellini and Fuchs). Leading phenomenological-psychopathologists and philosophers of psychiatry examined Jaspers notion of empathic understanding and his declaration that certain schizophrenic phenomena are 'un-understandable'. The consensus reached by the authors was that Jaspers operated with a narrow conception of phenomenology and empathy and that schizophrenic phenomena can be understood through what they variously called second-order and radical empathy. This article offers a critical examination of the second-order empathic stance along phenomenological and ethical lines. It asks: (1) Is second-order empathy (phenomenologically) possible? (2) Is the second-order empathic stance an ethically acceptable attitude towards persons diagnosed with schizophrenia? I argue that second-order empathy is an incoherent method that cannot be realised. Further, the attitude promoted by this method is ethically problematic insofar as the emphasis placed on radical otherness disinvests persons diagnosed with schizophrenia from a fair chance to participate in the public construction of their identity and, hence, to redress traditional symbolic injustices. PMID:25820144

  13. Understanding metaphor: A relational frame perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2001-01-01

    The current article presents a basic functional-analytic interpretation of metaphor. This work involves an extension of Skinner's (1957) interpretation of metaphor using relational frame theory (RFT). A basic RFT interpretation of a particular metaphor is outlined, according to which the metaphor acquires its psychological effects when formal stimulus dimensions are contacted via the derivation of arbitrary stimulus relations. This interpretation sees the metaphor as involving four elements: (a) establishing two separate equivalence relations, (b) deriving an equivalence relation between these relations, (c) discriminating a formal relation via this equivalence-equivalence relation, and (d) a transformation of functions on the basis of the formal relation discriminated in the third element. In the second half of the paper, a number of important issues with regard to the RFT interpretation of metaphor are addressed. PMID:22478364

  14. Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Dudley, Michael; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Okasha, Ahmed

    2007-05-01

    Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as "The Doctors' Trial". This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them. PMID:17223241

  15. The Case of Pharmacological Neuroenhancement: Medical, Judicial and Ethical Aspects from a German Perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, A G; Northoff, R; Hildt, E

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e.?g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e.?g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e.?g., antidementia drugs, methylphenidate) and illicit drugs (e.?g., illicit amphetamines). Clinical studies have shown that the aforementioned substances only have limited pro-cognitive effects and have considerable safety risks and side effects.The German judicial perspective shows legal differences between substances (drugs, food, food supplements, fortified food) that can be bought in a supermarket, drugs that can be bought in a pharmacy as over-the-counter- (OTC-) drugs, drugs with or without the need for a prescription and illicit drugs. Supermarket drugs and fortified food can be sold freely and follow the general rules of civil and penal law; regarding acquisition, parents are responsible for their children. OTC drugs require special information about therapy. Regarding prescription drugs, there are legal problems caused by an off-label use and the non-medical purposes of PN drugs. Furthermore, prescription stimulants for PN are governed by the specialized law for narcotics, and their use might be punished. Beyond the general lack of rules for regulation for PN drug use there are specific needs for prevention (e.?g., control of the black market, etc.).Possible future policy will depend, among others, on the probability with which effective PN drugs with an acceptable risk-benefit ratio will be available, on individual and societal implications, and on public opinion towards PN. While 4 different general policy scenarios can be identified, it is important to advance a broad societal debate on PN to collect relevant empirical data and to address enhancement-related conceptual issues. PMID:26252723

  16. Experiencing everyday ethics in context: Frontline data collectors perspectives and practices of bioethics?

    PubMed Central

    Kingori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to ‘the what’ and ‘the why’ in bioethics – what action is taken place and why – these should be considered along ‘the who’ – who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the circumstances they experienced. Their practice of bioethics demonstrates their contribution to the conduct of research and the shortcomings of an over-emphasis on autonomy. PMID:24210881

  17. Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada’s universal health care system. PMID:25381149

  18. Toward a systemic ethics of public-private partnerships related to food and health.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonathan H

    2014-09-01

    Public-private partnerships have become widespread in the pursuit of both health-related research and public health interventions--most notably, in recent measures intended to address obesity. Participants emphasize synergies between the missions or goals of the public and private partners. However, the missions usually diverge in significant ways. Consequently, these partnerships can have serious implications for the integrity of, as well as trust and confidence in, the public partners. In this article, I highlight systemic concerns presented by public-private partnerships related to food and health. These include research agenda distortion and framing effects--not least, the characterization of obesity primarily as a question of individual behavior, and the minimization or neglect of the role of food systems and other social and environmental factors on health. Prevailing analytical approaches to public-private partnerships tend to downplay or ignore these systemic effects and their ethical implications. In this article, I offer guidance intended to help actors in the public sector fulfill their mission while thinking more critically and systemically about the ethical implications of public-private partnerships. PMID:25423851

  19. Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

  20. How Do We Communicate Environmental Ethics? Reflections on Environmental Education from a Kuwaiti Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Naki, Khadija

    2004-01-01

    This paper arises from a PhD research project originally designed to search for innovative ways to stimulate environmental education (EE) in Kuwaiti middle schools. The research has shown that Islam shares similar fundamental principles to those underpinning "ecocentric" perspectives emerging in the West and increasingly thought necessary for…

  1. US perspective on gluten-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maureen M; Vasagar, Brintha

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. PMID:24493932

  2. Assessing Perspective Taking in Schizophrenia Using Relational Frame Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestes, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baque, Esteve; Loas, Gwenole

    2010-01-01

    The current study assessed deictic relational responding in people with schizophrenia. A perspective-taking task and a mental states attribution task were employed with a sample of 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 age-matched controls. Results revealed poorer performance of participants with schizophrenia in responding in accordance…

  3. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  4. Relational Leadership: Underrepresented Student Perspectives on Diversity Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caviglia, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is a qualitative examination of the perspectives of Black and Latino students, traditionally underrepresented at predominately White institutions, in the environment of the mandatory diversity course at Western University. Students were qualitatively queried regarding their views on how diversity courses shape elements of relational

  5. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25420055

  6. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    PubMed

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed. PMID:20826869

  7. Frankenstein, Dolly, and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A growing cadre of science teachers and researchers are developing curriculum blueprints for teaching the science and ethics of genetics to help students put advances in biotechnology into proper perspective. Lists five sources for teaching genetics. (MLF)

  8. HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sonja G; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient’s daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. PMID:24049460

  9. Reuse Of Pacemakers In Ghana And Nigeria: Medical, Legal, Cultural And Ethical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369

  10. Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, P.J.J. . E-mail: p.j.j.sauer@bkk.umcg.nl

    2005-09-01

    Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.

  11. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  12. Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

  13. 47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); (ii) The Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Communications Commission (5 CFR part 3901); and (iii) The Commission... the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); the Commission's Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  14. 47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); (ii) The Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Communications Commission (5 CFR part 3901); and (iii) The Commission... the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); the Commission's Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  15. 47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); (ii) The Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Communications Commission (5 CFR part 3901); and (iii) The Commission... the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); the Commission's Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  16. 47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); (ii) The Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Communications Commission (5 CFR part 3901); and (iii) The Commission... the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); the Commission's Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  17. 47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Employees of the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); (ii) The Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Communications Commission (5 CFR part 3901); and (iii) The Commission... the Executive Branch (5 CFR part 2635); the Commission's Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  18. "With human health it's a global thing": Canadian perspectives on ethics in the global governance of an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

    2015-03-01

    We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed. PMID:25672615

  19. What is it to do good medical ethics? From the perspective of a practising doctor who is in Parliament.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Ilora G

    2015-01-01

    This article is a personal reflection on work as a physician with work as a member of the UK Parliament's House of Lords. Ethical thinking should underpin everything we do; the 'four principles' of medical ethics provide an applicable and relevant ethical framework. This article explores its application in both domains of work-as a clinician and as a legislator-with some examples of its use 'to do good medical ethics' in both roles. Debates around tobacco and drug control, pandemic control, abortion and assisted suicide are explored. PMID:25516943

  20. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

  1. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services. PMID:26059955

  2. Re-Examining Race-Based Admissions Processes of American Institutions of Higher Education Using Multi-Dimensional Ethical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kathrine J.; Green, Preston C., III

    2004-01-01

    The Supreme Court of the USA explains when universities may use race-based admissions policies without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the US Constitution. These rulings raise important ethical issues for universities that are presently using race as a consideration in their admissions decisions. This paper discusses some of the ethical

  3. The American Work Ethic and the Changing Work Force: An Historical Perspective. Contributions in Labor Studies, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Herbert

    During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…

  4. The ethics of advertising, billing, and finances in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Samuel; Vandecreek, Leon

    2008-05-01

    Psychotherapists must deal with practical business matters such as advertising, billing, collecting fees, and other practice management topics. We review the enforceable standards of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethics Code that deal with advertising, fees, billing, and related business matters in psychotherapy. Using a principle-based perspective, we link each of the standards to overarching ethical values and illustrate the concerns with case vignettes. We argue that understanding the moral foundations of ethical standards helps psychotherapists to implement with greater integrity the spirit and the letter of the standards with regard to advertising and business practices. PMID:18386792

  5. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  6. Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

  7. The Ethical and Practical Implications of Systems Architecture on Identity in Networked Learning: A Constructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Marguerite L.; Parchoma, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Through relational dialogue, learners shape their identities by sharing information about the world and how they see themselves in it. As learners interact, they receive feedback from both the environment and other learners which, in turn, helps them assess and adjust their self-presentations. Although learners retain choice and personal agency,…

  8. Pragmatic neuroethics: the social aspects of ethics in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, evolution of ethics and bioethics is traced to show how an abstract and individualistic paradigm was at the core of mainstream ethics prior to the advent of bioethics and applied ethics. Bioethics has transformed this individualistic paradigm because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and real-world connection. This evolution has raised questions regarding how nonabstract (e.g., experiential) and nonindividualistic (e.g., social, relational) components of ethics could be married to normative theory and ethics reflection, the latter usually not amenable to empiric research. In the first part of this chapter, pragmatism is introduced as an approach offering perspectives on the integration of social, nonindividualistic aspects of ethics, supporting the use of social science methods within ethics and neuroethics. In the second part of this chapter, using the example of disorders of consciousness, a pragmatic perspective is explored to reframe questions and help foster nonreductionistic understandings of ethical questions and ethical dilemmas. This chapter aims to generate reflections on a set of specific clinical contexts that will also stimulate a discussion on the nature of ethical approaches. PMID:24182392

  9. The caregivers' possibilities of providing ethically good care for older people--a study on caregivers' ethical approach.

    PubMed

    Frilund, Marianne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2014-06-01

    In the care of older people, unexpected and unpredictable situations often occur, which sometimes involve challenging ethical decision-making. This study starts off from an ethical perspective with caritative caring as the theoretical framework. The aim of this descriptive study is to describe what possibilities care givers regard themselves to have to provide good care based on ethical values in the daily care of older persons. A total of 105 (95%) care givers answered the questionnaire. The study was conducted in a municipality in the Western part of Finland during the spring of 2007. The result shows that good care based on ethical values cannot always be guaranteed in the care of older person. There are possibilities to provide the older person with individual, dignified and safe care, and to establish a caring communion and closeness in care, but without positioning these results in relation to an ethical discussion, we cannot state that the care is good enough. PMID:23621476

  10. Relational agency from a teacher as researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shequana

    2015-09-01

    This essay responds to a selection of ideas and theoretical frameworks Sharada Gade uses to conduct her study. The ideas raised by Sharada are placed in the context of the changes and experiences taking place in today's public school system. Her ideas also provide new insights into the construct of relational agency in accordance with expansive learning activity from a teacher as researcher perspective. The purpose of this response is to shed light on the collaboration that needs to exist between teachers and researchers as curriculum is designed and implemented.

  11. ‘Practice what you preach’: Nurses’ perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals

    PubMed Central

    White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice. PMID:25971398

  12. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  13. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

  14. Medicine, Ethics, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)

  15. Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses what ethicists have called "unacceptable trade-offs" in health policy choices related to universal health coverage (UHC). Since the fiscal space is constrained, trade-offs need to be made. But some trade-offs are unacceptable on the path to universal coverage. Unacceptable choices include, among other examples from low-income countries, to expand coverage for services with lower priority such as coronary bypass surgery before securing universal coverage for high-priority services such as skilled birth attendance and services for easily preventable or treatable fatal childhood diseases. Services of the latter kind include oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea and antibiotics for children with pneumonia. The article explains why such trade-offs are unfair and unacceptable even if political considerations may push in the opposite direction.

  16. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  17. Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers. PMID:25216254

  18. Couples constructing their experiences of dementia: A relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Kimberley; Camic, Paul M; O'Shaughnessy, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Many people with dementia are cared for by their spouse or partner, therefore there is a need to understand the ways in which dementia and couple relationships impact upon each other. This study aimed to contribute to our understanding of the experience of dementia from a relational perspective. Seven couples, in which one person had a diagnosis of dementia, were interviewed about their experience of being in a couple where one partner had a diagnosis of dementia. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, five master themes were identified, which illustrated how couples constructed their experience of dementia in order to make sense of it, and describe the processes that they adopt in order to adjust to dementia. Findings were supported by existing empirical and theoretical literature and suggest that services and interventions could be enhanced if a relational understanding of dementia were more fully considered. PMID:24381214

  19. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. PMID:25547207

  20. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, John

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. Abstract Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large. PMID:26479009

  1. A Content Analysis of Codes of Ethics and Related Documents from 100 of America's Largest Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, William F.

