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1

ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN NEUROLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of neurology presents a series of ethical challenges for the clinician. These rarely have simple or straightforward solutions, but require careful consideration by the neurologist. This section of , written by colleagues with particular interest in the area of bioethics, provides a case vignette that raises one or more ethical questions related to the subject area of this

Nancy T. Rodgers-Neame; James P. Orlowski

2009-01-01

2

Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.  

PubMed

The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

Barbosa, António

2012-01-01

3

Media ethics in perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

American media, in the face of the Grenada invasion “lockout”; and the Westmoreland\\/Sharon libel actions, seem to be running scared. No longer are there accusations of “imperial media,”; as newspapers, radio, and television news consumption decline. Media response is to look to ethics. Media should learn that corporate consciousness is less important in guiding the medium than is service to

1986-01-01

4

Environmental Ethics: A Hindu Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Hindu religious scriptures as teachings about the human relationship with the environment and attitude toward ecology. Describes how religion has been a historical teacher of environmental ethics. Presents the Hindu view of humanity as it relates to the environment as portrayed in the Hindu theories. (10 references) (MCO)

Asopa, Sheel K.

1992-01-01

5

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

6

Race relations in police operations: A legal and ethical perspective for officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation looks beyond the contemporary controversy over the use of race in drug courier profiling and examines the\\u000a broad spectrum of rare relations affecting police operations. Racial controversy is not new to law enforcement, nor is it\\u000a a recent phenomenon in American society. American police do not get enough credit for the enormous amount of positive daily\\u000a interaction within

Carl Milazzo; Ronald Hansen

2002-01-01

7

Relational ethics and genetic counseling.  

PubMed

Genetic counseling is viewed as a therapeutic interrelationship between genetic counselors and their clients. In a previous relational ethics research project, various themes were identified as key components of relational ethics practice grounded in everyday health situations. In this article the relational ethics approach is further explored in the context of genetic counseling to enhance our understanding of how the counselor-client relationship is contextually developed and maintained. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six adult clients undergoing genetic counseling for predictive testing. Engagement, dialogue and presence were revealed as relevant to genetic counselor-client relationships. A relational ethics approach in genetic counseling challenges the concept of nondirectiveness and may enhance the outcome of counseling for both counselor and client. PMID:15362355

Evans, Marilyn; Bergum, Vangie; Bamforth, Stephen; MacPhail, Sandra

2004-09-01

8

Ethical & Legal Issues in Suicidology: International Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical and legal issues are complex—more complex than one person can be consciously aware of. To discuss such issues from only one perspective would be myopic. Therefore, this review article was written by authors from 12 countries\\/cultures: Australia, China, Cuba, Ireland, India, Japan, Lithuania, Russia., South Africa, The Netherlands, Turtle Island and United States. The following issues were addressed: Standards

Antoon Leenaars; Chris Cantor; John Connolly; Marlene EchoHawk; Danute Gailiene; Zhao Xiong He; Natalia Kokorina; David Lester; Andrew Lopatin; Mario Rodriguez; Lourens Schlebusch; Yoshitomo Takahashi; Lakshmi Vijayakumar

2002-01-01

9

Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

Hutchison, Liese L.

2002-01-01

10

Ethical Challenges Within Veterans Administration Healthcare Facilities: Perspectives of Managers, Clinicians, Patients, and Ethics Committee Chairpersons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote ethical practices, healthcare managers must understand the ethical challenges encountered by key stakeholders. To characterize ethical challenges in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities from the perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics consultants. We conducted focus groups with patients (n = 32) and managers (n = 38); semi-structured interviews with managers (n = 31), clinicians (n = 55), and

Mary Beth Foglia; Robert A. Pearlman; Melissa Bottrell; Jane K. Altemose; Ellen Fox

2009-01-01

11

Ethics Education in Family and Consumer Economics: Perspectives and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the conceptual frameworks of consequentialist and nonconsequentialist ethics as examples of two common and competing moral perspectives. Suggests possibilities for applications of ethics to issues that are common in consumer and family economics curricula. (Author/JOW)

Peterson, Audrey L.

1993-01-01

12

Ethics in surgery: historical perspective.  

PubMed

Ethics codes and guidelines date back to the origins of medicine in virtually all civilizations. Developed by the medical practitioners of each era and culture, oaths, prayers, and codes bound new physicians to the profession through agreement with the principles of conduct toward patients, colleagues, and society. Although less famous than the Hippocratic oath, the medical fraternities of ancient India, seventh-century China, and early Hebrew society each had medical oaths or codes that medical apprentices swore to on professional initiation. The Hippocratic oath, which graduating medical students swear to at more than 60% of US medical schools, is perhaps the most enduring medical oath of Western civilization. Other oaths commonly sworn to by new physicians include the Declaration of Geneva (a secular, updated form of the Hippocratic oath formulated by the World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire, France) and the Prayer of Moses Maimondes, developed by the 18th-century Jewish physician Marcus Herz. PMID:10636339

Tung, T; Organ, C H

2000-01-01

13

Major issues relating to end-of-life care : Ethical, legal and medical from a historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end-of-life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the progress, there are still unresolved issues concerning the scope and effectiveness of personal decision making and the proper use of last resort measures in terminal care. An analysis of the progress discloses both

Robert F. Rizzo

2005-01-01

14

Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective  

E-print Network

Guidelines on Publication Ethics have been written to offer journal editors a frame- work for developingBest Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective Chris Graf1 , Elizabeth, journal editors, authors, research funders, readers, and publishers. Good publication practices do

Twente, Universiteit

15

The Ethics of Research into Schizophrenia Prevention: A Carer's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To outline from a carer's\\/family's perspective the ethical concerns raised by research into screening for factors in people at risk of schizophrenia.Method: The need for families and carers of people with schizophrenia to seek a voice in the ethics of research into schizophrenia prevention is described. The possibility that societal myths, literature and language have created sustained ignorance about

Dymphna Rees Peterson

2000-01-01

16

Business ethics: the materiel/manufacturing perspective.  

PubMed

The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm. PMID:10105564

Marucheck, A S; Robbins, L B

1990-08-01

17

Ethical perspectives on knowledge translation in rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

Banja, John D; Eisen, Arri

2013-01-01

18

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.  

PubMed

Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

Serour, G I

2013-11-01

19

Towards Professionalism: Ethical Perspectives of Israeli Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to gain a better understanding of teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas and roles. Qualitative data were collected by interviewing 32 teachers in seven schools. Interviewees were asked to provide detailed descriptions of ethical dilemmas they had encountered. The coding process focused on critical incidents…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2009-01-01

20

An Ethic of Care: A Relational Ethic for the Relational Characteristics of Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, I review the evolution of an ethic of care over the last 30 years as a comprehensive ethical framework. It\\u000a is a relational ethic that recognizes we are all embedded in webs of overlapping and dynamic concrete relationships throughout\\u000a our personal and public lives, and expects concrete actions to enhance the well-being of those in the relationship.

Thomas F. Hawk

21

Can Suicide Be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…

Feldman, David B.

2006-01-01

22

Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

2011-01-01

23

Bernadette Bensaude Vincent Ethical Perspectives on Synthetic Biology  

E-print Network

1 Bernadette Bensaude Vincent Ethical Perspectives on Synthetic Biology Biological Theory. 8 [4 established that the emergence of novel technologies such as nanotechnology, genomics, or synthetic biology funded research programs on synthetic biology have devoted a portion of their budgets to the study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

ETHICS AND REFLECTING PROCESSES: A SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins with the premise that the therapeutic space occupied by social work straddles both systemic and psychodynamic perspectives and therefore that social work has been ill?served by the traditional oppositionality between the two orientations. The systemic perspective on reflecting teams and processes is the primary focus and this is discussed in terms of intersections with themes in social

Mary Donovan

2007-01-01

25

Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.  

PubMed

On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

Diekema, Douglas S

2009-01-01

26

Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

2013-01-01

27

Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics. PMID:19161568

Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

2009-03-01

28

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

29

Summary of “Toward a Global Media Ethics: Theoretical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a summary of “Toward a Global Media Ethics: Theoretical Perspectives,” which appeared in Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 29(2), 2008, 135–172. The article was written by Clifford G. Christians, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Shakuntala Rao, State University of New York-Plattsburgh; Stephen J. A. Ward, University of Wisconsin-Madison; and Herman Wasserman, University of Sheffield. It was the result

Stephen J. A. Ward

2010-01-01

30

The nexus between ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility : An internal organisational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The commentary aims to consider the nexus between corporate marketing, ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility. It seeks to take an explicit internal organisational perspective. It also aims to identify future research avenues. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The commentary explains the relevance of the previous interlinking concepts with a discussion based on a review of past

Shaun M. Powell

2011-01-01

31

Telemedicine: medical, legal and ethical perspectives.  

PubMed

Technological innovations in medical care have led to the development of telemedicine programs in both rural and urban environments. The necessity for telemedicine has increased immensely as more cost-effective treatment options have become available for both patients and physicians through the addition of telecommunication technologies to medical practice. The development of telemedicine systems began as a means of providing access to health care resources for individuals living in isolated rural areas, grew into advanced medical intervention techniques for soldiers on the battlefield, and have become prevalent in urban medical centers both as a resource to the underserved populations and as a platform for physicians off-site to conduct patient consults remotely. Urban telemedicine systems, as monitored in the Mercy Health System (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center (Atlantic City, New Jersey), display the enormous benefits of telemedicine as a form of preliminary analysis of patients for the treatment of various medical conditions including chronic disease, mental health disorders and stroke. However, the initiation of telemedicine programs requires new protocols and safeguards to be initiated to protect patient confidentiality/privacy, ensure the appropriate licensure of physicians practicing across state borders, and educate patients on the use of new technological systems. Telemedicine represents the progression of medicine in the presence of improving communication technologies and should be instituted in all urban medical centers. This conclusion is based upon the ethical responsibility to treat all persons with dignity and respect, which in this case, mandates the provision of the most cost-effective, beneficial medical care for all populations. PMID:21119593

Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Harrison, Joseph

2010-12-01

32

Ethical dilemmas in nonclinical health research from a UK perspective.  

