Sample records for relational ethics perspective

  1. Hippocrates and Bernays: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    While comparisons of public relations practitioners and attorneys remain attractive among practitioners and scholars searching for evidence of public relation's emergence as a profession, practitioners would be better served by emulating physicians in their "healing" role rather than attorneys in their "advocacy" role. Public relations's use of…

  2. Ethics as a Discipline -- Background in Ethical Perspectives and Theories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a 14-page PDF that provides an overview of ethics as a discipline. The materials are designed to introduce students to the scholarly study of ethics and some of the language and concepts used in the field. This should help students investigate the relationship between their position on issues and the various ethical perspectives.

  3. An Ethical Perspectives Model for FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubanis, Jody L.; Garner, Sammie G.; Purcell, Rosa S.

    2006-01-01

    Purposeful moral deliberation is essential to the ethical practice of family and consumer sciences (FCS). This article proposes a model of ethical perspectives that is appropriate for educators, practitioners, and scholars of FCS. This model was conceptualized from the ethical decision-making framework suggested by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2005).…

  4. Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

  5. ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN INFORMATION SECURITY EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Harris

    2006-01-01

    This paper relates the similarities between the deviations in moral behavior illustrated in the famous 1971 Zimbardo prison study with the behavior of deindividualized technologically savvy students in an anonymous environment such as the Internet. Suggestions are made to improve moral sensitivity and judgment through minimizing deindividualization, promoting moral argumentation using ethical scenarios, and establishing well defined ethical boundaries.

  6. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafreničre, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area. PMID:19521799

  7. Ethical Perspectives on Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

  8. Ethical perspectives on self-neglect among older adults.

    PubMed

    Mauk, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and growing problem among older adults. A 2004 survey from Adult Protective Services (APS) showed that adults age 60 or older were named in 85,000 reports of self-neglect from 21 states (Naik, Lai, Kunik, & Dyer, 2008; Teaster, Dugar, Mendiondo, Abner, & Cecil, 2006). Although rehabilitation nurses are obligated to uphold the autonomy of older adults and strengthen their independence, dilemmas result when people's poor health behaviors put them or others at risk for negative consequences. When making decisions about nursing actions related to self-neglecting elderly people, the basic principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and capacity must be considered. The purpose of this article is to discuss major ethical perspectives related to self-neglect among older adults. PMID:21473562

  9. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  10. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  11. Ethics and Organ Transfer: A Merleau-Pontean Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Zeiler

    2009-01-01

    The article’s aim is to explore human hand allograft recipients’ postoperative experience of disownership and their gradual\\u000a experience of their new hand as theirs, with the aid of the work of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Many\\u000a have used a Merleau-Pontinian perspective in the analysis of embodiment. Far fewer have used it in medico-ethical analysis.\\u000a Drew Leder’s phenomenologically based ethics

  12. Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

  13. An Ethical Perspective for Selecting Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Donovan J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some of the ethical questions involved in a teacher/author requiring the purchase and use of his/her own textbook in the class. Suggests guidelines to protect the rights and obligations of students, authors, and administrators. (JMF)

  14. Can Suicide be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Feldman

    2006-01-01

    In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, “Can Suicide be a Good Death?” David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to utilitarianism, the “goodness” of

  15. Medical ethics in the developing world: a liberation theology perspective.

    PubMed

    Anjos, M F

    1996-12-01

    Standard medical ethical analyses typically focus on the physician/patient relationship, patient autonomy, and the clinical encounter. For Liberation Theology this amounts to neglecting the larger context of social injustice. Medicine is a social institution. Any medical ethics which purports to provide an ethics of medicine and medical practice must necessarily address the larger social issues of class structure, poverty and access to adequate health care. Liberation Theology provides a very specific perspective that draws on the needs of the poverty stricken, assesses the relationship among social classes, and focuses on societal conditions. Given such an analysis, medical ethics is reconfigured as concerned not only with clinical encounters but also with background cultural conditions and social justice. PMID:9061596

  16. Placebos and paradoxes in psychiatric research: an ethics perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Weiss Roberts; John Lauriello; Cynthia Geppert; Samuel J Keith

    2001-01-01

    The use of placebos in clinical trials, particularly in research with mentally ill people, has emerged as a subject of considerable controversy. We first outline ethical aspects of the primary scientific arguments for and against placebo use in research. Three examples of paradoxical aspects of the ethical use of placebos are discussed: involvement of relatively more vulnerable populations, use of

  17. Learned Ethical Behavior: An Academic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…

  18. Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Diekema, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

  19. Using fieldwork in analyzing ethical issues related to IT in health care.

    PubMed

    Balka, Ellen; Reidl, Christine; Wagner, Ina

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how an understanding of everyday conflicts that have ethical implications - what we call 'situated ethics'- can be explored through ethnographic field techniques in healthcare settings. Our approach to ethics is followed by findings from two ethnographic case studies focussing on issues arising as information technologies such as electronic patient records and automatic drug dispensing machines are introduced into varied health sector workplaces. By close and careful observation of these technologies in use and by incorporating narrative accounts from different perspectives the complexity and entangledness of real life occurrences are revealed. Our data suggest that several types of ethical issues (e.g., issues related to intellectual property, literacy, standardization, transparency, work ethics, and equitable allocation of resources) can be identified through fieldwork, and can have an impact on identification of everyday ethics in healthcare. PMID:17911714

  20. Ethics and organ transfer: a Merleau-Pontean perspective.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-06-01

    The article's aim is to explore human hand allograft recipients' postoperative experience of disownership and their gradual experience of their new hand as theirs, with the aid of the work of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Many have used a Merleau-Pontinian perspective in the analysis of embodiment. Far fewer have used it in medico-ethical analysis. Drew Leder's phenomenologically based ethics of organ donation and organ sale is an exception to this tendency. The article's second aim is to examine Leder's phenomenologically based ethics of organ donation and organ sale. Though I find parts of Leder's approach promising, I also elaborate a line of reasoning that draws on Merleau-Ponty, that does allow us to argue for certain kinds of organ donation and against organ sale-and that avoids some of the problems with Leder's approach. This alternative route builds on the concept of the integrity of the body-subject. PMID:19343498

  1. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary. PMID:20675942

  2. Brainwashing, LSD, and CIA: historical and ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Buckman, J

    1977-01-01

    The history of various attempts at thought control and chemical warfare is briefly reviewed. Brainwashing, thought control, industrial and national espionage, and covert activities are becoming more sophisticated. These issues have been revived and accentuated by the Vietnam war, the Middle East Crisis, Watergate, the CIA investigations and the Patty Hearst trial. Historical perspective and the ethical implications of these activities are explored. It is suggested that there is a growing level of individual and international mistrust amounting to paranoia and complicating the issues of individual freedom, civil rights and human experimentation. PMID:863610

  3. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K G Fulda; K Lykens

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need

  4. Reviewing Albert J. Sullivan's Theory of Public Relations Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Examines Albert J. Sullivan's general theory of public relations. Shows how this theory raises ethical questions. Identifies the philosophical arguments Sullivan appeals to in support of this theory. Suggests his ideas have contributed to the development of ethical theory in public relations. (MS)

  5. [Cancer screening from the perspective of public health ethics].

    PubMed

    Marckmann, G; In der Schmitten, J

    2014-03-01

    Cancer screening programs aim at reducing the tumor-related morbidity and mortality by early detection of malignant tumors or precancerous lesions. The basic ethical dilemma in cancer screening is, however, that many people have to be exposed to the burdens and risks of the intervention for a few people to benefit from early cancer diagnosis. This article discusses under which conditions it is ethically acceptable to offer or even recommend cancer screening. First, the benefit of the program in terms of a reduced cancer-related mortality should be proven by randomized controlled trials. The risks and burdens of the program related to the side effects of the investigation itself, false-positive findings, as well as overdiagnoses and overtherapy should be in an acceptable relationship to the expected benefit of the program. In addition to a solid empirical scientific basis, the benefit-harm evaluation necessarily involves value judgments. The potential participants in the screening program therefore should receive transparent, objective, unbiased, and understandable information to enable them to make a truly informed choice about participation. Given the complex benefit-risk assessment, it is discussed whether-and if so under which circumstances-it is ethically acceptable to make a recommendation for or against participation in a cancer screening program. Socioempirical research, such as focus group studies and public deliberations, can be used to elicit the preferences and value judgments of members of the target population that should be taken into consideration in recommendations about a cancer screening program. PMID:24562708

  6. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Christine Y; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2008-01-01

    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are used as an example by which to discuss the ethical issues associated with the current scheme. Consideration of ethical aspects of the PBS and similar programs is important in order to achieve the fairest outcomes for individual patients, as well as for the community. PMID:18489760

  7. Social and ethical perspectives of landslide risk mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsnes, Bjųrn; Vangelsten, Bjųrn V.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide risk may be mitigated by use of a wide range of measures. Mitigation and prevention options may include (1) structural measures to reduce the frequency, severity or exposure to the hazard, (2) non-structural measures, such as land-use planning and early warning systems, to reduce the hazard frequency and consequences, and (3) measures to pool and transfer the risks. In a given situation the appropriate system of mitigation measures may be a combination of various types of measures, both structural and non-structural. In the process of choosing mitigation measures for a given landslide risk situation, the role of the geoscientist is normally to propose possible mitigation measures on basis of the risk level and technical feasibility. Social and ethical perspectives are often neglected in this process. However, awareness of the need to consider social as well as ethical issues in the design and management of mitigating landslide risk is rising. There is a growing understanding that technical experts acting alone cannot determine what will be considered the appropriate set of mitigation and prevention measures. Issues such as environment versus development, questions of acceptable risk, who bears the risks and benefits, and who makes the decisions, also need to be addressed. Policymakers and stakeholders engaged in solving environmental risk problems are increasingly recognising that traditional expert-based decision-making processes are insufficient. This paper analyse the process of choosing appropriate mitigation measures to mitigate landslide risk from a social and ethical perspective, considering technical, cultural, economical, environmental and political elements. The paper focus on stakeholder involvement in the decision making process, and shows how making strategies for risk communication is a key for a successful process. The study is supported by case study examples from Norway and Italy. In the Italian case study, three different risk mitigation options was presented to the local community. The options were based on a thorough stakeholder involvement process ending up in three different views on how to deal with the landslide risk situation: i) protect lives and properties (hierarchical) ; ii) careful stewardship of the mountains (egalitarian); and iii) rational individual choice (individualist).

  8. Characteristics of ethical leaders and the relationship of those characteristics to the ethical decision-making of successful student leaders: a communitarian perspective 

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Pricilla Karen

    1993-01-01

    ~CZERISTICS OF EIHICAL LEADERS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE CHARACTERISTICS 'IO THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING OF SUCCESSFUL STUDENT LEADERS: A COMMUNITARIAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis PRICILLA KAREN MURPHY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... (Interim Head of Department) August 1993 Characteristics of Ethical Leaders and the Relationship of Those Characteristics to the Ethical Decision-Making of Successful Student Leaders: A ~itarian Perspective. (August 1993) Pricilla Karen Murphy, B. S...

  9. Ethics in scientific publication: historical and international perspectives

    E-print Network

    Henry, Melissa June

    2013-02-22

    Ethical issues in scientific communication have existed in the scientific community since before the 17[th] century publication of the first scientific journal. To understand the historical development of scientific publication ethics as its own...

  10. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    PubMed

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics. PMID:21318323

  11. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  12. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the “price condition”) or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the “production method condition”), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  13. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  14. Organizational ethics in managed behavioral health care: perspectives from executives and leaders.

    PubMed

    Sharar, David A; Huff, Stan; Ackerson, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Managed behavioral health care (MBHC) is frequently criticized on ethical grounds for the way it undermines classical ideals of professionalism in mental health and addiction treatment. There is an implied assumption that practitioners who are executives and leaders in MBHC companies have moved away from clinical ethics to the adoption of business and financial models. This qualitative study explores perceptions of organizational ethical issues from the point of view of leaders working in MBHC settings and how their perspectives contribute to our current schemas for analyzing the ethical complexities of MBHC. Twenty-seven participants from across the United States were interviewed using an interview guide that relied on open-ended questions and probes. Inquiry findings present four major themes and describe participant material in a way that enhances sensitivity and understanding to organizational ethics in MBHC and behavioral health services and research. PMID:15279011

  15. Characteristics of ethical leaders and the relationship of those characteristics to the ethical decision-making of successful student leaders: a communitarian perspective

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Pricilla Karen

    1993-01-01

    ~CZERISTICS OF EIHICAL LEADERS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE CHARACTERISTICS 'IO THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING OF SUCCESSFUL STUDENT LEADERS: A COMMUNITARIAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis PRICILLA KAREN MURPHY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Agricultural Education CHAP'ACIKRISTICS OF ETHICAL ~ERS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ETHICAL...

  16. Placebo-controlled trials in psychiatric research: an ethical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin G. Miller

    2000-01-01

    The placebo-controlled trial is widely regarded as the gold standard for testing the efficacy of new treatments; however, this research design is subject to ethical controversy, especially when standard treatments of proven efficacy exist. After examining regulatory standards and ethical codes relevant to placebo-controlled trials, I offer a critique of arguments against the use of placebo control groups in psychiatric

  17. Ethical Issues in Managed Care: Perspectives in Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belar, Cynthia D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a reaction to Cooper and Gottlieb's (this issue) article titled, "Ethical Issues with Managed Care: Challenges Facing Counseling Psychology." Challenges that many issues addressed by Cooper and Gottlieb have been longstanding in the profession. Argues against the belief that the managed care environment is fraught with more ethical

  18. The IIA Code of Ethics: An International Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco R. Vanasco

    1994-01-01

    Highlights similarities among the codes of ethics promulgated by professional societies in the United States such as The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA), and the EDP Auditors Association (EDPAA). Takes the Code of Ethics of the Institute of Internal Auditors, an international professional association, as an

  19. A Model of Ethical Decision Making from a Multicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun

    2005-01-01

    Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…

  20. Ethics in acute care research: a global perspective and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Hauswald, Mark; Sethuraman, Kinjal; Kerr, Nancy Louise; Scordino, David; Biros, Michelle H

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on global health and emergency care research. One conference breakout session discussed research ethics and developed a research agenda concerning global acute care research ethics. This article represents the proceedings from that session, particularly focusing on ethical issues related to protecting human subjects while conducting acute care research. Protecting human research subjects from unnecessary risk is an important component of conducting ethical research, regardless of the research site. There are widely accepted ethical principles related to human subjects research; however, the interpretation of these principles requires specific local knowledge and expertise to ensure that research is conducted ethically within the societal and cultural norms. There is an obligation to conduct research ethically while recognizing the roles and responsibilities of all participants. This article discusses the complexities of determining and applying socially and culturally appropriate ethical principles during the conduct of global acute care research. Using case studies, it focuses both on the procedural components of ethical research conducted outside of "Western" culture and on basic ethical principles that are applicable to all human subjects research. This article also proposes specific research topics to stimulate future thought and the study of ethics in these complex circumstances. PMID:24341580

  1. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  2. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    E-print Network

    Cherry, Joseph Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jason L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-04-01

    examined how, neuro- functionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neuro- functionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food... with differential neurofunctional ac- tivity in the left dlPFC, as well as the vmPFC, regardless of participants’ levels of self-control (see also [69]). The purpose of the present study was to expand on these findings, examining the neuro- functional correlates...

  3. Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy

    E-print Network

    Zoja, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    , in the next part of this book Zoja takes off the blinders. Series Editor?s Foreword ( xiii ) In Part Two of Ethics and Analysis, Zoja applies philosophical per- spectives to therapy. He emphasizes Immanuel Kant?s philosophy by focusing on its practical... ethical imperative. In this situation, a person (or a patient in therapy or analysis) must never be used as an instru- ment or means of another individual?s desires, as this is abusive and unethical. Zoja also underscores Max Weber?s ethics...

  4. The Ethics of Corporate Governance in Global Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    \\u000a Although corporate governance has become a familiar term in all regions of the world, substantial regional variations with\\u000a regard to basic assumptions, terminology and conceptual distinctions have been identified in comparative corporate governance\\u000a studies. Such regional variations are particularly evident in the case of the ethical dimension of corporate governance. All\\u000a corporate governance regimes are premised upon ethical assumptions about

  5. Approaching ethical reasoning in nursing research through a communitarian perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elissa Dresden; Beverly J McElmurry; Linda L McCreary

    2003-01-01

    Most nurse researchers are embedded in research ethics guidelines based predominantly on the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. They are oriented toward protecting the rights of individual research participants. However, in cross-cultural, community-based, and international projects, further examination is required of community rights, as an entity in and of itself, to acknowledge and protect the community’s rights. We

  6. Teaching medical ethics in Basra: perspective of students and graduates.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, A A; Ajeel, N A

    2000-07-01

    The University of Basra Medical College introduced a course on medical ethics for undergraduate students in 1994. We explored the opinions of 54 graduates and 52 final-year medical students about the benefits they perceive they gained from the course and its relevance to their training or practice. About 31% of students and 34% of graduates thought the course was practically and theoretically useful. Over 80% of graduates and students thought the course was either very relevant or relevant to some extent to the practice of medicine. When asked to recall the important ethical issues taught in the course, 52% of graduates and 44% of students listed patient-doctor relationship. Confidentiality, physician liability and ethical issues concerning recent medical innovations were listed by few respondents. Only 6% of both graduates and students were able to list the four principles of medical ethics as described by Raanan. The self-learning component of the course should be developed to strengthen ethical reasoning and judgment in decision-making. PMID:11794075

  7. The Terri Schiavo case: legal, ethical, and medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Churchill, Larry R; Kirshner, Howard S

    2005-11-15

    Although tragic, the plight of Terri Schiavo provides a valuable case study. The conflicts and misunderstandings surrounding her situation offer important lessons in medicine, law, and ethics. Despite media saturation and intense public interest, widespread confusion lingers regarding the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state, the judicial processes involved, and the appropriateness of the ethical framework used by those entrusted with Terri Schiavo's care. First, the authors review the current medical understanding of persistent vegetative state, including the requirements for patient examination, the differential diagnosis, and the practice guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology regarding artificial nutrition and hydration for patients with this diagnosis. Second, they examine the legal history, including the 2000 trial, the 2002 evidentiary hearing, and the subsequent appeals. The authors argue that the law did not fail Terri Schiavo, but produced the highest-quality evidence and provided the most judicial review of any end-of-life guardianship case in U.S. history. Third, they review alternative ethical frameworks for understanding the Terri Schiavo case and contend that the principle of respect for autonomy is paramount in this case and in similar cases. Far from being unusual, the manner in which Terri Schiavo's case was reviewed and the basis for the decision reflect a broad medical, legal, and ethical consensus. Greater clarity regarding the persistent vegetative state, less apprehension of the presumed mysteries of legal proceedings, and greater appreciation of the ethical principles at work are the chief benefits obtained from studying this provocative case. PMID:16287796

  8. [Clinical drug research from medical ethics and legal perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ornek Büken, Nüket; Büken, Erhan

    2003-01-01

    Medical ethics and law in clinical drug research are the two main points that have been discussed in public and medical circles. Conducting drug research on "easily affected and vulnerable groups", such as psychiatric patients, has always been a controversial issue in medicine. How should human subjects be protected, especially psychiatric patients, who are defined as "vulnerable subjects and groups"; what are the ethically and legally justifiable reasons for basing drug research on psychiatric patients; and what can be said about responsibilities in the context of medical ethics and law? Patients who are in the mentioned groups can not be informed clearly about the characteristics of research which they would be involved in. In recent years psychiatric, geriatric, anesthesiology and pediatric patients are defined as "patients who do not have the ability for consent". In this article answers will be given to questions such as why medical ethics is interested in clinical drug research, and what kind of roles should ethics play in drug research. The situation worldwide will be analyzed from a historical approach with regard to laws and regulations concerning drug research. The legal rights of human subjects who have the ability to give informed consent and of those who do not will be discussed and the place of psychiatric patients as human subjects in drug research will be addressed. Some unethical examples and their consequences will be considered and discussed. In this context, a critical evaluation will be made of the situation in Turkey. PMID:14704931

  9. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  10. A Circular Evolution of Perspectives regarding Ethical Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, E. Sam

    The contemporary view of ethical communication has come full circle, returning to the approach of Aristotle. Almost every public speaking textbook includes discussion of the basic concepts of what Aristotle called ethos, pathos, and logos. Of particular significance is Aristotle's conception of ethos, as elaborated in his work, "The Rhetoric."…

  11. Codes of Ethics in Australian Education: Towards a National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Daniella J.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…

  12. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  13. Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

  14. Ethical guidelines in genetics and genomics. An Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2005-12-01

    We are at a time of unprecedented increase in knowledge of rapidly changing technology. Such biotechnology especially when it involves human subjects raises complex ethical, legal, social and religious issues. A World Health Organization expert consultation concluded that "genetics advances will only be acceptable if their application is carried out ethically, with due regard to autonomy, justice, education and the beliefs and resources of each nation and community." Public health authorities are increasingly concerned by the high rate of births with genetic disorders especially in developing countries where Muslims are a majority. Therefore, it is imperative to scrutinize the available methods of prevention and management of genetic disorders. A minimum level of cultural awareness is a necessary prerequisite for the delivery of care that is culturally sensitive, especially in Islamic countries. Islam presents a complete moral, ethical, and medical framework, it is a religion which encompasses the secular with the spiritual, the mundane with the celestial and hence forms the basis of the ethical, moral and even juridical attitudes and laws towards any problem or situation. Islamic teachings carry a great deal of instructions for health promotion and disease prevention including hereditary and genetic disorders, therefore, we will discuss how these teachings play an important role in the diagnostic, management and preventive measures including: genomic research; population genetic screening pre-marital screening, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; assisted reproduction technology; stem cell therapy; genetic counseling and others. PMID:16380763

  15. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  16. Telling Secrets, Revealing Lives: Relational Ethics in Research with Intimate Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn S Ellis

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on relational ethics in research with intimate others. Relational ethics requires researchers to act from our hearts and minds, acknowledge our interpersonal bonds to others, and take responsibility for actions and their consequences. Calling on her own research studies, the author examines relational ethics in ethnographies in which researchers are friends with or become friends with participants

  17. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  18. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required. PMID:19170738

  19. “Reality Surgery” — A Research Ethics Perspective on the Live Broadcast of Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Judson B.; Mathews, Robin; D'Amico, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the live broadcasting of medical and surgical procedures has gained worldwide popularity. While the practice has appropriately been met with concerns for patient safety and privacy, many physicians tout the merits of real time viewing as a form of investigation, accelerating the process leading to adoption or abolition of newer techniques or technologies. This view introduces a new series of ethical considerations that need to be addressed. As such, this article considers, from a research ethics perspective, the use of live surgical procedure broadcast for investigative purposes. PMID:21292217

  20. Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy 

    E-print Network

    Zoja, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    as they are in the Godhead.? 3 In the West, Justice is symbolized by a female figure, originally Themis, the Greek Goddess of Justice and Law, which was changed in Roman mythology to Justicia, one of the four virtues along with Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance. 4... The religious, and therefore to a great extent, the cultural roots of the Western world are, on the one hand, Jewish monotheism, and on the other Greek polytheism. But the values inspiring Jewish monotheism are ethical, while those supporting Greek polytheism...

  1. Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

  2. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  3. Complementary medicine in intensive care: ethical and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Worswick, D; Stoffell, B

    2001-06-01

    Complementary medicine continues to increase in popularity in the general community. As a result it is likely that requests for the administration of complementary medicine to intensive care patients will be more frequent in the future. It is therefore prudent for intensive care clinicians to address this issue and develop an approach that is consistent. Complementary medicine has not been subjected to well conducted trials to determine its efficacy and risks. Consequently decisions about its use cannot be based on risk/benefit analyses and genuine informed consent cannot be achieved. Therefore complementary medicine should not be incorporated into intensive care practice. Strict adherence to a policy of negating requests for administration of complementary medicine in intensive care patients may result in significant conflicts between intensive care clinicians, patients and families. On occasions the patient or family may insist on the use of complementary medicine and it may be seen as important to their psychological wellbeing to accede to the request. The intensive care clinician is still legally responsible for any treatment administered to the patient, even if it is against medical advice. Nevertheless if there is no demonstrable risk to the patient, complementary medicine can be administered following appropriate counselling and documentation. This review addresses the legal and ethical difficulties that may arise and an approach that may be followed when requests are made for complementary medicine in intensive care patients. PMID:11439792

  4. Evolving Ethical Perspectives in an Eighth-Grade Science Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew Ronfeldt

    2007-01-01

    Matthew Ronfeldt's dissertation as a doctoral candidate in Curriculum and Teacher Education at Stanford University is a crossprofessional study of how professional education supports novice teachers and clinical psychologists in adapting to their new professional roles. He wrote this chapter while teaching eighth-grade math and science at a school in the San Francisco Bay area, where he developed and coordinated a teacher research group within the school. He received his MA in education from Mills College, where he also participated as a teacher researcher for three years. Matt used videotapes of class discussions, interviews, student work, and his own reflections to study, over the course of the school year, the developing ideas of his students as they explored the ethical issues facing those who conduct scientific experiments. As his students debated whether and when it is acceptable to do experiments on animals or humans, they stated their opinions, they challenged each other, and they changed their minds. Matt provided opportunities for scientific discussion and debate, nurtured a classroom climate where students shared responsibility for learning, and modeled inquiry in his own practice as he encouraged his students to ask their own questions.