    In 1992, a study was conducted of the codes of ethics and relevant policy and procedural statements of the largest two-year colleges in each state. By analyzing these documents, the study sought to determine whether a common body of ethics is surfacing among the colleges surveyed; compare academic codes of ethics with business codes of ethics, and…

  2. Testimony and Narrative as a Political Relation: The Question of Ethical Judgment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca; Hållander, Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film "12 Angry Men" to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a…

  3. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  4. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  5. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Justin

    The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  6. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained. PMID:23920461

  7. AOE Ethics and Integrity Statement Name

    E-print Network

    Roy, Chris

    AOE Ethics and Integrity Statement Name: Student IDD The Graduate School has implemented a scholarly ethics and integrity component in graduate education effective Director. This seminar will be used to address current or recent issues related to scholarly ethics

  8. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  9. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  10. Science and Ethics: Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…

  11. ERST-PHIL 3300Y Environmental Ethics

    E-print Network

    Fox, Michael

    1 ERST-PHIL 3300Y Environmental Ethics Fall/Winter 2012-2013 Instructor: Stephanie Rutherford that address such ethical questions, including deep ecology, ecofeminism, Indigenous perspectives, and animal theories of environmental ethics are embedded in practice. We will give specific attention to ecological

  12. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  13. An ethical criterion for geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppoloni, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Anthropological researches have demonstrated that at some point in human history, man makes an evolutive jump in cultural sense: at first, he is able to perceive himself only as part of a community, later he becomes able to perceive himself as an individual. The analysis of the linguistic roots of the word "Ethics" discloses the traces of this evolutive transition and an original double meaning: on the one hand, "Ethics" contains a sense of belonging to the social fabric, on the other hand, it is related to the individual sphere. These two existential conditions (social and individual) unexpectedly co-exist in the word "Ethics". So, "Geo-Ethics" can be defined as the investigation and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere (social dimension), but also as the analysis of the relationships between the geoscientist who acts and his own actions (individual dimension). Therefore, the meaning of the word "Geo-Ethics" calls upon geoscientists to face the responsibility of an ethical behaviour. What does this responsibility consist of and what motivations are necessary to push geoscientists to practice the Earth sciences in an ethical way? An ethical commitment exists if there is research of truth. In their activities, Geoscientists should be searchers and defenders of truth. If geoscientists give up this role, they completely empty of meaning their work. Ethical obligations arise from the possession of specific knowledge that has practical consequences. Geoscientists, as active and responsible part of society, have to serve society and the common good. The ethical criterion for a geoscientist should be rooted in his individual sphere, that is the source of any action even in the social sphere, and should have the intellectual honesty as main requirement. It includes: • respect for the truth that they look for and for other's ideas; • recognition of the value of others as valuable for themselves; • spirit of collaboration and reciprocity; • identification of a common goal, despite the diversity of views; • responsibility of their technical-cultural expertise; • opening to the comparison even in perspective of a resizing of their certainties; • reflection on the mutability of knowledge and roles; • awareness conveying scientific knowledge to others is valuable. On these bases geoscientists' activity becomes a real service for society. Geoethics should be above all an opportunity for Geoscientists to raise the awareness of their individual and social responsibility, an occasion to improve their understanding of the space and time in which they move and operate, with the perspective to contribute to the wellbeing and economic progress of mankind. Before acting and understanding how to act, Geoscientists should recognize the value of their actions, so that they will assure a real and long-lasting rootedness of practices, codes and regulations.

  14. Perspectives on the ethical concerns and justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1) an opt-out approach, (2) removal of separate signed consent, and (3) optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed. PMID:22176673

  15. The Right to DREAM: an ethical perspective on the DREAM act and current citizenship laws in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Funk, Kendall

    2012-04-20

    This paper discusses the DREAM Act and current United States citizenship laws from a normative perspective. I argue that there are certain moral claims to citizenship that a non-citizen may hold and that citizenship status is not constituted...

  16. Suicide and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  17. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  18. Towards a specific approach to education in dental ethics: a proposal for organising the topics of biomedical ethics for dental education.

    PubMed

    Gorkey, Sefik; Guven, Tolga; Sert, Gurkan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding dental ethics as a field separate from its much better known counterpart, medical ethics, is a relatively new, but necessary approach in bioethics. This need is particularly felt in dental education and establishing a curriculum specifically for dental ethics is a challenging task. Although certain topics such as informed consent and patient rights can be considered to be of equal importance in both fields, a number of ethical issues in dental practice are only remotely-if at all-relevant for medical practice. Therefore, any sound approach to education in dental ethics has to recognise the unique aspects of dental practice in order to meet the needs of dental students and prepare them for the ethical challenges they may face during their professional practice. With this goal in mind, this paper examines the approach of the authors to dental ethics education and proposes a system to organise the topics of biomedical ethics for dental education. While the authors' perspective is based on their experience in Turkey, the proposed system of classification is not a rigid one; it is open to interpretation in other contexts with different social, cultural and professional expectations. Therefore, the paper also aims to inspire discussion on the development of an ideal dental ethics curriculum at an international level. PMID:21890860

  19.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    September 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Office of Ethics to Welcome New Director       Effective October 7, 2012, the NCI Office of Ethics welcomes Nancy O’Hanlon as its Director and Deputy Ethics Counselor.Nancy was most recently the Director of the Eth

  20.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    NIH Ethics Office  http://ethics.od.nih.gov/ NIH Enterprise Ethics System https://nees.nih.gov/nees/ Office of Government Ethics   http://www.oge.gov/ NIH Manual: http://oma.od.nih.gov/manualchapters/ NIH Intramural Research Sourcebook: http://sourcebook.

  1. Whistleblowing and organizational ethics.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns. PMID:16838574

  2. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  3. Ethics. 1983 APME Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Press Managing Editors.

    Dealing with a variety of issues related to media ethics and press responsibility, this report presents 12 essays on editorial policy and reporters' responsibility. The essays discuss the following: (1) a reporter who posed as a jail officer to gain entry into a prison to interview an inmate, (2) a journalism professor's opinion as to the ethics

  4. Scientific and ethical issues related to stem cell research and interventions in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain.

    PubMed

    Barker, Roger A; de Beaufort, Inez

    2013-11-01

    Should patients with Parkinson's disease participate in research involving stem cell treatments? Are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) the ethical solution to the moral issues regarding embryonic stem cells? How can we adapt trial designs to best assess small numbers of patients in receipt of invasive experimental therapies? Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in our ability to make stem cells from different sources and use them for therapeutic gain in disorders of the brain. These cells, which are defined by their capacity to proliferate indefinitely as well as differentiate into selective phenotypic cell types, are viewed as being especially attractive for studying disease processes and for grafting in patients with chronic incurable neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review we briefly discuss and summarise where our understanding of stem cell biology has taken us relative to the clinic and patients, before dealing with some of the major ethical issues that work of this nature generates. This includes issues to do with the source of the cells, their ownership and exploitation along with questions about patient recruitment, consent and trial design when they translate to the clinic for therapeutic use. PMID:23665410

  5. From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s america.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susanna; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Before the 1970s, psychologists and other mental health professionals who had sex with their patients committed no ethical violations. Indeed, the line between seduction and sexual exploitation in the therapy hour was extremely blurry to patients and therapists alike. This article is about how that changed. We focus on feminist psychologists' efforts, through the American Psychological Association Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice, to document and reduce sexism in psychotherapy, including that involving therapist-client sexual relations. We contextualize these efforts within the larger feminist critique of the psy-disciplines that began in the late 1960s, highlighting how psychologists used several feminist strategies to recast seduction as sexism and revise the profession's ethical standards to specifically state that sexual intimacies with clients are unethical. As an example of a feminist intervention into psychology's-and society's-extant gender ideologies, this process highlights the mutually reinforcing entanglements of psychology and feminism, both methodologically and politically. PMID:26375156

  6. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

  7. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  8. Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.

    PubMed

    Weng, Naidong

    2012-11-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. PMID:22987619

  9. Ethical Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measuring ICT Ethics of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…

  10. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-11-01

    Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

  11. The Caring Relation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2012-01-01

    According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…

  12. Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

  13. Ethical issues in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Desikan, P; Chakrabarti, A; Muthuswamy, V

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues facing microbiologists could be considered in two parts. The first relates to the way the ethical issues during their laboratory work. The second pertains to ethical issues on the data/reports they generate for the patients or in research. In both segments, there is pressure to perform, which is exerted by both, the community, as well as peers. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to recognize the facts that unethical actions might be a frequent reality. Since some of these activities generate serious ethical concerns, both in practice and research, it is necessary for microbiologists to be aware and equipped to meet these issues in a prepared and measured way. In an attempt to highlight this requirement, this article outlines the important ethical issues and guidelines relevant to the field of Microbiology. PMID:22120789

  14. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  15. ABOUT THE JOURNAL Ethics publishes scholarly work in moral and political

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    of intellectual perspectives, including social and political theory, law, and economics. In addition to major articles, Ethics also publishes review essays, discussion articles, book reviews, and book notes. Audience Scholars and students of philosophy, law, and related disciplines in the social sciences. 2015

  16. Ethics of environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.

  17. Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: “Translating“ the Translational

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

  18. A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

  19. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  20. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  1. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  2. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  3. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  4. Primary care research ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R; Murphy, E; Crosland, A

    1995-01-01

    Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered. PMID:8554844

  5. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  6. Doing Close-Relative Research: Sticking Points, Method and Ethical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degabriele Pace, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Doing insider research can raise many problematic issues, particularly if the insiders are also close relatives. This paper deals with complexities arising from research which is participatory in nature. Thus, this paper seeks to describe the various sticking points that were encountered by the researcher when she decided to embark on insider…

  7. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  8. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  9. Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Kimberly R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

  10. Work-related suicide in Victoria, Australia: a broad perspective.

    PubMed

    Routley, Virginia Hazel; Ozanne-Smith, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000-December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of broadly defined work-relatedness. Inclusion criteria for work-related suicide were at least one of: suicide means was work related, work stressors were identified in police reports to the Coroners or the Coroner's finding, the suicide method involved another person's work (e.g. rail suicide, heavy vehicle) or the suicide location was a workplace. Cases still open for investigation were excluded. Of 642 work-related suicides, 55% had an association with work stressors; 32% jumped or lay in front of a train or heavy vehicle; 7% involved a work location and 6% involved work agents. Work stressor cases identified included business difficulties, recent or previous work injury, unemployment/redundancy or conflict with supervisors/colleagues (including workplace bullying). Work-related suicide is a substantial problem, for which few detailed population wide studies are available. Further research is required to understand the contribution of work stressors and effective interventions. PMID:22132703

  11. The "Other Voices" in Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas: The Value of the New Scholarship on Women in the Teaching of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll

    This paper indicates the need for women's studies ethics courses and the examination of student concepts of morality. It proposes the ethical study of social problems not usually considered in undergraduate classes and illustrates the importance of the study of historical perspectives and situational ethics in the teaching of complex contemporary…

  12. eHealth, Participatory Medicine, and Ethical Care: A Focus Group Study of Patients’ and Health Care Providers’ Use of Health-Related Internet Information

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Jenny; Adam, Paul; McDonald, Michael; Li, Linda C; Kerr, Sheila; Backman, Catherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid explosion in online digital health resources is seen as transformational, accelerating the shift from traditionally passive patients to patients as partners and altering the patient–health care professional (HCP) relationship. Patients with chronic conditions are increasingly engaged, enabled, and empowered to be partners in their care and encouraged to take responsibility for managing their conditions with HCP support. Objective In this paper, we focus on patients’ and HCPs’ use of health-related Internet information and how it influences the patient-HCP relationship. In particular, we examine the challenges emerging in medical encounters as roles and relationships shift and apply a conceptual framework of relational ethics to examine explicit and nuanced ethical dimensions emerging in patient-HCP interactions as both parties make increased use of health-related Internet information. Methods We purposively sampled patients and HCPs in British Columbia, Canada, to participate in focus groups. To be eligible, patients self-reported a diagnosis of arthritis and at least one other chronic health condition; HCPs reported a caseload with >25% of patients with arthritis and multimorbidity. We used a semistructured, but flexible, discussion guide. All discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Elements of grounded theory guided our constant comparison thematic analytic approach. Analysis was iterative. A relational ethics conceptual lens was applied to the data. Results We recruited 32 participants (18 patients, 14 HCPs). They attended seven focus groups: four with patients and three with rehabilitation professionals and physicians. Predominant themes to emerge were how use of health-related Internet information fostered (1) changing roles, (2) patient-HCP partnerships, and (3) tensions and burdens for patients and HCPs. Conclusions Relational aspects such as mutual trust, uncertainty, and vulnerability are illuminated in patient-HCP interactions around health-related Internet information and the negotiated space of clinical encounters. New roles and associated responsibilities have key ethical dimensions that make clear the changes are fundamental and important to understand in ethical care. When faced with tensions and burdens around incorporating health-related Internet information as a resource in clinical encounters, participants described a particular ambivalence illustrating the fundamental changes being negotiated by both patients and HCPs. PMID:26099267

  13. Relating Berkovits and A ? superstring field theories; small Hilbert space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that the recently constructed action for open superstring field theory based on A ? algebras can be re-written in Wess-Zumino-Witten-like form, thus establishing its relation to Berkovits' open superstring field theory. In this paper we explain the relation between these two theories from a different perspective which emphasizes the small Hilbert space, and in particular the relation between the A ? structures on both sides.