PubMed

This article examines the ethical dilemmas faced by professional and academic researchers in the health field who undertake nonclinical or social research among patients or staff. The experiences of health researchers and health professionals in the UK are directly relevant to those undertaking similar health-related research in other parts of the world at a time when nonclinical research in health care is becoming widespread in all countries and cultures. This article addresses ethical dilemmas as they relate to researchers' ability to maintain confidentiality, their commitment to the welfare of respondents, and the tensions that arise from undertaking research for an employer. In addition, the danger of conducting covert research inadvertently may present unexpected ethical problems, which are discussed. Although it is impossible to provide a policy document to address all ethical dilemmas, this article does attempt to address the question of how best to approach health-related research in order to minimize the possibility of running into ethical problems at a later stage. PMID:16010887

Grinyer, A

2001-03-01

33

Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".  

PubMed

More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary. PMID:20675942

Prograis, Lawrence J

2010-08-01

34

Brainwashing, LSD, and CIA: historical and ethical perspective.  

PubMed

The history of various attempts at thought control and chemical warfare is briefly reviewed. Brainwashing, thought control, industrial and national espionage, and covert activities are becoming more sophisticated. These issues have been revived and accentuated by the Vietnam war, the Middle East Crisis, Watergate, the CIA investigations and the Patty Hearst trial. Historical perspective and the ethical implications of these activities are explored. It is suggested that there is a growing level of individual and international mistrust amounting to paranoia and complicating the issues of individual freedom, civil rights and human experimentation. PMID:863610

Buckman, J

1977-01-01

35

Struggling with the fragility of life: a relational-narrative approach to ethics in palliative nursing.  

PubMed

In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethical dilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual. PMID:16045242

Abma, Tineke A

2005-07-01

36

Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

2013-08-01

37

A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.  

PubMed

The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy. PMID:24919946

Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

2014-12-01

38

[Cancer screening from the perspective of public health ethics].  

PubMed

Cancer screening programs aim at reducing the tumor-related morbidity and mortality by early detection of malignant tumors or precancerous lesions. The basic ethical dilemma in cancer screening is, however, that many people have to be exposed to the burdens and risks of the intervention for a few people to benefit from early cancer diagnosis. This article discusses under which conditions it is ethically acceptable to offer or even recommend cancer screening. First, the benefit of the program in terms of a reduced cancer-related mortality should be proven by randomized controlled trials. The risks and burdens of the program related to the side effects of the investigation itself, false-positive findings, as well as overdiagnoses and overtherapy should be in an acceptable relationship to the expected benefit of the program. In addition to a solid empirical scientific basis, the benefit-harm evaluation necessarily involves value judgments. The potential participants in the screening program therefore should receive transparent, objective, unbiased, and understandable information to enable them to make a truly informed choice about participation. Given the complex benefit-risk assessment, it is discussed whether-and if so under which circumstances-it is ethically acceptable to make a recommendation for or against participation in a cancer screening program. Socioempirical research, such as focus group studies and public deliberations, can be used to elicit the preferences and value judgments of members of the target population that should be taken into consideration in recommendations about a cancer screening program. PMID:24562708

Marckmann, G; In der Schmitten, J

2014-03-01

39

A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science  

E-print Network

The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the scientists' ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norm...

Petersen, Alexander M; Semendeferi, Ioanna

2014-01-01

40

Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.  

PubMed

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible. PMID:19692673

Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

2009-10-01

41

Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective  

PubMed Central

As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The decision to inform or not will vary depending on what moral theory is used. Utilising the utilitarian and libertarian theories produces different outcomes. The principles of justice and non?maleficence will also play an important role in the decision. PMID:16507657

Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

2006-01-01

42

The Evolution of Ethics: Personal Perspectives of ACA Ethics Committee Chairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a survey of the American Counseling Association Ethics Committee chairs regarding their experiences, learning, and insights in the area of professional counselor ethics resulting from their service on the committee. In addition, ethics chairs reflect on current and future trends in counselor ethics. (Contains 13 references.)…

Walden, Susan L.; Herlihy, Barbara; Ashton, Lauri

2003-01-01

43

Regional perspectives in research ethics: a report from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Health research in Bangladesh is increasing and hence there is a need to consider the ethical issues with regard such research. This paper describes the measures being taken in Bangladesh to address research ethics, such as the bioethics educational programmes and the ethics review committees functioning within the country. The role and work of the Central Ethics Review Committee and the regulatory guidelines are outlined. The paper also discusses the situation regarding research ethics within the South Asia region. PMID:17037691

Harun-Ar-Rashid

2006-01-01

44

Forging the Link between Multicultural Competence and Ethical Counseling Practice: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of multicultural competence as an essential component of ethical counseling practice is a growing trend. This article presents a historical perspective of salient events that have contributed to forging a link between multicultural competence and ethical behavior. Multicultural counseling is traced from its beginnings to its emergence…

Watson, Zarus E. P.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter; Pierce, Latoya Anderson

2006-01-01

45

[Poverty, demographic growth, and birth control: a critique of Peter Singer s ethical perspective on the relationship between rich and poor].  

PubMed

This article analyzes the relationship between population growth and ethical principles relating to poverty. The paper is a critical approach to the thesis presented by Peter Singer in his book Practical Ethics. The first part briefly examines the principal topics of his thesis. The author then analyzes the basis of Singer's theory with respect to the following questions: 1. Is overpopulation the main reason for poverty? Is it possible to establish an association between the poverty phenomenon and population growth? 2. Is Singer s demographic perspective valid? 3. Can problems of resource distribution be ignored when talking about poverty from an ethical perspective? 4. Is it true that birth control policy was successfully implemented in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil? 5. Does Singer s position on population growth have a negative influence on the "collective imagination"? The paper concludes by suggesting some useful arguments for understanding an ethical perspective towards poverty. PMID:9761607

Romero, D E

1998-01-01

46

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

PubMed

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews. PMID:23774032

Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

2014-02-01

47

Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

2012-07-01

48

Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

2012-01-01

49

Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.  

PubMed

Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

Minucci, Daria

2013-12-01

50

Determiners: A Relational Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine from a semantic point of view a class of ex- pressions variously referred to as determiners, quantifiers, or articles. Our treatment of the meaning of these expressions reflects an idea which has its origin in the work of Montague (1970), Lewis (1972), Geach (1972), and Cresswell (1973): determiners are to be interpreted as two-place relations

Frans Zwarts; Nederlands Instituut; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

51

Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective  

PubMed Central

These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment. PMID:17229169

Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

2007-01-01

52

Perspectives on ethics in child and youth care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The request for an undergraduate course in ethics was the context for a research study in both the teaching and researching\\u000a of ethics in the field of child and youth care. An action research approach allowed class participants to reflect on and give\\u000a meaning to ethical dilemmas in child and youth care practice. Students concluded that child and youth care

Frances Ricks

1997-01-01

53

Ethics perspectives on end-of-life care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive medical management of the terminally ill has given rise to significant issues in the ethics of end-of-life care. The major ethics principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice help frame existing research finding. A wave of national initiatives to improve end-of-life care is occurring.

Virginia P. Tilden

1999-01-01

54

Ethical dilemmas for accountants: A United Kingdom perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides an introduction to some of the professional ethical dilemmas facing an accountant in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with those dilemmas which accountants would normally accept are covered by the term “ethics”. These include the problems associated with adequately fulfilling a duty to shareholders and conflicts of interest (including whistleblowing) by the accountant acting as

Andrew Likierman

1989-01-01

55

Organizational Communication Ethics: The Radical Perspective of Performance Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bibliographers have chronicled thousands of articles on business and organizational communication ethics. In spite of scholarly and professional interest shown in ethics, the field has not achieved status of a behavioral science. The authors posit that this may be due, in part, to three factors: (1) the preoccupation with the \\

Daniel J. Montgomery; Peter A. DeCaro

56

The Ethics of Writing Instruction: Issues in Theory and Practice. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays reveals a keen awareness of the degree to which ethics and ethical systems are located in particular instructional contexts. The essays consider the implications of these contexts from a variety of perspectives, both theoretical and pedagogical. In the collection's first part, Ethics and the Composition Classroom, are the…

Pemberton, Michael A., Ed.

57

Learning To Care During Storytime in the Current Context: Moral Education From the Perspective of Care Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an examination of storytelling in the present context, this study addresses the teaching of moral education from the standpoint of care ethics. Through observations, interviews, and surveys in one school committed to care ethics, this study aims to show how the philosophical perspective of care ethics can inform practice. Teachers engaged their students in dialogue over stories to (1)

Colette Rabin

2011-01-01

58

Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective. Methods: A descriptive study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13. Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives.

Mohajjel-Aghdam, Alireza; Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Khameneh, Saied; Moghaddam, Sara

2013-01-01

59

[A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].  

PubMed

Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients. PMID:25271028

Wang, Wen-Sheng

2014-10-01

60

Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy  

E-print Network

on Psychotherapy 51 chapter 11. Processing 53 12. Sabine S. and Anna O. 71 13. A New Ethical Frontier 83 14. Final Remarks 95 Notes 109 Bibliography 115 Index 119 5 Series Editor?s Foreword david h. rosen Through the new ethic, the ego...?not incidentally?by ugliness and immorality. Zoja suggests that ego consciousness and the rule of law and rationality have attempted to fill the vacuum cre- ated by ethics and aesthetics being asunder. However, he posits that this has only worsened the situation...

Zoja, Luigi

2007-01-01

61

The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation covers the topic of psychological ethics from two perspectives. One part of the presentation considers how ethics is presented in the classroom through both textbook consideration and specifically designed courses. The other part of the presentation considers ethical issues as they are related to the activity of teaching. Each of…

Matthews, Janet R.

62

[Ethics and laws related to human subject research].  