  5. The systemic view of violence: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, J S; Cottone, R R

    1998-01-01

    Systems theory has been critiqued by a number of feminist writers who felt that it did not adequately address the issues of violence and male domination in families. This essay argues that systems theory describes the world from an "exogenic" perspective--the scientific world of nature, which is intrinsically amoral. In the exogenic world all causality is circular, as nature maintains a system that has survived for billions of years. Bateson found "mind" to be within the system of nature, implying that mind must also be amoral. However, most people view the world from an "endogenic" perspective, a personal construction of reality molded by the environment in which they live, and which inevitably incorporates morality. Humans believe that violence is wrong, not for intellectual reasons, but for moral reasons. Implications for therapy are presented. A postmodern or constructivist position is taken as a way to acknowledge the influence of relationships on problems and definitions of problems, while allowing for a moral or legal consensus to pervade the therapeutic enterprise. PMID:9589281

  6. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics

  7. Varicella-zoster virus vaccination under the exogenous boosting hypothesis: two ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Ogunjimi, Benson; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-12-12

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two diseases: varicella ('chickenpox') and herpes zoster ('shingles'). VZV vaccination of children reduces exposure to chickenpox in the population and it has been hypothesized that this could increase the prevalence of shingles. This 'exogenous boosting' effect of VZV raises an important equity concern: introducing a vaccination program could advance the health of one population group (children) at the expense of another (adults and elderly). We discuss the program's justifiability from two ethical perspectives, classic utilitarianism and contractualism. Whereas the former framework might offer a foundation for the case against introducing this vaccination, the latter offers a basis to justify it. PMID:25454883

  8. Ethical Issues for Photojournalists: A Comparative Study of the Perspectives of Journalism Students and Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remole, Mary K.; Brown, James W.

    In the study described in this paper, 221 students in beginning and senior level university journalism and law courses read descriptions of ten cases of alleged invasions of privacy by photojournalists, gave their opinions on the ethics of taking and publishing the pictures, and indicated their degree of interest in a number of topics related to…

  9. An Ecological Perspective of Power in Transformational Learning: A Case Study of Ethical Vegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    1999-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…

  10. Metaphysical and Ethical Perspectives on Creating Animal-Human Chimeras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason T. Eberl; R. A. Ballard

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and

  11. Combining interdisciplinary and International Medical Graduate perspectives to teach clinical and ethical communication using multimedia.

    PubMed

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Flynn, Eleanor; Delany, Clare

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, international medical graduates (IMGs) play a crucial role in addressing workforce shortages in healthcare. Their ability to deliver safe and effective healthcare in an unfamiliar cultural setting is intrinsically tied to effective communication. Hospital-based medical clinical educators, who play an important role in providing communication training to IMGs, would benefit from practical resources and an understanding of the relevant pedagogies to address these issues in their teaching. This paper examines the nature of an interdisciplinary collaboration to develop multimedia resources for teaching clinical and ethical communication to IMGs. We describe the processes and dynamics of the collaboration, and outline the methodologies from applied linguistics, medical education, and health ethics that we drew upon. The multimedia consist of three video clips of challenging communication scenarios as well as experienced IMGs talking about communication and ethics. The multimedia are supported by teaching guidelines that address relevant disciplinary concerns of the three areas of collaboration. In the paper's discussion we point out the pre-conditions that facilitated the interdisciplinary collaboration. We propose that such collaborative approaches between the disciplines and participants can provide new perspectives to address the multifaceted challenges of clinical teaching and practice. PMID:22616355

  12. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Schenker; V. H. Eisenberg

    1997-01-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to

  13. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  14. Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.

    PubMed

    Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

  15. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  16. Critique of the Classical Theory of Situational Ethics in U.S. Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that ethics in public relations is a consequence of practitioners' perfunctory adherence to three motifs of situationism--"agapeic" love, human welfare, and happiness--rather than of their preference for situational ethics in its classical context. Suggests that practitioners' decisions be guided by these motifs while applying classical…

  17. [Performance-related health disorders in farm animals--the ethical dimension].

    PubMed

    Luy, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The term "performance-related health disorders" has been defined by Bergmann (1992) as catabolic phenomena and pathological processes that are related to or caused by high productivity levels. In the past few years, a cause and effect relationship has been determined between numerous health disorders found in farm animals and their increased productivity. In contrast to the classic hereditary diseases, the performance-related health disorders are anthropogenic diseases. The severity of these disorders is, as a rule, determined by anthropogenic environmental factors. Breeding and keeping animals in such a way that they suffer from performance-related health disorders therefore is an ethical problem. Furthermore, it has also been a legal problem since the implementation of Section 11b of the German Protection of Animals Act (TierSchG) in 1986. However, this ban has not been enforced; the federal ministry responsible argues that this is because there is still a "very controversial discussion" on the question of when the "line that separates breeding from 'problem' or 'agony breeding' (Qualzucht)" has been reached or overstepped. The following article takes a close look at the almost 20-year-old debate on the lack of enforcement. There is a large amount of circumstantial evidence that indicates that the problems that arise in determining whether specific animals fall under Section 11b TierSchG do not arise from a veterinary dispute but rather from the difficulty of identifying responsibilities. The traditional ethical model used to appeal to the feelings of responsibility in a layperson is the so-called Golden Rule ("do unto others as you would have them do unto you") which so far has not been applied to the area of animal breeding. The following article presents a model on how to create an awareness for ethical malpractice. The model makes it possible to use the change of perspective demanded by the Golden Rule and apply it to the area of animal breeding. This provides what could potentially be a useful aid in understanding ones own responsibility. While looking at possible solutions, two aspects are differentiated: the chronic non-enforcement of Section 11b TierSchG and the complete abolition of the problem. Possible solutions are presented for both areas and put up for discussion. PMID:17007464

  18. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel - Ethical and Systems Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruairķ; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code's articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles - giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand - was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health personnel through international recruitment, given that it calls on all member states "to educate, retain and sustain a health workforce that is appropriate for their (need) ..." (Article 5.4), to ensure health systems' sustainability. However, in some wealthy destination countries, this means tackling national inequities and poorly designed health workforce strategies that result in foreign-trained doctors being recruited to work among disadvantaged populations and in primary care settings, allowing domestically trained doctors work in more attractive hospital settings. PMID:26029891

  19. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel – Ethical and Systems Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruairķ; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code’s articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles – giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand – was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health personnel through international recruitment, given that it calls on all member states "to educate, retain and sustain a health workforce that is appropriate for their (need) ..." (Article 5.4), to ensure health systems’ sustainability. However, in some wealthy destination countries, this means tackling national inequities and poorly designed health workforce strategies that result in foreign-trained doctors being recruited to work among disadvantaged populations and in primary care settings, allowing domestically trained doctors work in more attractive hospital settings. PMID:26029891

  20. Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2011-06-01

    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052

  1. Nephrology nurses' perspectives on difficult ethical issues and practice guideline for shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Rabetoy, Christy Price; Bair, Bradley C

    2007-01-01

    Nephrologists and nephrology nurses have struggled with the technological, financial, and ethical concerns surrounding the life sustaining treatment of hemodialysis for as long as this treatment as been available. One of the overriding issues for the nephrology community has been appropriate utilization of this technology and the appropriate restraint for prescribing dialysis. Since the inception of dialysis, there has been discussion of guidelines for deciding who should receive and who should not receive this therapy. In 2000, a clinical guideline was developed to assist in directing the care of patients. The knowledge and acceptance of this guideline by nephrologists has been researched in the past. However, there is no data of knowledge and acceptance of the guideline by nephrology clinical nurses or nephrology nurse practitioners. A survey was conducted to begin to ascertain this information in order to better understand the perspectives of nephrology nurses. PMID:18203568

  2. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  3. An information systems perspective on ethical trade and self-regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Duncombe; Richard Heeks

    2003-01-01

    Increasing numbers of ethical trade initiatives are being launched, reflecting concerns about the limited benefits that globalising trade brings to producers in developing countries. Ethical trade is an information-intensive activity. Yet little is known about the role of information systems in supporting ethical trade. This paper provides a preliminary conceptualisation of ethical trade regulatory information systems. It presents models and

  4. Ethical aspects of genetic predisposition to environmentally-related disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Grandjean; Marja Sorsa

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals are highly susceptible to disease caused by chemical exposures and this hypersusceptibility can be genetically determined. Because biomarker technology for the determination of genetic predisposition is at the disposal of researchers, the capability therefore exists to include genetic screening in epidemiologic studies. The application of this technological advance in population-based research is, however, fraught with ethical tensions heretofore

  5. Ethical Dilemmas Related to Pediatric Twin-Twin Skin Transplant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Dollar; Arthur M. Boudreaux

    With the expanding practice of anesthesiology to the realm of peri-operative medicine, anesthesiologists will be faced with more ethical questions and dilemmas. It is imperative that anesthesiologists become acquainted with the principles of bioethics in order to approach these questions and dilemmas in a systematic manner. Two bioethical theories and a decision-making framework are described and incorporated into a discussion

  6. International perspectives on the ethics and regulation of human cell and tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Baldes, Annette; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2007-12-01

    The transplantation of human cells and tissues has become a global enterprise for both life-saving and life-enhancing purposes. Yet current practices raise numerous ethical and policy issues relating to informed consent for donation, profit-making, and quality and safety in the procurement, processing, distribution, and international circulation of human cells and tissues. This paper reports on recent developments in the international debate surrounding these issues, and in particular on the attention cell and tissue transplantation has received in WHO's ongoing process of updating its 1991 Guiding principles on human organ transplantation. Several of the organizers of an international working group of stakeholders from a wide range of backgrounds that convened in Zurich in July 2006 summarize the areas of normative agreement and disagreement, and identify open questions regarding facts and fundamental concepts of potential normative significance. These issues must be addressed through development of common medical, scientific, legal and ethical requirements for human cell and tissue transplantation on a global basis. While guidance must accommodate the distinct ethical issues raised by activities involving human cells and tissues, consistency with normative frameworks for organ transplantation remains a prime objective. PMID:18278254

  7. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  8. A survey of students` ethical attitudes using computer-related scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, C.M.; Kingsbury, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students ascending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper will present data accumulated by an on-going study in which students are presented seven scenarios--all of which involve some aspect of computing technology. These students were randomly selected from a small, Christian, liberal-arts university.

  9. Towards an empirical ethics in care: relations with technologies in health care.

    PubMed

    Pols, Jeannette

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945

  10. Surgical experimentation and clinical trials: differences and related ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Surgical techniques are not introduced into clinical practice as the result of randomised clinical trials (RCT), but usually through the gradual evolution of existing techniques or, more rarely, through audacious departures from the norm that are decided by a surgical team on the basis of experience. Sham surgery is held by some to be not only an ethically acceptable procedure but also a perfectly fit and proper one, as it could endow surgical experiments with the strict methodological and statistical precision typically associated with RCTs. This article first briefly examines some of the methodological aspects of both RCTs and surgical experiments and then offers a few considerations regarding the ethical issues raised by sham surgery. PMID:23771267

  11. Ethical issues relating to supply of human tissue to the commercial biomedical sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Womack

    2002-01-01

    Demand for an ethical supply of human tissue for research in the commercial biomedical sector is increasing substantially.\\u000a This article sets out to review ethical issues specifically relating to acquisition of tissue from patients in a publicly\\u000a funded national health service (NHS), for research use in a commercial setting. Some of the background to recent high profile\\u000a Inquiries in England

  12. [Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].

    PubMed

    Friedel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

  13. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  14. The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

  15. SCIENCE, ETHICS AND IDEOLOGY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrique Rattner

    The author renders problematic questions relating to the production of scientific and technological knowledge, according to the postulates of western epistemology (Cartesianism) and the relations existing between the production of this wisdom with Social Ethics. A discussion is made of the theme of scientific neutrality and the adoption of a critical perspective in the cognoscitive process which takes into account

  16. A phenomenological-contextual, existential, and ethical perspective on emotional trauma.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    After a brief overview of the author's phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective, the paper traces the evolution of the author's conception of emotional trauma over the course of three decades, as it developed in concert with his efforts to grasp his own traumatized states and his studies of existential philosophy. The author illuminates two of trauma's essential features: (1) its context-embeddedness-painful or frightening affect becomes traumatic when it cannot find a context of emotional understanding in which it can be held and integrated, and (2) its existential significance-emotional trauma shatters our illusions of safety and plunges us into an authentic Being-toward-death, wherein we must face up to our finitude and the finitude of all those we love. The paper also describes the impact of trauma on the phenomenology of time and the sense of alienation from others that accompanies traumatic temporality. The author contends that the proper therapeutic comportment toward trauma is a form of emotional dwelling. He concludes with a discussion of the implications of all these formulations for the development of an ethics of finitude. PMID:25688682

  17. The new Belgian law on biobanks: some comments from an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Van Assche, Kristof

    2011-09-01

    On 19 December 2008 the Official Journal of Belgium published the 'Law regarding the procurement and use of human body material destined for human medical applications or for scientific research purposes'. This paper will comment on various aspects of the Law: its scope of application (what is understood by 'body material'?); its concept of 'residual human body material' (with far-reaching implications for the type of consent required for research); the nature of actions with and uses of human body material that are explicitly prohibited; the right of donors to be informed of relevant information revealed by the use of their body material; and the special responsibilities placed on hospital ethics committees. As will be argued in this paper, several of these provisions are highly problematic from an ethical point of view, especially those relating to consent. Meanwhile, the Minister of Public Health has asked the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics for advice on the incorporation of the 'presumed consent' model, that applies to post mortem organ donation, into the biobank Law's provisions on post mortem removal and use of body material. This aspect of the Law effectively extends the 'presumed consent' regime, both from organs to body material in general, and from therapeutic uses to research uses. PMID:21750895

  18. Islamic medical ethics: a primer.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

  19. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

  20. How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    2005-12-01

    Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).

  1. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  2. [Exactly what is ethical nursing care? the perspective of the clinical humanities].

    PubMed

    Yu, An-Bang

    2014-10-01

    As Taiwan enters the post-modern era of professional medical care, a host of issues relating to nursing care are becoming increasingly pressing. On the one hand, the wide range of ailments of body and mind requiring treatment is placing a major financial burden on the national health care system. On the other hand, few hospitals are able to provide "comprehensive care of body and mind." In addition to primary prevention, the most effective way to reduce the overall cost of medical care is to effectively bring volunteer caregivers (those who have an "ethical connection" with the patient, i.e., family, friends, neighbors, volunteers, etc.) into all levels of the caregiving process. Moreover, as medical ethics becomes increasingly focused on the well-being of the patient, more attention is being given to the healing relationship itself. Due to its ability to swiftly relieve a wide variety of ailments, the Western medical model has become widely accepted in Asia. Yet, a patient may feel a greater sense of healing when treatment is based on the principles of ethical caregiving. For example, in the way it quickly relieves the prevailing symptoms, psychiatric medication is like a freeway. By contrast, volunteer caregiving is more like a local road, which may be slower, but eventually takes one all the way home. Thus, making nursing care more person-centered and indigenized gives the patient a sense of not only being cured, but also being "cared for." However, for a long time the theory and practice of nursing education in Taiwan has been based on the Western model of nursing. In this model nursing is treated as a branch of the biological sciences, an overall approach quite different from the traditional view of caregiving in Asian societies. Nonetheless, recent research and clinical practice indicates that an indigenized form of nursing care may be a more suitable approach to comprehensive care, and that such an approach has much potential for widespread application in Taiwan and other Chinese societies. PMID:25271029

  3. Ethical Issues in Paediatric Practice - Part II: Issues relating to disability

    PubMed Central

    Attard-Montalto, S

    2002-01-01

    Ethical issues in child care are often complicated by the child's inability to take responsibility in their own management decisions and, therefore, their reliance on third parties. This situation is further complicated in those children who have an underlying disability which may influence judgement decisions of the child's surrogate guardians, both toward over or under treatment. This is particularly the case with regard to decisions relating to life support, ongoing and quality of life, appropriate use of limited healthcare resources, and medical research. This article will explore the ethical principles which help to guide the medical management of such difficult cases. PMID:22368609

  4. Understanding the Factors that Affect Sustainable Consumers' Decision Making from an Ethical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Rex

    With the growing concern about the environment and the effects of global warming, there has been increasing academic interest in studies that examine sustainable decision making behaviour, and also ethical approaches to such problems. However, there have been no studies that link consumer decision making and ethical decision making with factors such as moral intensity, demographics, behavioural and normative beliefs,

  5. Addressing Religious Plurality--A Teacher Perspective on Minority Religion and Secular Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilliacus, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    The Finnish education system recognizes religious plurality by offering education in pupils' own religion or in secular ethics. However, little research has been undertaken on how plurality is addressed in classroom practice. This study investigates how 31 minority religion and secular ethics teachers view the task of supporting and including…

  6. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  7. A New Perspective on Cross-Cultural Ethical Evaluations: The Use of Conjoint Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Tsalikis; Bruce Seaton; Petros Tomaras

    2002-01-01

    The present paper compares the ethical perceptions of Americans and Greeks using conjoint analysis. The two samples were presented with 2 scenarios manipulating three factors: gender of the transgressor, organizational status of the transgressor, and the magnitude of the transgression. For each scenario, conventional mean comparisons and conjoint analyses were performed on five ethical measurements. The matrix of means and

  8. Ethics issues for HIV/AIDS researchers in international settings - perspectives from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Sweeney, Ellen; Worthington, Catherine; Perry, Darryl; Satzinger, Franziska; Rogers, Erin

    2008-11-01

    In recognition of the level of international HIV/AIDS research being conducted by Canadians, the Canadian Association for HIV Research (CAHR), along with its partners, has developed a resource document to assist researchers in identifying and preparing for the unique ethics issues and challenges that may arise during international HIV/AIDS research. Between 2004 and 2007, face-to-face consultations were undertaken with community and government stakeholders, and interviews were conducted with eight prominent HIV/AIDS researchers with international experience to identify key research ethics challenges and structural, cultural, political, social, and economic factors that may impact HIV/AIDS research ethics in resource-limited settings. These challenges and factors served as the basis for the hypothetical ethics issues case scenarios developed for each of the four research tracks. Ethics issues were identified at every stage of the research process. Key contextual issues included: (1) stigma and culturally-embedded conceptualizations of HIV; (2) local and global politics and economics; (3) gender inequities, power dynamics, and sexual roles; and (4) allocation and availability of resources for research and health services. The final document resulting from the consultation process provides a framework for open dialogue on the complex and interconnected ethics issues researchers may experience in the field of international HIV/AIDS research, and contributes to the HIV/AIDS research field by reinforcing the need for high quality and ethically sound research. This document can be found at http://ethics.cahr-acrv.ca/. PMID:18829360

  9. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena M. Bastida; Tung-Sung Tseng; Corliss McKeever; Leonard Jack

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring

  10. Resolving ethical dilemmas through international human resource management: a transaction cost economics perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Grossman; Lyle F. Schoenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in

  11. Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs.

    PubMed

    Panocchia, N; Bossola, M; Silvestri, P; Midolo, E; Teleman, A A; Tazza, L; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Di Pietro, M L; Spagnolo, A G

    2013-09-01

    The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient. PMID:24034000

  12. The ethics of nursing care and 'the ethic of care'.

    PubMed

    Bowden, P L

    1995-03-01

    Recent discussions concerning the ethics of nursing care have gained added impetus from articulations of the so-called 'ethic of care' in moral philosophy. This paper addresses the question of recognizing and elaborating the ethics of nursing care by exploring the problems and the possibilities of these intersecting discourses. In the first part of the paper it is argued that appropriation of 'the ethic of care' by nursing theorists as the central value of nursing, in contradistinction to other moral values such as beneficence or justice, runs the risk of reinforcing the conventional approaches to ethics that 'the ethic of care' seeks to overturn. Central to 'the ethic of care' is the recognition that caring entails a focus on the particularities and context of the relationships in which it is expressed. Accordingly the application of a unitary concept of care to the context of nursing relations may seriously distort their diverse and complex-specific ethical possibilities. The dynamic complexity of nursing ethics may be more adequately understood by working through an array of specific examples of nursing practice highlighting the differences and similarities between them and other ethical practices of care. Experience of a set of examples in this way will draw attention to the multiplicity, ambiguity, and particularity of the ethics of nursing care. In the second part of the paper a beginning is made on this project by addressing the work of several different theorists of care who have examined different practices of nursing from the overlapping perspectives of nurses, patients and the socio-historical construction of their relationships. PMID:7728589

  13. Ethics Updates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hinman, Lawrence M.

    Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

  14. Lived Relationality as Fulcrum for Pedagogical-Ethical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saevi, Tone

    2011-01-01

    What is the core of pedagogical practice? Which qualities are primary to the student-teacher relationship? What is a suitable language for pedagogical practice? What might be the significance of an everyday presentational pedagogical act like for example the glance of a teacher? The pedagogical relation as lived relationality experientially…

  15. Information, consent and treatment of patients with Morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

  16. Who Decides Who Decides? Ethical Perspectives on Capacity and Decision-making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Bowman

    Capacity1 is at the heart of ethical decision making in healthcare. For those who subscribe to a principled approach to moral reasoning\\u000a (Gillon, 1985; Gillon and Lloyd, 1993; Beauchamp and Childress, 1994), autonomy is often said to be pre-eminent amongst the four principles of medical ethics2, or at least “first amongst equals” (Gillon, 2003). For those who prefer methods of

  17. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Fangerau

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of

  18. Systematically evaluating the impact of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) on health care delivery: a matrix of ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

    2014-04-01

    Swiss hospitals were required to implement a prospective payment system for reimbursement using a diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) classification system by the beginning of 2012. Reforms to a health care system should be assessed for their impact, including their impact on ethically relevant factors. Over a number of years and in a number of countries, questions have been raised in the literature about the ethical implications of the implementation of DRGs. However, despite this, researchers have not attempted to identify the major ethical issues associated with DRGs systematically. To address this gap in the literature, we have developed a matrix for identifying the ethical implications of the implementation of DRGs. It was developed using a literature review, and empirical studies on DRGs, as well as a review and analysis of existing ethics frameworks. The matrix consists of the ethically relevant parameters of health care systems on which DRGs are likely to have an impact; the ethical values underlying these parameters; and examples of specific research questions associated with DRGs to illustrate how the matrix can be applied. While the matrix has been developed in light of the Swiss health care reform, it could be used as a basis for identifying the ethical implications of DRG-based systems worldwide and for highlighting the ethical implications of other kinds of provider payment systems (PPS). PMID:24388050

  19. How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, Joćo

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse. PMID:23150079

  20. How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, Joćo

    2013-06-01

    We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse. PMID:23150079

  1. Choosing embryos: ethical complexity and relational autonomy in staff accounts of PGD

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie; Sandall, Jane; Scott, Rosamund

    2007-01-01

    The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce ‘ethical problems’ for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two ‘grey areas’ raised by staff are discussed in terms of how far staff are, or in the future may be, able to support autonomous choices of women/couples: accepting ‘carrier’ embryos within the goal of creating a ‘healthy’ child; and sex selection of embryos for social reasons. These grey areas challenged the staff's resolve to offer individual informed choice, in the face of their awareness of possible collective social effects that might ensue from individual choices. We therefore argue that these new forms of choice pose a challenge to conventional models of individual autonomy used in UK genetic and reproductive counselling, and that ‘relational autonomy’ may be a more suitable ethical model to describe the ethical principles being drawn on by staff working in this area. PMID:18092985

  2. Perspective taking modulates event-related potentials to perceived pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Han, Shihui

    2010-01-29

    Recent event-related brain potential (ERP) study disentangled an early automatic component and a late top-down controlled component of neural activities to perceived pain of others. This study assessed the hypothesis that perspective taking modulates the top-down controlled component but not the automatic component of empathy for pain by recording ERPs from 24 subjects who performed pain judgments of pictures of hands in painful or non-painful situations from either self-perspective or other-perspective. We found that, relative to non-painful stimuli, painful stimuli induced positive shifts of ERPs at frontal-central electrodes as early as 160 ms after sensory stimulation and this effect lasted until 700 ms. The amplitudes of ERPs at 230-250 ms elicited by painful stimuli negatively correlated with both subjective ratings of others' pain and self-unpleasantness in both self-perspective and other-perspective conditions. Neural response to perceived pain over the central-parietal area was significantly reduced at 370-420 ms when performing the pain judgment task from other-perspective compared to self-perspective. The results suggest that shifting between self-perspectives and other-perspectives modulates the late controlled component but not the early automatic component of neural responses to perceived pain. PMID:20026179