  14. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public health action-research project. In carrying out such projects, careful attention and effort is needed to establish and maintain respectful relationships amongst those involved, acknowledge and address differences of power and position, and evaluate burdens and risks for individuals and groups. PMID:24555854

  15. Nursing and euthanasia: a review of argument-based ethics literature.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Toon; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This article gives an overview of the nursing ethics arguments on euthanasia in general, and on nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular, through an argument-based literature review. An in-depth study of these arguments in this literature will enable nurses to engage in the euthanasia debate. We critically appraised 41 publications published between January 1987 and June 2007. Nursing ethics arguments on (nurses' involvement in) euthanasia are guided primarily by the principles of respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. Ethical arguments related to the nursing profession are described. From a care perspective, we discuss arguments that evaluate to what degree euthanasia can be considered positively or negatively as a form of good nursing care. Most arguments in the principle-, profession- and care-orientated approaches to nursing ethics are used both pro and contra euthanasia in general, and nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular. PMID:19528103

  16. Antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction - perspectives from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Graf, Heiko; Walter, Martin; Metzger, Coraline D; Abler, Birgit

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is not only a common symptom in major depression but also a frequent side-effect of antidepressant medication, mainly of the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRI) that are often prescribed as a first line treatment option. Despite of the increasing incidence and prescription rates, neuronal mechanisms underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction are poorly understood and investigations on this topic are scarce. Neuroimaging techniques, mainly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provide a feasible approach to investigate these mechanisms since SSRI-related sexual dysfunction is most likely related to central nervous processes. This review summarizes the recent literature regarding the basic clinical findings and imaging correlates of antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction linking brain regions and networks potentially involved to phases and subcomponents of sexual processing and antidepressant action. In particular, fMRI studies on SSRI antidepressants including paroxetine and SNRIs including bupropion are highlighted. PMID:24333547

  17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI. PMID:25844126

  18.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Welcome to the first edition of the NCI Office of Ethics Newsletter!  We created this newsletter to keep staff up to date on ethics topics, news, and current events.  Please feel free to contact us with questions, requests for newsletter article topics or

  19. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  20. PERSPECTIVES Stoichiometric relations in an ant-treehopper Adam D. Kay,1

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Stoichiometric relations in an ant-treehopper mutualism Adam D. Kay,1 * Sara) contained lower N concentrations than treehoppers on plants from which ants were excluded. Ant presence also affected nutrient concentra- tions in host plants: on plants with ants, leaves contained uniformly low

  1. Relations between Money and Love in Postdivorce Families: Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Gry Mette D.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…

  2. Relational Agency from a Teacher as Researcher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Shequana

    2015-01-01

    This essay responds to a selection of ideas and theoretical frameworks Sharada Gade uses to conduct her study. The ideas raised by Sharada are placed in the context of the changes and experiences taking place in today's public school system. Her ideas also provide new insights into the construct of relational agency in accordance with expansive…

  3. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

  4. Problems related to alcohol use: a cross-cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Gureje, O; Mavreas, V; Vazquez-Barquero, J L; Janca, A

    1997-06-01

    The assessment, diagnosis, and classification of mental disorders are embedded in social and cultural norms. In view of their Anglo-Saxon origins, the prevailing diagnostic criteria and instruments for their assessment have a strong Western influence. Yet they are used internationally with the implied assumption of their cross-cultural applicability. The WHO Cross-Cultural Applicability Research (CAR) study was designed to test this assumption as it applies to disorders relating to the use of alcohol and drugs. This multi-disciplinary research project was conducted in nine countries having different patterns of alcohol and drug use. The results suggest that, even though some similarities exist with respect to the definition of problematic use of alcohol in these ethnically diverse societies, very substantial differences also exist. A number of core concepts underpinning diagnosis of disorders relating to the use of alcohol have no equivalence in the local languages of the various cultures, while some others lacked cultural applicability because of their relative 'distance' from cultural and ethnic norms of drinking. This distance often relates to the difficulties of adapting descriptors of drinking norms in a 'wet' culture to one that is decidedly 'dry'. PMID:9248678

  5. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  6. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice.

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive evaluation involves a structured way of setting up dialogical learning processes, by eliciting stories of participants, exchanging experiences in (homogeneous and heterogeneous) groups and drawing normative conclusions for practice. By combining these traditions we develop both a theoretical and a practical approach to empirical ethics, in which ethical issues are addressed and shaped together with stakeholders in practice. Stakeholders' experiences are not only used as a source for reflection by the ethicist; stakeholders are involved in the process of reflection and analysis, which takes place in a dialogue between participants in practice, facilitated by the ethicist. This dialogical approach to empirical ethics may give rise to questions such as: What contribution does the ethicist make? What role does ethical theory play? What is the relationship between empirical research and ethical theory in the dialogical process? In this article, these questions will be addressed by reflecting upon a project in empirical ethics that was set up in a dialogical way. The aim of this project was to develop and implement normative guidelines with and within practice, in order to improve the practice concerning coercion and compulsion in psychiatry. PMID:19338524

  7. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  8. Ethics in neurodevelopmental disability.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Shevell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, like autism spectrum disorders and cerebral palsy are a common health problem in children. Given the impact of these conditions on children, families, and healthcare and social systems, the care of developmentally challenged children raises questions related to values and ethical principles. We review the common features of neurodevelopmental disorders that help understand the associated ethical questions. We focus on three major areas where ethical questions arise for clinicians and those involved in making decisions for or caring for these children: (1) the principles of decision-making and autonomy as they relate to developmental disability; (2) the issues related to quality of life that have long intersected with developmental disability; and (3) the use of unproven therapies and diagnostics that are particularly controversial given the extent that neurodevelopmental disabilities impact children and their families, yet active treatments options are limited. PMID:24182383

  9. Ethical Issues in Environmental Health Research Related to Public Health Emergencies: Reflections on the GuLF STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aubrey K.; Kwok, Richard K.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Health research in the context of an environmental disaster with implications for public health raises challenging ethical issues. This article explores ethical issues that arose in the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (GuLF STUDY) and provides guidance for future research. Ethical issues encountered by GuLF STUDY investigators included a) minimizing risks and promoting benefits to participants, b) obtaining valid informed consent, c) providing financial compensation to participants, d) working with vulnerable participants, e) protecting participant confidentiality, f) addressing conflicts of interest, g) dealing with legal implications of research, and h) obtaining expeditious review from the institutional review board (IRB), community groups, and other committees. To ensure that ethical issues are handled properly, it is important for investigators to work closely with IRBs during the development and implementation of research and to consult with groups representing the community. Researchers should consider developing protocols, consent forms, survey instruments, and other documents prior to the advent of a public health emergency to allow for adequate and timely review by constituents. When an emergency arises, these materials can be quickly modified to take into account unique circumstances and implementation details. PMID:26325057

  10. Redemptive experience in relational family therapy: a Christian perspective.

    PubMed

    Gostecnik, Christian; Repic, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2008-09-01

    We all long for relationships with others, because only in connecting with others can we develop our intrapsychic structure and become functional adults. We are psychologically predisposed to have a constant connection with others and are driven toward relationships with others. Our deepest yearnings are therefore devoted to building solid dialogue as the means of becoming fully human. We, therefore, consciously or unconsciously, long for a relationship where we can experience happiness, satisfaction and, above all, redemption or salvation from our dreads, miseries and unhappiness. In this article we presuppose that a therapeutic relationship, demonstrated in a psychoanalytic setting, namely in relational family therapy, can contain redemptive dimensions in which the inextinguishable longing for salvation is always present. PMID:19105027

  11. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  12. [Pain medicine from intercultural and gender-related perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schiltenwolf, M; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M

    2015-10-01

    Cultural setting and sex and gender of the patient are important factors affecting the occurrence, severity, clinical course and prognosis of pain and pain-related diseases. Intercultural differences in the perception and verbal expression of symptoms and emotional function are fundamental and it is important to realize these differences in order to understand patients with a migration background. A trusting doctor-patient relationship is generally very sensitive and it is even more difficult to establish when differences in the cultural background impair mutual understanding. Regarding sex and gender there is evidence that females are more susceptible to developing chronic pain conditions, experience more severe pain and respond differently to pain therapy; however, results of recent studies indicate that females are not that different to males when comparing several modalities of experimental pain (although some differences exist). Similarly, sex and gender differences in postoperative pain seem to exist but the differences are relatively small when pain scores are compared. Other aspects, such as the response to analgesics and role of psychosocial factors should be addressed when sex and gender aspects are studied. Similarly, sex and gender differences in the prevalence of chronic pain exist but the results of some studies, e.g. those controlling for confounders, are not very clear. Research is needed to delineate the role of specific aspects affecting sex and gender differences and the underlying mechanisms (e.g. reduced inhibitory control, hormones, psychological aspects and social factors). Altogether, we need to open our minds to some intercultural and sex and gender aspects in the clinical setting. For sex and gender differences we may need a more biopsychosocial approach to understand the underlying differences and differentiate between sex and gender and sex and gender-associated aspects for acute and chronic pain. PMID:26264900

  13. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  14. Ethical issues in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Blackmer, J

    2000-06-01

    It is only relatively recently that we have begun to examine ethical issues as they relate specifically to the speciality of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Prior to this, most ethicists were more concerned with acute care medical issues involving life and death decisions. However, with the ageing population and the emphasis society now places on returning patients to the maximum possible level of function, greater consideration is being given to ethical dilemmas that are relevant to rehabilitation medicine. This paper examines the major ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice. The issues of resource allocation and patient selection, the ethics of team care and ethical issues in goal setting, as they relate specifically to rehabilitation medicine, are examined in some detail. PMID:10853717

  15. Ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

  16.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

       Thanks for visiting the NCI Ethics Newsletter webpage!  Click on the links below to access the most current version of the newsletter, as well as the archives.   Volume 1, January 2012  Volume 2, May 2012  Volume 3, September 2012

  17.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    For OGE-450 Filers Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) Employees in certain positions are required by the Ethics in Government Act (EIGA), as amended, to file a Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) because of the responsibilit

  18. Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-10-01

    Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

  19. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  20. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  1. Syphilis and human experimentation from the first appearance of the disease to World War II: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valentí, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-10-01

    Physicians have conducted research on syphilis for centuries, seeking to understand its etiology and the means of transmission as well as find ways to prevent and cure the disease. Their research practices often strayed from today's ethical standards. In this paper we review ethical aspects of the long history of research on syphilis with emphasis on the experiments performed in the 20th century. The description of research around the time of World War II covers medical experiments carried out in US prisons and in the experimentation centers established by Japanese doctors in occupied territory, as well as experiments in Nazi Germany and the treatment of syphilitics there. PMID:24268559

  2. GIS and Ethics Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

  3. Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics

    E-print Network

    Hillen, Thomas

    Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics and Statistics Thomas Hillen University of Alberta March 26, 2013 #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12

  4. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    2000-01-01

    Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

  5. CJK522 Fall 2014 ADVANCED CRIMINAL JUSTICE ETHICS

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    CJK522 ­ Fall 2014 ADVANCED CRIMINAL JUSTICE ETHICS COURSE AND CONTACT INFORMATION Class Time Criminal Justice Ethics. (3-0) The practical implications of moral philosophy and ethics in a free society By the end of this course you should be able to demonstrate an advanced understanding of ethics as it relates

  6. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  7. Bodily selves in relation: embodied simulation as second-person perspective on intersubjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses basic aspects of social cognition focusing on the pivotal role played by the lived body in the constitution of our experience of others. It is suggested that before studying intersubjectivity we should better qualify the notion of the self. A minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, defined in terms of its motor potentialities, is proposed. The discovery of mirror mechanisms for action, emotions and sensations led to the proposal of an embodied approach to intersubjectivity—embodied simulation (ES) theory. ES and the related notion of neural reuse provide a new empirically based perspective on intersubjectivity, viewed first and foremost as intercorporeality. ES challenges the notion that folk psychology is the sole account of interpersonal understanding. ES is discussed within a second-person perspective on mindreading. PMID:24778374

  8. Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Lynn

    2014-10-28

    Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

  9. Covert medication in psychiatric emergencies: is it ever ethically permissible?

    PubMed

    Hung, Erick K; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Covert administration of medications to patients, defined as the administration of medication to patients without their knowledge, is a practice surrounded by clinical, legal, ethics-related, and cultural controversy. Many psychiatrists would be likely to advocate that the practice of covert medication in emergency psychiatry is not clinically, ethically, or legally acceptable. This article explores whether there may be exceptions to this stance that would be ethical. We first review the standard of emergency psychiatric care. Although we could identify no published empirical studies of covert administration of medicine in emergency departments, we review the prevalence of this practice in other clinical settings. While the courts have not ruled with respect to covert medication, we discuss the evolving legal landscape of informed consent, competency, and the right to refuse treatment. We discuss dilemmas regarding the ethics involved in this practice, including the tensions among autonomy, beneficence, and duty to protect. We explore how differences between cultures regarding the value placed on individual versus family autonomy may affect perspectives with regard to this practice. We investigate how consumers view this practice and their treatment preferences during a psychiatric emergency. Finally, we discuss psychiatric advance directives and explore how these contracts may affect the debate over the practice. PMID:22635297

  10. Using a Corporate Code of Ethics to Assess Students' Ethicality: Implications for Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2009-01-01

    The author used a corporate code of ethics as a roadmap to create 18 scenarios for assessing business students' ethicality as measured by their behavioral intention. Using a logistic regression analysis, the author also examined 8 factors that could potentially influence students' ethicality. Results indicate 6 scenarios related to 5 areas of the…

  11. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

  12.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    THIS SITE IS A WORK IN PROGRESS AS OF 5/9/2013. VIST THE NIH WEBSITE FOR MORE ACCURATE INFORMATION: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/overview.htm  PLEASE CHECK BACK SOON!!  ~9609 Medical Center Dr. ~ Rockville, MD 20850 ~~Phone: (240) 276-5790 ~ E-mail: NCIEthics

  13.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

      May 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Widely Attended Gathering Form Now Available in NEES The NIH-2803 Request for Approval to Accept Free Attendance under the Widely Attended Gathering (WAG) exception is now ready for use by employees in the NIH Enterpri

  14. Media Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.

    A return to excellence and ethics can end the bashing of the press and earn it respect. H. L. Mencken was an outstanding press-basher. One problem he identified is that journalists see themselves as professionals, when they are no more than "hired hands" unable to control admission to the craft. A solution Mencken offered was to improve schools of…

  15.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Award Analysis Sheet: Award-Analysis-Sheet-2-8-11.doc Request for Approval to Accept Gifts Associated With An Award from an Outside Organization: nih-2854-Award.pdf Link: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/topics/awards-new.htm

  16. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  17. Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

  18. Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.

    PubMed

    Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2010-11-01

    Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

  19. A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

  20. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  1. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    PubMed

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve. PMID:14722800

  2. Ethics as a Form of Critical and Rhetorical Inquiry in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    To define ethics as a mode of inquiry, it is first important to consider how ethics relates to critical thinking. Put simply, ethical inquiry is one type of inquiry required to think critically. A connection between critical thinking and ethics is only possible, however, when ethics is defined not as a static list of rules but as a "mode of…

  3. 8 Professional Ethics We have come through a strange cycle in programming, starting with the creation

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    CHAPTER 8 Professional Ethics We have come through a strange cycle in programming, starting a code of ethics for an important computer-related discipline: software engineering. Our analysis leads us into a discussion ofvirtue ethics, #12;386 CHAPTER 8 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS an ethical theory based

  4. Reiki and related therapies in the dialysis ward: an evidence-based and ethical discussion to debate if these complementary and alternative medicines are welcomed or banned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) are increasingly practiced in the general population; it is estimated that over 30% of patients with chronic diseases use CAMs on a regular basis. CAMs are also used in hospital settings, suggesting a growing interest in individualized therapies. One potential field of interest is pain, frequently reported by dialysis patients, and seldom sufficiently relieved by mainstream therapies. Gentle-touch therapies and Reiki (an energy based touch therapy) are widely used in the western population as pain relievers. By integrating evidence based approaches and providing ethical discussion, this debate discusses the pros and cons of CAMs in the dialysis ward, and whether such approaches should be welcomed or banned. Discussion In spite of the wide use of CAMs in the general population, few studies deal with the pros and cons of an integration of mainstream medicine and CAMs in dialysis patients; one paper only regarded the use of Reiki and related practices. Widening the search to chronic pain, Reiki and related practices, 419 articles were found on Medline and 6 were selected (1 Cochrane review and 5 RCTs updating the Cochrane review). According to the EBM approach, Reiki allows a statistically significant but very low-grade pain reduction without specific side effects. Gentle-touch therapy and Reiki are thus good examples of approaches in which controversial efficacy has to be balanced against no known side effect, frequent free availability (volunteer non-profit associations) and easy integration with any other pharmacological or non pharmacological therapy. While a classical evidence-based approach, showing low-grade efficacy, is likely to lead to a negative attitude towards the use of Reiki in the dialysis ward, the ethical discussion, analyzing beneficium (efficacy) together with non maleficium (side effects), justice (cost, availability and integration with mainstream therapies) and autonomy (patients’ choice) is likely to lead to a permissive-positive attitude. Summary This paper debates the current evidence on Reiki and related techniques as pain-relievers in an ethical framework, and suggests that physicians may wish to consider efficacy but also side effects, contextualization (availability and costs) and patient’s requests, according also to the suggestions of the Society for Integrative Oncology (tolerate, control efficacy and side effects). PMID:23799960

  5. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  6. [Environmental ethics].