PubMed

Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

2011-10-01

63

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

64

Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective  

PubMed Central

The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

NGUI, EMMANUEL M.; KHASAKHALA, LINCOLN; NDETEI, DAVID; ROBERTS, LAURA WEISS

2010-01-01

65

Sojourning: A Specific Wayfaring Metaphor Related to Environmental Ethics \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in traveling to wilderness areas, observ- ing vanishing species and ecosystems, and participating in chal- lenging activities draw their foundations from a historical context of adventurers and explorers, Grand Tours, and romantic solitary travelers. A metaphor of sojourning is presented that provides an interpretation of wilderness travel related to ethical action and political power structures. Initial discussion looks

Karen M. Fox; Gordon Walker; Leo H. McAvoy

66

Reason, Relativity,and Responsibilityin Computer Ethics James H. Moor  

E-print Network

Reason, Relativity,and Responsibilityin Computer Ethics James H. Moor Dartmouth College village in which everyone on the planet is connected to everyone else with regard to com- puting power remain vigilant and proactive so that we don't pillage the global village. Although almost everyone would

Nissenbaum, Helen

67

Towards an Open Ethics: Implications of New Media Platforms for Global Ethics Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an international perspective on how new media technologies are shifting the parameters of debates about journalism ethics. It argues that new, mixed media help create an “open media ethics” and offers an exploration of how these developments encourage a transition from a closed professional ethics to an ethics that is the concern of all citizens. The relation

Stephen J. A. Ward; Herman Wasserman

2010-01-01

68

The Ethics of Public Consultation in Health Care: An Orthodox Jewish Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand and United Kingdom governments have set new directives for increased consultation with the public about health care. Set against a legacy of modest success with past engagement with public consultations, this paper considers potentially adverse ethical implications of the new directives. Drawing on experiences from New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and on an Orthodox Jewish perspective, the

Stephen Buetow

2003-01-01

69

Codes of Ethics in Australian Education: Towards a National Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…

Forster, Daniella J.

2012-01-01

70

Ethical guidelines in genetics and genomics. An Islamic perspective.  

PubMed

We are at a time of unprecedented increase in knowledge of rapidly changing technology. Such biotechnology especially when it involves human subjects raises complex ethical, legal, social and religious issues. A World Health Organization expert consultation concluded that "genetics advances will only be acceptable if their application is carried out ethically, with due regard to autonomy, justice, education and the beliefs and resources of each nation and community." Public health authorities are increasingly concerned by the high rate of births with genetic disorders especially in developing countries where Muslims are a majority. Therefore, it is imperative to scrutinize the available methods of prevention and management of genetic disorders. A minimum level of cultural awareness is a necessary prerequisite for the delivery of care that is culturally sensitive, especially in Islamic countries. Islam presents a complete moral, ethical, and medical framework, it is a religion which encompasses the secular with the spiritual, the mundane with the celestial and hence forms the basis of the ethical, moral and even juridical attitudes and laws towards any problem or situation. Islamic teachings carry a great deal of instructions for health promotion and disease prevention including hereditary and genetic disorders, therefore, we will discuss how these teachings play an important role in the diagnostic, management and preventive measures including: genomic research; population genetic screening pre-marital screening, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; assisted reproduction technology; stem cell therapy; genetic counseling and others. PMID:16380763

Al-Aqeel, Aida I

2005-12-01

71

Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

Stephenson, James H.

2010-01-01

72

IMPACT OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND ETHICS ON PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY : A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government and society cannot promote and enforce ethical behaviour solely through the utilisation of ethical codes of conduct or through the promulgation of a plethora of legislation. Communities tend to equate moral values and moral norms with values and norms, which apply only to personal relations. In terms of South Africa's Constitution (Act 108 of 1996), all government departments are

Kishore Raga; Derek Taylor

73

Protecting children from smoking in the home: an ethics of care perspective.  

PubMed

Community nurses are uniquely placed to help protect child health by facilitating the creation of smoke-free homes. However, there are a number of perceived barriers that may concern community nurses in their role of supporting parents in the creation of smoke-free homes, particularly those faced by disadvantaged parents. Arguments against intervening within the private domain of the home focus on concerns about protecting parents' autonomy to smoke within their own home and the potential for stigmatising parents who smoke, particularly mothers. Drawing on an ethics of care perspective, the authors propose an alternative perspective to the intervention in private settings. An ethics of care perspective may help to justify and encourage parents and community nurses to work in partnership to create a healthy environment for children and decrease the likelihood of children becoming smokers in the future. PMID:24784555

Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Ritchie, Deborah

2014-05-01

74

Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

Tavis, Timothy M.

75

"Reality surgery"--a research ethics perspective on the live broadcast of surgical procedures.  

PubMed

In recent years, the live broadcasting of medical and surgical procedures has gained worldwide popularity. While the practice has appropriately been met with concerns for patient safety and privacy, many physicians tout the merits of real time viewing as a form of investigation, accelerating the process leading to adoption or abolition of newer techniques or technologies. This view introduces a new series of ethical considerations that need to be addressed. As such, this article considers, from a research ethics perspective, the use of live surgical procedure broadcast for investigative purposes. PMID:21292217

Williams, Judson B; Mathews, Robin; D'Amico, Thomas A

2011-01-01

76

Vaccines, human experimentation, and ethics in evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Clinical testing of unlicensed biological products is woven into issues of ethics and technology that reflect the state of the art. Materials for human testing must be of best possible quality and content, and must be safe. Testing of vaccines demands fulfillment of three ethical principles established since World War II. Thus, autonomy (informed consent), beneficence (optimize benefit to risk, and do no harm), and justice (equitable distribution of benefits and burden among volunteer participants). Ethical and technical considerations are the driving force for regulation, by National Control Authorities, of both products and clinical testing. Regulation is facilitated by guidelines promulgated by the larger National Control Authorities, by the European Community, and by the World Health Organization. Sane and sensible regulation is best achieved by well-trained and informed regulatory staffs and is optimized by their continuing hands-on conduct of research. The difficulties of the past products have been diminished by increasing technical sophistication. The future bodies well for improved and new vaccines that will be based mainly on the established technologies of the past. New technologies will be approved slowly. PMID:9855409

Hilleman, M R

1998-01-01

77

Ethics, Morality, & Art in the Classroom: Positive & Negative Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethics, Morality, and Art: Positive and Negative Relations\\u000aDaryl Koehn\\u000aAesthetics is typically understood as the study of the critical norms applicable to the subjective experience of artistic beauty. But whether ?beauty is the correct basis for assessing art depends upon what one thinks about what art is and what it seeks to do. In this respect, the field aesthetics

Daryl Koehn

2010-01-01

78

Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics  

PubMed Central

The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards. PMID:24465233

Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

2013-01-01

79

Ethics in child and adolescent psychiatric care: An international perspective.  

PubMed

In the treatment of children with psychiatric disorders as a vulnerable population, ethical issues arise that seldom come into play with adults. The UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child and the Rights of Persons with Disabilities set out rights to be respected in child and adolescent psychiatric treatment. Rights of participation and inclusion (minimizing of barriers to the involvement of disabled people) can create complex problems in cases of restraint or deprivation of liberty. This paper analyses the consequences of these conventions and other ethics guidelines on child and adolescent psychiatric treatment and research. Beneficence, justice and autonomy are core principles that are mirrored in the problems of inclusion and protection, confidentiality, and the safety of psychopharmacological interventions. Factors of inclusion are involved in the areas of availability of care, participation in best evidence-based treatment, and research. The right of the child to protection, the right of inclusion, and parents' rights and duties to safeguard their child's wellbeing form a triangle. National laws to regulate the treatment of psychiatrically ill children should be created and implemented and these should be non-discriminatory but at the same time safeguard the developing human being. PMID:20528655

Koelch, Michael; Fegert, Joerg M

2010-01-01

80

Preventing seclusion in psychiatry: A care ethics perspective on the first five minutes at admission.  

PubMed

In this article, an intervention aimed at improving quality of care to prevent seclusion in psychiatry by focusing on the first five minutes at admission is analyzed from a care ethics perspective. Two cases are presented from an evaluation study in a psychiatric hospital. In both cases, the nurses follow the intervention protocol, but the outcome is different. In the first case, the patient ends up in the seclusion room. In the second case, this does not happen. Analyzing the cases from a care ethics perspective, we conclude that applying the intervention in the right way implies more than following the steps laid down in the protocol. It requires a new way of thinking and acting, resulting in new relationships between nurses and patients. Care ethics theory can help clarify what good care is actually about and keep in mind what is needed to apply the intervention. Thus, care ethics theory can be highly practical and helpful in changing and improving healthcare practice. PMID:24036666

Voskes, Yolande; Kemper, Martijn; Landeweer, Elleke Gm; Widdershoven, Guy Am

2014-11-01

81

Intercorporeality and Ethical Commitment: An Activity Perspective on Classroom Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a sociocultural alternative to contemporary constructivist conceptions of classroom interaction. Drawing on the work of Vygotsky and Leont'ev, we introduce an approach that offers a new perspective through which to understand the "specifically human" forms of knowing that emerge when people engage in joint activity. To…

Radford, Luis; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2011-01-01

82

Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

Atweh, Bill

2011-03-01

83

The ethical foundations of constitutional order: A conventionalist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conventionalist or modified contractarian perspective on constitutional and legal theory as a platform\\u000a from which to address five important questions about the connections between critical morality and constitutional order. It\\u000a finds that natural law and critical morality are inappropriately linked to constitutions and laws, but that there is nonetheless\\u000a a clear moral dimension to all law.

Noel B. Reynolds

1993-01-01

84

Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

Davis, Michael

85

"It's my blood": ethical complexities in the use, storage and export of biological samples: perspectives from South African research participants  

PubMed Central

Background The use of biological samples in research raises a number of ethical issues in relation to consent, storage, export, benefit sharing and re-use of samples. Participant perspectives have been explored in North America and Europe, with only a few studies reported in Africa. The amount of research being conducted in Africa is growing exponentially with volumes of biological samples being exported from the African continent. In order to investigate the perspectives of African research participants, we conducted a study at research sites in the Western Cape and Gauteng, South Africa. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured both quantitative and qualitative information at 6 research sites in South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Our study indicates that while the majority of participants were supportive of providing samples for research, serious concerns were voiced about future use, benefit sharing and export of samples. While researchers view the provision of biosamples as a donation, participants believe that they still have ownership rights and are therefore in favour of benefit sharing. Almost half of the participants expressed a desire to be re-contacted for consent for future use of their samples. Interesting opinions were expressed with respect to export of samples. Conclusions Eliciting participant perspectives is an important part of community engagement in research involving biological sample collection, export, storage and future use. A tiered consent process appears to be more acceptable to participants in this study. Eliciting opinions of researchers and research ethics committee (REC) members would contribute multiple perspectives. Further research is required to interrogate the concept of ownership and the consent process in research involving biological samples. PMID:24447822

2014-01-01

86

Evolving Ethical Perspectives in an Eighth-Grade Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Matthew Ronfeldt's dissertation as a doctoral candidate in Curriculum and Teacher Education at Stanford University is a crossprofessional study of how professional education supports novice teachers and clinical psychologists in adapting to their new professional roles. He wrote this chapter while teaching eighth-grade math and science at a school in the San Francisco Bay area, where he developed and coordinated a teacher research group within the school. He received his MA in education from Mills College, where he also participated as a teacher researcher for three years. Matt used videotapes of class discussions, interviews, student work, and his own reflections to study, over the course of the school year, the developing ideas of his students as they explored the ethical issues facing those who conduct scientific experiments. As his students debated whether and when it is acceptable to do experiments on animals or humans, they stated their opinions, they challenged each other, and they changed their minds. Matt provided opportunities for scientific discussion and debate, nurtured a classroom climate where students shared responsibility for learning, and modeled inquiry in his own practice as he encouraged his students to ask their own questions.