  3. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical

  4. Ethics of cochlear implantation in young children: a review and reply from a Deaf-World perspective.

    PubMed

    Lane, H; Bahan, B

    1998-10-01

    This article examines ethical dilemmas related to cochlear implant surgery in children. These dilemmas arise from the existence of a linguistic and cultural minority called the Deaf World. Organizations of culturally Deaf adults in the United States and abroad, as well as the World Federation of the Deaf, have, on ethical grounds, strongly criticized the practice of cochlear implant surgery in children. Three ethical dilemmas are examined. (1) The surgery is of unproven value for the main significant benefit sought, language acquisition, whereas the psychological, social, and linguistic risks have not been assessed. Thus the surgery appears to be innovative, but innovative surgery on children is ethically problematic. (2) It is now widely recognized that the signed languages of the world are full-fledged natural languages, and the communities that speak those languages have distinct social organizations and cultures. Deaf culture values lead to a different assessment of pediatric cochlear implant surgery than do mainstream (hearing) values, and both sets of values have standing. (3) The fields of otology and audiology want to provide cochlear implants to Deaf children but also, their leaders say, want to protect Deaf culture; those appear to be conflicting goals in principle because, if there were perfect implants, the ranks of the Deaf World would diminish. PMID:9781982

  5. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  6. Medicine and health care in South Africa. A religious/ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, V J

    1989-01-01

    Religion and morality are inter-related but nevertheless quite distinct from each other. All the great living religions of the world teach broadly comparable moralities, e.g. the "Golden Rule". In all of them there is general acceptance of the fundamental worth of the human personality. This is true also of the teaching of many moral philosophers, e.g. Kant, who taught that people must be treated as ends and not means. In the Biblical religions such respect derives from the doctrine of the Imago Dei. From this premise stems a number of ethical norms, which, however, are often in conflict and not easily reconciled. Hence, the dilemma of trying to decide on a just and equitable allocation of scarce medical resources and adequate health care in a country where there are not nearly enough medical resources for all who need them. Who lives? Who dies? Who decides? Some ethicists advocate a purely random procedure, recognizing the equal worth of every individual. Others believe there are relevant differences that justify choices being made on valuational or utilitarian grounds. They argue that the distribution of medical care in less than optimal circumstances requires a certain discrimination. Paul Ramsey believes that this problem is so complex as to be almost impervious to human reason. He therefore argues for far greater emphasis on preventive medicine. This raises the question as to whether we should be spending millions on procedures designed mostly for the benefit of the chosen few (who can afford them) when thousands of children are dying annually from diseases for which cures are known but not available to the masses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2495401

  7. Community perspectives on the ethical issues surrounding adolescent HIV vaccine trials in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jaspan, Heather B; Soka, Nosiphiwo F; Strode, Ann E; Mathews, Catherine; Mark, Daniella; Flisher, Alan J; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2008-01-01

    Summary Adolescents globally are at high risk for HIV acquisition and are the targets of HIV prevention interventions such as HIV vaccines. In order to understand stakeholders’ attitudes towards the ethical issues of adolescent involvement in HIV vaccine trials, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of a semi-urban, informal Cape Town community with high HIV prevalence in which HIV vaccine trials are taking place. Themes were identified from focus group transcripts by four researchers, and included necessity of guardian consent, age of independent consent, and confidentiality of in-trial medical results. In general, ethical adolescent HIV vaccine trials will be feasible in this community. PMID:18782594

  8. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  9. Reflections on "Social Justice,", "Race," "Ethnicity" and "Identity" from an Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-01-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, "social justice," "race," "ethnicity" and "identity." This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with…

  10. Work Ethics of Students Who Are Disadvantaged Enrolled in Vocational Education. Analysis of Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraska, Marie F.

    1990-01-01

    Results of the Meaning and Values of Work Scale administered to 100 vocational students uncovered differences in the perceptions of work and work value orientation of disadvantaged vocational students. Implications of the study are that vocational teachers should consider gender when planning for work ethics instruction for disadvantaged students.…

  11. Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

  12. How an Exchange of Perspectives Led to Tentative Ethical Guidelines for Visual Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Clive C.; De Luca, Rosemary; Tolich, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…

  13. The Relationship between Ethical Positions and Methodological Approaches: A Scandinavian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Eriksson, Anita

    2010-01-01

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of…

  14. The Relative Importance of the Ethical Principles Adopted by the American Psychological Association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hadjistavropoulos; David C. Malloy; Donald Sharpe; Sheryl M. Green; Shannon Fuchs-Lacelle

    2002-01-01

    A primary purpose of a code of ethics is to assist members of an organization in making consistent choices when faced with ethical dilemmas. In instances where two or more ethical principles are in conflict with one another, decision-makers are typically left to determine which of the two should be given most weight. Nonetheless, in the code of ethics adopted

  15. Ethical Perspectives, Reactions to Other's Moral Behavior, and Consequent Moral Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…

  16. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  17. Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

  18. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures. PMID:20054074

  19. [Ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Della Morte, E; Cappellano, F; Catanzaro, F

    1998-12-01

    The relation is considered between ethical choices, morals and deontology in plastic surgery of the male external genitals. Ethics dictates the behavioural model applied by an individual or group in their actions. Professional ethics--deontology--is the collection of duties governing the exercise of a certain profession. Morals are the set of rules governing an individual's life in society. Ethics, deontology and morals do not always convey the same message, since environmental, racial and religious situations, custom, and even fashion can influence a patient's demands, reflecting his desire to improve his quality of life, even only from the purely hedonistic viewpoint, and the specialist's attitude. Surgeons are increasingly tending to bend to these demands or--much worse--even encourage and foster them, with a view to financial considerations. The attitude and ethical choices available are examined in relation to surgery to lengthen or enlarge the penis. PMID:9882901

  20. Reproductive cloning and human health: an ethical, international, and nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sweatman, L R

    2000-03-01

    Human reproductive cloning came to the public's attention when Dolly, a sheep, was cloned in Scotland in 1997. This news quickly spread around the world causing both excitement at the possibilities that cloning techniques could offer, as well as apprehension about the ethical, social and legal implications should human reproductive cloning become possible. Many international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and governments were concerned about the impact of human reproductive cloning on human health, dignity and human rights. To this end, many institutions have drafted resolutions, protocols and position statements outlining their concerns. This paper will outline some of the major ethical issues surrounding human reproductive cloning, the position of various international organizations and governments, and specifically the position of the International Council of Nurses. PMID:10765496

  1. Ethical considerations for conducting health disparities research in community health centers: a social-ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-12-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  2. Ethical Considerations for Conducting Health Disparities Research in Community Health Centers: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  3. Ethical challenges in a technological environment: The perspective of engineers versus managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Hummels

    1999-01-01

    In his article ‘Better Communication Between Engineers and Managers: Some Ways to Prevent Many Ethically Hard Choices’1 Michael Davis analyzes the causes of the disaster in terms of a communications gap between management and engineers. When\\u000a the communication between (representatives of) both groups breaks down, the organization is in (moral) trouble. Crucial information\\u000a gets stuck somewhere in the organization prohibiting

  4. Ethical issues in clinical neuroscience research: A patient’s perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry D. Cohen; Linda Herman; Sheryl Jedlinski; Peggy Willocks; Paula Wittekind

    2007-01-01

    Summary  A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining\\u000a innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values\\u000a and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for\\u000a analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public

  5. A critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

    2015-04-01

    The centenary of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology was recognised in 2013 with the publication of a volume of essays dedicated to his work (edited by Stanghellini and Fuchs). Leading phenomenological-psychopathologists and philosophers of psychiatry examined Jaspers notion of empathic understanding and his declaration that certain schizophrenic phenomena are 'un-understandable'. The consensus reached by the authors was that Jaspers operated with a narrow conception of phenomenology and empathy and that schizophrenic phenomena can be understood through what they variously called second-order and radical empathy. This article offers a critical examination of the second-order empathic stance along phenomenological and ethical lines. It asks: (1) Is second-order empathy (phenomenologically) possible? (2) Is the second-order empathic stance an ethically acceptable attitude towards persons diagnosed with schizophrenia? I argue that second-order empathy is an incoherent method that cannot be realised. Further, the attitude promoted by this method is ethically problematic insofar as the emphasis placed on radical otherness disinvests persons diagnosed with schizophrenia from a fair chance to participate in the public construction of their identity and, hence, to redress traditional symbolic injustices. PMID:25820144

  6. Researchers' perspectives on scientific and ethical issues with transcranial direct current stimulation: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Riggall, Kate; Forlini, Cynthia; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Weier, Megan; Partridge, Brad; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance brain function in healthy individuals, and ameliorate cognitive and other symptoms in patients suffering from various medical conditions. This, along with its presumed safety, simplicity, and affordability, has generated great enthusiasm amongst researchers, clinicians, patient populations, and the public (including a growing "do-it-yourself" community). However, discussion about the effectiveness and ethics of tDCS thus far has been confined to small groups of tDCS researchers and bioethicists. We conducted an international online survey targeting the opinions of researchers using tDCS who were asked to rate the technique's efficacy in different contexts. We also surveyed opinions about ethical concerns, self-enhancement and public availability. 265 complete responses were received and analyzed statistically and thematically. Our results emphasize the potential uses of tDCS in clinical and research contexts, but also highlight a number of emerging methodological and safety concerns, ethical challenges and the need for improved communication between researchers and bioethicists with regard to regulation of the device. Neither the media reputation of tDCS as a "miracle device" nor concerns expressed in recent neuroethical publications were entirely borne out in expert opinion. PMID:26068889

  7. Researchers’ perspectives on scientific and ethical issues with transcranial direct current stimulation: An international survey

    PubMed Central

    Riggall, Kate; Forlini, Cynthia; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Weier, Megan; Partridge, Brad; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance brain function in healthy individuals, and ameliorate cognitive and other symptoms in patients suffering from various medical conditions. This, along with its presumed safety, simplicity, and affordability, has generated great enthusiasm amongst researchers, clinicians, patient populations, and the public (including a growing “do-it-yourself” community). However, discussion about the effectiveness and ethics of tDCS thus far has been confined to small groups of tDCS researchers and bioethicists. We conducted an international online survey targeting the opinions of researchers using tDCS who were asked to rate the technique’s efficacy in different contexts. We also surveyed opinions about ethical concerns, self-enhancement and public availability. 265 complete responses were received and analyzed statistically and thematically. Our results emphasize the potential uses of tDCS in clinical and research contexts, but also highlight a number of emerging methodological and safety concerns, ethical challenges and the need for improved communication between researchers and bioethicists with regard to regulation of the device. Neither the media reputation of tDCS as a “miracle device” nor concerns expressed in recent neuroethical publications were entirely borne out in expert opinion. PMID:26068889

  8. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. PMID:25050064

  9. "Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific Practice" An innovative advanced research course for PhD students from a range of disciplines: Autumn 2012

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    "Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific This National Science Foundation (NSF) funded joint research course offered at Illinois Institute of Technology with philosophy of science and ethics and values. Students' current research is a starting point for discussion

  10. Perspectives on Relational Learning in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gina; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This introductory paper covers basic concepts and terminology relevant to the application of research on relational learning to mental retardation. The paper discusses conditional discrimination; conditional stimulus relations and stimulus equivalence; generalized stimulus relations; impact of mediational processes on emergent behavior; relational

  11. Relation between Time Perspective and Delay Discounting: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…

  12. Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada’s universal health care system. PMID:25381149

  13. [Between autonomy and coercion: compulsory treatment in psychiatry from an ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    Simon, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The actual decision of the German Supreme Court fueled the old debate of the moral and legal status of compulsory treatment in psychiatry in Germany. This article sheds a light on the background of this debate and reflects on possible justifications for involuntary treatment of mentally ill patients. Furthermore it will examine the significance of psychiatric patients' advance directives and joint crisis plans in the context of medical compulsory treatment and will offer recommendations on an ethical responsible way of dealing with compulsory treatment in German psychiatric practice. PMID:24983578

  14. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine. PMID:15587453

  15. Ethics of Health Research in Communities: Perspectives From the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robert L.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert; Kalishman, Summers; Sussman, Andrew L.; Freeman, William L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The increasing attention paid to community-based research highlights the question of whether human research protections focused on the individual are adequate to safeguard communities. We conducted a study to explore how community members perceive low-risk health research, the adequacy of human research protection processes, and the ethical conduct of community-based research. METHODS Eighteen focus groups were conducted among rural and urban Hispanic and Native American communities in New Mexico using a semistructured guide. Group transcriptions were analyzed using iterative readings and coding, with review of the analytic summary by group members. RESULTS Although participants recognized the value of health research, many also identified several adverse effects of research in their communities, including social (community and individual labeling, stigmatization, and discrimination) and economic (community job losses, increased insurance rates, and loss of community income). A lack of community beneficence was emphasized by participants who spoke of researchers who fail to communicate results adequately or assist with follow-through. Many group members did not believe current human research and data privacy processes were adequate to protect or assist communities. CONCLUSIONS Ethical review of community-based health research should apply the Belmont principles to communities. Researchers should adopt additional approaches to community-based research by engaging communities as active partners throughout the research process, focusing on community priorities, and taking extra precautions to assure individual and community privacy. Plans for meaningful dissemination of results to communities should be part of the research design. PMID:20843885

  16. Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

  17. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25420055

  18. Tracing the textures of an ethical relation to the dead: trauma, witnessing, and the "Montreal massacre".

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, S

    1998-01-01

    This essay offers a consideration of English-language feminist memorial discourse as this has been sedimenting in Canada since the 1989 murder of 14 women at Ecole Polytechnique. The author suggests that remembrance now, almost a decade after the murders, exceeds the terms offered by a politic in which the living and the dead are connected through feminist alignment ["it could have been me"]. In its place, the author argues that there is a binding relation to the dead that is forged through understanding the murders as an event of historical trauma and rupture. She then contemplates and explores the implications of this rethinking of an ethics of relation through a situated analysis of annual memorial vigils. PMID:10538152

  19. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction. PMID:9638088

  20. Contracts and Commitment: Economic and Sociological Perspectives on Employment Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne L. Kalleberg; Torger Reve

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a contract model of employment relations that integrates insights from economic and sociological perspectives on labor market transactions. The utility of the contract model is illustrated empirically using a large data set on organizations and their employees in U.S. and Japanese manufacturing industries. The results are consistent with many transaction cost and agency theory predictions, though they

  1. Assessing Perspective Taking in Schizophrenia Using Relational Frame Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestes, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baque, Esteve; Loas, Gwenole

    2010-01-01

    The current study assessed deictic relational responding in people with schizophrenia. A perspective-taking task and a mental states attribution task were employed with a sample of 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 age-matched controls. Results revealed poorer performance of participants with schizophrenia in responding in accordance…

  2. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  3. US perspective on gluten-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maureen M; Vasagar, Brintha

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. PMID:24493932

  4. An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

  5. Frankenstein, Dolly, and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A growing cadre of science teachers and researchers are developing curriculum blueprints for teaching the science and ethics of genetics to help students put advances in biotechnology into proper perspective. Lists five sources for teaching genetics. (MLF)

  6. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  7. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  8. Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, P.J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen University Medical Centre, PO Box 90.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.j.j.sauer@bkk.umcg.nl

    2005-09-01

    Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.

  9. Reuse Of Pacemakers In Ghana And Nigeria: Medical, Legal, Cultural And Ethical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter

    2014-04-11

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369

  10. Interpersonal relations in nursing: a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau.

    PubMed

    Gastmans, C

    1998-12-01

    Nursing typically has been viewed as a moral practice, for instance by new developments in the ethics of care. Nevertheless, many philosophical-ethical presuppositions of nursing theories remain to be clarified. This paper presents a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau. Analysis of the philosophical-ethical background of Peplau's works illuminates a view on nursing practice that is relevant today. Three main components are analysed more deeply, i.e. the professionalization of nursing, the philosophical underpinnings of Peplau's view on nursing science, and the nurse-patient relationship as the central event in nursing. PMID:9888377

  11. Ethics and Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

  12. HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sonja G; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient’s daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. PMID:24049460

  13. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  14. Cracking the ethics code: What are the ethical implications of designing a research study that relates to therapeutic interventions with children in individual play therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Daniel-McKeigue

    2007-01-01

    When designing a research study it is imperative to consider the ethical implications of the project. This paper discusses the nature, definition and development of ethical practice within the field of health research and the evolving role of ethical codes and committees. The development of international standards is examined but the focus is principally on practice in Great Britain. The

  15. What is it to do good medical ethics? From the perspective of a practising doctor who is in Parliament.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Ilora G

    2015-01-01

    This article is a personal reflection on work as a physician with work as a member of the UK Parliament's House of Lords. Ethical thinking should underpin everything we do; the 'four principles' of medical ethics provide an applicable and relevant ethical framework. This article explores its application in both domains of work-as a clinician and as a legislator-with some examples of its use 'to do good medical ethics' in both roles. Debates around tobacco and drug control, pandemic control, abortion and assisted suicide are explored. PMID:25516943

  16. Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).

    PubMed

    Petros, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms. PMID:17703564

  17. Developing a Research Agenda on Ethical Issues Related to Using Social Media in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samantha A; VAN Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services. PMID:26059955

  18. The differing perspectives of workers and occupational medicine physicians on the ethical, legal and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I; Brandt-Rauf, Elka; Gershon, Robyn; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing in the workplace holds the promise of improving worker health but also raises ethical, legal, and social issues. In considering such testing, it is critical to understand the perspectives of workers, who are most directly affected by it, and occupational health professionals, who are often directly involved in its implementation. Therefore, a series of focus groups of unionized workers (n=25) and occupational medicine physicians (n=23) was conducted. The results demonstrated strikingly different perspectives of workers and physicians in several key areas, including the goals and appropriateness of genetic testing, and methods to minimize its risks. In general, workers were guided by a profound mistrust of the employer, physician, and government, while physicians were guided primarily by scientific and medical concerns, and, in many cases, by the business concerns distrusted by the workers. PMID:21411427

  19. The Ethical and Practical Implications of Systems Architecture on Identity in Networked Learning: A Constructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Marguerite L.; Parchoma, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Through relational dialogue, learners shape their identities by sharing information about the world and how they see themselves in it. As learners interact, they receive feedback from both the environment and other learners which, in turn, helps them assess and adjust their self-presentations. Although learners retain choice and personal agency,…

  20. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2014-10-16

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

  1. How is health-related "deservingness" reckoned? Perspectives from unauthorized im/migrants in Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Willen, Sarah S

    2012-03-01

    Do unauthorized im/migrants have a right to health? Do they deserve health care, or health protection, or access to the social determinants of good health? Are they party to prevailing social contracts, or does their exclusion from mainstream systems of health promotion, prevention, and care "make sense"? Questions like these, which generate considerable attention in multiple spheres of scholarship, policy, and public debate, revolve around an issue that merits substantially greater consideration among social scientists of health: health-related "deservingness." In addition to putting the issue of health-related deservingness squarely on the map as an object of analysis, this article further argues that we cannot focus solely on those with power, influence, and public voice. Rather, we also must investigate how deservingness is reckoned in relation to--and, furthermore, from the perspectives of-- unauthorized im/migrants and members of other groups commonly constructed in public and policy discourse as undeserving. Additionally, we must consider the complicated relationship between universalizing juridical arguments about formal entitlement to health rights, on one hand, and situationally specific, vernacular moral arguments about deservingness, on the other. The paper analyzes findings from a 29-month mixed-methods study conducted in Tel Aviv, Israel, that approached unauthorized im/migrants as subjects, rather than simply objects, of ethical deliberation. Participants' conceptions of health-related deservingness are investigated using two sources of data: (1) quantitative findings from a self-administered, closed-ended survey conducted with 170 im/migrant patients at an NGO-run Open Clinic (2002-2003), and (2) qualitative findings from the larger ethnographic study of which the survey was part (2000-2010). The study findings both (1) contradict commonly circulating assumptions that unauthorized im/migrants are "freeloaders," and (2) highlight the need for rigorous investigation of how unauthorized im/migrants, among other marginalized and vulnerable groups, conceptualize their own relative deservingness of health-related concern and investment. PMID:21821324

  2. Relational agency from a teacher as researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shequana

    2015-05-01

    This essay responds to a selection of ideas and theoretical frameworks Sharada Gade uses to conduct her study. The ideas raised by Sharada are placed in the context of the changes and experiences taking place in today's public school system. Her ideas also provide new insights into the construct of relational agency in accordance with expansive learning activity from a teacher as researcher perspective. The purpose of this response is to shed light on the collaboration that needs to exist between teachers and researchers as curriculum is designed and implemented.

  3. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

  4. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873

  5. An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

  6. Temperature-size relations from the cellular-genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Dag O; Daufresne, Martin; Leinaas, Hans P

    2013-05-01

    A family of empirically based ecological 'rules', collectively known as temperature-size rules, predicts larger body size in colder environments. This prediction is based on studies demonstrating that a wide range of ectotherms show increased body size, cell size or genome size in low-temperature habitats, or that individuals raised at low temperature become larger than conspecifics raised at higher temperature. There is thus a potential for reduction in size with global warming, affecting all levels from cell volume to body size, community composition and food webs. Increased body size may be obtained either by increasing the size or number of cells. Processes leading to changed cell size are of great interest from an ecological, physiological and evolutionary perspective. Cell size scales with fundamental properties such as genome size, growth rate, protein synthesis rates and metabolic activity, although the causal directions of these correlations are not clear. Changes in genome size will thus, in many cases, not only affect cell or body size, but also life-cycle strategies. Symmetrically, evolutionary drivers of life-history strategies may impact growth rate and thus cell size, genome size and metabolic rates. Although this goes to the core of many ecological processes, it is hard to move from correlations to causations. To the extent that temperature-driven changes in genome size result in significant differences among populations in body size, allometry or life-cycle events such as mating season, it could serve as a fast route to speciation. We offer here a novel perspective on the temperature-size rules from a 'bottom-up' perspective: how temperature may induce changes in genome size, and thus implicitly in cell size and body size of metazoans. Alternatively: how temperature-driven enlargement of cells also dictates genome-size expansion to maintain the genome-size to cell-volume ratio. We then discuss the different evolutionary drivers in aquatic versus terrestrial systems, and whether it is possible to arrive at a unifying theory that also may serve as a predictive tool related to temperature changes. This, we believe, will offer an updated review of a basic concept in ecology, and novel perspectives on the basic biological responses to temperature changes from a genomic perspective. PMID:23551915

  7. Critical reflections on evidence, ethics and effectiveness in the management of tuberculosis: public health and global perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Geetika; Upshur, Ross EG; Rea, Elizabeth; Benatar, Solomon R

    2004-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Recent scholarly attention to public health ethics provides an opportunity to analyze several ethical issues raised by the global tuberculosis pandemic. Discussion Recently articulated frameworks for public health ethics emphasize the importance of effectiveness in the justification of public health action. This paper critically reviews the relationship between these frameworks and the published evidence of effectiveness of tuberculosis interventions, with a specific focus on the controversies engendered by the endorsement of programs of service delivery that emphasize direct observation of therapy. The role of global economic inequities in perpetuating the tuberculosis pandemic is also discussed. Summary Tuberculosis is a complex but well understood disease that raises important ethical challenges for emerging frameworks in public health ethics. The exact role of effectiveness as a criterion for judging the ethics of interventions needs greater discussion and analysis. Emerging frameworks are silent about the economic conditions contributing to the global burden of illness associated with tuberculosis and this requires remediation. PMID:15113419

  8. Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers. PMID:25216254

  9. From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders

    E-print Network

    Koenig, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    Elders caregivers' perspectives about ethical dilemmas. Women face ethical dilemmas almost daily in caring for a frail elder. Finding out what they struggle with and the strategies they use to deal with or overcome these dilemmas can help researchers... financial resources). Social Work Ethics Social work writings on professional ethics describe two m a j o r philosophical perspectives involved in ethical deci­ s ion-making: (a) ethical absolutism and (b) ethical rela­ t ivism (Loewenberg, Dolgoff, 8c...