    PubMed

    Fisso, M B

    1998-01-01

    After analyzing the origins of environmental ethics the Author describes the various non-anthropocentric theories in order to criticize their significance. Then she examines the anthropocentric theories. She describes "moderate" or "weak" anthropocentrism based on the idea of a duty to defend and preserve nature and which admits a kind of limited moral relevance of nature in its relationship with man. In conclusion, it is auspiciated a collaborative action of all anthropocentric philosophic models to realize an authentic environmental protection. PMID:9810753

  7. Determination of Eligibility in Related Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Donors: Ethical and Clinical Considerations. Recommendations from a Working Group of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Association.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Menachem; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Worel, Nina; Ball, Lynne M; Styczynski, Jan; Torrabadella, Marta; Witt, Volker; Shaw, Bronwen E; Seber, Adriana; Yabe, Hiromasa; Greinix, Hildegard T; Peters, Christina; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Halter, Joerg; Pulsipher, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Related donors for hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation are a growing population in recent years because of expanding indications for allogeneic transplantation. The safety and welfare of the donor are major concerns for the transplantation community, especially for related sibling donors of young recipients who are children and, thus, not able to fully consent. Because donation of HC does not improve the donor's own physical health and carries a risk of side effects, careful assessment of medical risks specific to the individual donor, as well as consideration of ethical and legal aspects associated with donation from a child, must be considered. In addition, donor centers must balance the needs of both the donor and the recipient, understanding the inherent conflict parents may have as they can be overly focused on the very sick child receiving a transplant, rather than on the relatively less significant health or emotional problems that a sibling donor may have, which could impact risk with donation. Likewise, consideration must be made regarding the nature of the relationship of the sibling donor to the recipient and also aspects of performing research on pediatric HC donors. In this article, as members of the Donor Issues Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we review key ethical concerns associated with pediatric donation and then give recommendations for screening potential child donors with underlying health conditions. These recommendations are aimed at protecting the physical and emotional well-being of childhood donors and arise out of the Third International Conference on Health and Safety of Donors sponsored by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. PMID:26307344

  8. Decision-making and nurse case management: a philosophical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Kimberly D; Strang, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Decision-making related to resource allocation in home care case management practice is addressed from the unique perspective of nursing. The case management process stipulates the adherence to both client-centered and system-centered goals. Issues that emerge from this process include the ethical dilemma of deciding the equitable and fair distribution of resources related to the provision of appropriate levels of service; economic factors as they relate to limited financial resources; and the variance among case managers in their decision-making. Moderate realism, as compared to critical and feminist theory, provides a philosophical perspective that allows a practical interpretation of these issues. PMID:15027660

  9. Ethics, Law and Policy Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Ethics, Law and Policy Group was created to identify and address critical ethical, legal and social questions faced by researchers and patients participating in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The guidelines established will help policy makers develop and apply effective and fair policies related to cancer genome research. These policies will have implications for cancer genome research and could support the translation of discoveries in cancer genomics to the clinic.

  10. The Ethical Dimensions of Curriculum Leadership in Scandinavian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schooling is a significant tool for fostering future generations, which, in turn, implies that the curriculum is an ethical document. It mirrors the society's notion of what is valuable, useful and necessary from a societal and individual perspective. The purpose of this paper is to address the Scandinavian curricula's ethical framework,…

  11. Embracing Excellence: A Positive Approach to Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinz, Lisa D.

    2011-01-01

    Ethics courses may provoke fear and uncertainty in art therapy students and practitioners if taught from a risk management perspective, which focuses on reducing therapist exposure to risk and avoiding harm to clients. In contrast, a positive ethical approach fosters empowerment, embraces limits, and enhances trust between art therapists and their…

  12. Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes 2nd edition - ©2008 A 372-page engineering ethics reference book published by the National Institute for Engineering Ethics Description of Contents: Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

  13. Teaching Ethics in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes arguments for and against teaching ethics within science education, and clarifies what might be the several aims of teaching ethics in science. Discusses how ethics instruction might be incorporated into the science curriculum. (Contains 120 references.) (WRM)

  14. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health care professionals in daily clinical practice, we suggest that international organizations and national medical schools should consider infrastructure and tools to improve context-sensitive capacity building in clinical ethics for Sub-Saharan African countries like Gabon. PMID:26161655

  15. The Irony of Ethics: (De)coding the Lived Experience of Women and Minority Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reybold, L. Earle

    2014-01-01

    What does it mean to "be" an ethical faculty member? A number of scholars point to legal and moral issues, aligning ethics with professional codes and regulated by institutional policy. From this perspective, being ethical is a matter of knowing and following the professional rules--the goal is to avoid certain actions. On the other…

  16. A Calvinist account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Cusveller, Bart

    2013-11-01

    A relatively small but intellectually robust strand in the Christian religion is the Reformed tradition. Especially, its Calvinist sensibilities inform this Protestant stance towards human culture in general and vocations in particular. Correspondingly, there are some small but robust contributions to academic discourse in nursing ethics. So far there has been no attempt to bring those together as a distinct approach. This article suggests such a Reformed Christian, especially Calvinist, account of nursing ethics. Central to the Reformed perspective is the notion that God is sovereign over all of creation and culture and hence that there can be no religiously or morally neutral area in human life. Consequently, nursing is not seen as professional to the extent it is based on research evidence or theoretical models, but to the extent it serves the ultimate purpose of the practice of care. In the Reformed view, this purpose is fostering the well-being of human beings in need as intrinsically valuable. Nurses are professionals who accept this responsibility, that is, the whole of expectations holding for personal qualities, conduct and outcomes, required to serve the purpose of care. As this is a moral purpose, succeeding or failing to live up to these expectations is the source of moral issues in nursing. PMID:23471160

  17. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

  18. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  19. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    PubMed

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  20. Euthanasia in relation to newborn babies--a comparative study of the legal and ethical issues (I).

    PubMed

    Moor, S

    1996-01-01

    The birth of a normal child is an event full of happiness and joy for its family, yet the birth of a handicapped baby can be a terrible human tragedy, since it entails difficult problems to be faced by the infant and its parents. Euthanasia of newborn handicapped babies is an ethically, morally, clinically and legally complex issue, involving decisions to be taken by doctors, parents and lawyers. Modern medicine is a technological marvel. Procedures unheard of and unthought of some 30 years ago are today common practice, among them is neonatal intensive care. Neonatal intensive care includes resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, artificial tube feeding and other technologically sophisticated means of maintaining seriously handicapped and seriously ill, or low birth-weight neonates. These advanced medical technologies, while they have led to the saving of many lives, have also caused the source of the dilemma because they enable the survival of severely handicapped babies, who otherwise would have died. The question to be addressed is whether life is to be chosen for the severely handicapped infant or whether life for the handicapped infant is correctly regarded as worse than death; treatment being regarded as tantamount to cruelty, since it envisages no beneficial future for the infant, but rather life full of pain and distress, so that death should be chosen for it. PMID:8908984

  1. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  2. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  3. Antibiotic resistance: An ethical challenge.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Jasper; Buyx, Alena; Cars, Otto

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we argue that antibiotic resistance (ABR) raises a number of ethical problems that have not yet been sufficiently addressed. We outline four areas in which ethical issues that arise in relation to ABR are particularly pressing. First, the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant infections exacerbates traditional ethical challenges of infectious disease control, such as the restriction of individual liberty for the protection of the public's health. Second, ABR raises issues of global distributive justice, both with regard to the overuse and lack of access to antibiotics. Third, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine raises serious concerns for animal welfare and sustainable farming practices. Finally, the diminishing effectiveness of antibiotics leads to questions about intergenerational justice and our responsibility for the wellbeing of future generations. We suggest that current policy discussions should take ethical conflicts into account and engage openly with the challenges that we outline in this paper. PMID:26242553

  4. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  5. Medical ethics in the media.

    PubMed

    Raman, Usha

    2009-01-01

    The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions. PMID:19241950

  6. A Philosophical Perspective on the Relation between Cortical Midline Structures and the Self.

    PubMed

    Musholt, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing evidence that an area in the brain called the cortical midline structures (CMSs) is implicated in what has been termed self-related processing. This article will discuss recent evidence for the relation between CMS and self-consciousness in light of several important philosophical distinctions. First, we should distinguish between being a self (i.e., being a subject of conscious experience) and being aware of being a self (i.e., being able to think about oneself as such). While the former consists in having a first-person perspective on the world, the latter requires the ability to explicitly represent one's own perspective as such. Further, we should distinguish between being aware of oneself "as subject" and being aware of oneself "as object." The focus of existing studies investigating the relation between CMS and self has been predominantly on the ability to think about oneself (and in particular thinking of oneself "as object"), while the more basic aspects involved in being a self have been neglected. However, it is important to widen the scope of the cognitive neuroscience to include the latter, not least because this might have important implications for a better understanding of disorders of the self, such as those involved in schizophrenia. In order to do so, cognitive neuroscience should work together with philosophy, including phenomenology. Second, we need to distinguish between personal and subpersonal level explanations. It will be argued that although it is important to respect this distinction, in principle, some subpersonal facts can enter into constitutive conditions of personal-level phenomena. However, in order for this to be possible, one needs both careful conceptual analysis and knowledge about relevant cognitive mechanisms. PMID:24032013

  7. A mobile user-interface for elderly care from the perspective of relatives.

    PubMed

    Warpenius, Erika; Alasaarela, Esko; Sorvoja, Hannu; Kinnunen, Matti

    2015-03-01

    As the number of elderly people rises, relatives' care-taking responsibilities increase accordingly. This creates a need for developing new systems that enable relatives to keep track of aged family members. To develop new mobile services for elderly healthcare we tried to identify the most wanted features of a mobile user-interface from the perspective of relatives. Feature mapping was based on two online surveys: one administered to the relatives (N?=?32) and nurses (N?=?3) of senior citizens and the other to nursing students (N?=?18). Results of the surveys, confirmed by face-to-face interviews of the relatives (N?=?8), indicated that the most valued features of the mobile user-interface are Accident Reporting (e.g. falling), Alarms (e.g. fire-alarm), Doctor Visits and evaluation of the General Condition of the Senior. The averaged importance ratings of these features were 9.2, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.5, respectively (on a scale from 0 to 10). Other important considerations for the user-interface development are aspiration to simplicity and ease-of-use. We recommend that the results are taken into account, when designing and implementing mobile services for elderly healthcare. PMID:25418754

  8. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. PMID:10706536

  9. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. Images pA108-a PMID:10706536

  10. Governmental population incentives: ethical issues at stake.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1977-04-01

    Governmental incentives to influence population-related decisions are examined in terms of the ethical issues at stake. A typology of incentive schemes is presented, and ethical implications of various incentives are discussed. It is argued that, in a just scheme, a progressive, negative incentive or fee, calculated as a surtax on a modified income tax or an equivalent standard, would distribute burdens equally. A set of guidelines for ethical evaluation of incentive schemes is proposed. PMID:850928

  11. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  12. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  13. Safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in developing countries: the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baguma, David; Hashim, Jamal H; Aljunid, Syed M; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2013-01-01

    The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women's participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries. PMID:23178827

  14. Ethical Datives in Russian and Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanova, Dana Khalelovna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the phenomenon of ethical datives (EDs) in two Slavic languages, Russian and Macedonian. EDs are defined through a pragmatic lens as discourse licensed perspective markers in which a dative form expresses a speaker's decision to signal someone's emotional attitude--real or perceived--toward the action. Owing to…

  15. Congress and the Media: The Ethical Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel; And Others

    This essay, an outgrowth of the Legislative Ethics and the Media Project, builds upon project meetings and interviews with members of a special task force made up of journalists representing various special ties and perspectives within the media as well as legislators, congressional staff members, and academic experts. The first of five sections…

  16. Controversies in nursing ethics: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Olsen, D P

    1992-09-01

    The author critiques the dialectic between justice-based ethics and an ethic of caring from a historical perspective (by analogy with the dialectic between agape and friendship). Justice-based ethics have been problematic for nursing because of the decontextualized approach. The ethic of caring is problematic because caring, being contextual, is particularistic and therefore can be based on morally irrelevant factors, such as liking. There is a tradition of writing which seeks to reconcile the particularistic obligations of friendship with the moral duty to all others equally. Ideas from the following authors are reviewed for relevance to nursing: Aristotle, Aelred of Rievaulx, Augustine, John Cassian, Cicero, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, Michel de Montaigne, Jeremy Taylor and Max Weber. The authors concludes by noting that both sides of the dialectic are synthesized in the lived experience of individuals. A synthesis in thought is called for on this basis. PMID:1401542

  17. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

  18. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way. PMID:19338521

  19. [Ethics: a challenge for education].