Ronfeldt, Matthew

2007-01-01

87

Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics  

PubMed Central

Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

Caceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

2011-01-01

88

Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of natural disasters from the survivors' perspective.  

PubMed

Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of disaster depend on various factors. The impact of a disaster on a particular culture depends on the people in that culture and the strength and resilience of the culture. Disasters may slow cultural development; however, typically the customs, beliefs, and value systems remain the same even if the outward expressions of culture change. Critical to survivors is the implication of aid that is culturally sensitive. Ethical questions and dilemmas associated with disasters and their management are profound. Adhering to ethical principles does not solve all of the issues related to disaster management, but awareness of their utility is important. People affected by a disaster may not be capable of responding to human rights violations, so it is the first responders who must be cognizant of their responsibility to protect the victims’ dignity and rights. Ethical treatment of survivors entails a crucial blend of knowledge about ethnic culture, religious beliefs, and human rights. A strong awareness of ethical principles is merely a beginning step to well-informed decision making in disaster situations. The literature also suggests that during a crisis, spirituality helps victims to cope. Important to any catastrophic event is the understanding that every disaster creates unique circumstances that require relief responses tailored to the specific situation. PMID:21095559

Varghese, Shainy B

2010-12-01

89

Ethical and Professional Issues with Computer-Related Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists have an ethical imperative to determine the ways computers can facilitate practice because of the potential to improve effectiveness and efficiency. At the same time, psychologists have a parallel imperative to consider carefully ethical and professional practice implications. The aspects of computers that render them most…

Harvey, Virginia Smith; Carlson, Janet F.

2003-01-01

90

Differentiating the Related Concepts of Ethics, Morality, Law, and Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four terms central to the dialog about ethics are defined and differentiated: ethics; morality; justice; and law. Several problems in understanding the terms are identified, including differences between the classical and current meanings, common but inappropriate usages, confusion of one term for another, and merging of terms in common usage.…

Ray, Terry T.

1996-01-01

91

Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. PMID:22176548

Woods, Martin

2012-01-01

92

Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

2009-01-01

93

Tragedies of the Broadcast Commons: Consumer Perspectives on the Ethics of Product Placement and Video News Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores cynicism as an ethical issue associated with the blurring of content and advertising in mass media. From a communitarian perspective and adapting Hardin's (1968) metaphorical use of “commons” to the domain of broadcasting, we surveyed the attitudes of individuals toward two phenomena of media saturation (product placement and video news releases) and three constructs (cynicism directed toward

Jay Newell; Jeffrey Layne Blevins; Michael Bugeja

2009-01-01

94

The Influence of Personality and Demographic Variables on Ethical Decisions Related to Insider Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of the following variables on individuals' ethical decisions related to insider trading: interpersonal competitiveness, locus of control, need for achievement, self-esteem, religious beliefs, frequency of attendance at religious services, social class, parents' annual income, year in college, college major, college GPA, exposure to an ethics course, age, and gender. Upper division business students (N = 201)

David E. Terpstra; Elizabeth J. Rozell; Robert K. Robinson

1993-01-01

95

Ethical Dilemmas Related to Disclosure Issues: Sex Addiction Therapists in the Trenches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapists who treat sex addicts are often faced with ethical dilemmas. Almost every therapist has encountered some unexpected dilemma that has put us in a quandary and by its very nature calls for decisions that could challenge our code of conduct. In this article the authors describe several types of ethical dilemmas related to disclosure. The focus is on revelations

Jennifer P. Schneider; Barbara Levinson

2006-01-01

96

The ethics of forensic psychiatry: moving beyond principles to a relational ethics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychiatry has been described as a ‘moral minefield’. The competing obligations at the interface of the justice and healthcare systems raise questions about the very viability of an ethical framework for guiding practice. The explicit need for security and detention, and the implicit ‘untrustworthiness’ of forensic patients shape practitioners' everyday reality. Suspicion colors client–practitioner relationship and fundamental care concepts,

Wendy Austin; Erika Goble; Julija Kelecevic

2009-01-01

97

[Building competences in the care, according to Boff: a new perspective of nurse's ethical conduct].  

PubMed

In this study, authors characterize nurse's managerial conduct in the perspective of the work, illustrated through the analysis of three investigations. Understanding the fragility of managerial nurse's situation, considering the commitment with the users and with the ones who provide the services, authors advocate in favor of an intervention to change this situation. Therefore, they propose an alternative of reflection about the changes that are necessary. They defend a new ethics articulating a new sense of providing care proposed by Boff, in which the relationship is based on the companionship, interaction and sharing. According to this way of being, nurse's care is an attitude of concern, responsibility and affective commitment with the other. Thus, the instrumental reasoning is substituted by the sensible reasoning and the spirit of deep feelings. Considering these new values, nurses understand better the other's dimension, the respect, reciprocity, and complementarity in the managerial relationship. PMID:14978570

Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Melo, Marcia Regina Antonietto da Costa

2003-01-01

98

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

99

Back to basics: an Islamic perspective on business and work ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the light of major corporate failures worldwide, business ethics have become an increasingly important area of managerial competence and responsibility. Most studies on business ethics in general and the work ethic in particular have been based on the experiences of Western nations, with a primary focus on the Protestant work ethic (PWE) as advanced by Max Weber.

Riham Ragab Rizk

2008-01-01

100

A Test of Contextual Theory: The Relationship Among Relational Ethics, Marital Satisfaction, Health Problems, and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the theoretical underpinning of contextual theory. Using structural equation modeling, the relationship\\u000a among relational ethics (recognized as the most important aspect of contextual theory), marital satisfaction, depression,\\u000a and illness was examined. Data came from a national sample of 632 mid-life, married individuals. Results supported Nagy’s\\u000a contextual theory. The total score of the Relational Ethics Scale was

Heath A. Grames; Richard B. Miller; W. David Robinson; Derrel J. Higgins; W. Jeff Hinton

2008-01-01

101

Reconsidering Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Public Relations and Ethical Engagement of Employees in a Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores the range of ethical dilemmas common to public relations practitioners in an era that increasingly focuses\\u000a on corporate social responsibility. I argue that, ironically, rather than reducing ethical challenges for public relations,\\u000a recent iterations of CSR — such as strategic CSR — further complicate the roles and responsibilities of practitioners toward\\u000a a greater range of stakeholders. In

Steve May

102

Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life: Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological Perspectives (PET)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Will we find life on other planets? Will we reproduce the origins of life in a laboratory? A growing number of researchers in a relatively young but exploding field of science believe that we will accomplish one or both of these goals, and possibly not that long from now. The field is astrobiology -- the NASA funded basic research program that is searching for life, the conditions for life's origins, and the essential ingredients of life both on and off (indeed, sometimes unimaginably far from) Earth, the planet we've come to take for granted as life's home in the universe. The goals of NASA's astrobiology program; to explore the origin, extent, and future of life, raise fundamental philosophical, ethical and theological questions. A serious and responsible consideration of the societal implications of the goals and discoveries of astrobiology will require the scientific community to engage with a broader academic and pubic community.As a first step in this outreach and engagement effort, the AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion (DoSER), with support from NASA and the John Templeton Foundation, organized a series of three workshops that began to identify and address the philosophical, ethical, and theological (PET) issues associated with astrobiology. The group assembled for the series included astrobiologists, theologians, ethicists, philosophers and historians. The workshops are listed below, all were held in Washington, DC.

;

2007-06-28

103

Awareness in dementia: ethical and legal issues in relation to people with dementia.  

PubMed

Our improved understanding of the experience of people with dementia provides a new impetus to address legal and ethical issues. This paper explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and paternalism. Application of these concepts is discussed in relation to advance directives, capacity, and decision making, participation in research and treatment, including informed consent, and truth telling. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted, and attention drawn to the manner in which the attribution of unawareness is used to justify withholding autonomy. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction. PMID:16024401

Woods, Bob; Pratt, Rebekah

2005-09-01

104

Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.  

PubMed

The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation. PMID:11954992

Hansson, Mats G

2002-01-01

105

Ethical issues evolving from patients' perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

2014-01-01

106

Ethical Decision-Making by Educational Leaders: Its Foundations, Culture and More Recent Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The belief that educational leaders need to be ethical decision-makers is recent. Thomas and Bainbridge suggest that an educational leader needs to develop technical competency in ethical leadership. Yet few leaders in schools have been trained in conflict resolution of an ethical nature and little importance has been given to this within existing…

Robbins, Steven; Trabichet, Luc

2009-01-01

107

The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

2009-01-01

108

Special Article From Embryonic Stem Cells to Functioning Germ Cells: Science, Clinical and Ethical Perspectives  

E-print Network

Embryonic stem cells have been well recognized as cells having a versatile potential to differentiate into all types of cells in the body including germ cells. There are many research studies focusing on the differentiation processes and protocols to derive various types of somatic cells from embryonic stem cells. However, germ cells have unique differentiation process and developmental pathway compared with somatic cells. Consequently, they will require different differentiation protocols and special culture techniques. More understanding and established in vitro systems for gametogenesis will greatly contribute to further progression of knowledge and technology in germ cell biology, reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. Moreover, if oocytes can be efficiently produced in vitro, this will play an important role on progression in nuclear transfer and nuclear reprogramming technology. The present article will provide concise review on past important discoveries, current ongoing studies and future views of this challenging research area. An ethical perspective has also been proposed to give comprehensive summary and viewpoint for future clinical application.