  10. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. PMID:25547207

  11. Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

  12. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  13. A Group Exercise to Explore Employee Ethics in Business-Related Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkenord, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts an in-class group exercise where students individually rate 10 employee behaviors of a questionable ethical nature (use company car, call in sick). The students then calculate mean group ratings for each behavior and determine appropriate consequences for some of the actions. Includes statistical data and student responses. (MJP)

  14. Testimony and Narrative as a Political Relation: The Question of Ethical Judgment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca; Hållander, Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film "12 Angry Men" to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a…

  15. Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

  16. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  17. Science and Ethics: Some Issues for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…

  18. New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, Dennis G.

    General Relativity is almost 100 years old. Classically, Einstein's theory, is a geometric theory with a metric equating gravity and acceleration. This Principle of Equivalence determines the kinematics. Padmanabhan uses accelerated Rindler frames to derive general relativistic actions, including the Einstein-Hilbert action, and the Einstein equations. This determines the dynamics. There is another formulation of General Relativity due to Göckeler and Schücker, a gauge theory in terms of differential forms, which reduces to the Einstein-Hilbert action and implies the Einstein equations including torsion. My thesis, “New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology”, contains, in part: • Padmanabhan discovered a differential relation between the volume and surface terms for generalized Lagrangians in Einstein-Hilbert type actions. I found a generalization of this using the Göckeler and Schücker form from which Padmanabhan's relations can be deduced under contraction. The new formulation constrains the curvature and torsion and allows other generalizations. • Padmanabhan has recently derived Einstein's Equations from thermodynamical assumptions on the surface term in the Action. Horizons which block information are a relatively new feature in Physics. Padmanabhan has done alot in advancing the goal of elucidating the relation between General Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory. • Hawking found that black holes radiate in a thermal spectrum and calculated the temperature. This (nonquantum) temperature is novel in General Relativity. • Unruh and others found vacuum states which exhibit thermal properties dependent on the motion of the observer. Vacuums are nonunique in noninertial frames and curved spacetimes. • Recent observations indicate the presence of an unclustered material acting like a fluid with negative pressure causing the acceleration of the Universe and amounting to about 70% of its energy density. The simplest explanation for this Dark Energy is the Cosmological Constant. Padmanabhan has derived the correct value for this vacuum energy by gauging away the bulk value and evaluating the vacuum fluctuations in terms of surface dimensions. • There has been considerable progress recently in understanding the History on the Universe, although there remains much is unknown. This is the Standard Model of Cosmology. The Standard Model of Particle Physics and the gauge theory of General Theory of Relativity are not only the current fundamental theories of physics but also the way the Universe has evolved. • Despite the progress of the Ashtekar formulation, the development of spin foams, and String theory with its spin-2 graviton, there does not exist a complete theory of Quantum Gravity. The search continues for the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom and the gravitational notions of energy and entropy.

  19. The ethical consumer's willingness to pay for coffee: A comparison of donations, Fair Trade, organic, and cause- related marketing coffees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carola Grebitus; Monika Hartmann; Nina Langen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The overall coffee market,is stagnating but several,niches are growing. To be successful,in the market, differentiation of coffee can be achieved by attributes like organic, Fair Trade (FT) and,cause-related,marketing,(CRM) activities as,a form,of donations. This study investigates,ethical consumers’,willingness to pay (WTP) for these attributes. Weconducted experimental,auctions,in Germany,to investigate,consumers’,WTP for differently labelled coffee. Wecompare the application ofVickrey auctions and the BDM mechanism.

  20. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  1. Critical Thinking: Placing It at the Heart of Ethics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Provides examples of how faculty can integrate ethical issues into the instructional process, specifically in literature, science, and history classes. Asserts that in order to develop student's ethical reasoning abilities, teachers must encourage students to explore conflicting ethical perspectives, to reason through ethical issues from multiple…

  2. Suicide and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  3. Scientific and Ethical Issues Related to Deep Brain Stimulation for Disorders of Mood, Behavior and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S.; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Dunn, Laura B.; Gabriėls, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Haber, Suzanne N.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S.; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Vawter, Dorothy E.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A two-day consensus conference was held in order to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of mood and behavioral disorders such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to 1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of DBS for disorders of mood, behavior and thought and 2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field. PMID:19736349

  4. The Right to DREAM: an ethical perspective on the DREAM act and current citizenship laws in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Funk, Kendall

    2012-04-20

    This paper discusses the DREAM Act and current United States citizenship laws from a normative perspective. I argue that there are certain moral claims to citizenship that a non-citizen may hold and that citizenship status is not constituted...

  5. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013

  6. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  7. New-World Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)

  8. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  9. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  10. Protecting vulnerable research participants: a Foucault-inspired analysis of ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Juritzen, Truls I; Grimen, Harald; Heggen, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    History has demonstrated the necessity of protecting research participants. Research ethics are based on a concept of asymmetry of power, viewing the researcher as powerful and potentially dangerous and establishing ethics committees as external agencies in the field of research. We argue in favour of expanding this perspective on relationships of power to encompass the ethics committees as one among several actors that exert power and that act in a relational interplay with researchers and participants. We employ Michel Foucault's ideas of power as an omnipresent force which is dynamic and unstable, as well as the notion that knowledge and power are inextricably intertwined. The article discusses how research ethics committees may affect academic freedom. In addition it is pointed out that research participants could be harmed - not only by unfortunate research practices, but also by being subjected to the protective efforts of ethics monitoring bodies. PMID:21646327

  11. Commentary: ethics-related implications and neurobiological correlates of false confessions in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert; Thompson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists typically have no role in the process of obtaining confessions. They may believe, as do others, that a confession removes any doubt about guilt, but false confessions are not rare. Like the police, forensic psychiatrists can inadvertently elicit or solidify a false confession through the evaluation process by presuming guilt and forgetting that they are ethically obligated to strive for objectivity. Adolescents are at high risk of making false confessions because of their immaturity and vulnerability, extrinsic factors (such as interrogation techniques), and the dynamic interplay between them. Adolescent immaturity can have a direct bearing on a juvenile's appreciation of his Miranda rights and his vulnerability to making a confession (or a false confession) when exposed to coercive interrogation techniques designed for adults. Adolescents need special protection from such interrogation techniques. Forensic psychiatrists have an obligation to be alert to the potential for false confessions and to avoid compounding the problem by presuming guilt. PMID:19767499

  12. Untying the Gordian knot: policies, practices, and ethical issues related to banking of umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    Since the first successful transplantation of umbilical cord blood in 1988, cord blood has become an important source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for the treatment of blood and genetic disorders. Significant progress has been accompanied by challenges for scientists, ethicists, and health policy makers. With the recent recognition of the need for a national system for the collection, banking, distribution, and use of cord blood and the increasing focus on cord blood as an alternative to embryos as a source of tissue for regenerative medicine, cord blood has garnered significant attention. We review the development of cord blood banking and transplantation and then discuss the scientific and ethical issues influencing both established and investigational practices surrounding cord blood collection, banking, and use. PMID:16200191

  13. Ethical Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measuring ICT Ethics of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…

  14. Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.

    PubMed

    Weng, Naidong

    2012-11-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. PMID:22987619

  15. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    PubMed

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utųya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. PMID:25864505

  16. The Caring Relation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2012-01-01

    According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…

  17. Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

  18. Ethical, legal, and social issues related to genomics and cancer research: the impending crisis.

    PubMed

    Ellerin, Bruce E; Schneider, Robert J; Stern, Arnold; Toniolo, Paolo G; Formenti, Silvia C

    2005-11-01

    Cancer research is a multibillion-dollar enterprise validated by the clinical trial process and increasingly defined by genomics. The continued success of the endeavor depends on the smooth functioning of the clinical trial system, which in turn depends on human subject participation. Yet human subject participation can exist only in an atmosphere of trust between research participants and research sponsors, and the advent of genomics has raised a multitude of ethical, legal, and social issues that threaten this trust. The authors examine 6 of these issues: (1) informed consent; (2) privacy, confidentiality, and family disclosure dilemmas; (3) property rights in genomic discoveries; (4) individual and institutional conflicts of interest; (5) insurance and employment issues; and (6) litigation under the federal False Claims Act. The authors conclude that failure to resolve these issues may lead to a sufficient impairment of trust in genomics-based clinical trials on the part of potential research participants that the clinical trial system may implode for lack of willing participants, thus threatening the future of cancer research. PMID:17411966

  19. Ethics on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues related to the Internet based on two speeches given at the Online 95 conference. Topics include pornography; copyright; libel and slander; and censorship imposed on the Internet by the secret service in Israel. (LRW)

  20. Ethics Education Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-11

    Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

  1. Monocular vision using inverse perspective projection geometry: analytic relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Haralick

    1989-01-01

    The author derives a variety of relationships, all in the reference frame of the camera, between 3-D points; 3-D lines; collections of 3-D lines; the angles between lines lying in common planes; the planes in which lines may lie; and the corresponding perspective projection of the 3-D points, lines and angles. These relationships are useful in many aspects of model-based

  2. Biomedical Ethics Policy in Korea: Characteristics and Historical Development

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Ki-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature. PMID:22661876

  3. German Ethics Council on genetic diagnostics: trend setting?

    PubMed

    Buechner, Bianca

    2014-06-01

    On 30 April 2013, the German Ethics Council ('Council') published its opinion on 'The future of genetic diagnostics--from research to clinical application' ('the Opinion'). The Council was asked by the German government to discuss the future of genetic diagnostic methods in relation to the current applicable laws and regulations as well as the ethical stand points. The Council's 23 recommendations show that the existing regulations in Germany, and indirectly on a European level, lack in protecting consumers sufficiently. Consumer protection built the major focus of the Council's opinion. However, the opinion misses a critical overall analysis of genetic testing and, for example, the potential misuse of genetic test results by insures or the risk of disclosure toward employers. The Council missed an opportunity to discuss which barriers are necessary from a legal and ethical perspective but which still do not prohibit genetic testing and research. PMID:24169520

  4. German Ethics Council on genetic diagnostics: trend setting?

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    On 30 April 2013, the German Ethics Council (‘Council') published its opinion on ‘The future of genetic diagnostics—from research to clinical application' (‘the Opinion'). The Council was asked by the German government to discuss the future of genetic diagnostic methods in relation to the current applicable laws and regulations as well as the ethical stand points. The Council's 23 recommendations show that the existing regulations in Germany, and indirectly on a European level, lack in protecting consumers sufficiently. Consumer protection built the major focus of the Council's opinion. However, the opinion misses a critical overall analysis of genetic testing and, for example, the potential misuse of genetic test results by insures or the risk of disclosure toward employers. The Council missed an opportunity to discuss which barriers are necessary from a legal and ethical perspective but which still do not prohibit genetic testing and research. PMID:24169520

  5. Notes in Support of a Relational Social Work Perspective: A Critical Review of the Relational Literature with Implications for Macro Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Pozzuto; Paige Averett

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the literature that calls for the incorporation of relational theory into social work practice. Two strands of relational theory are important to developing a relational social work perspective: the psychoanalytic and the feminist. Based on a feminist understanding of relationality, Dorothy Smith has provided an alternative sociological perspective that can inform social work practice on the macro

  6. Ethical aspects of neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Woopen, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Invasive and noninvasive technological neuromodulation of the brain has major impact on individual and social ethical issues like autonomy and justice. It also challenges the foundations of ethics itself by dealing with the preconditions of moral judgment and behavior. Ethical issues related to personal, clinical, and scientific integrity are addressed. Eight prevailing problems are identified with regard to anticipation, desperation, psychosocial impact, and authenticity, expansion of clinical application, enhancement, criterion of treatment resistance, and framework for research. It is argued for comprehensive multidisciplinary care during the treatment and adaptation process, for multifaceted data collection, and against a strict criterion of treatment resistance. PMID:23206688

  7. Deep brain stimulation: a principled and pragmatic approach to understanding the ethical and clinical challenges of an evolving technology.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Zizzo, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    DBS has emerged in the past few decades as a powerful clinical tool in the treatment of movement disordersMovement disorders such as dystoniaDystonia and Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease . As a result of its striking effects, the therapeutic utility of DBS has been investigated in a number of different neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions. Ethical discussion has accompanied this evolution of DBS and has led to the identification of a number of important ethical challenges. In this chapter, we review these challenges based on three of the key principles of biomedical ethicsBiomedical ethics (autonomyAutonomy , justiceJustice , and non-maleficenceNon-maleficence ). Specifically, we adopt a pragmatic perspective by reviewing the ethical issues as they emerge within the context of Parkinson's disease, as this can serve to guide further ethical thinking on the future of DBS. Through this contextualization, we enrich the meaning of the Ethical principleEthical principle s and increase their specificity. We hope that this contribution will inform readers and also stimulate discussion related to areas where important questions remain unanswered and where further research would need to be undertaken to understand and enact ethical principles. PMID:25048390

  8. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  9. Relative Risk and Odds Ratio: A Data Mining Perspective (Corrected Version)

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    Relative Risk and Odds Ratio: A Data Mining Perspective (Corrected Version) Haiquan Li, Jinyan Li of "odds ratio": The odds that a case has been exposed to a risk factor is compared to the odds for a case that has not been exposed. The efficient extraction of patterns that have good relative risk and/or odds

  10. Ethical issues related to managed care: an in-depth discussion of an occupational therapy case study.

    PubMed

    Lohman, H; Brown, K

    1997-01-01

    What are the ethical responsibilities of occupational therapists when managed care plans override their clinical judgment and deny reimbursement for needed assessment or therapy? Using an example from a true case, this article presents an analysis of the ethical problems experienced in managed care when explicit business goals are in conflict with the humanistic commitments of our field. Strategies for ethical action are recommended, including: good communication with the case manager, effective advocacy for the patient, consultation with ethics resources, and advocacy at the policy-making level. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworth.com]. PMID:23947949

  11. Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

  12. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  13. Implant ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, S

    2005-01-01

    Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities beyond normal levels, mental changes and personal identity, and cultural effects. PMID:16131553

  14. Ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Sacchini, D; Pennacchini, M

    2010-01-01

    Ethics committees (ECs) are a relevant body for dealing with ethical issues in healthcare. They born in order to resolve dilemmatic situations. Contemporary ECs are independent standing committees with multidisciplinary representation, including medicine, nursing, social work, law, pastoral care, healthcare administration, and other different expertises. The functions of ECs are various: estimating clinical trials; analyzing ethically relevant clinical cases; drafting hospital/organizational guidelines, and to carry out education activity. The composition and kind of skills requested in an EC could change according to national laws. About international ethical standards in clinical experimentation, the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki is the reference according to which examining clinical trials by ECs. PMID:20589364

  15. The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

  16. Relational benefits in services industries: The customer’s perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. Gwinner; Dwayne D. Gremler; Mary Jo Bitner

    1998-01-01

    This research examines the benefits customers receive as a result of engaging in long-term relational exchanges with service\\u000a firms. Findings from two studies indicate that consumer relational benefits can be categorized into three distinct benefit\\u000a types: confidence, social, and special treatment benefits. Confidence benefits are received more and rated as more important\\u000a than the other relational benefits by consumers, followed

  17. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Ron Vetter

    CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

  18. Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public health action-research project. In carrying out such projects, careful attention and effort is needed to establish and maintain respectful relationships amongst those involved, acknowledge and address differences of power and position, and evaluate burdens and risks for individuals and groups. PMID:24555854

  19. Egocentric Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

    2004-01-01

    Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

  20. "Ethics Shock."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelkamp, L. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities, the need for reform in college athletics…

  1. The Basic Public Relations Course: A Pedagogical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, John W.

    The last ten years have witnessed a nationwide proliferation of courses and programs in public relations. Consideration of the role and function of the introductory course in public relations involves the course's objectives, the methods used to teach it, and placing the course in a curricular setting so that its interrelationship with other…

  2. A panel interview on the ethical practice of neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bush, Shane S; Grote, Christopher L; Johnson-Greene, Doug E; Macartney-Filgate, Michele

    2008-03-01

    Neuropsychologists who have considerable experience reflecting, presenting, publishing, and advising on ethical matters are a rich resource for clinicians who have ethics questions. Consultation with such colleagues can be an important part of the ethical decision-making process. The purpose of the present article is to provide the opinions and perspectives of three neuropsychologists who, based on their experience and scholarly activities, served as panelists regarding ethical matters. Although the advice and opinions of colleagues are not a substitute for familiarity with relevant ethical requirements, guidelines, and professional literature, they offer valuable information that enhances the ethical decision-making process. PMID:17853148

  3. "Is" and "Ought," Fact and Value: A Relational Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Willis F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the dichotomy drawn between fact and value, tracing its development from modernity to postmodernity. Advocates a relational approach that permits diversity in the context of unity, in which the conditions "is" and "ought" are complimentary. (JPB)

  4. Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI. PMID:25844126

  5. Centric relation definition: a historical and contemporary prosthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Palaskar, Jayant N; Murali, R; Bansal, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Centric relation (CR) is a core topic of dentistry in general and prosthodontics in particular. The term CR has become thoroughly confusing because of many conflicting definitions. Unfortunately definition of CR changed repeatedly over past ten decades. All the existing definitions in the dental literature, for the past 81 years, are segregated into definitions from 1929 to 1970, 1970-1980, and 1980-2010 and are critically analyzed. Both PubMed (key words: centric relation/centric jaw relation) and hand searches were employed, from citation in other publications, to identify relevant articles in English language peer reviewed PubMed journals from 1956 to 2010; although the review is from 1929. Numerous definitions for CR have been given, however, no consensus exists and the definition given by a current glossary of prosthodontic terms is confusing. It relates CR to many clinically invisible parts and cannot guide a dental surgeon to record the CR following its description. The purpose of this article is not only to review all the definitions critically but to propose a self explanatory definition to minimize the confusion in the minds of dental practitioners and students for better understanding of the concept of CR. Centric relation is clinically significant since it is the only clinically repeatable jaw relation and the logical position to fabricate prosthesis. PMID:24431728

  6. Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives. Marc Aubry1,*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 TITLE PAGE TITLE Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives,version1-18Jul2008 #12;3 ABSTRACT PAGE ABSTRACT The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of duodenal enterocytes. The challenge from

  7. Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1 *

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1> Abstract The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step of its homeostasis. But the control approach, we identified 60 genes over-expressed in hemin (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an model

  8. Safety and Home-School Relations as Indicators of Children Well Being: Whose Perspective Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Arieh, Asher; McDonell, James; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2009-01-01

    Recent attention to children's well being has generated research showing that safety and home-school relations are two of the most important indicators of children's well being. Recent studies have also demonstrated the consistent differences in perspectives between children and teachers and between parents and teachers in regard to home-school…

  9. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  10. Erotic feelings toward the therapist: a relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Lotterman, Jenny H

    2014-02-01

    This article focuses on the relational treatment of a male patient presenting with sexual and erotic feelings toward the therapist. The use of relational psychotherapy allowed us to collaborate in viewing our therapeutic relationship as a microcosm of other relationships throughout the patient's life. In this way, the patient came to understand his fears of being close to women, his discomfort with his sexuality, and how these feelings impacted his ongoing romantic and sexual experiences. Use of the therapist's reactions to the patient, including conscious and unconscious feelings and behaviors, aided in the conceptualization of this case. Working under a relational model was especially helpful when ruptures occurred, allowing the patient and therapist to address these moments and move toward repair. The patient was successful in making use of his sexual feelings to understand his feelings and behaviors across contexts. PMID:24375279

  11. Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

  12. Perspectives on Public Relations Training in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…

  13. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

  14. Predatory vs. Dialogic Ethics: Constructing an Illusion or Ethical Practice as the Core of Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella, Gaile S.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2007-01-01

    The ethical conduct of research is addressed from two perspectives, as a regulatory enterprise that creates an illusion of ethical practice and as a philosophical concern for equity and the imposition of power within the conceptualization and practice of research itself. The authors discuss various contemporary positions that influence…

  15. Post?Cold War Sino?Russian relations: Indian perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyotsna Bakshi

    2002-01-01

    The equations among the three large powers—India, Russia and China—are of immense significance for the whole region and the world at large. Beginning with the initial hitches and uncertainties in the post?Soviet period, Russia and China relations have gradually expanded to the level of strategic partnership directed towards the 21st century in 1996 and the 20?year Treaty of Neighbourliness, Friendship

  16. The Information Assurance Ethics Dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Information assurance focus is on one of the three major tenants: confidentiality, integrity, and avai lability. Undertakings in each have indeed improved the overall security of current information systems. This r esearch seeks to promote Information Assurance ethical awareness. A brief discussion on ethics and moral development along with related works of Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Mi ll will follow

  17. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  18. Client involvement in home care practice: a relational sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjęr, Lone; Praestegaard, Jeanette

    2013-12-01

    'Client involvement' has been a mantra within health policies, education curricula and healthcare institutions over many years, yet very little is known about how 'client involvement' is practised in home-care services. The aim of this article is to analyse 'client involvement' in practise seen from the positions of healthcare professionals, an elderly person and his relative in a home-care setting. A sociologically inspired single case study was conducted, consisting of three weeks of observations and interviews. The study has a focus on the relational aspects of home care and the structural, political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: 'Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care'; 'Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life'; 'Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting'; and 'Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life'. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which involvement of the client in public home-care practice remains limited. PMID:23217061

  19. Ethics (lesson)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

  20. Managed Care: Ethical Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glosoff, Harriet L.; Garcia, Jorge; Herlihy, Barbara; Remley, Jr., Theodore P.

    1999-01-01

    Key factors and trends in health care will have an impact on the ethical practice of counselors. Ethical challenges to clinical practice presented by trends in managed care are discussed in relation to the American Counseling Association (1995) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. Recommendations for practice are also included. (Author/MKA)

  1. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view of ensoulment. The fetus is owed some moral obligations because of its greatly increased potentiality. After a certain point it deserves legal and moral protection. A woman would have the right to be relieved of carrying the fetus, but she would not have the right to the death of the fetus. A significant moral difference exists in these 2 concepts, and it is this issue that forms the basis of the debate concerning the conflict between maternal and fetal rights. When the rights of the fetus and those of the pregnant woman come into direct conflict the rights of the fetus are always subordinated to those of the women. The 3rd ethical foundation of the abortion debate, that of circumstances of horror and hardship surrounding the pregnancy, is really a combination of the first two. A fetus that is known to suffer from disease or deformity has as many or as few rights vis-a-vis the pregnant woman as does a perfectly healthy fetus. The assignment and hierarchy of fetal rights is not dependent upon the circumstances of conception. The next concern is whether the state can enter the private social spheres to regulate the personal activities of individuals. The Supreme court has never made a statement regarding the moral permissibility of abortion. The Court simply has prevented individual states from interfering with a woman's action based on her personal convictions. This is an important difference, and no step should be taken to abrogate this fundamental civil right. PMID:7041095

  2. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia. PMID:22841993

  3. Cancer-related fatigue: a brief overview of current nursing perspectives and experiences.

    PubMed

    Given, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has often been called the "sixth vital sign" and was the focus of a symposium at the Oncology Nursing Society's 32nd Annual Congress, where nurses discussed CRF's impact on patients. Despite this dialogue, current nursing perspectives and practice still need to be determined. The definition of CRF as a multidimensional symptom will be considered in this article. CRF may create psychological, functional, cognitive, and socioeconomic issues in patients. Challenges for effective management will be considered. PMID:18842519

  4. Combining System Dynamics and Ethics: Towards More Science?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Pruyt; Jan Kwakkel

    In this paper, ethics is discussed in relation to system dynamics. The domain of ethics is very broad which is why we will first of all demarcate what is meant by ethics here. Then, we will discuss the importance of ethics for the domain of system dynamics and where it could come into play. Calls for, mentions of, and applications

  5. Ethics, evolution and culture.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality. PMID:18357481

  6. Institute for Global Ethics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of organizations and think-tanks have taken on the most pressing questions of our day, but relatively few have addressed such quandaries as basic as ā??Are there a core of shared, moral values?ā?¯ In 1990, the Institute for Global Ethics started with this crucial inquiry and expanded their scope to work towards understanding these values. From the homepage, visitors can read through their online resources, which include the Ethics Newsline (a weekly electronic newsletter), letters from their president, and a number of topical white papers. Some of these papers have rather compelling titles, such as ā??Ethics and the Learned Professionsā?¯ and ā??Corporate Social Responsibility and Peacebuilding: A Case for Action in Israel and the Palestinian Territoriesā?¯. Finally, users of the site may also wish to take a look at their calendar of upcoming seminars and lectures.

  7. XENOTRANSPLANTATION - ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Ramos

    2007-01-01

    Interest for xenotransplantation occurred in medical and scientific areas, because it could offer the potential to suppress the shortages of tissues and\\/or organs for transplant. However, xenotransplantation give rise to certain ethical problems related with receptor and donors selection, infection risk, economical factors and research conditions.

  8. [Health policies and politicized health? An analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru from the perspective of medical ethics, quality of care, and human rights].