    PubMed

    Moreau, D; Larochelle, C

    1993-05-01

    Because of new advances in biomedical science and bio-technology, nurses are confronted with dilemmas for which no easy solutions are available. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly crucial that nursing students develop moral judgement. Nursing students find it difficult to relate the principles of ethics (moral conduct, duty and judgment) to concrete nursing situations. Blondeau (1986) believes the case study to be one of the most effective teaching strategies that can be used to raise moral sensitivity. However, it is very difficult to use this strategy with young adult students. The authors believe that if students learn ethical principles prior to the case study they will become aware of ethical problems and will be better prepared to discuss in depth ethical implications. They designed a self-learning module and compared the results with an equivalent group of students. Post-test cognitive results showed a difference between the two groups. Students using the new case study module expressed great satisfaction with the format, utilization and attitudes of this module. The approach proved useful since students were able to learn at their own pace. The time previously used to teach ethical principles was then allotted to class discussions and the process of ethical decision-making. PMID:8500090

  20. Research Ethics & Compliance Support

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Research Ethics & Compliance Support Dr Ted Rohr, Director RECS #12;http://research.unsw.edu.au/research-ethics-and-compliance-support-recs #12;Research is considered by: Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) A and B: · All human research involving more than low risk Human Research Ethics Advisory Panels (HREAPs) A to I: · All human research

  1. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  2. OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

  3. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  4. Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

  5. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  6. Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

    Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

  7. Teaching Business IT Ethics: A Professional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Moynihan, Eddie; McWilliam, Jennie; Gresty, David

    2004-01-01

    In UK higher education a primary aim of business IT-related qualifications is the preparation of students for a relevant career. In this article we discuss an approach to teaching business IT ethics in a university context that prepares students for the ethical problems that they may meet in their future IT careers, and we demonstrate how this…

  8. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  9. Examining Teacher Ethical Dilemmas in Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Nakia; Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Mitchell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts…

  10. The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

  11. Teachers' Ethical Responsibilities in a Diverse Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquemal, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing that learning to teach cannot be separated from learning to inquire, I argue that teachers have specific relational and ethical responsibilities to their students, particularly in the context of a diverse society. Using my research experiences with Aboriginal people as examples, I propose an ethical framework based upon four underlying…

  12. The Relation between School Leadership from a Distributed Perspective and Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Source of the Leadership Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the relationship between school leadership and teachers' organizational commitment is examined by taking into account a distributed leadership perspective. The relation between teachers' organizational commitment and contextual variables of teachers' perceptions of the quality and the source of the supportive and supervisory…

  13. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Leuzy, A; Racine, E; Rosa-Neto, P

    2013-11-01

    There is great interest in the ethical issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias given the prevalence of AD and the evolving neuroscience landscape in matters of diagnoses and therapeutics. Much of the ethics discussion arises in the tension between the principle of not doing harm (principle of non-maleficence) in this vulnerable population and the development of effective treatments (principle of beneficence). Autonomy and capacity issues are also numerous, wide-ranging, and concern (1) day to day affairs such as driving safely and spending money wisely, (2) life-time events such as designating a legal representative in case of incapacity, making a will, (3) consenting to treatment and diagnostic procedures, (4) participating in research. The latter issue is particularly thorny and illustrates well the complexity of tackling concerns related to capacity. The impetus to protect AD patients has partly led to ethics regulation and policies making research on inapt patients more difficult because of stringent requirements for signed informed consent or for showing the value of the research to this specific patient population. New issues are arising that relate to earlier diagnosis using biomarkers and (possibly soon) the use of drugs that modify disease progression. We here summarize and discuss the different ethical issues associated with AD from a historical perspective, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatments issues. PMID:23578568

  14. Ethical School Leadership: Defining the Best Interests of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline; Begley, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the alternate ways ethical school leadership in the best interests of students is conceptualized in the educational leadership literature from several foundational perspectives including philosophy, psychology, critical theory and case law. Perspectives which are grounded solely in theory are differentiated from those…

  15. Examining Relationships among Work Ethic, Academic Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriac, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…

  16. Ethics in Classroom Assessment Practices: Issues and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.

    2007-01-01

    Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from a web-based survey…

  17. Confessions of a Shoveler: STS Subcultures and Engineering Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herkert, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream science, technology, and society scholars have shown little interest in engineering ethics, one going so far as to label engineering ethics activists as "shit shovelers." Detachment from engineering ethics on the part of most STS scholars is related to a broader and long-standing split between the scholar-oriented and activist-oriented…

  18. Students' Perspectives, Levels of Epistemological Understanding and Critical Thinking Dispositions Related to the Use of Case Studies in an Educational Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James D.; Razvi, Summar

    2006-01-01

    Students' perspectives, levels of epistemological understanding, and critical thinking dispositions related to the use of case studies in an educational psychology course. This is the second part of a research project investigating students' perspectives and critical thinking dispositions related to case study pedagogy in an educational psychology…

  19. The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study. PMID:23388345

  20. An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Sara Sepanski; Evans, Gary W.; Barry, Rachel L.; Maxwell, Lorraine E.

    2010-01-01

    Most educational reform programs, including No Child Left Behind, operate from the perspective that gaps in academic achievement can be reduced by improvements in the educational process directed by school administrators and teachers. This perspective ignores the ecological context in which underachieving schools are typically embedded. Using a…

  1. Legal and Ethical Values in the Resolution of Research-Related Disputes: How Can IRBs Respond to Participant Complaints?

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Under U.S. federal regulations, participants providing informed consent must receive information regarding whom to contact in case of a research-related injury or complaint. Although informed consent processes routinely direct participants to contact institutional review boards (IRBs) with questions or concerns, there has been little empirical study of the ways in which IRBs act to resolve participants' research-related complaints. This article explores available literature on participant complaints, considers the responsibilities of IRBs in dispute resolution, and outlines a research agenda. As a case study, this review considers disputes arising from HIV/AIDS research, focusing on novel issues arising from biomedical HIV prevention trials. PMID:24572085

  2. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471

  3. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  4. [Ethics in psychiatric research].

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2014-07-01

    This review presents the results of a book 1 on ethical problems of clinical research in psychiatry and its framework. The requirement of societally necessary research can be satisfied only if every research patient is appropriately protected against risks and burdens. A clinical research intervention is acceptable only if - its benefit-risk-relationship is reasonable and justified, and - the patient's informed consent is valid. Basic and only unsatisfactorily solved questions are related to the capacity to consent and to problems in the evaluation of the benefit-risk-relationship, particularly of individual versus societal benefits and risks. PMID:24983573

  5. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A.; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Mc Garrigle, Sarah; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J.; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A.; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

  6. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  7. Becoming the Denigrated Other: Group Relations Perspectives on Initial Reactions to a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one) and alcoholism (one). All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.” PMID:23049521

  8. Childhood obesity and sleep: relatives, partners, or both?--a critical perspective on the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2012-08-01

    In modern life, children are unlikely to obtain sufficient or regular sleep and waking schedules. Inadequate sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, assessments of the obesogenic lifestyle, including as dietary and physical activity, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of sleep quality and quantity, and coexistence of sleep apnea. Inclusion of sleep as an integral component of research studies on childhood obesity should be done as part of the study planning process. Although parents and health professionals have quantified normal patterns of activities in children, sleep has been almost completely overlooked. As sleep duration in children appears to have declined, reciprocal obesity rates have increased. Also, increases in pediatric obesity rates have markedly increased the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Obesity and OSAS share common pathways underlying end-organ morbidity, potentially leading to reciprocal amplificatory effects. The relative paucity of data on the topics covered in the perspective below should serve as a major incentive toward future research on these critically important concepts. PMID:22882312

  9. Parents’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents’ own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon—supporting children during an NRMP—is characterized as “keeping the child under the protection of one’s wings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child’s way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child’s understanding, focusing the child’s attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents’ ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child’s protector and to be able to keep the child “under the protection of one’s wings,” parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

  10. Investigating the phenomenological matrix of mindfulness-related practices from a neurocognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Antoine; Jha, Amishi P; Dunne, John D; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-10-01

    There has been a great increase in literature concerned with the effects of a variety of mental training regimes that generally fall within what might be called contemplative practices, and a majority of these studies have focused on mindfulness. Mindfulness meditation practices can be conceptualized as a set of attention-based, regulatory, and self-inquiry training regimes cultivated for various ends, including wellbeing and psychological health. This article examines the construct of mindfulness in psychological research and reviews recent, nonclinical work in this area. Instead of proposing a single definition of mindfulness, we interpret it as a continuum of practices involving states and processes that can be mapped into a multidimensional phenomenological matrix which itself can be expressed in a neurocognitive framework. This phenomenological matrix of mindfulness is presented as a heuristic to guide formulation of next-generation research hypotheses from both cognitive/behavioral and neuroscientific perspectives. In relation to this framework, we review selected findings on mindfulness cultivated through practices in traditional and research settings, and we conclude by identifying significant gaps in the literature and outline new directions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436313

  11. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia. PMID:26061118

  12. Professional Ethics, System Design Methods

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

  13. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  14. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  15. Protestant Work Ethics: A Comparison of American and Japanese Working Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    While concerns grow regarding the possible "decline" of America's traditional work ethics, there is a growing interest in Japanese economic successes and work ethics. This study compares the work ethics of American and Japanese men. A questionnaire was designed to measure values related to America's "Protestant work ethics" and to traditional…

  16. Ethics and the Marketing of Technology for Training and Performance Improvement: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2003-01-01

    This commentary is intended to start a conversation on ethical behavior in the marketing of our work, with a special focus on the issues that arise when marketing technology and related services. The general literature on marketing ethics suggests that marketers have more relaxed ethical values than the general public. Therefore, ethics should be…

  17. The ethics of sin taxes.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional. PMID:21198817

  18. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  19. Current Ethical Issues in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubler, Nancy Neveloff, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Articles in this special issue look at ethical issues in aging in geriatric care, improving care of the dying, the value of autonomy and respect, the role of religion in health-related decisions, protection of nursing facility residents, physician-assisted dying, conflict resolution in nursing homes, and dealing with patients' demands for…

  20. Learning from Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports analysis of 60 case studies of ethical dilemmas faced by experiential educators. Identifies issues which enhance likelihood of moral dilemmas: funding, residential programming, and risk-taking. Exposes need for a professional "code of ethics." (NEC)

  1. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  2. Toward critical research ethics: transforming ethical conduct in qualitative health care research.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Nila Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Based on research conducted with women injection drug users (WIDUs), I discuss the ethical conflicts that researchers and sub-contractors face in gaining access to the life narratives of WIDUs. Foremost among these is the potentially exploitative nature of the study participant-researcher relationship. I suggest that federal and institutional guidelines for human subject research must incorporate additional safeguards to protect study populations such as WIDUs. Moreover, the ethical concerns related to health care research should be addressed in guidelines for ethical conduct with human subjects, research ethics seminars, and required training programs for researchers and subcontractors separately. PMID:15487483

  3. Relationalism

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

  4. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  5. Nanomedicine: Techniques, Potentials, and Ethical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel physical, chemical, and biological properties due to their nanoscale size. This paper focuses on what is known as nanomedicine, referring to the application of nanotechnology to medicine. We consider the use and potentials of emerging nanoscience techniques in medicine such as nanosurgery, tissue engineering, and targeted drug delivery, and we discuss the ethical questions that these techniques raise. The ethical considerations involved in nanomedicine are related to risk assessment in general, somatic-cell versus germline-cell therapy, the enhancement of human capabilities, research into human embryonic stem cells and the toxicity, uncontrolled function and self-assembly of nanoparticles. The ethical considerations associated with the application of nanotechnology to medicine have not been greatly discussed. This paper aims to balance clear ethical discussion and sound science and so provide nanotechnologists and biotechnologists with tools to assess ethical problems in nanomedicine. PMID:17489016

  6. The Ethical Analysis Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raul G.

    1992-01-01

    The Ethical Analysis Protocol is a set of questions on treatment of participants, research practices, and sociopolitical dimensions of research that can be used to elicit information about ethical assumptions, constraints, and implications of institutional research studies. They provide a framework for ethical analysis of an institutional research…

  7. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  8. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  9. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  10. "Not" Teaching Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.

  11. [Looking over the progress of care. Historical and ethical aspects of the relations between health professionals and patients].

    PubMed

    Geadah, Roland-Ramzi

    2012-06-01

    If the idea of care materializes by a friendly behaviour, word or movement, the characters who implemented it have seemed, over the history, motivated by varied ideals. Certainly, their name, status and role have not always been precisely described; but their intervention happens to be bound to moral and scientific requirements enriched by collective representations. So after the nobility welcome of the wandering, impoverished and sick stranger, related by Homeric and biblical narratives, the more or less protected professional organization has appeared on behalf of the Greek city, then the Roman one. The image of the suffering Christ has then imposed itself where the distress of the patient could be read; it constituted the engine of the charity due to the latter, whose demonstrations proliferated in the Middle Ages. However, because of the necessary disease prevention in front of epidemics which stressed the increasing opportunities of war and travel, a more and more complex institutional organization has established itself little by little bound to technical and political considerations. More precisely, in the last two centuries, the social unrest bearing aspiration to public health and people's safety has underlied Republican ideals of freedom, solidarity and individual expression. This is what the Nursing staff duty - officially recognized as "healthcare professionals" - responds to today to ensure favorable conditions to the dawn of feelings of comfort, self-fulfillment and respect. As much by caring and listening they ensure as by technical acts they operate, they in fact, participate in the implementation of a distribution of common wealth. Health and welcome of the most deprived therefore constitute, thanks to their thoughtful intervention, the stammerings of a policy of active citizenship. PMID:22880495

  12. Effects of Perspective Sentences in Social Stories[TM] on Improving the Adaptive Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of adding perspective sentences to Social Stories[TM] on improving the adaptive behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities. In Study 1, two students with ASD read two different types of Social Stories: Social Story without perspective sentences (SS without PS) and Social…

  13. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

  14. Ethical Ideology and Cultural Orientation: Understanding the Individualized Ethical Inclinations of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2009-01-01

    As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…

  15. Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

  16. Ethics of physiotherapy practice in terminally ill patients in a developing country, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbo, N N; Ezeome, E R; Onyeka, T C; Amah, C C

    2015-12-01

    Physiotherapy has been widely defined as a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and works to prevent disease and disability through physical means. The World Confederation for Physical Therapy describes physiotherapy as providing services to people and populations to develop, maintain, and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. Physiotherapists working with terminally ill patients face a myriad of ethical issues which have not been substantially discussed in bioethics especially in the African perspective. In the face of resource limitation in developing countries, physiotherapy seems to be a cost-effective means of alleviating pain and distressing symptoms at the end-of-life, ensuring a more dignified passage from life to death, yet referrals to physiotherapy are not timely. Following extensive literature search using appropriate keywords, six core ethical themes related to physiotherapy in terminally ill patients were identified and using the four principles of bioethics (patient's autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), an ethical analysis of these themes was done to highlight the ethical challenges of physiotherapists working in a typical African setting such as Nigeria. PMID:26620621

  17. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. PMID:25934088

  18. Ethics and Defining Cultural Competence: An Alternative View.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    Global ethics calls upon the discipline of nursing to critically evaluate personal and culture-based beliefs to nurture professionalism in relationships and improve health disparities. What does it potentially mean to provide nurse services based on culture and cultural competence? This article begins a discussion of potential ethical questions that surround the concept of culture and potential implications for education and practice from a nursing theoretical perspective. PMID:26660769

  19. How a Deweyan science education further enables ethics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Scott

    2008-09-01

    This paper questions the perceived divide between ‘science’ subject matter and ‘moral’ or ‘ethical’ subject matter. A difficulty that this assumed divide produces is that science teachers often feel that there needs to be ‘special treatment’ given to certain issues which are of an ethical or moral nature and which are ‘brought into’ the science class. The case is made in this article that dealing with ethical issues in the science class should not call for a sensitivity that is beyond the expertise of the science teacher. Indeed it is argued here that science teachers in particular have a great deal to offer in enabling ethics education. To overcome this perceived divide between science and values it needs to be recognised that the educative development of learners is both scientific and moral. I shall be using a Deweyan perspective to make the case that we as science teachers can overcome this apparent divide and significantly contribute to an ethics education of our students.