Sorapop Kiatpongsan Md

109

Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet. PMID:17419880

Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kihlgren, Mona; Sorlie, Venke

2007-01-01

110

A Logic of Ethical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Luciano Floridi lies at the interface of philosophy, information science and technology, and ethics, an intersection\\u000a whose existence and significance he was one of the first to establish. His closely related concepts of a philosophy of information\\u000a (PI), informational structural realism, information logic (IL), and information ethics (IE) provide a new ontological perspective\\u000a from which moral concerns

Joseph E. Brenner

2010-01-01

111

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

Weinstein, Matthew

2008-09-01

112

Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor  

PubMed Central

Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

2014-01-01

113

Using computer-related technology for assessment activities: ethical and professional practice issues for school psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

School psychologists have an ethical imperative to consider appropriate uses of computer technology within their assessment practices, given the potential for this technology to improve effectiveness and efficiency. Psychologists hold a parallel responsibility to consider the implications of using computer-related technology vis a vis professional practice concerns related to assessment. Many aspects of computers that render them most helpful—power, speed,

Janet F. Carlson; Virginia Smith Harvey

2004-01-01

114

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL RELATIONS  

E-print Network

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL RELATIONS AND EXPLORING TRUTH THEREIN Anne Mathieson (Philosophy) 2006 #12;The Language of Social Relations and Exploring Truth Therein's many epistemic theories. Foundational to this search for truth is trust in the ability of language

Thomas, Andrew

115

West Meets East: A Cross-cultural Look at American and Russian Public Relations Students' Perceptions of Leadership Style and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study represents an attempt to examine ethical inclination, similarities and differences between public relations students in Russia and the United States. Scholars recognize that perception of an ethical issue is an important prerequisite for the ethical decision process, and this survey explored perceptions of 377 American and Russian public relations students regarding professional ethics and leadership styles. Results

Elina Erzikova; Bruce Berger

2008-01-01

116

[Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].  

PubMed

Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable. PMID:19507516

Maruyama, Eiji

2009-06-01

117

Publication Ethics from the Perspective of PhD Students of Health Sciences: A Limited Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing\\u000a research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and\\u000a ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based\\u000a on

Berna Arda

118

Islamic medical ethics: a primer.  

PubMed

Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

Padela, Aasim I

2007-03-01

119

[Exactly What is Ethical Nursing Care? The Perspective of the Clinical Humanities].  

PubMed

As Taiwan enters the post-modern era of professional medical care, a host of issues relating to nursing care are becoming increasingly pressing. On the one hand, the wide range of ailments of body and mind requiring treatment is placing a major financial burden on the national health care system. On the other hand, few hospitals are able to provide "comprehensive care of body and mind." In addition to primary prevention, the most effective way to reduce the overall cost of medical care is to effectively bring volunteer caregivers (those who have an "ethical connection" with the patient, i.e., family, friends, neighbors, volunteers, etc.) into all levels of the caregiving process. Moreover, as medical ethics becomes increasingly focused on the well-being of the patient, more attention is being given to the healing relationship itself. Due to its ability to swiftly relieve a wide variety of ailments, the Western medical model has become widely accepted in Asia. Yet, a patient may feel a greater sense of healing when treatment is based on the principles of ethical caregiving. For example, in the way it quickly relieves the prevailing symptoms, psychiatric medication is like a freeway. By contrast, volunteer caregiving is more like a local road, which may be slower, but eventually takes one all the way home. Thus, making nursing care more person-centered and indigenized gives the patient a sense of not only being cured, but also being "cared for." However, for a long time the theory and practice of nursing education in Taiwan has been based on the Western model of nursing. In this model nursing is treated as a branch of the biological sciences, an overall approach quite different from the traditional view of caregiving in Asian societies. Nonetheless, recent research and clinical practice indicates that an indigenized form of nursing care may be a more suitable approach to comprehensive care, and that such an approach has much potential for widespread application in Taiwan and other Chinese societies. PMID:25271029

Yu, An-Bang

2014-10-01

120

Relation Between Ego Identity and Temporal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved an attempt to expand Marcia’s (1975) ego identity concept to include the area of temporal perspective. Subjects were 80 Temple University male undergraduates. We measured temporal perspective with the Rappaport Time Line. We measured temporal density (percentage of experiences in each of five time zones), temporal extension (chronological time spans for the past, future, and overall), and

Herbert Rappaport; Kathy Enrich; Arnold Wilson

1985-01-01

121

Who Is a Development Journalist? Perspectives on Media Ethics and Professionalism in Post-Colonial Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalistic practice and professionalism across the globe are characterized by certain universals as well as unique particularities. In most post-colonial societies, the ethical philosophies and professional ethos of journalists reflect the tension between the commitment to integrity and social responsibility, shared by journalists worldwide, and the contextual interpretation and application of these principles. This article examines the ethics and ethos

Bala A. Musa; Jerry Komia Domatob

2007-01-01

122

Resolving ethical dilemmas through international human resource management: a transaction cost economics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in

Wayne Grossman; Lyle F. Schoenfeldt

2001-01-01

123

Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.  

PubMed

Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. PMID:22373629

Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

2012-03-01

124

Addressing Religious Plurality--A Teacher Perspective on Minority Religion and Secular Ethics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Finnish education system recognizes religious plurality by offering education in pupils' own religion or in secular ethics. However, little research has been undertaken on how plurality is addressed in classroom practice. This study investigates how 31 minority religion and secular ethics teachers view the task of supporting and including…

Zilliacus, Harriet

2013-01-01

125

Speaking to the World: Four Protestant Perspectives. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains an address by Richard John Neuhaus entitled "Let the Church Be the Church" in which it is asserted that the crisis in Christian social ethics today is a crisis of faith which calls for spiritual, theological, and ethical renewal. The address is a retrospective look at the Vietnam-era debate between Neuhaus and Paul Ramsey,…

Neuhaus, Richard John

126

Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.  

PubMed

Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

2012-08-01

127

Generation Y Attitudes Towards E-ethics and Internet-related Misbehaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant consumer behaviour costs firms millions of pounds a year, and the Internet has provided young techno-literate consumers with a new medium to exploit businesses. This paper addresses Internet related ethics and describes the ways in which young consumers misdemean on the Internet and their attitudes towards these. Using a sample of 219 generation Y consumers, the study identified 24

O. Freestone; V.-W. Mitchell

2004-01-01

128

An egocentric model of the relations among the opportunity to underreport, social norms, ethical beliefs, and underreporting behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the relations among taxpayers’ opportunity, social norms, ethical beliefs, and tax compliance is proposed and tested using structural equation modeling. High opportunity taxpayers, who may personally benefit from evasion, judged evasion as less unethical than low opportunity taxpayers. High and low opportunity taxpayers judged social norms similarly. Further, ethical beliefs partially (fully) mediate the relation between opportunity

Cindy Blanthorne; Steven Kaplan

2008-01-01

129

Sham Surgery Trial Controls: Perspectives of Patients and Their Relatives  

PubMed Central

THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

Swift, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

130

Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

Fangerau, H

2005-01-01

131

Information, consent and treatment of patients with morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

2014-04-01

132

Confidentiality of the medical records of HIV-positive patients in the United Kingdom - a medicolegal and ethical perspective  

PubMed Central

This article examines the legal and ethical issues that surround the confidentiality of medical records, particularly in relation to patients who are HIV positive. It records some historical background of the HIV epidemic, and considers the relative risks of transmission of HIV from individual to individual. It explains the law as it pertains to confidentiality, and reports the professional guidance in these matters. It then considers how these relate to HIV-positive individuals in particular. PMID:22312224

Williams, Mike

2011-01-01

133

Stakeholder perspectives on ethical challenges in HIV vaccine trials in South Africa.  

PubMed

There is little published literature on the ethical concerns of stakeholders in HIV vaccine trials. This study explored the ethical challenges identified by various stakeholders, through an open-ended, in-depth approach. While the few previous studies have been largely quantitative, respondents in this study had the opportunity to spontaneously identify the issues that they perceived to be of priority concern in the South African context. Stakeholders spontaneously identified the following as ethical priorities: informed consent, social harms, collaborative relationships between research stakeholders, the participation of children and adolescents, access to treatment for participants who become infected with HIV, physical harms, fair participant and community selection, confidentiality, benefits, and payment. While there is some speculation that research in developing countries poses special ethical challenges, overall no issues were identified that have not been anticipated in international guidance, literature and popular frameworks. However, the South African context affords a distinctive gloss to these expected issues; for example, respondents were concerned that the predominant selection of black participants may perpetuate racist practices of apartheid. Stakeholders should be aware of contextual factors impacting on the implementation of ethical principles. We make a series of recommendations for South African trials, including amendments to the ethical-legal framework and research policies, and, for further research. PMID:19459900

Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Barsdorf, Nicola; Slack, Catherine; Quayle, Michael; Milford, Cedilia; Lindegger, Graham; Ranchod, Chitra; Mukuka, Richard

2010-04-01

134

Medical ethics in cross-cultural and multi-cultural perspectives.  

PubMed

Medical ethics have usually been ignored in comparative studies of medical systems; they are almost exclusively Western and based on the technocratic culture of practitioners of cosmopolitan medicine. Important values of heterogeneous and homogeneous cultural systems may appropriately be studied in a medical context. Cross-cultural medical anthropological studies have not dealt extensively with medical ethics, and have not systematically examined the values involved in decision-making by healers, although the choices made by patients have been emphasized. Studies of decision-making in the context of healing can be useful in investigations of the operation of value systems and of conflicts and changes in such systems. Western examples of ethical conflicts and bases of choice in regulation of the profession, individual vs. social obligation, obligation of the practitioner to take action, allocation of scarce resources, and the patient's right to information suggest general problems that exist in most medical systems regardless of the level of technological development or the concepts of disease prevention and cure. Ethical conflicts in medical care allow study of value ranking in decision-making. Questionnaires have been the most common method for studying ethical questions in Western medical settings, and such questionnaires could be adapted for use cross-culturally. Medical ethics in non-Western settings may also be investigated by looking at "trouble cases," by participant observation, and by intensive interviewing. PMID:7209599

Kunstadter, P

1980-11-01

135

Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.  