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals view medical ethics as a discipline that provides the basis for more adequate patient care. In recent years the concepts of quality of care and human rights - with their attending discourses - have joined the concept of medical ethics among the paradigms to consider in care for humans both at the individual and health policy levels. The current study seeks to analyze such paradigms, based on a case study of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru in the last 10 years. PMID:18209830

  9. The origin of ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bernaldo de Quiros

    2000-01-01

    The evidence of ethics attitudes are quite difficult to be identified in the archaeological record. One of the first attitudes\\u000a we can assume from the archeological record are those related with the recognition of death and how this recognition change\\u000a the attitudes related with the deposition of humans corpses when death. The presence of graves or burials are firstly related

  10. Das Problem Solidaritat: Perspektiven der padagogischen Ethik und der Kritischen Theorie = The Issue of Solidarity: Perspectives of Pedagogical Ethics and of Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeldt, Sonke

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "universal solidarity" as the central concept of a pedagogical ethic committed to the needs of the coming generation and of social victims. Argues that attempts to define "universal solidarity" indicate that critical theory seeks to comprehensively represent the modern moral sphere. Proposes a definition of "universal solidarity." (DSK)

  11. The use of personal data from medical records and biological materials: ethical perspectives and the basis for legal restrictions in health research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Regidor

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the moral justification for using personal data without informed consent, from both medical records and biological materials, in research where subjects are not physically present in the study and will never have any contact with the study investigators. Although the idea of waiving the requirement for informed consent in certain investigations has been mentioned in several ethical

  12. Present status and perspectives about measurement technology of inter-satellite relative position and relative attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; You, Zheng

    2005-11-01

    Remote measurement, target searching and tracking missions being performed in space, bring new application for small satellites. To achieve relative navigation, attitude control and other important applications, inter-satellite relative position and relative attitude must be known. In this paper, the measurement procedures of relative position and relative attitude are given. The principles of some measurement means are discussed. The analysis of these means is presented. The modified laser ranging method is mentioned. It points out that the laser ranging method is the promising one among these methods. Achieving the continuous measurement of relative position and relative attitude in some stringent missions may require combination of various methods. And some characteristics of space environment are also discussed. The multipath effects of laser are analyzed and an available approach that can avoid these effects is provided. Finally, the outlook of the measurement of relative position and relative attitude is represented.

  13. Addressing sexuality-related needs in practice: perspectives of maternal/child and women's health nurses.

    PubMed

    Propst, M G; Phillips, B R; Andrew, M E

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative, descriptive survey was conducted using Waterhouse's instrument, Survey of Sexuality-Related Nursing Practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal/child and women's health nurses address sexuality in their practice and to assess the influence of select variables on that practice. A sample of maternal/child and women's health registered nurses (n = 130) was systematically selected from the 1995 Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' (AWHONN) District VII mailing list. Findings reveal incongruities in maternal/child and women's health nurses' perspectives and the incorporation of sexuality-related nursing interventions into practice. PMID:11868958

  14. Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders. PMID:24877710

  15. Balancing losses and growth: a relational perspective on identity formation in the second half of life.

    PubMed

    Binder, Per-Einar; Nielsen, Geir Hųstmark

    2005-01-01

    Psychoanalysis has so far only to a limited extent examined specifically grown-up and mature organizations of the self. The Freudian contributions mainly examine the impact of losses on the second half of life. The Eriksonian approaches put greater emphasis of possible gains and adaptation, while less attention is paid to inner, subjective life. In contrast, the Jungian and transpersonal views emphasize possible increase in inner freedom and a more relativistic, holistic, and possibly spiritual or "worldcentric" view on existence. Within a relational psychoanalytic perspective on identity formation in the second half of life, these possible changes may be described as a mature widening of potential space, using Winnicott's terms. Relationships also may be more based on "being" than "doing." A perspective incorporating potentials for increased experiential depth and creativity must include attention to actual losses and suffering, conflicts involved in letting go of certain ambitions, and lifelong themes that may be actualized. PMID:16238472

  16. Bodily selves in relation: embodied simulation as second-person perspective on intersubjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses basic aspects of social cognition focusing on the pivotal role played by the lived body in the constitution of our experience of others. It is suggested that before studying intersubjectivity we should better qualify the notion of the self. A minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, defined in terms of its motor potentialities, is proposed. The discovery of mirror mechanisms for action, emotions and sensations led to the proposal of an embodied approach to intersubjectivity—embodied simulation (ES) theory. ES and the related notion of neural reuse provide a new empirically based perspective on intersubjectivity, viewed first and foremost as intercorporeality. ES challenges the notion that folk psychology is the sole account of interpersonal understanding. ES is discussed within a second-person perspective on mindreading. PMID:24778374

  17. Bodily selves in relation: embodied simulation as second-person perspective on intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses basic aspects of social cognition focusing on the pivotal role played by the lived body in the constitution of our experience of others. It is suggested that before studying intersubjectivity we should better qualify the notion of the self. A minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, defined in terms of its motor potentialities, is proposed. The discovery of mirror mechanisms for action, emotions and sensations led to the proposal of an embodied approach to intersubjectivity-embodied simulation (ES) theory. ES and the related notion of neural reuse provide a new empirically based perspective on intersubjectivity, viewed first and foremost as intercorporeality. ES challenges the notion that folk psychology is the sole account of interpersonal understanding. ES is discussed within a second-person perspective on mindreading. PMID:24778374

  18. Relating Overreflection and Wave Geometry to the Counterpropagating Rossby Wave Perspective: Toward a Deeper Mechanistic Understanding of Shear Instability

    E-print Network

    Harnik, Nili

    Relating Overreflection and Wave Geometry to the Counterpropagating Rossby Wave Perspective: Toward approaches to understanding plane parallel shear instability--the counterpropagating Rossby wave (CRW wave. Bretherton showed that these counterpropagating Rossby wave's phase speeds and growth rates

  19. Research ethics and private harms.

    PubMed

    Koocher, Gerald P

    2014-12-01

    This commentary addresses the emotionally powerful account of Nicole Taus Kluemper from the perspective of a psychologist familiar with the administrative operation of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the ethics of the profession. The application of the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct to the case is discussed, and alternative methods of response that researchers who have concerns about case studies might use are offered. The author concludes that existing ethical principles-the aspirational standards in particular-do bear upon the matter in question. However, the enforceable code of conduct is not sufficiently clear about obligations to those whom psychologists publicly discuss when the psychologist does not have a specific duty of care to an individual. PMID:24870964

  20. The Role of Intent in Ethical Decision Making: The Ethical Choice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christine; Powell, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the major theories, studies and models concerning ethical decision making in organizations. The authors drew upon Jones' Model (1991) as the foundation for their Ethical Choice Model, which is designed to further clarify the ethical decision making process as it relates to the construct of intentionality. The model, illustrated…

  1. Consumer ethics: An empirical investigation of factors influencing ethical judgments of the final consumer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Vitell; James Muncy

    1992-01-01

    Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs

  2. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

  3. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

  4. Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Dion

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to know if ethical theories could be connected to some leadership approaches. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the paper eight leadership approaches are selected: directive leadership, self-leadership, authentic leadership, transactional leadership, shared leadership, charismatic leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership. Five western ethical theories (philosophical egoism, utilitarianism, Kantianism, ethics of virtue, ethics of responsibility) are

  5. Taking on organizational ethics. To do so, ethics committees must first prepare themselves.

    PubMed

    Weber, L J

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare ethics committees which have focused almost entirely on clinical ethics, now need to prepare to deal with organizational ethics, a field that is attracting increasing attention. As they did with clinical ethics, ethics committees members must educate themselves in the demands of the newer field. As before, they must respect the perspectives of the actual decision makers while maintaining an independent framework for analyzing the issues at stake. They must ensure that management is properly represented on the committee if they need guidance from a professional ethicist they should seek one with a strong background in business ethics and social justice. Healthcare organizations are likely to need help with a wide range of ethical issues involving patient services (rationing of resources, for example), business and service plans (mergers and joint ventures, for example), business and professional integrity (conflicts of interest, for example), employee rights and responsibilities (downsizing, for example), and the organization's role in in the community (advocacy and lobbying, for example). To be helpful to the organization, the ethics committee must be prepared to say when cost factors trump other considerations and when they do not. An ethics committee will often be asked to give advice on specific occasions-a proposed new policy, for instance. The most important part of its response is its analysis of the issue. Finally, an ethics committee should view its organization as part of the larger social context. PMID:10168759

  6. Ethics and patient education: health literacy and cultural dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ray

    2009-07-01

    This article discusses health literacy and cultural factors that have implications for the ethical practice of health education. It specifically focuses on recent data that speaks to the challenges in carrying out patient education from the perspective of comprehension and equitable distribution of health-related information across diverse cultures and communities. It discusses strategies for reducing the negative impact of low health literacy among diverse groups and the importance of acknowledging this pervasive problem in the context of ensuring equity in the optimal delivery of health promotion messages. PMID:19574584

  7. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  8. Ethical intensive care research: development of an ethics handbook.

    PubMed

    Rischbieth, A; Blythe, D

    2005-12-01

    Conduct of research involving humans in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is complex and challenging. The vulnerable nature of critically ill patients raises issues of patient safety, and informed consent is difficult. With an increasing global interest in human research ethics, broadened government mandates have targeted improvements in research participant protection and research governance. A parallel rise in health consumerism and advocacy for privacy and protection of personal health information requires a clear understanding of the research participant role and importance of risk disclosure. In addition, the potential for conflicts of interest in a climate of increasingly competitive research funding, requires caution and transparency in related financial and contractual arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) fosters collaborative ICU research activity. We have developed An Ethics Handbook for Researchers (EH) for the ANZICS CTG for intended use by researchers in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. The purpose of the EH is to act as a practical advisory guide/supplement; to add clarification regarding ethical issues specific to intensive care research, to assist in the expedition of ethics committee research submission and to summarise available useful resources. This article introduces a précis of key issues from the EH including specific ethical difficulties pertaining to ICU research, a summary of the process by which ethics committee decisions in Australia and New Zealand are informed, and the use of ethical checklists to assist researchers. PMID:16539587

  9. Dentistry and ethics by the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Chrissy

    2011-01-01

    In what may be a unique educational career path, this current dental student combined predental course requirements with courses and a master's thesis in applied medical ethics prior to entering dental education. This background has led to leadership opportunities in designing and teaching the ethics program in dental school and in the American Student Dental Association. The view of ethics from the students', rather than the practitioners', perspective is certainly formative to the future of the profession. PMID:22263364

  10. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  11. Ethical Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Boylan

    2011-01-01

    This essay will argue for ethical procedures governing criminal profiling. A model based upon psychological\\/behavioral data,\\u000a witness data, and forensic profiling data is sketched out. This model fits the legitimate uses of criminal profiling as an\\u000a investigation procedure. Racial profiling as a primary sorting factor does not fit the preferred model and has significant\\u000a downsides and so is rejected as

  12. Reiki and related therapies in the dialysis ward: an evidence-based and ethical discussion to debate if these complementary and alternative medicines are welcomed or banned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) are increasingly practiced in the general population; it is estimated that over 30% of patients with chronic diseases use CAMs on a regular basis. CAMs are also used in hospital settings, suggesting a growing interest in individualized therapies. One potential field of interest is pain, frequently reported by dialysis patients, and seldom sufficiently relieved by mainstream therapies. Gentle-touch therapies and Reiki (an energy based touch therapy) are widely used in the western population as pain relievers. By integrating evidence based approaches and providing ethical discussion, this debate discusses the pros and cons of CAMs in the dialysis ward, and whether such approaches should be welcomed or banned. Discussion In spite of the wide use of CAMs in the general population, few studies deal with the pros and cons of an integration of mainstream medicine and CAMs in dialysis patients; one paper only regarded the use of Reiki and related practices. Widening the search to chronic pain, Reiki and related practices, 419 articles were found on Medline and 6 were selected (1 Cochrane review and 5 RCTs updating the Cochrane review). According to the EBM approach, Reiki allows a statistically significant but very low-grade pain reduction without specific side effects. Gentle-touch therapy and Reiki are thus good examples of approaches in which controversial efficacy has to be balanced against no known side effect, frequent free availability (volunteer non-profit associations) and easy integration with any other pharmacological or non pharmacological therapy. While a classical evidence-based approach, showing low-grade efficacy, is likely to lead to a negative attitude towards the use of Reiki in the dialysis ward, the ethical discussion, analyzing beneficium (efficacy) together with non maleficium (side effects), justice (cost, availability and integration with mainstream therapies) and autonomy (patients’ choice) is likely to lead to a permissive-positive attitude. Summary This paper debates the current evidence on Reiki and related techniques as pain-relievers in an ethical framework, and suggests that physicians may wish to consider efficacy but also side effects, contextualization (availability and costs) and patient’s requests, according also to the suggestions of the Society for Integrative Oncology (tolerate, control efficacy and side effects). PMID:23799960

  13. Immortal ethics.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    2004-06-01

    This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology. PMID:15247080

  14. Examining the Crossroads of Law, Ethics, and Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bon, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…

  15. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health care professionals in daily clinical practice, we suggest that international organizations and national medical schools should consider infrastructure and tools to improve context-sensitive capacity building in clinical ethics for Sub-Saharan African countries like Gabon. PMID:26161655

  16. Synopsis -Ethics and Issues in Microbiology 11:680:401 Course description

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    issues in microbiology are discussed from the perspective of scientific and ethical conduct. Case studies property SPRING RECESS 9 Genetic Technology and Scientific Integrity 10 Scientific Record Keeping 11 MutantSynopsis - Ethics and Issues in Microbiology 11:680:401 Course description: Ethical and current

  17. Ecological reasoning: Ethical alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla Frolova

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas of Russian philosophers and scientists of the 19th–20th centuries, concerned with ethical, economic and ecological problems. Their common feature is the anti-utilitarian, altruistic and often even utopian approach to reality. Nevertheless, they relate to the ongoing discussion of the causes of and remedies for the global environmental crisis. Their arguments often directly address the most

  18. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    PubMed

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  19. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  20. The implications of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, I. E.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, Mr Thompson, one of the research fellows appointed to the Edinburgh Medical Group research project, seeks to define medical ethics in relation to traditional ethics in the philosophical sense of enquiring into right and wrong modes of thought and conduct, and to carry that study further into the field of moral decisions made by doctors and other professional people who care for the sick. Until very recently the Victorian definition of medical ethics - medical etiquette - served the doctor well but the complexity of modern medicine and the involvement of other professional workers in medical care appears to have swept away the old framework and left a vacuum. A new medical ethic must be evolved to fill that vacuum, taking account not only of technological advances but also of relationships between doctors and other professionals associated with them and of the role in caring for the sick. PMID:781252

  1. Governmental population incentives: ethical issues at stake.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1977-04-01

    Governmental incentives to influence population-related decisions are examined in terms of the ethical issues at stake. A typology of incentive schemes is presented, and ethical implications of various incentives are discussed. It is argued that, in a just scheme, a progressive, negative incentive or fee, calculated as a surtax on a modified income tax or an equivalent standard, would distribute burdens equally. A set of guidelines for ethical evaluation of incentive schemes is proposed. PMID:850928

  2. A Practice Perspective on Technology-Mediated Network Relations: The Use of Internet-Based Self-Serve Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Schultze; Wanda J. Orlikowski

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of using IT within interfirm relations through an analysis of cus- tomers' and sales representatives' (reps) work activities and interpersonal relationships. We apply a practice perspective that highlights how macrolevel phenomena such as interfirm relations are created and recreated through the microlevel actions taken by firm members. This analysis reveals that managing the

  3. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  4. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  5. A mobile user-interface for elderly care from the perspective of relatives.

    PubMed

    Warpenius, Erika; Alasaarela, Esko; Sorvoja, Hannu; Kinnunen, Matti

    2015-03-01

    As the number of elderly people rises, relatives' care-taking responsibilities increase accordingly. This creates a need for developing new systems that enable relatives to keep track of aged family members. To develop new mobile services for elderly healthcare we tried to identify the most wanted features of a mobile user-interface from the perspective of relatives. Feature mapping was based on two online surveys: one administered to the relatives (N?=?32) and nurses (N?=?3) of senior citizens and the other to nursing students (N?=?18). Results of the surveys, confirmed by face-to-face interviews of the relatives (N?=?8), indicated that the most valued features of the mobile user-interface are Accident Reporting (e.g. falling), Alarms (e.g. fire-alarm), Doctor Visits and evaluation of the General Condition of the Senior. The averaged importance ratings of these features were 9.2, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.5, respectively (on a scale from 0 to 10). Other important considerations for the user-interface development are aspiration to simplicity and ease-of-use. We recommend that the results are taken into account, when designing and implementing mobile services for elderly healthcare. PMID:25418754

  6. Ethical and Spiritual Values in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary Thomas, Ed.; Miranti, Judith G., Ed.

    This book presents a compilation of articles previously published in the journal "Counseling and Values." The follwing articles are included: (1) "Ethics and Spirituality: The Prevailing Forces Influencing the Counseling Profession" (Judith Miranti, Mary Thomas Burke); (2) "Three Contributions of a Spiritual Perspective to Counseling,…

  7. Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.

    PubMed

    Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence. PMID:16922977

  8. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

  9. Ethical doings in naturecultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marķa Puig de la Bellacasa

    2010-01-01

    What new forms of ethical engagement are emerging in naturecultural worlds? In this paper I explore the example of the practical ethics of the permaculture movement. I put these in dialogue first with new approaches to ethics in biopolitics and naturecultures and second with a reading of feminist care ethics. Across this discussion I focus on the potential of ethos

  10. An Ethics Primer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

  11. Safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in developing countries: the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baguma, David; Hashim, Jamal H; Aljunid, Syed M; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2013-01-01

    The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women's participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries. PMID:23178827

  12. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

  13. The impact of chronic pain: the perspective of patients, relatives, and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Begońa; Salazar, Alejandro; Dueńas, Marķa; Torres, Luķs Miguel; Micó, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of chronic pain on the family environment from the patient's, relative's and caregiver's perspective, we undertook cross-sectional study on a representative sample of Spanish adults who suffered pain at least 4 days a week for ?3 months and on relatives and caregivers of patients that fulfilled these criteria. The characteristics of pain and the perception of its impact on the family environment were assessed, using logistic regression models to reveal the variables associated with the impact of pain on the family. From a total of 1,957 subjects, 325 experienced chronic pain and 34.6% of them perceived that their pain affected their family environment. These patients recognized a stronger impact when their relatives were sad (OR = 3.61; CI:1.57, 8.27) and had modified the leisure activities because of the pain (OR = 3.62; CI:1.56, 8.38). Among the 131 relatives, 51.2% perceived that pain was affecting the family, causing changes in their leisure activities (OR = 1.17; CI:1.04, 9.94) and sleep disturbance (OR = 1.40; CI:1.32, 12.58). Of the 36 caregivers, mainly women over 50 years of age, 66.7% indicated that pain affected the family, although 72.8% were satisfied with the help they provided. Chronic pain has a very strong impact on the family, although this is perceived distinctly by patients, relatives, and caregivers. Recognizing that factors related to pain affect the family's well-being, and adopting a global approach to pain that takes into consideration the family's experiences, should improve the therapeutic response, and enhance the patient's and relative's quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25000222

  14. Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

    2001-01-01

    This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

  15. Economics and ethics: a historical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Ciani Scarnicci

    2012-01-01

    Amartya Sen (1933-) is one of the greatest scholars who studied the relationship between ethics and economics and was held the Nobel Economics Prize thanks to this. At the awarding of the Nobel prize, while talking about his studies, the motive was: “...has been highly instrumental in restoring an ethical dimension to economics and related disciplines”. Precisely the theories of

  16. Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Bostrom

    The ethical issues related to the possible future creation of machines with general intellectual capabilities far outstripping those of humans are quite distinct from any ethical problems arising in current automation and information systems. Such superintelligence would not be just another technological development; it would be the most important invention ever made, and would lead to explosive progress in all

  17. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  18. Ethical Aspects of Spirituality in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Rheta LeAnne; Engels, Dennis; Thweatt, W. Tom, III

    2006-01-01

    The authors review the professional literature related to spirituality and ethics in counseling. The American Counseling Association's (1995, 2005) code of ethics was used as a basis for exploring the possibilities and limits/ boundaries appropriate for discussion of spirituality in counseling. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  19. Ethical School Leadership: Defining the Best Interests of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline; Begley, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the alternate ways ethical school leadership in the best interests of students is conceptualized in the educational leadership literature from several foundational perspectives including philosophy, psychology, critical theory and case law. Perspectives which are grounded solely in theory are differentiated from those…

  20. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Scientific Values: Ethical Guidelines and Procedures

    E-print Network

    Dhingra, Narender K.

    INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Scientific Values: Ethical Guidelines and Procedures Bangalore 560 080 to attain. The same ethical requirements apply to the scientific profession also. Science has many applied) ethics in technology-related issues. All these have been briefly discussed below. Mention has also been

  1. Governing Back: The Emergence of the Ethical Consumer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Nelle

    In this essay, I explore the political emergence of the ethical consumer in the Western marketplace and the proliferation of discourses that proclaim to speak for and\\/or target the ethical consumer as a subject for political mobilization. Contemporary literature in political science and theory has been relatively silent regarding the importance of the ethical consumer. Here, I present a genealogical

  2. Counseling Suicidal Adolescents within Family Systems: Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…

  3. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

  4. Informed consent in the context of pharmacogenomic research: ethical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H C Howard; Y Joly; D Avard; N Laplante; M Phillips; J C Tardif

    2011-01-01

    Although the scientific research surrounding pharmacogenomics (PGx) has been relatively plentiful, the ethical research concerning this discipline has developed rather conservatively. Following investigation of the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of PGx research, as well as consulting with key stakeholders, we identified six outstanding ethical issues raised by the informed consent process in PGx research: (1) scope of consent;

  5. Ethical dilemmas and professional roles in occupational medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Gena Lurie

    1994-01-01

    Occupational medicine presents ethical dilemmas between worker health and corporate goals, for both physicians and managers. Physicians in occupational practice recognize conflict between 'moralist' and 'utilitarian' ethical positions. This paper analyzes the relation of professional roles to ethical interpretations by occupational physicians, based on their own and medical ethicists' formulations of dilemmas. Physicians' conflicting responsibilities to workers as patients and

  6. The Relation between School Leadership from a Distributed Perspective and Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Source of the Leadership Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the relationship between school leadership and teachers' organizational commitment is examined by taking into account a distributed leadership perspective. The relation between teachers' organizational commitment and contextual variables of teachers' perceptions of the quality and the source of the supportive and supervisory…

  7. Towards an ethics of authentic practice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Genevičve

    2008-10-01

    This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities. PMID:19018894

  8. A metric learning perspective of SVM: on the relation of SVM and LMNN

    E-print Network

    Do, Huyen; Wang, Jun; Woznica, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Support Vector Machines, SVMs, and the Large Margin Nearest Neighbor algorithm, LMNN, are two very popular learning algorithms with quite different learning biases. In this paper we bring them into a unified view and show that they have a much stronger relation than what is commonly thought. We analyze SVMs from a metric learning perspective and cast them as a metric learning problem, a view which helps us uncover the relations of the two algorithms. We show that LMNN can be seen as learning a set of local SVM-like models in a quadratic space. Along the way and inspired by the metric-based interpretation of SVM s we derive a novel variant of SVMs, epsilon-SVM, to which LMNN is even more similar. We give a unified view of LMNN and the different SVM variants. Finally we provide some preliminary experiments on a number of benchmark datasets in which show that epsilon-SVM compares favorably both with respect to LMNN and SVM.

  9. Engineering Ethical Decisions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Newcomer, Jeff

    This webpage showcases a series of engineering ethical decision classes. Manufacturing students and instructors would find the following class and assignment of particular interest: The final class in the breadth sequence, Manufacturing Ergonomics, Safety, and Health (MESH) is different from the courses discussed to this point, in that it has a smaller audience and does not use case studies in the same manner as the other courses. MESH is a course for Manufacturing Engineering Technology majors, although it is sometimes taken by other students as an elective; it is both smaller and more focused toward a specific field. Ethics, starting with both the NSPE and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) codes of ethics, represent one of the justifications for implementing ergonomic and safety programs in manufacturing facilities. As such, the course starts with a discussion of the basis for implementing ergonomic and safety programs, including ethics, and then these ideas remain underlying concepts throughout the course. Case studies with direct ethical implications are not used consistently in the course as examples, but students are required to complete an accident summary and analysis as one of their assignments. As part of the analysis in this assignment, students are asked to assess behavior relative to both Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) codes and acceptable professional behavior, if engineers were involved in or responsible for the accident. Based on their comments, this assignment makes a strong impression on many students, especially concerning the disregard that some people have for the safety of themselves or their co-workers. Although this topic has been addressed before, the case study approach is interesting, and includes very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. It is highly adoptable for many different courses at many different levels. Case studies can be isolated and adopted. There is also plenty of pedagogical supporting information that faculty may find interesting and useful. Reviewer Comments: This resource is of high quality and current. The case study approach is interesting, and has very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. Case Studies can be isolated and adopted. Faculty may find the pedagogical supporting information interesting and useful. There are some dead links on the website.