  20. Professional Ethics in the College and University Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adopted by those engaged in one of the pursuits regarded as professions, such as law, medicine, engineering and science. Professional ethics derive from a moral ideal based on service. This ideal leads to a pair of bargains: an internal bargain that defines the internal code of practice within the profession, and an external bargain that defines the relationship between the profession and society. This article develops the internal and external bargains that are the basis of scientific ethics from both an historical and a philosophical perspective and makes suggestions as to how the teaching of scientific ethics can be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum.

  1. Do Nice Guys Really Finish Last? Exploring the Relations between Ethical Conduct, Motivation and Satisfaction among Undergraduates in the Domains of Academics and Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukhymenko, Mariya A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored patterns of the ethical conduct of collegiate students in academic and athletic domains employing social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) using non-experimental, comparative and correlational designs. The study explored response patterns on anonymous surveys between varsity (N = 1151) and non-varsity (N = 227)…

  2. Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements

    PubMed Central

    DuVal, G

    2004-01-01

    Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review. PMID:14872068

  3. Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval Contents Page INTRODUCTION PROCEDURES 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 3 2 Responsibilities of the University Research Ethics Committee 3 3 Terms of Reference of Faculty Research Ethics Committees 4 4 Responsibilities

  4. Dentists versus auto mechanics: are there ethical differences?

    PubMed

    Riley, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The different ethical perspectives of dentists and auto mechanics include primary concern, billing procedures, advertising, emergency care, the level of autonomy granted to their patients/ clients, the amount of disclosure given to their patients/clients, the ability to judge the work of others, and the freedom to pursue romantic relationships with their patients/clients. In analyzing these differences, one finds dentists to have much greater ethical obligations than auto mechanics. There are subtle differences between the ethical expectations of Canadian and United States dentists. PMID:23977750

  5. Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others

    PubMed Central

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so that more precise understanding of intentions may result. This review presents an analysis of these complementary abilities, both in terms of the frames of reference and the proposed sensorimotor mechanisms involved. Together, we argue for the importance of reconsidering the role of basic spatial processes to explain more complex behaviors. PMID:24068992

  6. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of suffering bodies than the currently accepted stereotypes. PMID:22877932

  7. Ethical obliqations and the dental office team.

    PubMed

    Roucka, Toni M; Zarkowski, Pamela; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Patthoff, Donald E

    2013-01-01

    A hypothetical case of alleged sexual misconduct in a practice with high employee turnover and stress is analyzed by three experts. This case commentary examines the ethical role expectations of an office manager who is not directly involved but becomes aware of the activities. The commentators bring the perspectives of a dental hygienist, academic administrator, and attorney; a teacher of behavioral sciences in a dental school; and a general dentist with many years of practice experience. PMID:24761582

  8. Strengthening Learners' Perspectives in Professional Standards to Restore Relationality as Central to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewaldt, Jeana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australian teacher standards have effects on what is thought about teachers' work. Just as teacher standards give expression to some characteristics of quality teaching, so too do students' views if solicited and made public, yet the archive of teaching standards pays little attention to learners' perspectives. This paper uses a theoretical…

  9. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  10. Perspective Taking of Immigrant Children: Utilizing Children's Literature and Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Malerie; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2012-01-01

    Perspective taking, which is seeing a viewpoint other than one's own, is critical in interpersonal understanding and in cross-cultural communication. It is especially crucial in diverse societies such as the United States as well as in countries where immigrants from other nations are living as one community. Hence, this article focuses on…

  11. A Comparison of Health-Related Quality of Life and Informant Perspectives in Symptoms Reporting Among Children with Functional and Organic Gastrointestinal Disorders 

    E-print Network

    Aguirre, Vincent Phillip

    2014-12-12

    Scant research exists regarding the nature of variance in overall level of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and parent-child informant perspectives of HRQOL specific to children with functional and organic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders...

  12. Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices

    E-print Network

    Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices Ray Terhune US EPA Region 4 Quality Assurance Section #12;#12;Goals for This Presentation Discuss why this training is necessary. Define Ethics, Data Integrity. #12;What is "Ethics"? #12;Ethics: Webster's online dictionary defines ethics as: the discipline

  13. CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Thomas; Wildsoet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a clinical perspective on recent myopia research related to the development and testing of optical treatments for controlling myopia progression. The perspective is from that of a clinician in private practice and a clinician researcher, both with long term involvement in myopia management and research. PMID:23528448

  14. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  15. Teaching ethics in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François; Ducrocq, Xavier; Coudane, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Aim To carry out an appropriate overview and inventory of the teaching of ethics within the European Union Schools of Medicine. Methods A questionnaire was sent by email to 45 randomly selected medical schools from each of 23 countries in the European Union in February 2006. Results 25 schools of medicine from 18 European countries were included (response rate?=?56%). In 21 of 25 medical schools, there was at least one ethics module. In 11 of 25 medical schools, the teaching of ethics was transversal. Only one of the responding schools did not teach ethics. The mean time invested in ethics teaching was 44?h during the overall curriculum. Conclusions Ethics now has an established place within the medical curriculum throughout the European Union. However, there is a notable disparity in programme characteristics among schools of medicine. PMID:17664312

  16. Relationalism

    E-print Network

    Edward Anderson

    2014-07-15

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

  17. The Council of Europe's "White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue": An Analysis Using the Ethic of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines what an ethic of care could offer to discussions about Europe's increasing cultural diversity by analyzing the important "White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue" published by the Council of Europe in 2008. The authors consider the White Paper from the perspective of the political ethic of care and thus examine its adequacy in…

  18. Ethics of Inquiry: Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat, Ed.

    This collection contains seven case studies about ethical issues faced by scholars of teaching and learning, each with commentary from individuals who bring different perspectives to bear on the issues. This case-plus-commentaries format enacts a central theme of the volume, which is that there is no single right way to resolve the ethical

  19. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  20. Ethics and Professionalism Clinical Medicine II

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Ethics and Professionalism Years I-IV 2014-2015 Year II Clinical Medicine II · Advance Care Planning; End-of-Life Issues; Ethics- Small Group Session · Ethical Principles- Lecture · HIV/ Ethics- Panel · HIV/ Ethics- Small groups · HIV/ Ethics- Lecture · Ethical Principles- Lecture · Clinical Ethics

  1. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Eppard, M.B.; Murchie, K.J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Cooke, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.; Murchie, Karen J.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish.

  3. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  4. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  5. Countering Brutality to Wildlife, Relationism and Ethics: Conservation, Welfare and the ‘Ecoversity’

    PubMed Central

    Garlick, Steve; Matthews, Julie; Carter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Wildlife cruelty is commonplace in society. We argue for a new engagement with wildlife through three elements: a relational ethic based on intrinsic understanding of the way wildlife and humans might view each other; a geography of place and space, where there are implications for how we ascribe contextual meaning and practice in human-animal relations; and, engaged learning designed around our ethical relations with others, beyond the biophysical and novel, and towards the reflective metaphysical. We propose the ‘ecoversity’, as a scholarly and practical tool for focusing on the intersection of these three elements as an ethical place-based learning approach. Abstract Wildlife objectification and cruelty are everyday aspects of Australian society that eschew values of human kindness, empathy, and an understanding of the uniqueness and importance of non-human life in the natural world. Fostered by institutional failure, greed and selfishness, and the worst aspects of human disregard, the objectification of animals has its roots in longstanding Western anthropocentric philosophical perspectives, post colonialism, and a global uptake of neoliberal capitalism. Conservation, animal rights and welfare movements have been unable to stem the ever-growing abuse of wildlife, while ‘greenwash’ language such as ‘resource use’, ‘management’, ‘pests’, ‘over-abundance’, ‘conservation hunting’ and ‘ecology’ coat this violence with a respectable public veneer. We propose an engaged learning approach to address the burgeoning culture of wildlife cruelty and objectification that comprises three elements: a relational ethic based on intrinsic understanding of the way wildlife and humans might view each other [1,2,3]; geography of place and space [4], where there are implications for how we ascribe contextual meaning and practice in human-animal relations; and, following [5], engaged learning designed around our ethical relations with others, beyond the biophysical and novel and towards the reflective metaphysical. We propose the ‘ecoversity’ [6], as a scholarly and practical tool for focusing on the intersection of these three elements as an ethical place-based learning approach to wildlife relationism. We believe it provides a mechanism to help bridge the gap between human and non-human animals, conservation and welfare, science and understanding, and between objectification and relationism as a means of addressing entrenched cruelty to wildlife. PMID:26486221

  6. Counseling Clients Who Self-Injure: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Victoria E.; McCormick, Laura J.; Kelly, Brandy L.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of ethical considerations related to counseling clients who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Ethical issues concerning client welfare, counselor competence, countertransference, referral and consultation, informed consent, and duty to protect are discussed in relation to the American Counseling Association's (1995) "Code of…

  7. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking. Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks. Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components. I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, “Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn’t stop to think if they should,” and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good. PMID:25574287

  8. Ethics and proposals: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work? In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it`s the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

  9. Ethics and proposals: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it's the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

  10. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  11. Stakeholder views of ethical guidance regarding prevention and care in HIV vaccine trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is a major hub of HIV prevention trials, with plans for a licensure trial to start in 2015. The appropriate standards of care and of prevention in HIV vaccine trials are complex and debated issues and ethical guidelines offer some direction. However, there has been limited empirical exploration of South African stakeholders’ perspectives on ethical guidance related to prevention and care in HIV vaccine trials. Methods Site staff, Community Advisory Board members and Research Ethics Committee members involved with current HIV vaccine trials in South Africa were invited to participate in an exploration of their views. A questionnaire listed 10 care and 10 prevention recommendations drawn from two widely available sets of ethical guidelines for biomedical HIV prevention trials. Respondents (n?=?98) rated each recommendation on five dimensions: “Familiarity with”, “Ease of Understanding”, “Ease of Implementing”, “Perceived Protection”, and “Agreement with” each ethical recommendation. The ratings were used to describe stakeholder perspectives on dimensions for each recommendation. Dimension ratings were averaged across the five dimensions and used as an indication of overall merit for each recommendation. Differences were explored across dimensions, between care-oriented and prevention-oriented recommendations, and between stakeholder groups. Results Both care and prevention recommendations were rated highly overall, with median ratings well above the scale midpoint. In general, informed consent recommendations were most positively rated. Care-related recommendations were rated significantly more positively than prevention-related recommendations, with the five lowest-rated recommendations being prevention-related. The most problematic dimension across all recommendations was “Ease of Implementing,” and the least problematic was “Agreement with,” suggesting the most pressing stakeholder concerns are practical rather than theoretical; that is, respondents agree with but see barriers to the attainment of these recommendations. Conclusions We propose that prevention recommendations be prioritized for refinement, especially those assigned bottom-ranking scores for “Ease of Implementing”, and/ or “Ease of Understanding” in order to assist vaccine stakeholders to better comprehend and implement these recommendations. Further qualitative research could also assist to better understand nuances in stakeholder reservations about implementing such recommendations. PMID:24981027

  12. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  13. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  14. Ethical? Toward Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of…

  15. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  16. Ethics and the Nonprofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Toni; Hudspeth, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The American nonprofit sector is large, effective and influential, but with influence comes responsibility. Ethical lapses, whether real or perceived, can draw the attention of regulators and the public, leading to financial and reputational damage that can impair an organization's ability to carry out its mission. Written ethics and compliance…

  17. Ethics and Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    The teaching of ethics and values is a concern of American education. Scientific and technological developments and the responsibilities of professional life and of personal morality are discussed. Steps to a quality program in ethics, and the need for a theoretical framework are also addressed. (SW)

  18. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  19. PROCEDURES FOR THE ETHICAL USE OF ANIMALS IN RESEARCH AND TEACHING As per Policy on the Ethical Use of Animals in Research and Teaching (VPRGS-13)

    E-print Network

    Doedel, Eusebius

    PROCEDURES FOR THE ETHICAL USE OF ANIMALS IN RESEARCH AND TEACHING As per Policy on the Ethical Use of Animals in Research and Teaching (VPRGS-13) These Procedures are related to the Policy on the Ethical Use of Animals in Research and Teaching (VPRGS-13) and establish institutional standards concerning: Composition

  20. Political and ethical perspectives on data obfuscation

    E-print Network

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    is the condition of many essential transactions, from con- necting with friends in online social networks to shopping, travelling and engaging with institutions both public and private. Nor, as we shall discuss below, disobedience, protest or even covert sabotage ­ a form of redress in the absence of any other protection