PubMed Central

Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake. PMID:11953789

Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

2002-01-01

136

Triangulation of Bayesian Networks: A Relational Database Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the problem of triangulation of Bayesian networks from a relational database perspective. We show that the prob- lem of triangulating a Bayesian network is equivalent to the problem of identifying a maximal subset of conflict free conditional independencies. Several interesting theoretical results regarding triangulating Bayesian networks are obtained from this perspective.

S. K. Michael Wong; Dan Wu; Cory J. Butz

2002-01-01

137

The Individual and his Relation to Society As Reflected in the British Ethics of the Eighteenth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the individual and his relation to society, as reflected in the British ethics of the eighteenth century. The author comments that the ethical theory of the eighteenth century has presented a view of the individual which reflects the economic and intellectual life of the age. Starting with thoroughly individualistic conceptions, measuring value in terms of feeling, conceiving

James Hayden Tufts

1904-01-01

138

Choosing embryos: ethical complexity and relational autonomy in staff accounts of PGD  

PubMed Central

The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce ‘ethical problems’ for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two ‘grey areas’ raised by staff are discussed in terms of how far staff are, or in the future may be, able to support autonomous choices of women/couples: accepting ‘carrier’ embryos within the goal of creating a ‘healthy’ child; and sex selection of embryos for social reasons. These grey areas challenged the staff's resolve to offer individual informed choice, in the face of their awareness of possible collective social effects that might ensue from individual choices. We therefore argue that these new forms of choice pose a challenge to conventional models of individual autonomy used in UK genetic and reproductive counselling, and that ‘relational autonomy’ may be a more suitable ethical model to describe the ethical principles being drawn on by staff working in this area. PMID:18092985

Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie; Sandall, Jane; Scott, Rosamund

2007-01-01

139

Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?  

PubMed

The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

2013-09-01

140

Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education: Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas. Topics in Educational Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

141

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

142

Attitudes towards ethical problems in critical care medicine: the Chinese perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Critical care doctors are frequently faced with clinical problems that have important ethical and moral dimensions. While\\u000a Western attitudes and practice are well documented, little is known of the attitudes or practice of Chinese critical care\\u000a doctors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  An anonymous, written, structured questionnaire survey was translated from previously reported ethical surveys used in Europe\\u000a and Hong Kong. A snowball method was

Li Weng; Gavin M. Joynt; Anna Lee; Bin Du; Patricia Leung; Jinming Peng; Charles D. Gomersall; Xiaoyun Hu; Hui Y. Yap

2011-01-01

143

Ethical challenges in integrating patient-care with clinical research in a resource-limited setting: perspectives from Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background In resource-limited settings where healthcare services are limited and poverty is common, it is difficult to ethically conduct clinical research without providing patient-care. Therefore, integration of patient-care with clinical research appears as an attractive way of conducting research while providing patient-care. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of such approach with perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Discussion Considering the difficulties of providing basic healthcare services in developing countries, it may be argued that integration of clinical research with patient-care is an effective, rational and ethical way of conducting research. However, blending patient-care with clinical research may increase the risk of subordinating patient-care in favour of scientific gains; therapeutic misconception and inappropriate inducement; and the risk of causing health system failures due to limited capacity in developing countries to sustain the level of healthcare services sponsored by the research. Nevertheless, these ethical and administrative implications can be minimised if patient-care takes precedence over research; the input of local ethics committees and institutions are considered; and funding agencies acknowledge their ethical obligation when sponsoring research in resource-limited settings. Summary Although integration of patient-care with clinical research in developing countries appears as an attractive way of conducting research when resources are limited, careful planning and consideration on the ethical implications of such approach must be considered. PMID:23885908

2013-01-01

144

Legal and Ethical Perspectives of Selling Complimentary Copies of the College Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sales by professors of textbook complimentary copies are estimated to be $60 million in lost sales to the publishers. Examines the various points of view and the legal and ethical issues regarding professors selling complimentary copies of college textbooks. (MLF)

Sipes, Daphne D.

1988-01-01

145

Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

1977-01-01

146

Reflections on "Social Justice,", "Race," "Ethnicity" and "Identity" from an Ethical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, "social justice," "race," "ethnicity" and "identity." This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with…

Atweh, Bill

2011-01-01

147

A United States perspective on the ethical and legal issues of spyware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spyware is regarded as the largest threat to internet users since spam, yet most users do not even know spyware is on their personal computers. Ethical and legal concerns associated with spyware call for a response. A balance must be found between legitimate interests of spyware installers, who have obtained informed consent of users who accept advertisements or other marketing

Janice C. Sipior; Burke T. Ward; Georgina R. Roselli

2005-01-01

148

The Relationship between Ethical Positions and Methodological Approaches: A Scandinavian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of…

Beach, Dennis; Eriksson, Anita

2010-01-01

149

Ecological and Ethical Perspectives on Filial Responsibility: Implications for Primary Prevention with Immigrant Latino Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers processes from an ecological-ethical viewpoint that may help explain the high rate of school failure and dropout of immigrant Latino adolescents. Drawing from research on filial responsibility and risk and protective processes in this population, a conceptual model is presented that accounts for both negative and positive developmental outcomes. For example, it is speculated that different stressors

Gregory J. Jurkovic; Gabriel Kuperminc; Julia Perilla; Arthur Murphy; Gladys Ibañez; Sean Casey

2004-01-01

150

The Ethics of Disclosure - Perspectives of Radiation Therapists and Patients Regarding Disclosure of Radiation Therapy Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical principles of veracity and patient autonomy suggestthat patients should be informed of any errors that occur during their care. A survey of Radiation Therapists (RT's) and patients undergoing radiation therapy was used to obtain data regarding attitudes toward disclosure of errors that may occur during a course of radiation therapy treatment. Both RT's and patients agreed that potentially

John French

2004-01-01

151

Gender Differences in Ethical Perceptions of Business Practices: A Social Role Theory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20, 000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples

George R. Franke; Deborah F. Crown; Deborah F. Spake

1997-01-01

152

[Ecological and ethical issues related to the protection of population reproductive health].  

PubMed

The legal and ethical issues related with the protection of population reproductive health, under the conditions of anthropogenic contamination of the environment, including the labor environment, are discussed in the article. A concept of pregnancy planning to ensure a healthy posterity under the mentioned conditioned was formulated. Documents of WHO, ILO and the EU experience in dealing with the issues in question are illustrated. An increasing role of social labor measurement as well as the evolution of law, i.e. civil, labor, and social law, as well as the right to unified medical-and-social insurance, are in the focus of attention. The prospects for a new WHO-ICF classification, as a social UNO classification, are pointed out. The sensitivity--susceptibility--vulnerability chain was analyzed, and a growing social context was underlined in it. The individual and team risks were considered, and the Code of professional ethics of hygienists was paid attention to. PMID:12705044

Chashchin, V P; Sivochalova, O V; Denisov, E I

2003-01-01

153

Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

Huiying, Xu

2004-01-01

154

Ethical Perspectives, Reactions to Other's Moral Behavior, and Consequent Moral Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…

Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

155

Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists' perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism  

PubMed Central

Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should include the development of a website for ongoing discussion that could contribute to a raised awareness of these concerns and potentially increase social responsibility in the medical tourism industry. PMID:24314027

2013-01-01

156

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

157

Best Practice Guidelines on Publishing Ethics: A Publisher's Perspective, 2nd Edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25327898

Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

2014-11-01

158

Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective.  

PubMed

For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. PMID:25050064

Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

2014-01-01

159

Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.  

PubMed

Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning. PMID:24447658

Buckeridge, John

2014-01-01

160

Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective  

PubMed Central

For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. PMID:25050064

Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

2014-01-01

161

Understanding metaphor: A relational frame perspective  

PubMed Central

The current article presents a basic functional-analytic interpretation of metaphor. This work involves an extension of Skinner's (1957) interpretation of metaphor using relational frame theory (RFT). A basic RFT interpretation of a particular metaphor is outlined, according to which the metaphor acquires its psychological effects when formal stimulus dimensions are contacted via the derivation of arbitrary stimulus relations. This interpretation sees the metaphor as involving four elements: (a) establishing two separate equivalence relations, (b) deriving an equivalence relation between these relations, (c) discriminating a formal relation via this equivalence-equivalence relation, and (d) a transformation of functions on the basis of the formal relation discriminated in the third element. In the second half of the paper, a number of important issues with regard to the RFT interpretation of metaphor are addressed. PMID:22478364

Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2001-01-01

162

Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toys represent children's chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children.

Della Pike

163

The ethics of research related to health care in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The Ethics of Research Related to Health Care in Developing Countries by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics makes a number of innovative recommendations that depart from codes such as the Declaration of Helsinki. It recommends that standards of care might be relativised to the standard of that nation. It recommends that very good reasons need to be given for not giving post-trial access to medications but recognises that there may be justifiable instances of this. It is the view of the authors that these and other recommendations of the report are sensible pieces of advice given the complexities of the developing world. PMID:15082819

McMillan, J; Conlon, C

2004-01-01

164

Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.  

PubMed

Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures. PMID:20054074

Reybold, L Earle

2009-01-01

165

Teaching ethics: telling stories.  

PubMed

In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed both to traditional rules and justice-based ethics, and to a feminist care perspective. Justice and truth are not objective and abstract, but are embedded in context and are relative in nature. Nurses may be given the tools with which to analyse and understand ethical dilemmas from a justice-based view and an opportunity to tell their stories in order to understand the roles, motives, relational considerations and contextual influences on decision outcomes. If we are serious about our desire to raise critical consciousness of students and nurses in practice, we must attend to and join feminists in their attempts to validate women's ways of knowing, to assist women to question their contexts, and to put aside preconceived positions and notions about moral reasoning among women. PMID:7708027

Bowman, A

1995-02-01

166

Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

167

Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary.  