  10. Legal and ethical values in the resolution of research-related disputes: how can IRBS respond to participant complaints?

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-02-01

    Under US federal regulations, participants providing informed consent must receive information regarding whom to contact in case of a research-related injury or complaint. Although informed consent processes routinely direct participants to contact institutional review boards (IRBs) with questions or concerns, there has been little empirical study of the ways in which IRBs act to resolve participants' research-related complaints. This article explores available literature on participant complaints, considers the responsibilities of IRBs in dispute resolution, and outlines a research agenda. As a case study, this review considers disputes arising from HIV/AIDS research, focusing on novel issues arising from biomedical HIV prevention trials. PMID:24572085

  11. Ethics: A Theory of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    This book review characterizes Robert Veatch's A Theory of Medical Ethics as a "third-generation" treatise that looks beyond case- and issue-oriented analysis to develop the theoretical bases of a "true system of medical ethics." Veatch proposes a "draft medical ethical covenant" based on a "triple contract" model, in which the moral principles of contract keeping, autonomy, honesty, avoiding killing, and justice govern the physician's relationship to both individual patients and society. PMID:11652360

  12. Business ethics, medical ethics and economic medicalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Poitras

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of economic medicalization: where non-medical problems are transformed into medical problems in order to achieve the objective of shareholder wealth maximization. After considering differences between business ethics and medical ethics, economic medicalization arising from corporate marketing strategies is detailed. Both direct-to-consumer and more traditional physician centred marketing methods are considered. In addition, the economic

  13. GC GRAVITY Astrometry GYOTO Simulation Perspective Conclusion Testing strong-field general relativity at the

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    GC GRAVITY Astrometry GYOTO Simulation Perspective Conclusion Testing strong-field general/34 Frédéric VINCENT Testing GR at the galactic center #12;GC GRAVITY Astrometry GYOTO Simulation Perspective : ongoing work 2/34 Frédéric VINCENT Testing GR at the galactic center #12;GC GRAVITY Astrometry GYOTO

  14. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  15. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    Background There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. Objective To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Setting The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). Method The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Main outcome measure Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad-to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. Conclusion This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs regarding both medicine use and service access. By uncovering particular problems experienced by these groups, the study can inform healthcare professionals to support SA and ME patients in the use of their medicines. PMID:25822040

  16. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  17. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  18. The unjust world problem: Towards an ethics of advocacy for healthcare providers and researchers.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Elliot G

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of the relative lack of connection between two ethical perspectives in the healthcare field: an ethics of humane care and an ethics of social justice. The first underlies the critique by practitioners and researchers of differentials between healthcare providers and patients in the irrespective levels of control over communication and collaboration in clinical encounters. The second informs the critique by public health researchers and policy makers of the structural basis of social inequality, poverty, and violence that are the sources of racial, ethnic and class differentials in levels of health. I have framed these two perspectives in a way that suggests their parallel concerns with inequality. By referring to a disconnect between them as the 'unjust world problem', I wish to mark their respective limitations--the first tending to exclude forces that lie outside the clinical situation and the second tending to ignore differentials in access to care and types of treatment received. I argue for the importance of bringing these two perspectives together in a dialectical relationship, where each informs and strengthens the other. Readers of this journal are familiar with studies of communication, clinical practice, and the humane care ethics and, therefore, I highlight studies undertaken within a social justice perspective that document marked disparities among social groups in rates of illness and preventable deaths and also refer to some models of work that link the two perspectives. These are complex issues and by suggesting that we consider an ethics of advocacy that is attentive to both humane care and social justice, I hope to raise questions for further discussion, such as: When we learn to communicate better and to listen to our patients and research subjects, will we be asking about and listening to their accounts of what it means to live in a world of poverty, social exclusion, and inequality? And if we then learn how their problems are rooted in such a world, are we prepared to become advocates with them not only for more humane health care but for social justice? PMID:16808692

  19. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    PubMed

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

  20. A PRINCIPLE-BASED ANALYSIS OF THE 2002 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION ETHICS CODE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Knapp; Leon VandeCreek

    2004-01-01

    The authors adopt a position that the Standards in the American Psychological Association (APA; 2002) Ethics Code should be based on or be logically related to some underlying ethical theory. The authors then review the 2002 APA Ethics Code from the standpoint of principle-based (prima facie) ethics. Their analysis shows that almost all of the enforceable standards in the 2002

  1. Ethics and the Marketing of Technology for Training and Performance Improvement: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2003-01-01

    This commentary is intended to start a conversation on ethical behavior in the marketing of our work, with a special focus on the issues that arise when marketing technology and related services. The general literature on marketing ethics suggests that marketers have more relaxed ethical values than the general public. Therefore, ethics should be…

  2. Perception of Physicians and Medical Students on common Ethical Dilemmas in a Pakistani Medical Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bushra Khizar; Mobeen Iqbal

    Knowledge about medical ethics is limited in Pakistan. The teaching of ethics in both under and postgraduate education is generally not formal. The aim of the survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the medical professionals in relation to medical ethics in an attempt to identify the medical ethics learning needs of Pakistani doctors. A self-administered structured

  3. Accessing the ethics of complex health care practices: would a "domains of ethics analysis" approach help?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    This paper explores how using a "domains of ethics analysis" approach might constructively contribute to an enhanced understanding (among those without specialized ethics training) of ethically-complex health care practices through the consideration of one such sample practice, i.e., deep and continuous palliative sedation (DCPS). For this purpose, I select four sample ethics domains (from a variety of possible relevant domains) for use in the consideration of this practice, i.e., autonomous choice, motives, actions and consequences. These particular domains were chosen because of their relevance to the analysis of DCPS and their relative ease of access to those without ethics training. The analysis demonstrates that such an approach could facilitate the emergence of accessible arguments and discussion points that could enhance the understanding and appreciation of this and other health care practices with strong ethics dimensions. PMID:20505981

  4. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  5. Current Ethical Issues in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubler, Nancy Neveloff, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Articles in this special issue look at ethical issues in aging in geriatric care, improving care of the dying, the value of autonomy and respect, the role of religion in health-related decisions, protection of nursing facility residents, physician-assisted dying, conflict resolution in nursing homes, and dealing with patients' demands for…

  6. Becoming the Denigrated Other: Group Relations Perspectives on Initial Reactions to a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one) and alcoholism (one). All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.” PMID:23049521

  7. [Home care in a culturally sensitive environment: perspectives of caregivers of Haitian elderly patients and relatives].

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Francine; Paquet, Mario; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Carpentier, Normand; Lévesque, Louise; Trudeau, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the care provided by families occurs in an increasingly multiethnic context. Against this backdrop, the present qualitative study aims to explore the needs/expectations and solutions not only of (female) natural caregivers of an elderly relative hailing from Haiti (presented in terms of tracking cases) but also of remunerated home care providers - all with a view to developing a culturally sensitive service offering. As such, this study works from a conceptual framework centring on the negotiation of a common area of agreement between the stakeholders involved (i.e., natural caregivers and home care providers). To this end, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among 15 caregivers and 37 home care providers. The three recurrent themes emerging from the data analysis concern, in context, the needs/expectations and solutions surrounding the experience of service use, barriers to use, and the relationships between natural caregivers and home care providers. The statements of both groups evidenced a consistency of views and have thus provided a basis for developing some recommendations acceptable to all stakeholders from the perspective of making culturally-based adjustments to the service offering. PMID:18845514

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Hemifacial Microsomia: Parent and Child Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Khetani, Mary A.; Collett, Brent R.; Speltz, Matthew L.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with and without hemifacial microsomia (HFM) as assessed by parents and the children themselves during the elementary school years. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with HFM (49 females, mean age = 6 years, 11.9 months, SD = 1.004) were compared with 568 matched controls (285 females, mean age = 6 years, 10.2 months, SD = 0.998) for parent and child responses on the PedsQL Version 4.0. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, parent-reported summary scores were worse for affected children than control group children for physical (effect sizes [ES] = 0.26, p = .004), social (ES = 0.34, p = .001), and school (ES = 0.32, p = .001) functioning. There were no significant mean differences in summary scores based on children’s self-reported functioning. Conclusions Case-control mean differences in HRQOL were more apparent based on parent report, but not child self-report. Summary score findings suggest that case parents have concerns about their child’s HRQOL, particularly with respect to their child’s physical, social, and school functioning. Additionally, our findings highlight the potential differences between child and parent perspectives and the importance of collecting data from multiple reporters. PMID:24213374

  9. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  10. Nurses’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

    2014-01-01

    Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents’ ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as “balancing on a tightrope” in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

  11. [Considering body ethics in the healthcare profession].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shin-Yun

    2014-10-01

    This article uses the theory of body phenomenology and Watson's caring theory to develop and apply body ethics to the clinical healthcare profession. This attempt is meant to facilitate deep, humanistic experiences for healthcare personnel. The analysis of body phenomenology reveals that the soul is banished from her familiar and comfortable "at-home" status when illness and pain invade the body. In such situations, the body becomes an external object that is self-alienated. This experience induces experiences such as solitude and violence. However, it also holds the potential to expose the original morality of the body. Additionally, this article discusses popular tools used in clinical ethics such as principalism and virtual-based ethics, which are based on moral reasoning and moral feeling. In contrast to these, body ethics seek a more profound and humble level of sensibility that is able to implant authenticity into the ethics. Finally, we offer some suggestions related to Watson's caring theory. PMID:25271027

  12. Foucault and ethical universality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cordner

    2004-01-01

    Foucault's resistance to a universalist ethics, especially in his later writings, is well-known. Foucault thinks that ethical universalism presupposes a shared human essence, and that this presupposition makes it a straitjacket, an attempt to force people to conform to an externally imposed 'pattern'. Foucault's hostility may be warranted for one - perhaps the usual - conception of ethical universality. But

  13. "Not" Teaching Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.

  14. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  15. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  16. Professional Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    Major problems and issues of ethics in elementary, secondary, and higher education are examined. The function and present status of professional ethics are considered, along with specific codes of ethics, including those of the National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, and the American Association of School…

  17. Relationalism

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

  18. Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics: A framework for understanding ethical issues in health care teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip G. Clark; Cheryl Cott; Theresa J. K. Drinka

    2007-01-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is an essential and expanding form of health care practice. While moral issues arising in teamwork relative to the patient have been explored, the analysis of ethical issues regarding the function of the team itself is limited. This paper develops a conceptual framework for organizing and analyzing the different types of ethical issues in interprofessional teamwork. This framework

  19. Ethical Issues in Rehabilitation Counselor Supervision and the New 2010 Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glosoff, Harriet L.; Matrone, Kathe F.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 revision of the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" addresses changes in ethical standards related to rehabilitation counselor supervision. In an effort to promote awareness of these changes, this article offers a brief overview of the revisions and implications for practice including the responsibility of…

  20. [Looking over the progress of care. Historical and ethical aspects of the relations between health professionals and patients].

    PubMed

    Geadah, Roland-Ramzi

    2012-06-01

    If the idea of care materializes by a friendly behaviour, word or movement, the characters who implemented it have seemed, over the history, motivated by varied ideals. Certainly, their name, status and role have not always been precisely described; but their intervention happens to be bound to moral and scientific requirements enriched by collective representations. So after the nobility welcome of the wandering, impoverished and sick stranger, related by Homeric and biblical narratives, the more or less protected professional organization has appeared on behalf of the Greek city, then the Roman one. The image of the suffering Christ has then imposed itself where the distress of the patient could be read; it constituted the engine of the charity due to the latter, whose demonstrations proliferated in the Middle Ages. However, because of the necessary disease prevention in front of epidemics which stressed the increasing opportunities of war and travel, a more and more complex institutional organization has established itself little by little bound to technical and political considerations. More precisely, in the last two centuries, the social unrest bearing aspiration to public health and people's safety has underlied Republican ideals of freedom, solidarity and individual expression. This is what the Nursing staff duty - officially recognized as "healthcare professionals" - responds to today to ensure favorable conditions to the dawn of feelings of comfort, self-fulfillment and respect. As much by caring and listening they ensure as by technical acts they operate, they in fact, participate in the implementation of a distribution of common wealth. Health and welcome of the most deprived therefore constitute, thanks to their thoughtful intervention, the stammerings of a policy of active citizenship. PMID:22880495

  1. Imitative learning from a third-party interaction: Relations with self-recognition and perspective-taking

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

    2008-01-01

    Young children’s ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others’ subjective perspectives. The current study measured imitative learning of a novel action seen only in a third-party interaction, mirror self-recognition, and perspective-taking in a group of 48 children aged 18 to 20 months. Patterns of performance suggest that understanding self-other equivalence is related to third-party learning. PMID:18635193

  2. Effects of Perspective Sentences in Social Stories[TM] on Improving the Adaptive Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of adding perspective sentences to Social Stories[TM] on improving the adaptive behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities. In Study 1, two students with ASD read two different types of Social Stories: Social Story without perspective sentences (SS without PS) and Social…

  3. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. PMID:22458465

  4. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. PMID:25934088

  5. A proposed nationwide reporting system to satisfy the ethical obligation to prevent drug diversion-related transmission of hepatitis C in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Tim; Nelson, William A

    2015-06-15

    In 2012, dozens of patients of Exeter Hospital in New Hampshire contracted new hepatitis C infections that were tracked back to a cardiac technician who ultimately confessed to drug diversion. A multistate epidemiological investigation of hepatitis C cases occurring in multiple hospitals revealed that the technician had been fired from prior institutions due to similar drug diversion activity, about which Exeter Hospital had not been notified. In this article, we highlight the institutional ethical issues raised by this outbreak, and propose a national centralized reporting system to support institutional fulfillment of the ethical obligation to protect the health of patients by preventing such nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:25767254

  6. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J

    1997-01-01

    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions. PMID:9052178

  7. Parental Cultural Perspectives in Relation to Weight-Related Behaviors and Concerns of African-American Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina M. Beech; Shiriki K. Kumanyika; Tom Baranowski; Marsha Davis; Thomas N. Robinson; Nancy E. Sherwood; Wendell C. Taylor; George Relyea; Ainong Zhou; Charlotte Pratt; Ayisha Owens; Nikko S. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cultural perspectives of parents may influence children’s eating and physical activity behaviors and patterns of weight gain.Research Methods and Procedures: African-American girls (ages 8 to 10 years) and their parents (or caregivers) (n = 210) participated at one of four Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies Phase 1 Field Centers. At baseline, parents completed questionnaires adapted from

  8. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  9. Ethical Aspects on Rare Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Barrera; Gilberto Cely Galindo

    \\u000a In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects\\u000a are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to\\u000a marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries.\\u000a Then we address problems related

  10. Dentists versus auto mechanics: are there ethical differences?

    PubMed

    Riley, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The different ethical perspectives of dentists and auto mechanics include primary concern, billing procedures, advertising, emergency care, the level of autonomy granted to their patients/ clients, the amount of disclosure given to their patients/clients, the ability to judge the work of others, and the freedom to pursue romantic relationships with their patients/clients. In analyzing these differences, one finds dentists to have much greater ethical obligations than auto mechanics. There are subtle differences between the ethical expectations of Canadian and United States dentists. PMID:23977750

  11. Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    · plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

  12. The relationship between education and ethical behavior of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Janssen, P J; Grypdonck, M

    1996-06-01

    Based on the cognitive theory of moral development of Kohlberg, refined by the addition of the dimension "ethics of care" and the educational theory of Janssen, the relationship of education and ethical behavior of nursing students was examined. Ethical behavior referred not only to the ethical reasoning of students but also to the relationship between this reasoning and their behavior. This study examined the responses of 2,624 nursing students to five ethical nursing dilemmas included in the Ethical Behavior Test by relating them to four educational variables: students' level of education, level of enrollment, school, and students' perceptions of the educational process. A significant relationship between education and ethical behavior was found. PMID:8693726

  13. For an Ethnomethodology of healthcare ethics.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the utility of Ethnomethodology (EM) for the study of healthcare ethics as part of the empirical turn in Bioethics. I give a brief introduction to EM through its respecification of sociology, the specific view on the social world this generates and EM's posture of 'indifference'. I then take a number of EM concepts and articulate each in the context of an EM study of healthcare ethics in professional practice. Having given an overview of the relationship and perspective EM might bring to the professional practice of healthcare ethics I consider whether and how such an approach could be deployed. Whilst an ethnographic study might be problematic I suggest a number of alternative methods through which such EM research could be accomplished. I conclude with the suggestion that, as a particular approach to sociological research, EM offers good deal of potential for the empirical study of healthcare ethics in practice which could result in an improved reflexive understanding of professional ethical practices in bioethics. PMID:22367525

  14. A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.

    PubMed

    Posener, J A

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development. PMID:2606598

  15. Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others

    PubMed Central

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so that more precise understanding of intentions may result. This review presents an analysis of these complementary abilities, both in terms of the frames of reference and the proposed sensorimotor mechanisms involved. Together, we argue for the importance of reconsidering the role of basic spatial processes to explain more complex behaviors. PMID:24068992

  16. Academic espionage: dysfunctional aspects of the publish or perish ethic.

    PubMed

    Mensah, L L

    1982-11-01

    There are many dysfunctional manifestations relative to the tenure and promotion process. These are disruptive to academic life. Much of this is encouraged by the university because of their publish or perish ethic. Excellence in classroom teaching and success in the field of clinical and human endeavours are not highly valued in deliberations to grant tenure and advancement in academic rank. Research and publications are the major yardsticks upon which a faculty member is judged. This prevailing perspective poses a dilemma for many nursing faculty who have high clinical workloads and have not been socialized for academic survival. The pressures to publish and research can be achieved in a realistic and non-stressful way. Three aspects seem to be particularly relevant to facilitate this achievement; these are: anticipatory planning, balancing the workload, and understanding the interpersonal dimensions of collegiality. PMID:6924943

  17. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal. PMID:24752379

  18. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  19. Who Cares about Unions? Ethical Support for Labor as a Matter of Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Labor law reform centers on competitiveness considerations rather than ethics. A social justice perspective suggests religious arguments (dignity of work, accountability) and economic arguments (fairness, democracy) for changing labor law. (SK)

  20. Dismembering the ethical physician

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J

    2006-01-01

    Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity may be diminished, and ethical reliability is potentially compromised. In a climate of ever?proliferating ethical quandaries, it is essential for the medical community, health institutions, and governing bodies to pursue a judicious tension between the indispensable regulation of physicians necessary to maintain professional standards and preserve public safety, and the support for “freedom of conscience” that principled physicians require to practise medicine in keeping with their personal ethical orientation. PMID:16597808

  1. Ethical products and consumer involvement: what's new?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valéry Bezenēon; Sam Blili

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide an adequate instrument to measure involvement, its antecedents and its impact on behaviours relating to ethical product consumption, using the case of fair trade. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on an in-depth analysis of the involvement literature and the specificities of ethical products, a model is derived using a hypothetico-deductive approach. It is then analysed

  2. Ethics, Diversity Management, and Financial Reporting Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Réal Labelle; Rim Makni Gargouri; Claude Francoeur

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes and empirically tests a theoretical framework incorporating Reidenbach and Robin’s (J Bus Ethics 10(4):273–284,\\u000a 1991) conceptual model of corporate moral development. The framework is used to examine the relation between governance and business\\u000a ethics, as proxied by diversity management (DM), and financial reporting quality, as proxied by the magnitude of earnings\\u000a management (EM). The level of DM

  3. Ethics of Inquiry: Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat, Ed.

    This collection contains seven case studies about ethical issues faced by scholars of teaching and learning, each with commentary from individuals who bring different perspectives to bear on the issues. This case-plus-commentaries format enacts a central theme of the volume, which is that there is no single right way to resolve the ethical

  4. Issues on compliance and ethics in taxation: what do we know?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Ho; Brossa Wong

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand the issues on compliance and ethics in taxation, this paper reviews and discusses the extant literature with a focus on individual taxpayers. As prior studies mainly provide tax compliance and ethics information in the USA, this paper attempts to explore similar issues in a non-US economy by articulating real-life perspectives of tax compliance behavior in

  5. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  6. An Ethical Framework for Stem Cell Research in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Harris; Lisa Bortolotti; Louise Irving

    2005-01-01

    The European Union is a nightmare from the perspective of the ethics and regulation of science. A hitherto insoluble problem has been the task of drafting ethical principles which do not founder on the radically different attitudes taken to the question of the moral status of the human embryo. Following the conclusions reached in an international project, EUROSTEM, we suggest

  7. Silence Reigns! A Communitarian Critique of the Ethics of Lawrence Kohlberg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdson, Ola

    1997-01-01

    The ethics of the influential psychologist and ethicist Lawrence Kohlberg are analyzed from a communitarian perspective. Kohlberg's conception of morality is described as not as formal and universal as claimed, and it is suggested that it is, in fact, a monological ethic. (SLD)

  8. Ethical Implications of Psychopharmacotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanfried Helmchen

    \\u000a Both the efficient application of a marketed psychotropic drug to mentally ill persons in practice and the assessment of effectiveness and safety of a potentially therapeutic drug through research imply ethical problems. The basic ethical issue is to find an optimum of the relationship between the benefits and risks\\u000a of a medication with regard to major ethical principles.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The therapeutic

  9. [Ethical medicine in Paracelsus].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, D V

    1997-01-01

    The last decades have been an increasing interest in medical ethics. Paracelsus occupies an important place in the development of ethics in medicine in the crucial cultural passage between Middle Ages and Renaissance. Paracelsus' biography is in itself connected with ethical choices and theories. In his medical doctrines ethics is rooted in the belief in a strict correspondence between micro- and macrocosmos. Love is the basis on which a correct doctor-patient relationship can be built. Ilnesses are but episodes in the human life, and care for both spiritual and bodily health should dominate the entire life, and not ony the crucial moments of birth, sickness and death. PMID:11619967

  10. Clinicians’ perspectives of health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aims or Purpose The health related quality of life (HRQoL) implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment have been reported. However the clinician’s perspective has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment from a clinicians’ perspective. Methods Three focus group sessions were conducted with practising orthoptists. Thematic content analysis was undertaken, to identify HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment. Results Nine HRQoL themes associated with amblyopia and/or its treatment were identified. These included adult quality of life issues; hospital appointments; appearance; glasses-wear; patching treatment; atropine treatment; limited activities; relationships within the family; and treatment compliance. Conclusions The HRQoL implications of amblyopia and/or its treatment was similar to those identified in the literature. Participants acknowledged a change in societal attitudes towards glasses and patching; with glasses becoming more socially acceptable. Further research is needed to explore the exact impact of amblyopia and/or its treatment from both the child and the parental perspective. PMID:22022338

  11. Relationalism

    E-print Network

    Edward Anderson

    2014-07-15

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

  12. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  13. Girls' Perspectives on Family Scripts About Sex-Related Topics and Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Teitelman; Carol J. Loveland-Cherry

    2005-01-01

    This study explores girls' perspectives of family scripts to develop family-based interventions to reduce HIV\\/AIDS and STIs. In-depth qualitative interviews with 33 teen girls revealed four common scripts: (a) waiting-to begin dating or to initiate sexual intercourse, (b) danger and protection, (c) abuse, and (d) taking charge. Most low-income families acknowledged pregnancy and HIV\\/STI risks but some girls experienced conflict

  14. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Eppard, M.B.; Murchie, K.J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Cooke, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Personality, attachment and sexuality related to dating relationship outcomes: contrasting three perspectives on personal attribute interaction.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, David P

    2002-12-01

    Although people can bring personal attributes to their relationships that affect how satisfying and enduring those relationships are, it is more often personal attribute interaction that directly determines romantic relationship outcomes. In this study, three general perspectives on personal attribute interaction-similarity, complementarity and exchange perspectives-were contrasted empirically in their ability to predict dating relationship outcomes. Based on questionnaires completed by a sample of 44 heterosexual dating couples, feelings of relationship satisfaction were most closely associated with the interaction of socially valuable attributes, generally supporting the exchange perspective. Similarity of personal attributes was also connected with relationship satisfaction; however, this association was in the negative direction. That is, couples with dissimilar personality traits, attachment styles and sexual strategies were significantly more satisfied with their dating relationships. Complementarity of personal attributes had no link to satisfaction, but complementary couples experienced significantly higher ratings of relationship commitment, especially couples with complementary personalities. Discussion focused on the differences between personal attribute connections with romantic satisfaction and commitment and on the limitations of the present study. PMID:12593754

  16. [Shared governance and reasonableness as ethical contributions to health policy].