  1. Roman Catholic perspectives on population ethics.

    PubMed

    Mccormack, A

    1983-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of Catholics recognize the problem of rapidly increasing population and urge responsible parenthood. Current Catholic doctrine sanctions only natural family planning methods, those that rely on a woman's menstrual cycle rather than on contraceptives, but the fact is that only some 2-4% of the people of the world use noncontraceptive methods. In 1980 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that such methods are of very limited usefulness in developing countries and much more research is required if they are to become generally effective. The Church has not been very helpful in promoting population concern in the international forum. The Vatican nearly succeeded in having any reference to population completely excluded from the Third UN Development Plan. The US and European Catholic Bishops have issued strong statements condemning nuclear war, but how many voices are raised in the Catholic Church to warn about the population explosion. In the slums of the 3rd world, there have been numerous warnings against "immoral" birth control methods, but little attention has been given to the problem of rapid population growth or to realistic efforts to deal with it. The question that arises is, is it consistent to be so concerned about humankind's possible future while almost totally ignoring the population explosion. It is true that the population factor is only 1 part of the problem of world poverty; the other elements also call for a solution. The present Pope has gone further than Paul 6 in stressing human rights, but human rights can never be realized as long as hundreds of millions of poverty stricken people lack basic necessities. Is there no way, under the circumstances, to reconcile the teachings of the Papal document banning contraception, the "Humanae Vitae," with the needs of those couples who are not able to care for another child but who cannot effectively practice family planning. In a recent message sent through Cardinal Casaroli to the Second International Conference on the Family of the Americas, Pope John Paul 2 demonstrated his realization and compassionate understanding of this dilemma. PMID:12338978

  2. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  3. RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR RESEARCH ETHICAL

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR RESEARCH ETHICAL APPROVAL CONTENTS Page POLICY ­ Summary 1 PROCEDURES 4 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 4 2 Composition and Membership 4 3 Basis of approval by the UREC and FRECs 5 4 Processing ethics applications 7 5 Research

  4. The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    1 The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham The University of Birmingham is committed to the highest standards of ethical conduct in all our activities. Each member of the University University committees -- has a responsibility to act ethically and in accordance with the Nolan Committee

  5. Moral fictions and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-11-01

    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken. PMID:19594726

  6. Present knowledge and perspectives on the role of copper in brake materials and related environmental issues: A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Straffelini, Giovanni; Ciudin, Rodica; Ciotti, Alessandro; Gialanella, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    This critical review presents several aspects related to the use of copper as a main component in brake pads in road vehicles. The compositions of these materials are attracting increasing interest and concern due to the relative contribution of wear products to particulate matter emissions in the environment as a result of braking action even though there has been a reduction in exhaust products from internal combustion engines. We review the data on the main wear mechanisms in brake systems and highlight the positive role of copper. However, similar to other heavy metal emissions, even the release of copper into the atmosphere may have important environmental and health effects. Thus, several replacement strategies are being pursued, and the positive and negative features will be critically reviewed. Additionally, the future perspectives in materials development will be discussed. PMID:26408966

  7. Knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Mathai, A K; Kumar, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    The growing public concern about the ethical conduct of healthcare professionals highlights the need to incorporate clinical ethics in medical education. This study examined the knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital in Chennai. A sample of 51 treating physicians and 58 other non-physician service providers from the hospital answered a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire on their knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles, and the problems they faced related to healthcare ethics. More than 30% did not give a definition of healthcare ethics, and 40% did not name a single ethical principle. 51% stated that they witnessed ethical problems in their settings and named patient dissatisfaction, gender bias by provider, and not maintaining confidentiality. The responses of healthcare providers to various ethical scenarios are reported. PMID:23697487

  8. A gentle ethical defence of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Levy, David; Gadd, Ben; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Recent discourses about the legitimacy of homeopathy have focused on its scientific plausibility, mechanism of action, and evidence base. These, frequently, conclude not only that homeopathy is scientifically baseless, but that it is "unethical." They have also diminished patients' perspectives, values, and preferences. We contend that these critics confuse epistemic questions with questions of ethics, misconstrue the moral status of homeopaths, and have an impoverished idea of ethics-one that fails to account either for the moral worth of care and of relationships or for the perspectives, values, and preferences of patients. Utilitarian critics, in particular, endeavour to present an objective evaluation-a type of moral calculus-quantifying the utilities and disutilities of homeopathy as a justification for the exclusion of homeopathy from research and health care. But these critiques are built upon a narrow formulation of evidence and care and a diminished episteme that excludes the values and preferences of researchers, homeopaths, and patients engaged in the practice of homeopathy. We suggest that homeopathy is ethical as it fulfils the needs and expectations of many patients; may be practiced safely and prudentially; values care and the virtues of the therapeutic relationship; and provides important benefits for patients. PMID:25037244

  9. Practicing a Professional Ethic: Leading for Students' Best Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined secondary administrators' perspectives about the expression "the best interests of the student." Principals' intimate reflections provided empirical insights into what they mean when they use the expression, "the best interests of the student" and whether such a common catch phrase could provide ethical guidance. A modified…

  10. Ethics and Integrity in HRD. Symposium 9. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on ethics and integrity in human resource development (HRD). "Redefining Human Resource Development: An Integration of the Learning, Performance, and Spirituality of Work Perspectives" (Reid A. Bates, Tim Hatcher, Elwood F. Holton III, Neal Chalofsky) describes an effort to articulate the tensions between the…

  11. Toward an ethics of psychoanalysis: a critical reading of Lacan's ethics.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Lewis A

    2012-12-01

    Lacan's seminar The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (1959-1960) pursues, from a Freudian perspective, a fundamental philosophical question classically addressed by Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics: How is human life best lived and fulfilled? Is there is an ethic of this type intrinsic to psychoanalysis? Lacan placed the problem of desire at the center of his Ethics. His notorious self-authorized freedom from convention and probable crossing of limits (see Roudinesco 1993) may have led mainstream analysts to ignore his admonition: "At every moment we need to know what our effective relationship is to the desire to do good, to the desire to cure" (Lacan 1959-1960, p. 219). This means that the analyst's desire, as well as the patient's, is always in play in his attempt to sustain an ethical position. An examination of Lacan's seminar highlights this link, but also points to a number of unresolved issues. The patient's desire is a complex matter, readily entangled in neurotic compromise, defense, and transference, and the analyst's commitment to it is also problematic because of the inevitable co-presence of his own desire. Lacan suggested that more emphasis be placed in training on the desire of the analyst, but beyond that a proposal is advanced for the institutionalization of a "third" as reviewer and interlocutor in routine analytic practice. Analysis may not be a discipline that can be limited to a dyadic treatment relationship. PMID:23118239

  12. Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Reidy, M.; Taylor, S.; Vallero, D. A.; Bruckner, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Funding agencies (NSF) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research, employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. Yet, few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. Workshop goals included: examining where and how geoethics topics can be taught from introductory courses for non-majors to modules embedded in "core" geoscience majors courses or dedicated courses in geoethics; sharing best pedagogic practices for "what works" in ethics education; developing a geoethics curriculum framework; creating a collection of online instructional resources, case studies, and related materials; applying lessons learned about ethics education from sister disciplines (biology, engineering, philosophy); and considering ways that geoethics instruction can contribute to public scientific literacy. Four major themes were explored in detail: (1) GeoEthics and self: examining the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences; (2) GeoEthics and the geoscience profession: identifying ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice; (3) GeoEthics and society: exploring geoscientists' responsibilities to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect public health, safety, and economic security; (4) GeoEthics and Earth: explicating geoscientists' responsibilities to provide stewardship towards of the Earth based on their knowledge of Earth's composition, architecture, history, dynamic processes, and complex systems. Workshop resources can be accessed at serc.carleton.edu/geoethics/

  13. A Life Course Perspective on How Racism May Be Related to Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that racism may influence health inequities. As individuals grow from infancy into old age, they encounter social institutions that may create new exposures to racial bias. Yet, few studies have considered this idea fully. We suggest a framework that shows how racism and health inequities may be viewed from a life course perspective. It applies the ideas of age-patterned exposures, sensitive periods, linked lives, latency period, stress proliferation, historic period, and cohorts. It suggests an overarching idea that racism can structure one’s time in asset-building contexts (e.g., education) or disadvantaged contexts (e.g., prison). This variation in time and exposure can contribute to racial inequities in life expectancy and other health outcomes across the life course and over generations. PMID:22420802

  14. Perspectives of patients on factors relating to adherence to post-acute coronary syndrome medical regimens

    PubMed Central

    Lambert-Kerzner, Anne; Havranek, Edward P; Plomondon, Mary E; Fagan, Katherine M; McCreight, Marina S; Fehling, Kelty B; Williams, David J; Hamilton, Alison B; Albright, Karen; Blatchford, Patrick J; Mihalko-Corbitt, Renee; Bryson, Chris L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Kirshner, Miriam A; Giacco, Eric J Del; Ho, P Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Poor adherence to cardioprotective medications after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalization is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and mortality. Clinical trials of multifaceted interventions have improved medication adherence with varying results. Patients’ perspectives on interventions could help researchers interpret inconsistent outcomes. Identifying factors that patients believe would improve adherence might inform the design of future interventions and make them more parsimonious and sustainable. The objective of this study was to obtain patients’ perspectives on adherence to medical regimens after experiencing an ACS event and their participation in a medication adherence randomized control trial following their hospitalization. Patients and methods Sixty-four in-depth interviews were conducted with ACS patients who participated in an efficacious, multifaceted, medication adherence randomized control trial. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative approach. Results Participants described their post-ACS event experiences and how they affected their adherence behaviors. Patients reported that adherence decisions were facilitated by mutually respectful and collaborative provider–patient treatment planning. Frequent interactions with providers and medication refill reminder calls supported improved adherence. Additional facilitators included having social support, adherence routines, and positive attitudes toward an ACS event. The majority of patients expressed that being active participants in health care decision-making contributed to their health. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that respectful collaborative communication can contribute to medication adherence after ACS hospitalization. These results suggest a potential role for training health-care providers, including pharmacists, social workers, registered nurses, etc, to elicit and acknowledge the patients’ views regarding medication treatment in order to improve adherence. Future research is needed with providers to understand how they elicit and acknowledge patients’ views, particularly in the face of nonadherence, and with patients to understand how to empower them to share their opinions with their providers. PMID:26244013

  15. Geophysical Tools, Challenges and Perspectives Related to Natural Hazards, Climate Change and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    In the coming decades a changing climate and natural hazards will likely increase the vulnerability of agricultural and other food production infrastructures, posing increasing treats to industrialized and developing economies. While food security concerns affect us globally, the huge differences among countries in stocks, population size, poverty levels, economy, technologic development, transportation, health care systems and basic infrastructure will pose a much larger burden on populations in the developing and less developed world. In these economies, increase in the magnitude, duration and frequency of droughts, floods, hurricanes, rising sea levels, heat waves, thunderstorms, freezing events and other phenomena will pose severe costs on the population. For this presentation, we concentrate on a geophysical perspective of the problems, tools available, challenges and short and long-term perspectives. In many instances, a range of natural hazards are considered as unforeseen catastrophes, which suddenly affect without warning, resulting in major losses. Although the forecasting capacity in the different situations arising from climate change and natural hazards is still limited, there are a range of tools available to assess scenarios and forecast models for developing and implementing better mitigation strategies and prevention programs. Earth observation systems, geophysical instrumental networks, satellite observatories, improved understanding of phenomena, expanded global and regional databases, geographic information systems, higher capacity for computer modeling, numerical simulations, etc provide a scientific-technical framework for developing strategies. Hazard prevention and mitigation programs will result in high costs globally, however major costs and challenges concentrate on the less developed economies already affected by poverty, famines, health problems, social inequalities, poor infrastructure, low life expectancy, high population growth, inadequate education systems, immigration, economic crises, conflicts and other issues. Case history analyses and proposals for collaboration programs, know-how transfer and better use of geophysical tools, data, observatories and monitoring networks will be discussed.

  16. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  17. Teaching professional ethics in psychoanalytic institutes: engaging the inner ethicist.

    PubMed

    Molofsky, Merle

    2014-04-01

    Teaching professional ethics in psychoanalytic institutes begins with two assumptions: (1) Students learn not only a code of ethics, they learn to develop their inner ethicist. (2) Institutes do not "train" students to become versed in a professional discipline, institutes educate, so students acquire a complex range of knowledge, developing intellectually and emotionally. Studying professional ethics begins with questions concerning freedom, free will, and responsibility, allowing students to contemplate emotionally charged topics: power politics, collegial relationships, organizational malfeasance, and boundary violations. Another area of concern involves the ability to observe and manage countertransference. Another related theme is trust: trust in supervisors, training analysts, instructors, and one's own ability to process countertransference. Processing countertransference is a necessary ethical obligation. Instructors need to be aware of the emotional stresses involved in studying professional ethics, particularly in discussions of sexual boundary violations. Students developing an ethical stance can enhance creativity in psychoanalytic work. PMID:24731045

  18. [From bioethics to the new technology ethics].