PubMed

Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as "The Doctors' Trial". This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them. PMID:17223241

López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Dudley, Michael; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Okasha, Ahmed

2007-05-01

168

Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

Chandrasekhar, S.

1979-01-01

169

A Pragmatic Approach to Applied Ethics in Sport and Related Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that there is still no single, noncontroversial foundation on which the world's present multi-structure of ethics can be built, this paper examines a scientific ethics approach. It is postulated that in North American culture, the approach to instruction in ethics for youth is haphazard at best. Society does not provide an adequate means…

Zeigler, Earle F.

170

US perspective on gluten-related diseases  

PubMed Central

The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. PMID:24493932

Leonard, Maureen M; Vasagar, Brintha

2014-01-01

171

The Impact of Accounting Education on Ethical Values: An Institutional Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accounting scandals at the beginning of the 21st century led to public distrust and demands for reform. Were these scandals unexpected? From an old insti- tutional economics (OIE) perspective, which originated with the work of Thorstein Veblen in the 1890s, these failures and the moral lapses should not be a surprise. OIE theorists, like critical theorists, generally, contend that

Alan G. Mayper; Robert J. Pavur; Barbara D. Merino; William Hoops

2005-01-01

172

Ethical discourse in an age cognisant of perspective. Reflections on Derrida’s ‘the laws of reflection: Nelson Mandela, in Admiration’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  This essay explores the challenge ofarticulating ethical discourse in an age cognisant of perspective, intentionally, through Jacques Derrida’s admiration for Nelson Mandela in ‘The Laws of Reflection: Nelson Mandela, In Admiration.’\\u000a For Derrida, Mandela affirms anoriginary trace of human dignity, yet performatively reconceived through perspectival testimony and conscience, drawing from heterogeneous\\u000a headings in Tribal lore and European law. Mandela exemplifies

Stephen Curkpatrick

2001-01-01

173

General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective  

E-print Network

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of general relativity, the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG) commissioned a Centennial Volume, edited by the authors of this article. We jointly wrote introductions to the four Parts of the Volume which are collected here. Our goal is to provide a bird's eye view of the advances that have been made especially during the last 35 years, i.e., since the publication of volumes commemorating Einstein's 100th birthday. The article also serves as a brief preview of the 12 invited chapters that contain in-depth reviews of these advances. The volume will be published by Cambridge University Press and released in June 2015 at a Centennial conference sponsored by ISGRG and the Topical Group of Gravitation of the American Physical Society.

Abhay Ashtekar; Beverly K. Berger; James Isenberg; Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

2014-09-19

174

Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Pacific American Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides the Pacific American perspective on the current problems and future prospects of Asian and Pacific American relations in the context of Federal assistance. The report is divided into three parts. The first emphasizes the long history of contact between Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Pacific. This history, it is argued,…

Mamak, Alexander; Luce, Pat

175

Assessing Perspective Taking in Schizophrenia Using Relational Frame Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study assessed deictic relational responding in people with schizophrenia. A perspective-taking task and a mental states attribution task were employed with a sample of 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 age-matched controls. Results revealed poorer performance of participants with schizophrenia in responding in accordance…

Villatte, Matthieu; Monestes, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baque, Esteve; Loas, Gwenole

2010-01-01

176

International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

2005-01-01

177

Stored human tissue: an ethical perspective on the fate of anonymous, archival material.  

PubMed

The furore over the retention of organs at postmortem examination, without adequate consent, has led to a reassessment of the justification for, and circumstances surrounding, the retention of any human material after postmortem examinations and operations. This brings into focus the large amount of human material stored in various archives and museums, much of which is not identifiable and was accumulated many years ago, under unknown circumstances. Such anonymous archival material could be disposed of, used for teaching, used for research, or remain in storage. We argue that there are no ethical grounds for disposing of the material, or for storing it in the absence of a teaching or research rationale. Nevertheless, with stringent safeguards, it can be used even in the absence of consent in research and teaching. Regulations are required to control the storage of all such human material, along the lines of regulations governing anatomy body bequests. PMID:14662813

Jones, D G; Gear, R; Galvin, K A

2003-12-01

178

Mixtures with relatives: a pedigree perspective.  

PubMed

DNA mixture evidence pertains to cases where several individuals may have contributed to a biological stain. Statistical methods and software for such problems are available and a large number of cases can be handled adequately. However, one class of mixture problems remains untreated in full generality in the literature, namely when the contributors may be related. Disregarding a plausible close relative of the perpetrator as an alternative contributor (identical twin is the most extreme case) may lead to overestimating the evidence against a suspect. Existing methods only accommodate pairwise relationships such as the case where the suspect and the victim are siblings, for example. In this paper we consider relationships in full generality, conveniently represented by pedigrees. In particular, these pedigrees may involve inbreeding, for instance when the parents of an individual of interest are first cousins. Furthermore our framework handles situations where the opposing parties in a court case (prosecution and defence) propose different family relationships. Consequently, our approach combines classical mixture and kinship problems. The basic idea of this paper is to formulate the problem in a way that allows for the exploitation of currently available methods and software designed originally for linkage applications. We have developed a freely available R package, euroMix based on another package, paramlink, and we illustrate the ideas and methods on real and simulated data. PMID:24572837

Egeland, Thore; Dørum, Guro; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Sheehan, Nuala A

2014-05-01

179

Impact of Written Ethics Policy on Euthanasia From the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses: A Multiple Case Study in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia decision making is a complex process for physicians and nurses that involves clinical, legal, ethical, and personal–emotional aspects. In this respect, attention has been given to hospitals’ written ethics policies on euthanasia. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of a written ethics policy on euthanasia, as experienced by physicians and nurses involved in euthanasia care

Joke Lemiengre; Chris Gastmans; Paul Schotsmans; Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé

2010-01-01

180

This chapter appears in Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Melissa J. Dark.  

E-print Network

This chapter appears in Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems, and censorship resilience. On the other hand, peer-to-peer networks pose considerable ethical and legal that the ethical quandaries posed by peer-to-peer networks are rooted in a conflicting set of incentives among

Sadeh, Norman M.

181

HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient’s daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. PMID:24049460

Schutz, Sonja G; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2013-01-01

182

Ways of thinking about and teaching ethical problem solving: microethics and macroethics in engineering.  

PubMed

Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. "Microethics" considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; "macroethics" applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a "micro" focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of professional engineering societies and corporate social responsibility programs on ethical engineering practice. Integrating macroethical issues and concerns in engineering ethics involves broadening the context of ethical problem solving. This in turn implies: developing courses emphasizing both micro and macro perspectives, providing faculty development that includes training in both STS and practical ethics; and revision of curriculum materials, including online resources. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended 1) to create online case studies emphasizing ethical decision making in individual, professional, and societal contexts; 2) to leverage existing online computer ethics resources with relevance to engineering education and practice; and 3) to create transparent linkages between public policy positions advocated by professional societies and codes of ethics. PMID:16190278

Herkert, Joseph R

2005-07-01

183

Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective  

SciTech Connect

Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.

Sauer, P.J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen University Medical Centre, PO Box 90.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.j.j.sauer@bkk.umcg.nl

2005-09-01

184

A look at international, short-term service trips: challenges from a dental ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Although professionals helping those in need in other countries is a noble endeavor, it is not without its ethical challenges. Those in the medical field are just beginning to explore these issues. In this paper, the five-principle structure of the ADA Code is used to explore some of the not-so-obvious problems that may come in the wake of charity care in international contexts. Issues surrounding respect for autonomy include informed consent, adequate health history, and cultural sensitivity. Sometimes the difficulty of working conditions increases the possibility of causing harm, and follow-up care may be lacking or inadequate. The duty for beneficence may have different meanings in other cultures than it does in the United States. Standards for justice or fairness may not be the same in other countries, and bringing American benefits to a segment of a local population may disrupt indigenous standards. Issues can also arise around veracity due to communication problems and alternative ways of counting benefits and harms. PMID:25080666

Roucka, Toni M

2014-01-01

185

A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920

Ferrie, Suzie

2006-04-01

186

FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING: THREE STUDIES RELATED TO THE ETHICAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation evaluates the economic and ethical considerations underlying the outsourcing of professional services such as finance and accounting. The dissertation is comprised of three… (more)

Desai, Renu V

2007-01-01

187

Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

2009-01-01

188

Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical

Thoms, Karen Jarrett

189

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

190

Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

Williams, Richard S., Jr.

2002-01-01

191

Ethics and Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

2013-07-01

192

“Someone should oversee it”: Patient perspectives on the ethical issues arising with the regulation of probiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Though many probiotic products are currently available in yogurt or pill form in the United States (US), there is uncertainty surrounding the structure of regulation of these products. As more therapeutic probiotics are developed changes to existing regulatory process in the US may be required to meet the needs of patients and users in the population. Objective This study examined how patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases view the regulation of probiotics. Design We conducted a multi-site qualitative study consisting of focus groups of patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases at three tertiary hospitals: at [institutions removed for blinded review]. Results We conducted 22 focus groups with 136 patients with major gastrointestinal (GI) diseases between March and August 2009. Participants were not familiar with of existing regulation of probiotic products but wanted assurances of accurate labeling of strain as well as safety. Participants raised concerns that regulation of probiotics might be accompanied by greater costs, reduced access, and increased involvement of pharmaceutical companies. Although participants voiced significant doubt of government regulators, they felt that products containing genetically modified probiotic strains should have oversight comparable to that of pharmaceutical drugs. Discussion and conclusion If GI patient perspectives are indicative of public perceptions of therapeutic probiotics in the US, consumers may expect more rigorous regulation in the future while simultaneously wanting low costs, easy access, and low involvement of pharmaceutical companies. Manufacturers, translational scientists, clinicians, and regulators should be sensitive to consumer attitudes when designing, testing, and regulating new therapeutic probiotics. PMID:23279082

Harrison, Krista L.; Farrell, Ruth M.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Highland, Janelle; Mercer, MaryBeth; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Tilburt, Jon; Geller, Gail; Marshall, Patricia; Sharp, Richard R.

2014-01-01

193

The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.  