    PubMed

    Costa-Alcaraz, Ana M; Calvo-Rigual, Fernando; Siurana-Aparisi, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Health is one of the fundamental human rights. Recognizing it as a right means that the State has an obligation to ensure a minimum level of opportunities is maintained, and to restore it when lost. This minimum level may not be covered in periods of economic crisis, such as the one we are currently experiencing.Managed care, focused on economic questions, emerged after the crisis of 1973 in order to help make clinical decisions based on economic factors. In practice, the result of managed care was to turn economic cost control into an end in itself while forgetting about equity; something for which it has been challenged from an ethical perspective. Since then, many authors have attempted to reconcile efficiency and equity in health management, but the debate remains open.In this article, and basing our approach on the theories of P. Ruger and Norman Daniels, we argue that shared health governance and accountability for reasonableness can offer significant ethical contributions in the process of achieving an efficient and fair health system. In the model we propose, citizens, professionals and health institutions all play an active role in capacity building in the field of health. These capacities are related to healthy lifestyles, accessible and transparent information, the promotion of self-care, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes, leadership based on values and co-responsibility to achieve set goals in a reasonable way. If we develop these capacities, we will have used the current economic crisis as an opportunity for improving ethical practice in the field of health. PMID:23775103

  17. The ethics of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Catsanos, Ruby; Rogers, Wendy; Lotz, Mianna

    2013-02-01

    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. PMID:21726265

  18. Ethical considerations in psychotherapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, J; Mook, B

    1998-08-01

    In the process of individual psychotherapy, the client and the therapist work together towards clarifying the client's problems, unlocking vicious circles, opening new perspectives and creating a new narrative congruent with the client's experiencing. The real and undeniable situation in individual psychotherapy across different therapeutic systems is that therapists enter the therapeutic encounter equipped with their own vision of humanity and their own particular theory and methods of psychotherapy. Through the differences in power between therapists and clients and the powerful role of language, clients in their dependent position are apt to assimilate the percepts and the ideas of their therapists. Consequently therapists tend to exert a dominant and influential force in their client's lives. This raises a main ethical concern: to what extent do therapists from different therapeutic systems really help clients to recover their freedom to live their lives congruent to their own authentic perceptions and experiences? PMID:9865140

  19. Is conventional debriefing adequate? An ethical issue in consumer research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shekhar Misra

    1992-01-01

    Issues relating to ethics are infrequently addressed in the marketing literature. One area in which there might be ethical\\u000a concerns is debriefing. In an experiment, when false information is provided by the researcher to subjects, those false beliefs\\u000a can persist despite conventional debriefing. The persistence of false beliefs has ethical implications, of which consumer\\u000a researchers should be aware. Anexplicit debriefing

  20. Moral perspectives on the prevention of suicide in mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, J L; Edwards, S D

    2006-12-01

    The response to suicidal clients is a recurrent and deep ethical problem in mental health practice. Rational suicide is rarely considered in relation to psychological suffering and is generally only discussed within the literature in connection with terminal illness. Focusing on a case example derived from a composite of patient experiences, this paper considers the premise that suicidal ideation may not be an irrational belief arising from mental disorder and analyses the ethical aspects of nursing care through the competing moral frameworks of the care-based and principle-based approaches to nursing ethics. We conclude that when the client is not capable of autonomous decision making, the two approaches lead to the same response. But when the client is capable of autonomous decision making, the two approaches lead to different responses. Specifically, from the care-based perspective, intervention to prevent suicide is easier to justify and helps formulate a nursing response, which promotes hope through the engagement. PMID:17087668

  1. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  2. Ethics and Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    The teaching of ethics and values is a concern of American education. Scientific and technological developments and the responsibilities of professional life and of personal morality are discussed. Steps to a quality program in ethics, and the need for a theoretical framework are also addressed. (SW)

  3. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  4. Ethics and consumer electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Thimbleby; Penny Duquenoy; Gary Marsden

    1999-01-01

    The design of car (automobile) radios exposes ethical issues in the design of consumer electronics. We show that car radios, despite being manufactured for many years and being a well-understood technology, are unsafe to use. It is implausible that manufacturers design such unsafe devices unwittingly. We argue that complex in-car devices raise clear ethical issues: (i) their complexity of operation

  5. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  6. Ethics a la Dilbert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Ethics Challenge Game (developed by Lockheed Martin Corp. and free to educators), which is a board game based on the Dilbert comic strip character that provides realistic scenarios for discussion of ethical behavior in various business/workplace situations. Describes the game, offers comments on faculty reactions after playing the…

  7. Research governance: ethical issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Slowther; Petra Boynton; Sara Shaw; Trisha Greenhalgh

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Healthcare research is haunted by a history of unethical studies in which profound harm was caused to vulnerable individuals. Official systems for gaining ethical approval for research, designed to prevent a repetition of these shameful examples, can prove bureaucratic and inflexible in practice. The core ethical principles of respect for autonomy, prevention of harm, promotion of benefit, and justice

  8. Ethics of Information Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  9. Research Ethics & Compliance Support

    E-print Network

    Blennerhassett, Peter

    substances, lasers Export Trade Controls (DECO): · Export of potential defence and strategic goods Ethics Advisory Panels on request: #12;Adobe Application Forms: #12;TRIM as Record Management System: · TRIM folders Available for Human Research Ethics Advisory Panels on request: #12;Integration with Info

  10. Gene Therapy: Ethical Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac Rabino

    2003-01-01

    To discern the ethical issues involved incurrent gene therapy research, to explore theproblems inherent in possible future genetherapies, and to encourage debate within thescientific community about ethical questionsrelevant to both, we surveyed American Societyof Human Genetics scientists who engage inhuman genetics research. This study of theopinions of U.S. scientific experts about theethical issues discussed in the literature ongene therapy contributes

  11. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  12. Analyzing Perspective Taking Skills of 5- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children in Relation to Their Self-Perception and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Seēer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of preschool children to take on a perspective, based on their self-perception and gender. A relational survey method was used, with 124 children between ages 5 and 6 participating--74 girls (59.7%) and 50 boys (40.3%). The Self-Perception Scale for Children and Perspective-Taking Test was…

  13. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  14. Vocational Ethics. Toward the Development of an Enabling Work Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela F.; Coady, William T.

    This manual is intended to provide vocational educators with a rational for teaching vocational ethics, a framework for understanding the development of an enabling work ethic, and practical suggestions for teaching vocational ethics in the classroom. The first section discusses the importance of vocational ethics as an area of inquiry focusing on…

  15. [Topical questions of psychiatric ethics].

    PubMed

    Kovįcs, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity. PMID:25867886

  16. Knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Mathai, A K; Kumar, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    The growing public concern about the ethical conduct of healthcare professionals highlights the need to incorporate clinical ethics in medical education. This study examined the knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital in Chennai. A sample of 51 treating physicians and 58 other non-physician service providers from the hospital answered a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire on their knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles, and the problems they faced related to healthcare ethics. More than 30% did not give a definition of healthcare ethics, and 40% did not name a single ethical principle. 51% stated that they witnessed ethical problems in their settings and named patient dissatisfaction, gender bias by provider, and not maintaining confidentiality. The responses of healthcare providers to various ethical scenarios are reported. PMID:23697487

  17. Ethics application protocols for multicentre clinical studies in Canada: A paediatric rheumatology experience

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Loren A; Huber, Adam M; Warner, Aleasha; Rosenberg, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual institutions govern research ethics applications and each must administer and regulate their own protocols. Variations in ethics review procedures and expectations among centres impose impediments to efficiently conducting multicentre studies. METHODS: Observations relating to preparing multisite ethics documents for a study conducted by Canadian paediatric rheumatology investigators are described. Research ethics applications from the 12 participating centres were compared. RESULTS: Although the applications were similar in their content, they differed in their formatting. All applications shared a commitment to ensuring that the study conformed to exemplary ethical standards. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variation in the multicentre clinical study ethics application process at the institutional level. Considering the common fundamental elements required by all ethics review boards, the present study conceptualized introducing a discipline-specific uniform ethics application process acceptable to all Canadian research ethics boards. This may be a more efficient strategy that could help lessen the burden of collaborative research. PMID:23730169

  18. [Philosophical and ethics aspects of the composite tissues allotransplantations (CTA)].

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C

    2007-10-01

    The first successes of total hand and partial face transplants raise several philosophical and ethical questions. This paper examines the perspective of the recipient, the donor and the social aspect. The question of the identity remains unsolved. Philosophical point of view shows an historical continuity in the desire of the human being for improving his condition. PMID:17719712

  19. Justifying surgery's last taboo: the ethics of face transplants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael; Abou Jaoudé, Pauline

    2007-02-01

    Should face transplants be undertaken? This article examines the ethical problems involved from the perspective of the recipient, looking particularly at the question of identity, the donor and the donor's family, and the disfigured community and society more generally. Concern is expressed that full face transplants are going ahead. PMID:17264192

  20. Justifying surgery's last taboo: the ethics of face transplants

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael; Jaoudé, Pauline Abou

    2007-01-01

    Should face transplants be undertaken? This article examines the ethical problems involved from the perspective of the recipient, looking particularly at the question of identity, the donor and the donor's family, and the disfigured community and society more generally. Concern is expressed that full face transplants are going ahead. PMID:17264192

  1. CUTTING REMARKS: ON ETHICS, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND COSMETIC PLASTIC SURGERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Ann Dorn; Imperial Valley

    As consumers daily see the evidence of the passing years in the mirror, they search for solutions, and cosmetic surgery is, increasingly, the method of choice for many. This paper explores both the motivation to buy, and to supply, such services, an area largely left unexplored by the academic literature, from the dual perspectives of consumer behavior and ethics. Expanding

  2. When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Glenda R.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

  3. Ethical, Social and Legal Implications of Pharmacogenomics: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Mųldrup

    2001-01-01

    Objective: My aim was to examine the ethical, social and legal implications of pharmacogenomics. Method: I performed a critical review of the literature. The primary focal point is the bioethical principle discussed. The second outcome measure is the perspective of the discussion. Results: This review documents that the pharmacogenomics issues of concern are comparable to issues concerning other genetic developments

  4. The Knight of Faith: Ethics in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to contribute to the understanding of the particularly important and inescapable role that ethics must play in the context of special needs education. Perspectives from Kierkegaard and Derrida are presented and used in order to explore the complexity of the context and to show the importance and responsibility of the agency…

  5. A gentle ethical defence of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Levy, David; Gadd, Ben; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Recent discourses about the legitimacy of homeopathy have focused on its scientific plausibility, mechanism of action, and evidence base. These, frequently, conclude not only that homeopathy is scientifically baseless, but that it is "unethical." They have also diminished patients' perspectives, values, and preferences. We contend that these critics confuse epistemic questions with questions of ethics, misconstrue the moral status of homeopaths, and have an impoverished idea of ethics-one that fails to account either for the moral worth of care and of relationships or for the perspectives, values, and preferences of patients. Utilitarian critics, in particular, endeavour to present an objective evaluation-a type of moral calculus-quantifying the utilities and disutilities of homeopathy as a justification for the exclusion of homeopathy from research and health care. But these critiques are built upon a narrow formulation of evidence and care and a diminished episteme that excludes the values and preferences of researchers, homeopaths, and patients engaged in the practice of homeopathy. We suggest that homeopathy is ethical as it fulfils the needs and expectations of many patients; may be practiced safely and prudentially; values care and the virtues of the therapeutic relationship; and provides important benefits for patients. PMID:25037244

  6. Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Reidy, M.; Taylor, S.; Vallero, D. A.; Bruckner, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Funding agencies (NSF) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research, employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. Yet, few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. Workshop goals included: examining where and how geoethics topics can be taught from introductory courses for non-majors to modules embedded in "core" geoscience majors courses or dedicated courses in geoethics; sharing best pedagogic practices for "what works" in ethics education; developing a geoethics curriculum framework; creating a collection of online instructional resources, case studies, and related materials; applying lessons learned about ethics education from sister disciplines (biology, engineering, philosophy); and considering ways that geoethics instruction can contribute to public scientific literacy. Four major themes were explored in detail: (1) GeoEthics and self: examining the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences; (2) GeoEthics and the geoscience profession: identifying ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice; (3) GeoEthics and society: exploring geoscientists' responsibilities to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect public health, safety, and economic security; (4) GeoEthics and Earth: explicating geoscientists' responsibilities to provide stewardship towards of the Earth based on their knowledge of Earth's composition, architecture, history, dynamic processes, and complex systems. Workshop resources can be accessed at serc.carleton.edu/geoethics/

  7. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  8. When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the proactive handling of the factors that leads to ethical dilemmas and resolving the ethical issues as they appear. It adopts the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice as universal and prima facie principles, but with the inclusion of a local understanding of what of each of these principles means. It is based on a collaborative approach that involves the beneficiaries and other partners in the field to help share information and resources, as well as adopting the provision of a wider service to the whole community. This is done by asking three basic questions: (a) who are the relevant stakeholders? (b) what ought to be the ethical principles in place? and (c) how should we take, implement and follow the decision about service provision? PMID:20336229

  9. Evidence, Ethics, and Values: A Framework for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Dietetics, PGradDip; Lloyd, Beverley; Kerridge, Ian H.; Baur, Louise; Bauman, Adrian; Hooker, Claire; Zask, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new approach to guide health promotion practice. Health promotion should draw on 2 related systems of reasoning: an evidential system and an ethical system. Further, there are concepts, values, and procedures inherent in both health promotion evidence and ethics, and these should be made explicit. We illustrate our approach with the exemplar of intervention in weight, and use a specific mass-media campaign to show the real-world dangers of intervening with insufficient attention to ethics and evidence. Both researchers and health promotion practitioners should work to build the capacities required for evidential and ethical deliberation in the health promotion profession. PMID:21233436

  10. Community Science Action Guides: The Ethics of Genetics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains The Ethics of Genetics, one of the Community Science Action Guides created by practicing educators working with The Franklin Institute and the Science Museum, London. The Ethics of Genetics "presents some of these ethical issues within an academic setting designed for today's youth," and fits well with classroom material on cells, reproduction, and general biology. A series of questions -- each followed by a related lesson -- guides middle and high school students in exploring the ethical issues involved in genetics. The site also includes a detailed Teacher Preparation section, as well as useful Web links for additional information.

  11. Ethical Consistency in Managerial Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie E. Hopkins; Shirley A. Hopkins; Bryant C. Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    Managers often encounter situations that require them to make decisions with ethical implications that affect the organization as well as the managers themselves. The issue we address in this study concerns whether the ethical consistency of managerial decisions is situation dependent. That is, are the decisions managers make ethically consistent when they are faced with different ethical situations? We hypothesize

  12. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  13. [Ethical principles in psychiatric action].

    PubMed

    Rüther, Eckart

    2014-07-01

    There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical principles for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical principles, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. PMID:24983582

  14. Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    Ten strategies for teaching Internet ethics are as follows: establish acceptable use policy; communicate ethical codes; model behaviors and values; encourage discussion of ethical issues; reinforce ethical conduct; monitor student behavior; secure systems and software; discourage surfing without supervision; monitor e-mail and websites; and…

  15. Ethics and Motivation in Remedial Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines motivational potentialities in remedial mathematics education within an ethical context, applying a model for ethical decision making in education developed by Shapiro and Stefkovich, in which three broad ethical categories are discussed: the ethic of justice, the ethic of care, and the ethic of critique. These ethical

  16. Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics: a framework for understanding ethical issues in health care teams.

    PubMed

    Clark, Phillip G; Cott, Cheryl; Drinka, Theresa J K

    2007-12-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is an essential and expanding form of health care practice. While moral issues arising in teamwork relative to the patient have been explored, the analysis of ethical issues regarding the function of the team itself is limited. This paper develops a conceptual framework for organizing and analyzing the different types of ethical issues in interprofessional teamwork. This framework is a matrix that maps the elements of principles, structures, and processes against individual, team, and organizational levels. A case study is presented that illustrates different dimensions of these topics, based on the application of this framework. Finally, a set of conclusions and recommendations is presented to summarize the integration of theory and practice in interprofessional ethics, including: (i) importance of a framework, (ii) interprofessional ethics discourse, and (iii) interprofessional ethics as an emerging field. The goal of this paper is to begin a dialogue and discussion on the ethical issues confronting interprofessional teams and to lay the foundation for an expanding discourse on interprofessional ethics. PMID:18038292

  17. A Life Course Perspective on How Racism May Be Related to Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that racism may influence health inequities. As individuals grow from infancy into old age, they encounter social institutions that may create new exposures to racial bias. Yet, few studies have considered this idea fully. We suggest a framework that shows how racism and health inequities may be viewed from a life course perspective. It applies the ideas of age-patterned exposures, sensitive periods, linked lives, latency period, stress proliferation, historic period, and cohorts. It suggests an overarching idea that racism can structure one’s time in asset-building contexts (e.g., education) or disadvantaged contexts (e.g., prison). This variation in time and exposure can contribute to racial inequities in life expectancy and other health outcomes across the life course and over generations. PMID:22420802

  18. Ethical considerations in targeted pediatric neurosurgery missions

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, SA; Jandial, R

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of global health development approaches, surgical missions to provide care for underserved populations remain the least studied interventions with regard to their methodology. Because of the unique logistical needs of delivering operative care surgical missions are often described solely in terms of cases performed, with a paucity of discourse on medical ethics. Within surgery, subspecialties that serve patients on a non-elective basis should, it could be argued, create mission strategies that involve a didactic approach and the propagation of sustainable surgical care. The ethical considerations have yet to be described for pediatric neurosurgical outreach missions. We present here the perspectives of neurosurgeons who have participated in surgical outreach missions in Central America, South America, Eastern Europe, and Sub-Saharan Africa from the vantage point of both the visiting mission team and the host team that accommodates the mission efforts. PMID:23001919

  19. Bioethics Principles, Informed Consent, and Ethical Care for Special Populations: Curricular Needs Expressed by Men and Women Physicians-in-Training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; M.A., Cynthia; Geppert; Warner, Teddy D.; Green Hammond, Katherine A.; Lamberton, Leandrea Prosen

    2006-01-01

    Objective Physicians-in-training today are learning in an ethical environment that is unprecedented in its complexity. There is a call for new approaches in preparing medical students and residents for the ethical and professional issues they will encounter. The perspectives of physicians-in-training at different levels regarding the level of curricular attention needed for emerging bioethics concepts, practical informed consent considerations, and the care of special populations are unknown. Method The authors performed a hypothesis-driven, confidential survey study to assess perceived needs and preferences among medical students and residents related to medical ethics education at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Results A total of 336 physicians-in-training volunteered (62% response rate). Overall, strong interest was expressed for increased curricular attention to the domains of bioethics principles, informed consent, and care of special populations. Women students expressed greater interest generally. For certain domains, clinical students expressed relatively less curricular need and psychiatry and primary care residents expressed relatively greater curricular need. Two of the four hypotheses were supported, a third received partial support, and a fourth was not supported by the findings. Discussion To be valuable and effective, new ethics curricular approaches must be responsive to the current complex ethical environment and attentive to the preferences of medical students and residents of both genders, at different stages of training, with different patient care responsibilities. This hypothesis-driven study provides guidance for the inclusion of novel and important ethics domains in training curricula across medical school and diverse residency programs. PMID:16145189

  20. Health-related quality of life in partners of persons with MS: a longitudinal 10-year perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gottberg, Kristina; Chruzander, C; Einarsson, U; Fredrikson, S; Johansson, S; Widén Holmqvist, L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Multiple sclerosis (MS) impacts the health-related quality of life (HRQL) in partners, but knowledge on the longitudinal perspective is needed. The aim was to analyse HRQL in partners of persons with MS living in Sweden a decade ago and after 10?years. Materials and methods Partners were identified through a population-based study of persons with MS in Stockholm. Information on HRQL (the Sickness Impact profile), personal factors and disease-specific factors, and measures of functioning of persons with MS was collected at both time points mainly by home visits. Results Some 64 of 102 identified partners (63%) agreed to participate at baseline, and at 10?years 40 of 54 eligible partners were included (74%). HRQL in partners was worse than in a Swedish, aged-grouped reference population at both baseline and follow-up. Depressive symptoms in persons with MS were independently associated with worse HRQL in partners. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in persons with MS were associated with worse HRQL in their partners, and HRQL of partners was continuously impacted in the longitudinal perspective. This knowledge needs to be accounted for in the planning of MS care, together with the development of evidence-based support for depressive symptoms, and engagement in recreational life in both partners and persons with MS. PMID:25515842

  1. Medical ethics under managed care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, P

    1996-01-01

    "Managed Care" is having a profound effect on medical ethics and the patient/physician relationship. Historically, the patient (the first party) contracted with a physician (the second party) to provide medical care. The physician had ethical and legal obligations to the patient. In the "new health care," an employer or the government (the fourth party) or infrequently, the patient (the first party) purchases health care from the HMO, PPO, or similar organization (the third party). The third party then contracts with the physician (the second party) to provide that care. The physician has agreed to two, at times competing and possibly immutably conflicting obligations--one to the patient and one to the third party. The ethical and legal problems that arise from conflict between "the bottom line" and "desired" (appropriate) health care will be difficult to solve. The incompatible duality of physician roles both as patient advocate and manager of limited resources will be further explored, with attention to the enormous pressure being applied to this conflict by society, the law, and the third party. Potential resolutions will be offered. Other ethical problems created by the health care system's conversion to managed care include: CONFIDENTIALITY--Information management is a fundamental underpinning of managed care. With patients switching health care programs frequently, and their enormous size and complexity, careful attention to confidentiality is necessary. INFORMED CONSENT--In addition to informed consent relative to the health care being offered, the patient has a right to know what alternatives might be offered independent of her insurance and payment plan. The patient also has a right to know the economic pressures and arrangements between the second and third parties that could influence the quantity and quality of her health care. QUALITY OF CARE--Managed care contends to be religiously attentive to quality of care. If this is so, the very definition of quality of care may be changing. PMID:8829689

  2. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  3. Superintendents' Responses to the Achievement Gap: An Ethical Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Grogan, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Uses multidimensional ethical framework to critique 15 Virginia superintendents' responses to the achievement gap as measured by the Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. Questions majority of superintendents' readiness to deal with moral and ethical issues related to achievement gap. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  4. Decolonial pedagogy and the ethics of the global

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noah De Lissovoy

    2010-01-01

    An ethical and democratic globality, and the kind of education that would contribute to it, are only possible in the context of a recognition of the relations of power that have shaped history, and in particular the political, cultural, economic, and epistemological processes of domination that have characterized colonialism and Eurocentrism. Imagining an ethics of the global in this context

  5. Operations Research and Ethics: Responsibility, Sharing and Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Giorgio

    , are analyzed. Then, two ethical principles, which can help O.R. researchers and practitioners in their activity years. The r^ole of Operations Research in addressing social issues has been advocated among others by Rosenhead [15] [16] and, more recently, by Koch [11]. Schneeweiss [18] analyzes the relations between ethics

  6. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  7. What on Earth Are We Doing with Environmental Ethics in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenski, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Submitted are both the rationale and the various perspectives fundamental to the development of an environmental ethics curriculum. These perspectives, each of which shifts the view of humanity away from an anthropocentric focus, include an holistic approach to environmental perceptions and a biocentric approach with concentration on life…

  8. Economics and ethics in mental health care: traditions and trade-offs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Chisholm; Alan Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Background: Both economic and ethical perspectives are exerting increasing influence at all levels of mental health policy and practice; yet there is little consensus on how these two different perspectives are to be reconciled or explicitly incorporated into decision-making. Aim: This review article is directed towards a fuller understanding of the complex trade-offs and compromises that are or may be

  9. Integrating justice and care in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Lekan, Todd

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethics presents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life. PMID:15462029

  10. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  11. Relational Turning Point Events and Their Outcomes in College Teacher-Student Relationships from Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony; Manusov, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher-student interaction using a relational frame (i.e., describing the student-teacher dynamic as inherently relational). Specifically, we focus on turning points and their potential outcomes in student-teacher relationships. Students who were able to identify a relational turning point event with a…

  12. BBC: Religion & Ethics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Religion and ethics are some of the most debated areas of the human experience around the world, so it is fitting that the BBC has created this online clearinghouse of relevant information and news coverage about these two complex topics. The site contains a number of general interest sections that provide rich discussion of various world religions and a number of subjects in the field of ethics, such as the ethics of war, euthanasia, human cloning, and genetic engineering. Visitors can also listen to broadcasts of the BBC's many programs devoted to exploring various religions, such as Missionaries, which looks at the legacy of missionary work around the world. Equally compelling are the fractious message boards where visitors can opine about various religious topics and ethical debates. The site is rounded out by an interactive multi faith calendar, which shows the religious festivals and celebrations of eight world faiths.