    PubMed

    Pompidou, A

    2000-01-01

    Just as what we can all "technoscience" is emerging in our everyday life, a reflection should be conducted concerning the implications of the scientific and technical progress within our society from now on globalised. We will tackle successively: 1. The ambiguities and paradoxes related to the development of new technologies: in the field of bioethics: artificial reproduction, mammal cloning, genetically modified organisms. towards the ethics of new technologies: ethics of information and communication technologies and ethics of space policy; 2. Nature, foundation and characteristics of the ethical approach; the precaution principle must be completed with two other principles: the principle of experience and the principle of vigilance; 3. The modalities of a democratic management of the ethical approach: it is a matter of defining the role of the three main actors, i.e.: experts, politicians and citizens representing public opinion. It is necessary to promote the ethical approach within a democratic context, that is to ensure a dialogue between experts, policy decision-makers and public opinion on all of the applications of science and technology. It is from such a permanent and renewed dialogue that will emerge the image we give from ourselves in the present world. PMID:11475899

  19. Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    Ten strategies for teaching Internet ethics are as follows: establish acceptable use policy; communicate ethical codes; model behaviors and values; encourage discussion of ethical issues; reinforce ethical conduct; monitor student behavior; secure systems and software; discourage surfing without supervision; monitor e-mail and websites; and…

  20. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  1. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  2. Ethics: From Thought to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Translating ethics knowledge into ethical behavior is much harder than it appears, writes Sternberg. In this article, he outlines an eight-step process that individuals must go through to act in an ethical way--for example, recognizing that there is an event to which to react, taking personal responsibility for generating an ethical solution to…

  3. ETHICS ADVISORY UW Internal Audit

    E-print Network

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    May 2010 ETHICS ADVISORY UW Internal Audit 2010 - 01 The following information is provided the Washington State Ethics Act. Background On September 15, 2008, the Washington State Executive Ethics Board released a news item stating that it is a violation of the state Ethics Act for a faculty member who

  4. Flourishing Ethics Terrell Ward Bynum

    E-print Network

    De Montfort University

    Flourishing Ethics Terrell Ward Bynum Research Center on Computing & Society, Southern Connecticut a new ethical theory that has begun to coalesce from the works of several scholars in the international computer ethics community. I call the new theory `Flourishing Ethics' because of its Aristotelian roots

  5. Accreditation of ethics committees: experience of an ethics committee.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ragini; Saraiya, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Many ethics committees (ECs) approving clinical trials in India have got themselves registered with the Drugs Controller General of India as per regulatory requirements. However, there is still scope to improve their functioning. Accreditation, which entails adherence to national and international standards, helps an EC to protect the rights, safety and well-being of research participants. The National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (NIRRH) ethics committee for clinical studies has received recognition, or accreditation, from the Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). An EC receives recognition from SIDCER if it meets five standards related to its structure and composition; adherence to specific policies; completeness of the review process; after-review process; and documentation and archiving. The extent to which these standards have been met is assessed in various ways, such as review of the EC's records, interviews of selected EC members and observation of a full board meeting of the EC. This paper describes the experiences of the NIRRH EC during and after the process of receiving recognition. PMID:26592789

  6. Evidence, Ethics, and Values: A Framework for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Dietetics, PGradDip; Lloyd, Beverley; Kerridge, Ian H.; Baur, Louise; Bauman, Adrian; Hooker, Claire; Zask, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new approach to guide health promotion practice. Health promotion should draw on 2 related systems of reasoning: an evidential system and an ethical system. Further, there are concepts, values, and procedures inherent in both health promotion evidence and ethics, and these should be made explicit. We illustrate our approach with the exemplar of intervention in weight, and use a specific mass-media campaign to show the real-world dangers of intervening with insufficient attention to ethics and evidence. Both researchers and health promotion practitioners should work to build the capacities required for evidential and ethical deliberation in the health promotion profession. PMID:21233436

  7. Ethics, finance, and automation: a preliminary survey of problems in high frequency trading.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael; Kumiega, Andrew; Van Vliet, Ben

    2013-09-01

    All of finance is now automated, most notably high frequency trading. This paper examines the ethical implications of this fact. As automation is an interdisciplinary endeavor, we argue that the interfaces between the respective disciplines can lead to conflicting ethical perspectives; we also argue that existing disciplinary standards do not pay enough attention to the ethical problems automation generates. Conflicting perspectives undermine the protection those who rely on trading should have. Ethics in finance can be expanded to include organizational and industry-wide responsibilities to external market participants and society. As a starting point, quality management techniques can provide a foundation for a new cross-disciplinary ethical standard in the age of automation. PMID:23138232

  8. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

  9. The object of environmental ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  10. Relational Turning Point Events and Their Outcomes in College Teacher-Student Relationships from Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony; Manusov, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher-student interaction using a relational frame (i.e., describing the student-teacher dynamic as inherently relational). Specifically, we focus on turning points and their potential outcomes in student-teacher relationships. Students who were able to identify a relational turning point event with a…

  11. A Comparison of a Graph Database and a Relational A Data Provenance Perspective

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yixin

    database called Neo4j with a common relational database system, MySQL, for use as the underlying technology is a comparison of the relative usefulness of the relational database MySQL and the graph database Neo4j to store system like MySQL, or a graph database, such as Neo4j, would be more effective as the underlying

  12. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  13. Debating Ethics in HIV Research: Gaps between Policy and Practice in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Peterson, Kristin; Haire, Bridget; Brown, Brandon; Audu, Kadiri; Makanjuola, Olumide; Pelemo, Babatunde; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-12-01

    HIV prevention is a critical health issue in Nigeria; a country that has one of the worst HIV epidemic profiles in the world. With 270,000 new infections in 2012, Nigeria is a prime site for HIV prevention research. One effect of the HIV epidemic has been to revolutionalise ethical norms for the conduct of research: it is now considered unethical to design and implement HIV related studies without community engagement. Unfortunately, there is very little commensurate effort in building the capacity of local persons to engage actively with researchers, and there is no existing platform to facilitate dialogue between researchers and communities engaged in research in Nigeria. In an effort to address this gap, we undertook a series of three community dialogues (Phase One) and two community-researcher interface meetings (Phase Two) in Nigeria. This paper aims to give an empirical account of the dialogue from these community engagement processes and provide a resulting critique of the implementation of research ethics practices in Nigeria. It is anticipated that the outputs will: (i) support researchers in designing community-based research protocols; (ii) inform ethics committees of key considerations during research protocol reviews from a community perspective; and (iii) inform policy makers and research sponsors about issues of primary concern to communities with respect to HIV research. PMID:24975983

  14. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health-care procedures that are inadequate and not in line with up-to-date scientific knowledge. PMID:10911557

  15. Occupational and environmental health nursing: ethics and professionalism.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie

    2012-04-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues related to the practice of occupational and environmental health nursing and possible strategies for resolution. Also, professionalism related to professional growth and advancing the specialty is discussed. PMID:22432783

  16. The Social and Political Structuring of Faculty Ethicality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reybold, L. Earle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the experience of faculty ethicality in education. Research questions focused on faculty characterizations of professional ethics, related socialization experiences, and responses to dilemmas. Interviews were conducted with 32 faculty members and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings describe the experiential…

  17. Superintendents' Responses to the Achievement Gap: An Ethical Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Grogan, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Uses multidimensional ethical framework to critique 15 Virginia superintendents' responses to the achievement gap as measured by the Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. Questions majority of superintendents' readiness to deal with moral and ethical issues related to achievement gap. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  18. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  19. Ethics and Power: Implications for the Principal's Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    1986-01-01

    The ethics associated with the use of power by school administrators are discussed. Certain power tactics are analyzed and questioned in relation to ethical issues. The analysis is based on the belief that the guiding principles for leadership are transactional, not coercive or charismatic, and that power needs to be used with respect. (MD)

  20. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  1. A Defense of Ethical Relativism as Rhetorically Grounded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the philosophical stance of ethical relativism. Notes that relativism is sometimes accused of being caught between moral impotence and self-contradiction. Argues that grounding relative ethical values in rhetorical communication allows relativists to judge other cultures without inconsistency. (PD)

  2. Patient and Provider Perspectives on HIV and HIV-Related Stigma in Dutch Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sicking, Lenneke; Brands, Ronald; Baas, Ineke; Roberts, Hilde; van Brakel, Wim H.; Lechner, Lilian; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ensuring that people living with HIV (PLWH) feel accepted in health care settings is imperative. This mixed methods study explored the perspectives of PLWH and health professionals on their interactions. A total of 262 predominantly gay men of Dutch origin participated in a survey study of possible negative interactions with health professionals, and semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with 22 PLWH and 14 health professionals. Again, most PLWH were gay men of Dutch origin. All health professionals were Dutch. PLWH reported negative experiences with health professionals including awkward interactions, irrelevant questions, rude treatment, blame, pity, excessive or differential precautions, care refusal, unnecessary referrals, delayed treatment, poor support, and confidentiality breaches. They also reported positive experiences including equal treatment, being valued as a partner in one's health, social support provision, and confidentiality assurances. Health professionals reported having little experience with PLWH and only basic knowledge of HIV. They contended that PLWH are treated equally and that HIV is no longer stigmatized, but also reported fear of occupational infection, resulting in differential precautions. Additionally, they conveyed labeling PLWH's files to warn others, and curiosity regarding how patients acquired HIV. The findings suggest that there is a gap in perception between PLWH and health professionals regarding the extent to which negative interactions occur, and that these interactions should be improved. Implications for stigma reduction and care optimization are discussed. PMID:25459231

  3. Listening to Consumer Perspectives to Inform Addictions and Housing-Related Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Stephanie A.; Ryder, Marianne; Henderlong, Derek; Lowe, Robert A.; Amann, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The study, funded by the Northwest Health Foundation of Portland, Oregon and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), was conducted as part of the HEARTH collaborative (Housing, Employment and Recovery Together for Health). HEARTH, established in 2010, is a community-academic partnership involving partners from Portland State University (PSU), Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), and Central City Concern (CCC). Using the approaches of community-based participatory research (CBPR), these diverse stakeholders collaborated to co-develop research of direct relevance to the local community and to national academic and policy communities. This study employed qualitative methods and community-based participatory research principles to solicit personal experiences with housing, employment, and recovery programs. We recruited interview participants via CCC-operated housing programs, including Alcohol and Drug Free Community Housing (ADFC), family housing, transitional housing, and non-ADFC (low barrier) housing units. The manuscript presents interview themes based on the five broad categories of interview questions: housing, employment programs, recovery programs, definitions of recovery, and definitions of success. Co-authors describe recommendations for practice and research protocol based on our findings. Our results highlight the importance of involving consumers in the development, data collection, and analysis of research, and present the unique perspectives of those who experience homelessness, recovery, and the programs designed to assist them. PMID:25580474

  4. Perspectives on the divorce process: parental perceptions of the legal system and its impact on family relations.

    PubMed

    Pruett, M K; Jackson, T D

    2001-01-01

    Through semistructured interviews, divorcing parents provide a consumer perspective of the legal process of divorce discussed in law and mental health literature. The parents offer a heightened awareness of families' basic needs within the legal system that may otherwise be overlooked by professionals. This article focuses on narrative accounts provided by 41 divorcing parents to describe both their positive and negative experiences with the legal system and court-related professionals. Although many parents entered the divorce process with hopes for a fair and reasonable experience and outcome, only 12 percent of the parents ended the process with positive expectations. Parents conveyed feelings of a lack of power and control over divorce outcomes. The responses from parents provide valuable insight into how reforms of the legal system can be structured best to increase the quality of the process and ameliorate potentially destructive effects of divorce on the family. PMID:11302381

  5. Ethics of economic sanctions 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-07-02

    The ethics of economic sanctions is an issue that has been curiously neglected by philosophers and political theorists. Only a handful of philosophical journal articles and book chapters have ever been published on the ...

  6. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  7. Support to students with Asperger syndrome in higher education--the perspectives of three relatives and three coordinators.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Ann Simmeborn

    2012-03-01

    An increasing number of students with disabilities attend institutes of higher education (HE). Among this group are persons with Asperger syndrome (AS). Persons with AS have a cognitive impairment that can interfere with their studies and the ability to describe their needs and ask for support. This study deals with an assessment of the support services for students with AS from the perspectives of the students' relatives and the students' service providers at the universities they attend. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) earlier experiences and events in relation to the transition of students with AS to higher education, according to the relatives' perceptions of how these experiences and events affect university studies; and (b) the perceptions of both the relatives of students with AS and the coordinators for students with disabilities with respect to the study environment and support for students with AS. The approach is a case study methodology involving relatives and university coordinators for three students with AS. The coordinators' way of working with students with disabilities is primarily based on the coordinators' own ideas. No specific organizational routines exist for students with AS. The results reveal that the needs of students with AS have to be made explicit and must be incorporated into the support system. Relatives lack information about the situation and opportunities to engage in collaboration. Universities must adapt the support system to the cognitive impairments experienced by AS students and the difficulties of their everyday lives. The relatives of students with AS may play the central role in supporting the students and in understanding their impairment. PMID:22315142

  8. Ethics for electic utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.W.; Toffler, B.L. )

    1991-05-15

    This article examines the ethical challenges of remaining honest and fair when the playing field of competition does not appear to be level. Topics discussed include measuring performance, monitoring use of services, public opinion of utility integrity and commitment to service, making ethical concerns and language a part of the management decision process, and communication of moral issues to a place where resolution can occur.

  9. The Ethics of Punishment

    E-print Network

    Filkins, Walter Warren

    1904-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Ethics of Punishment 1904 by Walter Warren Filkins This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Ethics of Punishment 1904 by Walter Warren Filkins This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

  10. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagodzinski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  11. Ethics and Integrity. Symposium 27. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on ethics and integrity from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Factors Influencing Ethical Resolution Efficacy: A Model for HRD Practitioners" (Kimberly S. McDonald), proposes a model of ethical resolution efficacy for HRD practitioners. The model suggests that factors related to…

  12. A Survey of Ethics Content in College-Level Remote Sensing Courses in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherholt, William A.; Rundquist, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Easier access to submeter imagery has fueled debates over ethical uses of remote sensing. Some have called for ethics instruction to counter undesired uses of the technology. Here, this article reports the results of a survey examining attitudes related to teaching ethics in remote sensing. It was found that 52 percent of respondents teaching…

  13. Leadership Characteristics and Work Ethic of Extension Family and Consumer Science Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Connie; Brewer, Ernest W.; Petty, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    Instruments completed by 166 Tennessee extension educators revealed a significant relationship between leadership orientation and work ethic. Their preferred leadership orientation was human relations; work ethic preferences included dependability and interpersonal skills. Higher work ethic scores predicted leadership effectiveness. (Contains 23…

  14. House Rules: Using the Television Series "House" to Teach Research Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Urkovia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is to get students to relay and connect with the impact of ethics on public relations research. Students will begin to realize and analyze how their personal ethics influence their professional ethics choices. This is conceptualized through the completion of the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI)…

  15. Using Feature Films to Teach Public Relations: An Assessment Model from Nonmajor Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Hutton, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching fundamental public relations courses to students from diverse backgrounds poses additional complexities in learning effectiveness. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness and identified the challenges of using films to teach public relations among nonmajor students. Results from an online survey and two focus groups found that…

  16. Home-school Relations--An Exploration from the Perspective of Social Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, I-wah

    2000-01-01

    Explores home-school relations by using three social psychology theories: (1) symbolic interactionism; (2) social exchange theory; and (3) reference group theory. States that these theories can contribute to the understanding and development of home-school relations in Hong Kong (China). (CMK)

  17. Past and Future Trends Affecting K-12 Employment Relations: A Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, R. Theodore, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent changes to selected state collective-bargaining laws. Discusses current implications of trends in school-based management, vouchers, charter schools, and interest-based bargaining on K-12 employment relations and predicts the impact of these trends on employment relations for the next 10 years. (PKP)

  18. Antecedents of Emotions in Elite Athletes: A Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphill, Mark A.; Jones, Marc V.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03),…

  19. The Gendered Nature of Career Related Learning Experiences: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine M.; Subich, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    The learning experiences questionnaire (LEQ; Schaub & Tokar, 2005) was used to examine learning experiences as they relate to SCCT (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) across the Holland (1997) RIASEC typology. In particular, differences in men's and women's career related learning experiences were examined. A sample of 319 undergraduates at a public…

  20. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…