  13. Ethics and scientific publication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Dale J. Benos (University of Alabama at Birmingham Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics)

    2005-06-01

    Description of ethical problems seen in scientific publications Other authors: Jessica P. Gutierrez, Kristin Hennessy, David Kosek, Joo Hyoung Lee, Dragos Olteanu, Tara Russell, Faheem Shaikh and Kai Wang

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of healthcare ethics and law among doctors and nurses in Barbados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seetharaman Hariharan; Ramesh Jonnalagadda; Errol Walrond; Harley Moseley

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. METHODS: A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in

  15. The influence of ethical fit on employee satisfaction, commitment and turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randi L. Sims; K. Galen Kroeck

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the influence of ethical fit on employee attitudes and intentions to turnover. The results of this investigation provides support for the conjecture that ethical work climate is an important variable in the study of person-organization fit. Ethical fit was found to be significantly related to turnover intentions, continuance commitment, and affective commitment, but not to job satisfaction.

  16. The ethical climate of government and non-profit organizations Implications for public-private partnerships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Rasmussen; David Malloy; James Agarwal

    2003-01-01

    One aspect of relations between government and non-profit organizations that has received little attention is the impact of differing ethical climates. Using Victor and Cullens' model of ethical climate, this article offers a qualitative survey of the differences between the two sectors. It finds that there are differences in both the sources of ethical climate and the criteria used to

  17. Consumer Ethics in the European Union: A Comparison of Northern and Southern Views

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jay Polonsky; Pedro Quelhas Brito; Jorge Pinto; Nicola Higgs-Kleyn

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding consumer ethical actions in relation to their dealings with firms. This paper examines whether there are differences between Northern and Southern European Union (EU) consumers' perceptions of ethical consumer behaviour using Muncy and Vitell's (1992) Consumer Ethics Scale (CES). The study samples 962 university students across four Northern EU countries (Germany, Denmark, Scotland,

  18. The Technologies of Normalization and Self: Thinking about IRBs and Extrinsic Research Ethics with Foucault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gemignani, Marco; Brodeur, Cheri Winton; Kmiec, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the technologies of normalization and self in relation to ethics and the problematization of extrinsic research ethics. They argue that institutional review boards (IRBs) and other similar institutional mechanisms promote extrinsic forms of ethics that are exemplified through institutionalized structures such…

  19. Ethics and Integrity. Symposium 27. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on ethics and integrity from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Factors Influencing Ethical Resolution Efficacy: A Model for HRD Practitioners" (Kimberly S. McDonald), proposes a model of ethical resolution efficacy for HRD practitioners. The model suggests that factors related to…

  20. Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Greg; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Laaser, Ulrich; Meershoek, Agnes; Popa, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Global health ethics is a relatively new term that is used to conceptualize the process of applying moral value to health issues that are typically characterized by a global level effect or require action coordinated at a global level. It is important to acknowledge that this account of global health ethics takes a predominantly geographic approach and may infer that the subject relates primarily to macro-level health phenomena. However, global health ethics could alternatively be thought of as another branch of health ethics. It may then relate to specific topics in themselves, which might also include micro-level health phenomena. In its broadest sense, global health ethics is a normative project that is best characterized by the challenge of developing common values and universal norms for responding to global health threats. Consequently, many subjects fall within its scope. Whilst several accounts of global health ethics have been conceptualized in the literature, a concise demarcation of the paradigm is still needed. Through means of a literature review, this paper presents a two-part introduction to global health ethics. First, the framework of ‘borrowed’ ethics that currently form the core of global health ethics is discussed in relation to two essential ethical considerations: 1) what is the moral significance of health and 2) what is the moral significance of boundaries? Second, a selection of exemplar ethical topics is presented to illustrate the range of topics within global health ethics. PMID:24560262

  1. Ethics in and During Technological Research; An Addition to IT Ethics and Science Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke van Gorp

    Although IT ethics deals with interesting ethical issues that are of importance in and during technological research and development,\\u000a these ethical issues are not always relevant for the individual researcher developing new technologies. I identify four reasons\\u000a why ethical issues raised by IT ethics might be relevant for the goal of a project as a whole but not for the

  2. Ethical and Legal Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira J. Kodner; Mark Siegler; Daniel M. Freeman; William T. Choctaw

    \\u000a Professional responsibilities have been a concern of surgeons since antiquity; however, the last 25 years have displayed a\\u000a dramatic growth of both professional and societal attention to moral and ethical issues involved in the delivery of health\\u000a care. This increased interest in medical ethics has occurred because of factors such as the greater technological power of\\u000a modern medicine, the assigning

  3. Relationship between Machiavellianism and Type A personality and ethical-orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael Rayburn; L. Gayle Rayburn

    1996-01-01

    Results of a study investigating the relation between personality traits and ethical-orientation indicate sex is not an good predictor for differences in Machiavellian-, Type A personality- or ethical-orientation. Intelligence is found to be positively associated with Machiavellian- and Type A personality-orientation but negatively associated with ethical-orientation. Machiavellians tend to have Type A personalities, but tend to be less ethically-oriented than

  4. Pregnancy related issues in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence base and patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Christian P; Leong, Rupert Wl; Lal, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of childbearing age and can influence fertility, pregnancy and decisions regarding breastfeeding. Women with IBD need to consider the possible course of disease during pregnancy, the benefits and risks associated with medications required for disease management during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the effects of mode of delivery on their disease. When indicated, aminosalicylates and thiopurines can be safely used during pregnancy. Infliximab and Adalimumab are considered probably safe during the first two trimesters. During the third trimester the placenta can be crossed and caution should be applied. Methotrexate is associated with severe teratogenicity due to its folate antagonism and is strictly contraindicated. Women with IBD tend to deliver earlier than healthy women, but can have a vaginal delivery in most cases. Caesarean sections are generally recommended for women with active perianal disease or after ileo-anal pouch surgery.While the impact of disease activity and medication has been addressed in several studies, there are minimal studies evaluating patients' perspective on these issues. Women's attitudes may influence their decision to have children and can positively or negatively influence the chance of conceiving, and their beliefs regarding therapies may impact on the course of their disease during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding. This review article outlines the impact of IBD and its treatment on pregnancy, and examines the available data on patients' views on this subject. PMID:22690068

  5. Stakeholders' perspectives related to the development of a scooter training program.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, W Ben; Hoag, Emily; Higgins, Rosemary; Emery, Richelle; Joyce, Linda

    2014-08-29

    Abstract Purpose: To understand the perspectives of various stakeholders on the importance of and issues around scooter training and to identify elements recommended for a new scooter-training program. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the past and present scooter users, their caregivers, scooter prescribers and vendors across Canada and internationally. These stakeholders were asked about the importance of scooter training, the training currently provided/available, and the content and format of training they preferred. Results: The majority of stakeholders strongly agreed that scooter training is important to ameliorate skills and increase confidence. Only 25% of scooter users reported receiving training. There was consensus regarding the basic (e.g. on/off switch, control, speeds, battery maintenance) and advanced skills (e.g. completing community errands, using an elevator, public transit, crossing intersections) that should be included in scooter training. Conclusion: Despite its perceived importance, few users reported receiving training, which suggests a large unmet need. The findings of this study lay the groundwork for the development of a scooter training program that is intended to give users the skills to participate safely and confidently in their communities. Implications for Rehabilitation Respondents indicate that scooter training is important for skill development and self-confidence. Reported rates of scooter training are low. Respondents recommend that scooter training should occur in clients' homes and communities. Consideration of the person and their environment is important to ensure that training meets the needs and abilities of the scooter user. PMID:25170986

  6. Conceptualizing autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness: relating philosophical theories to social scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mars, Godelief M J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Janssen, Peter P M; van Eijk, Jacques T M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this article is to conceptualize autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness. To this end, we compare and contrast a selection of contemporary philosophical theories of autonomy with social scientific perspectives on chronic illness, particularly models of disability and symbolic interactionism. The philosophical theories mainly depart from a positive conceptualization of autonomy, which involves actively shaping one's life and identifying with fundamental values. This conceptualization is preferred over a negative conceptualization, which defines autonomy as non-interference, for its compatibility with social models of disability and with the assumption that people are interdependent. Interference may disable, but also enable people with a chronic illness to shape their lives. What matters is that people can realize what they want to realize. We suggest that, in the context of chronic physical illness, autonomy might be conceptualized as correspondence between what people want their lives to be like and what their lives are actually like. Disturbed autonomy might be restored either by expanding opportunities to arrange life or by adjusting how one wants life to be arranged. The grounds for the latter approach might be questioned, first, if people have not adjusted what they want carefully, and second, if reorganization of the material and social environment would have made it unnecessary to adjust one's arrangement of life. PMID:18579631

  7. Support to students with Asperger syndrome in higher education--the perspectives of three relatives and three coordinators.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Ann Simmeborn

    2012-03-01

    An increasing number of students with disabilities attend institutes of higher education (HE). Among this group are persons with Asperger syndrome (AS). Persons with AS have a cognitive impairment that can interfere with their studies and the ability to describe their needs and ask for support. This study deals with an assessment of the support services for students with AS from the perspectives of the students' relatives and the students' service providers at the universities they attend. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) earlier experiences and events in relation to the transition of students with AS to higher education, according to the relatives' perceptions of how these experiences and events affect university studies; and (b) the perceptions of both the relatives of students with AS and the coordinators for students with disabilities with respect to the study environment and support for students with AS. The approach is a case study methodology involving relatives and university coordinators for three students with AS. The coordinators' way of working with students with disabilities is primarily based on the coordinators' own ideas. No specific organizational routines exist for students with AS. The results reveal that the needs of students with AS have to be made explicit and must be incorporated into the support system. Relatives lack information about the situation and opportunities to engage in collaboration. Universities must adapt the support system to the cognitive impairments experienced by AS students and the difficulties of their everyday lives. The relatives of students with AS may play the central role in supporting the students and in understanding their impairment. PMID:22315142

  8. Ethical Traceability and Ethical Room for Manoeuvre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel Korthals

    2008-01-01

    Food production in Europe is in crisis because of ethical consumer concerns and the continuing emergence of safety and health\\u000a issues, which have resulted in a steady decline of trust in the sector on the part of governments and consumers. Several alternatives\\u000a to current production methods are proposed, such as more stringent government control (e.g. Dutch policy from 1982–1998) or

  9. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  10. BrandsA critical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Arvidsson

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a critical perspectives on brands based on recent developments within Marxist thought. It argues that brands build on the immaterial labour of consumers: their ability to create an ethical surplus (a social bond, a shared experience, a common identity) through productive communication. This labour is generally free in the sense that it is both un-paid and more

  11. Exploring the ethics of prescribing medicines.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jan

    2010-05-01

    The delivery of holistic care should incorporate patient empowerment through the promotion of health and self-help measures, including pain relief. In this article, the author, a newly qualified independent prescriber, explains why she believes that encouraging patients to buy over-the-counter medication is morally acceptable and based on the principles of beneficence and non-malevolence. She also reflects on her prescribing decisions in the context of ethics, health economics and personal perspective for four patients with similar injuries. The author works in Wales, where prescriptions are free to residents. PMID:20527454

  12. "Everything Changed": Relational Turning Point Events in College Teacher-Student Relationships from Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate college teachers' experiences of relational turning points with their students, as well as how these turning point events may affect teacher outcomes. Teachers who were able to identify a relational turning point event with a student (n=306, 78.5% of the overall sample) completed open- and closed-ended…

  13. The Gendered Nature of Career Related Learning Experiences: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine M.; Subich, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    The learning experiences questionnaire (LEQ; Schaub & Tokar, 2005) was used to examine learning experiences as they relate to SCCT (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) across the Holland (1997) RIASEC typology. In particular, differences in men's and women's career related learning experiences were examined. A sample of 319 undergraduates at a public…

  14. Incorporating Global/Multicultural Perspectives in Public Relations Education: An Ethnographic Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhan, Nilanjana

    This paper points out that in public relations (PR) the global network approach is fast catching on along with the trend of opening subsidiary offices and entering joint ventures and affiliations with PR agencies in various parts of the world. The paper discusses the need to build theory in the area of international public relations so that…

  15. Addressing Sexuality-Related Needs in Practice: Perspectives of Maternal/Child and Women's Health Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propst, Maureen G.; Phillips, Billie Rhea; Andrew, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of sexuality-related nursing practices was completed by 130 maternal/child and women's health nurses. A disparity was found between their agreement on nurses' role in sexuality-related practices and their actual practice; 46.5% felt only somewhat knowledgeable about sexuality. (SK)

  16. Managing Corporate External Relations: Changing Perspectives and Responses. Report No. 679.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Phyllis S.

    Because of their direct or indirect impact on a company, relations with its publics have long been a preoccupation of management. This study, based on information received from more than 500 executives representing 368 companies, documents the complex of issues and publics that shapes contemporary corporate external relations efforts and probes…

  17. Using Feature Films to Teach Public Relations: An Assessment Model from Nonmajor Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Hutton, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching fundamental public relations courses to students from diverse backgrounds poses additional complexities in learning effectiveness. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness and identified the challenges of using films to teach public relations among nonmajor students. Results from an online survey and two focus groups found that…

  18. Whose Ethics in the Classroom? On the Politics of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    The issue of whose "facts" and whose perspective will control classroom discussions of social questions tends to surface in one of two related ways: (1) in connection with efforts to mandate the content of the instructional matter, and (2) in connection with attacks on teachers whose instructional material contains facts or evaluations offensive…

  19. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right to reproductive freedom, and improves the prospects for expanded social justice. PMID:1434763

  20. [Spanish Society of Cardiology ethical framework (executive summary)].

    PubMed

    de los Reyes López, Manuel; Martķn Luengo, Cįndido; Brugada Terradellas, Josep; Sanz Romero, Ginés; Lidón Corbķ, Rosa Marķa; Martķn Burrieza, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    The Spanish Society of Cardiology (SEC) has produced an Ethical Framework Document. This document is divided into two distinct parts that deal, respectively, with the responsibilities of the SEC as an organization and the responsibilities of its professional members. The SEC makes recommendations on how its members should carry out their daily clinical practice, provides a professional perspective on public commitments as a scientific association, and aims to ensure that any views, recommendations, and advice expressed provide the basis for an informed debate on ethical problems in our field of work. PMID:17194427

  1. [Civil, criminal and ethical liability of medical doctors].

    PubMed

    Udelsmann, Artur

    2002-01-01

    In the last years doctors have been the target of a growing number of civil, criminal law suits, as well as ethical procedures. Medicine is a widely targeted career, not only owing to its inherent risks, but also owing to a mistaken approach of the Judiciary Power about the obligations of medical doctors. Decisions of the Medical Board in ethical procedures have an impact in civil and criminal justice and therefore should be followed closely. The purpose of this review is to provide a wide view from a doctor-lawyer perspective of cases involving civil, criminal liability of anesthesiologists as well as ethical procedures against them, in an effort to make them comprehensible to doctors. After a brief historical introduction civil liability foundations and legal articles are examined. Responsibilities of doctors, hospitals and health insurance providers are discussed separately, as well as reparation mechanisms. Crimes possible to occur during medical practice and respective penalties are described; the direct relationship between crime and civil reparation is demonstrated. The administrative nature of ethical procedure is described, emphasizing that the legal character of its penalties often serve as grounds for civil and criminal justice decisions. Prevention is still the best medicine. Good medical practice and a good medical-patient relationship are still the best ways to minimize lawsuits and their repercussions. Doctors should have some knowledge of juridical mechanisms in lawsuits and ethical procedures, but should not take defense initiatives without prior consultation of an attorney. Civil, criminal and ethical liability of physicians. PMID:12205537

  2. Ethical Judgments in Business Ethics Research: Definition, and Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Sparks; Yue Pan

    2010-01-01

    Decades of empirical and theoretical research has produced an extensive literature on the ethical judgments construct. Given\\u000a its importance to understanding people’s ethical choices, future research should explore the psychological processes that\\u000a produce ethical judgments. In this paper, the authors discuss two steps needed to advance this effort. First, they note that\\u000a the business ethics literature lacks a single, generally

  3. [Some ethical aspects of donation and transplantation].

    PubMed

    Martķnez, K

    2006-01-01

    Ethical and legal consensus in our country bases the practice of donations and transplants on different ethical principles, which are contained in the legislation, closely conforming to the four principles of principialist bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. The level of donations achieved in our milieu might, in fact, be related to a strict respect for these principles by the health professionals, as well as to the excellent organisation of the transplant world. Many scientific, technical and ethical challenges have had to be met to reach the present state of the transplant. And there are many current challenges. The article only analyses some of these due to their technical, ethical and social repercussions: organ transplants involving a live donor, the public request for organs, the organ market, the transplant of non-vital organs (basically the face transplant), the use of stem cells and the banks of umbilical cord cells. The aim of the article is to state the ethical problems raised by these new practices, in order to lay the foundations for a moral deliberation that must necessarily involve the whole of society. PMID:17469237

  4. The Most Exciting Thing: Researcher Ethics and Personal Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This autoethnographic chapter explores the thoughts, feelings, desires, and ethical struggles of the author when he rode along with a patrol officer and saw a dead body. Drawing on communication ethics, the author problematizes his ethics, faith, identity, and personal desires. He learns it is important for researchers to consider their personal…

  5. New Age Ethics: Ethical Implications on Critical Future Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Patricia W.

    Twentieth century scientific advancement has produced a "New Age" requiring a new ethics. The nature of human action has been profoundly and irrevocably modified. Theoretically, an ethics for the New Age must take into account humankind's new relationships to human interaction and to the natural world. New issues requiring important ethical

  6. Immunity-related genes in Ixodes scapularis—perspectives from genome information

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexis A.; Pal, Utpal

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the deer tick, transmits a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite substantial advances in our understanding of immunity in model arthropods, including other disease vectors, precisely how I. scapularis immunity functions and influences persistence of invading pathogens remains largely unknown. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the recently sequenced I. scapularis genome for the occurrence of immune-related genes and related pathways. We will also discuss the potential influence of immunity-related genes on the persistence of tick-borne pathogens with an emphasis on the Lyme disease pathogen B. burgdorferi. Further enhancement of our knowledge of tick immune responses is critical to understanding the molecular basis of the persistence of tick-borne pathogens and development of novel interventions against the relevant infections. PMID:25202684

  7. What Is the (ethical) Role of Scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many scientists are reluctant to speak out on issues of broad societal importance for fear that doing so crosses into territory that is not the scientists' domain. Others fear that scientists lose credibility when they address ethical and moral issues. A related concern is that discussing social or ethical questions runs the risk of politicizing science. Yet history shows that in the past, scientists often have spoken out on broad issues of societal concern, often (although not always) effectively. This paper explores the conditions under which scientists may be effective spokesmen and women on ethical and moral choices, and suggests some criteria by which scientists might decide when and whether it is appropriate for them to speak out beyond the circles of other technical experts.

  8. Preventing the Next Mass Extinction: Ethical Obligations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a framework to judge whether we are meeting our ethical responsibilities for preventing massive species extinction. The framework is a generalization from another framework, one that addresses ethical responsibilities related to preventing premature, involuntary human deaths from environmental risks and the extinction of the human race. The resulting ethical risk standards are quite stringent and it is argued that we are nowhere close to meeting any standards, except in the cases of human extinction and extinction of all life on earth, which are met by chance, not by design. Much work is needed to build the 'technology' needed to estimate probabilities associated with massive losses of human life and species extinction over the suggested 1000 year planning horizon.

  9. Critique of NEH Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oandasan, William

    1981-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities' Code of Ethics for research of Native Americans, based on the Indian Religious Freedom Act (P.L. 95-561, 1978) and the National Historic Preservation Act (P.L. 96-515), is a model for awarding research grants. The Code will stimulate improved relations between scholars and Native Americans. (LC)

  10. Ethics and Concepts of Cultural Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer

    Theories and practices of social scientists in relation to cultural change are described and evaluated. The first section considers psychology's emerging ethics, reviewing the work of Maslow, Fromm, and Money-Kyrle. Part II presents and considers some claims that specific cultures are maladaptive or sick, according to varying standards, and Part…

  11. Ethical issues in clinical trials involving nanomedicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Resnik; Sally S. Tinkle

    2007-01-01

    Nanomedicine shows tremendous promise for improving medical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, but it also raises a variety of ethical concerns. Because of the paucity of data on the physicochemical properties of nanoscale materials in biological systems, clinical trials of nanomedicine products present some unique challenges related to risk minimization, management and communication involving human subjects. Although these clinical trials do

  12. The ethics of genetic testing of families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie M Procter

    2002-01-01

    The ethics of genetic testing relate in particular to the need to obtain a balance between the possible benefits conferred on and the potential harm done to an individual and their family as a consequence of both the process and the results obtained from genetic investigations. It is not always possible to predict the effect of the receipt of genetic

  13. Ethical Challenges Regarding Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper places the question of ethical challenges in relation to the process of globalization concerning international education and the mobility of international students worldwide. It focuses on five areas of justice, namely, social and political justice, administrative justice, distributive justice, cultural justice and ecological justice.…

  14. Information Ethics for Librarians and Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murgai, Sarla

    This paper focuses on ethics for librarians and library science in the age of electronic information. First outlined is the "public relations nightmare" that the Internet is creating for the administrators and the library staff. It is suggested that libraries pick a common sense approach that involves the library staff and community and that an…

  15. Identifying Ethical Hypernorms for Accounting Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Philip H.; Mintz, Steven; Naser-Tavakolian, Mohsen; O'Shaughnessy, John

    2012-01-01

    Accounting educators have a unique role in academe because students learn about codes of ethics that will guide their actions as professionals. We identify hypernorms related to internal auditing educators that reflect unethical behaviors believed to be universally unacceptable by that community. We then compare the results to a prior survey of…

  16. Ethical concerns about genetic testing and screening.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Many of the ethical concerns raised by genetic testing and screening relate to accuracy, cost, and confidentiality. Perhaps the most serious worry-one that is not without merit-is that the new genomics is a disguised version of the old eugenics. On balance, however, genetic testing and screening seem to be in society's best interests. PMID:24316782

  17. Is Your (Ethical) Slippage Showing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Lowell G.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the causes of ethical slippage which damages creditability and invites increased governmental regulation. Suggests 15 concrete steps that can be taken to rectify the situation. Includes an ethics test. (JOW)

  18. Teaching Ethics to Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joyce E.; Thompson, Henry O.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the ethics content to be taught in nursing education and the goals of ethics education for both undergraduate and graduate students. Teacher qualifications and evaluation of learning are also considered. (CH)

  19. Productivity, fertilizer responses and nutrient balances of farming systems in central Tigray, Ethiopia: a multi-perspective view in relation to degradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaijvanger, Richard; Veldkamp, Tom; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    In many rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa, crop productivity plays an important role since it links with food insecurity, which again is a major constraining factor in livelihood development. Sustainable livelihood development and land degradation are closely connected: lacking sustainability often results in land degradation, whereas the incidence of land degradation frequently frustrates sustainable development. Important forms of land degradation are soil erosion and nutrient depletion, both often being attributed to exhaustive land use practices and both having a direct and major impact on crop productivity. Application of nutrients is an important way to increase productivity. In our study area, central Tigray, development agents recommend the application of fertilizers at high rates in order to boost productivity and to deal with nutrient depletion. In the discussion about the use of fertilizers different perspectives can be taken, in which especially responses and nutrient balances are important issues, linking respectively with socio-economic and agro-ecological livelihood aspects. Ethiopian soils for example are, based on large scale nutrient balances, considered to be depleted, at field scale fertilizer responses are frequently disappointing and achieving sustainable nutrient balances at farm level seems difficult. At a temporal scale however, agricultural systems remained almost unchanged for over 2500 years, suggesting at least some degree of sustainability. With respect to productivity data resulting from on-farm experimentation with natural and artificial fertilizers in 26 sites, we took four perspectives, different in ownership and scale, on nutrient related land degradation and its assumed impact on crop productivity. Taking a farmer perspective we found no significant difference between responses to recommended and current farmer based practices. Taking a more scientific perspective highlighted that, based on the positive correlation between response and soil-P, phosphorus was limiting. A relatively short term farm-level perspective made clear that closing nutrient balances to achieve sustainability is difficult, only the use of manure seemed somewhat satisfactory in this. In case a long term perspective is taken, apparent historical sustainability seems to relate to the combination of relatively low yield levels and mixed farming. Depending on the perspective taken different interventions can be forwarded, all four perspectives however indicate that strengthening the existing mixed farming system provides a promising alternative, allowing the improvement of agro-ecological as well as socio-economic sustainability of involved livelihoods.

  20. A Developmental Perspective on Assessment of Infants with Clefts and Related Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Hallie E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for comprehensive developmental assessment for infants with cleft palates/lips and related disorders. The assessment model is based on risk factors influencing early development and on clinical research on developmental outcomes. Implications on the clinical assessment process and early intervention are discussed.…