PubMed

To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

2011-01-01

194

The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective  

PubMed Central

To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

2011-01-01

195

The American Work Ethic and the Changing Work Force: An Historical Perspective. Contributions in Labor Studies, Number 52.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…

Applebaum, Herbert

196

Re-Examining Race-Based Admissions Processes of American Institutions of Higher Education Using Multi-Dimensional Ethical Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court of the USA explains when universities may use race-based admissions policies without violating the Equal Protection Clause of the US Constitution. These rulings raise important ethical issues for universities that are presently using race as a consideration in their admissions decisions. This paper discusses some of the ethical

Gutierrez, Kathrine J.; Green, Preston C., III

2004-01-01

197

Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. Methods We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. Results The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Conclusions Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be informed of incidental findings related to their health. Patients had a great deal of trust in their medical professionals and publically-funded researchers as opposed to profit-based industries and insurance companies. PMID:23497701

2013-01-01

198

Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.  

PubMed

Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

2013-09-01

199

[Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties aboutterminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas. PMID:19437851

Chaves, Adriano Aparecido Bezerra; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

2009-03-01

200

Dancing through Cape Coast: ethical and practical considerations for health-related service-learning programs.  

PubMed

Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health. PMID:23887005

Saffran, Lise

2013-09-01

201

How is health-related "deservingness" reckoned? Perspectives from unauthorized im/migrants in Tel Aviv.  

PubMed

Do unauthorized im/migrants have a right to health? Do they deserve health care, or health protection, or access to the social determinants of good health? Are they party to prevailing social contracts, or does their exclusion from mainstream systems of health promotion, prevention, and care "make sense"? Questions like these, which generate considerable attention in multiple spheres of scholarship, policy, and public debate, revolve around an issue that merits substantially greater consideration among social scientists of health: health-related "deservingness." In addition to putting the issue of health-related deservingness squarely on the map as an object of analysis, this article further argues that we cannot focus solely on those with power, influence, and public voice. Rather, we also must investigate how deservingness is reckoned in relation to--and, furthermore, from the perspectives of-- unauthorized im/migrants and members of other groups commonly constructed in public and policy discourse as undeserving. Additionally, we must consider the complicated relationship between universalizing juridical arguments about formal entitlement to health rights, on one hand, and situationally specific, vernacular moral arguments about deservingness, on the other. The paper analyzes findings from a 29-month mixed-methods study conducted in Tel Aviv, Israel, that approached unauthorized im/migrants as subjects, rather than simply objects, of ethical deliberation. Participants' conceptions of health-related deservingness are investigated using two sources of data: (1) quantitative findings from a self-administered, closed-ended survey conducted with 170 im/migrant patients at an NGO-run Open Clinic (2002-2003), and (2) qualitative findings from the larger ethnographic study of which the survey was part (2000-2010). The study findings both (1) contradict commonly circulating assumptions that unauthorized im/migrants are "freeloaders," and (2) highlight the need for rigorous investigation of how unauthorized im/migrants, among other marginalized and vulnerable groups, conceptualize their own relative deservingness of health-related concern and investment. PMID:21821324

Willen, Sarah S

2012-03-01

202

(Good) corporate governance and the strategic integration of meso ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of meso ethics from a corporate governance perspective, and the strategic process of integration between corporate and individual ethics for the creation of an ethical culture. A secondary aim is to identify the organizational behavior variables that are affected by the ethical congruence between employee ethics

Steven H. Appelbaum; Louis Vigneault; Edward Walker; Barbara T. Shapiro

2009-01-01

203

Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences  

PubMed Central

Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers. PMID:25216254

Pereira, Dolores

2014-01-01

204

Ethics review as a component of institutional approval for a multicentre continuous quality improvement project: the investigator's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background For ethical approval of a multicentre study in Canada, investigators must apply separately to individual Research Ethics Boards (REBs). In principle, the protection of human research subjects is of utmost importance. However, in practice, the process of multicentre ethics review can be time consuming and costly, requiring duplication of effort for researchers and REBs. We used our experience with ethical review of The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN), to gain insight into the Canadian system. Methods The applications forms of 16 different REBs were abstracted for a list of standardized items. The application process across sites was compared. Correspondence between the REB and the investigators was documented in order to construct a timeline to approval, identify the specific issues raised by each board, and describe how they were resolved. Results Each REB had a different application form. Most (n = 9) had a two or three step application process. Overall, it took a median of 31 days (range 2-174 days) to receive an initial response from the REB. Approval took a median of 42 days (range 4-443 days). Privacy and consent were the two major issues raised. Several additional minor or administrative issues were raised which delayed approval. Conclusions For CPN, the Canadian REB process of ethical review proved challenging. REBs acted independently and without unified application forms or submission procedures. We call for a critical examination of the ethical, privacy and institutional review processes in Canada, to determine the best way to undertake multicentre review. PMID:20673343

2010-01-01

205

Deciding about life-support: a perspective on the ethical and legal framework in the United Kingdom and Australia.  

PubMed

This article is concerned with the legal right of health service providers to decide whether to provide life-prolonging treatment to patients. In particular, an examination of recent decisions by the English Court of Appeal in R (Burke) v General Medical Council (Official Solicitor and Others Intervening) [2005] EWCA Civ 1003 and the European Court of Human Rights in Burke v United Kingdom (unreported, ECHR, No 19807/06, 11 July 2006) is provided. An analysis of Australian case law is undertaken together with a consideration of the limits of a patient's legal right of autonomy in relation to choosing life-prolonging medical treatment; the basis upon which such treatment can be legally withdrawn or withheld from an incompetent patient against the patient's earlier expressed wishes that it should be continued or initiated; the concept in ethics and law of a patient's best interests; and the role of courts in adjudicating disputes about the continuation of treatment in light of the recent decisions. PMID:17571788

Thiagarajan, Malar; Savulescu, Julian; Skene, Loane

2007-05-01

206

Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

2014-01-01

207

Medical Ethics  

MedlinePLUS

... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

208

Ethical consumerism: a view from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractBusiness ethics and corporate social responsibility have gained more attention in recent years. However, the consumers’ perspective on ethics is still a little researched area. This study reports a survey (n?=?713) on the views of Finnish consumers about ethics in trade. Consumers’ willingness to promote business ethics as well as the obstacles to ethical consumption are investigated. The results of

Outi Uusitalo; Reetta Oksanen

2004-01-01

209

ALS: AN ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a relentlessly progressive, fatal and presently incurable motor neuron disorder caused by degeneration of both upper and lower neurons that control voluntary skeletal muscle. ALS variants include a progressive lower motor neuron disorder, Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA); a progressive upper motor neuron disorder, Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS); and a progressive disorder

Leo McCluskey

210

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-01-01

211

Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise

V Moises Serrano-Delgado; Barbara Novello-Garza; Edith Valdez-Martinez

2009-01-01

212

Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

Kuzu, Abdullah

2009-01-01

213

Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

1997-01-01

214

Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

215

Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

Walsh, Justin

216

Some Thoughts on John Dewey's Ethics and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The philosopher and educator, John Dewey, explores the emergence of the terms "ethics" and "education" from a pragmatist's perspective, i.e., within the linguistic and social components' framework, and society's existing cognitive and cultural level. In the current article, we examine the development, logical control and the relation between…

Karafillis, Gregorios

2012-01-01

217

New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Relativity is almost 100 years old. Classically, Einstein's theory, is a geometric theory with a metric equating gravity and acceleration. This Principle of Equivalence determines the kinematics. Padmanabhan uses accelerated Rindler frames to derive general relativistic actions, including the Einstein-Hilbert action, and the Einstein equations. This determines the dynamics. There is another formulation of General Relativity due to Göckeler and Schücker, a gauge theory in terms of differential forms, which reduces to the Einstein-Hilbert action and implies the Einstein equations including torsion. My thesis, “New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology”, contains, in part: • Padmanabhan discovered a differential relation between the volume and surface terms for generalized Lagrangians in Einstein-Hilbert type actions. I found a generalization of this using the Göckeler and Schücker form from which Padmanabhan's relations can be deduced under contraction. The new formulation constrains the curvature and torsion and allows other generalizations. • Padmanabhan has recently derived Einstein's Equations from thermodynamical assumptions on the surface term in the Action. Horizons which block information are a relatively new feature in Physics. Padmanabhan has done alot in advancing the goal of elucidating the relation between General Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory. • Hawking found that black holes radiate in a thermal spectrum and calculated the temperature. This (nonquantum) temperature is novel in General Relativity. • Unruh and others found vacuum states which exhibit thermal properties dependent on the motion of the observer. Vacuums are nonunique in noninertial frames and curved spacetimes. • Recent observations indicate the presence of an unclustered material acting like a fluid with negative pressure causing the acceleration of the Universe and amounting to about 70% of its energy density. The simplest explanation for this Dark Energy is the Cosmological Constant. Padmanabhan has derived the correct value for this vacuum energy by gauging away the bulk value and evaluating the vacuum fluctuations in terms of surface dimensions. • There has been considerable progress recently in understanding the History on the Universe, although there remains much is unknown. This is the Standard Model of Cosmology. The Standard Model of Particle Physics and the gauge theory of General Theory of Relativity are not only the current fundamental theories of physics but also the way the Universe has evolved. • Despite the progress of the Ashtekar formulation, the development of spin foams, and String theory with its spin-2 graviton, there does not exist a complete theory of Quantum Gravity. The search continues for the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom and the gravitational notions of energy and entropy.

Smoot, Dennis G.

218

Engaging with research ethics in central Francophone Africa: reflections on a workshop about ancillary care  

PubMed Central

Research ethics is predominantly taught and practiced in Anglophone countries, particularly those in North America and Western Europe. Initiatives to build research ethics capacity in developing countries must attempt to avoid imposing foreign frameworks and engage with ethical issues in research that are locally relevant. This article describes the process and outcomes of a capacity-building workshop that took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo in the summer of 2011. Although the workshop focused on a specific ethical theme – the responsibilities of researchers to provide health-related care to their research participants – we argue that the structure of the workshop offers a useful method for engaging with research ethics in general, and the theme of ancillary care encourages a broad perspective on research ethics that is highly pertinent in low-income countries. The workshop follows an interactive, locally driven model that could be fruitfully replicated in similar settings. PMID:22866822

2012-01-01

219

Demarcation of the ethics of care as a discipline: Discussion article.  

PubMed

This article aims to initiate a discussion on the demarcation of the ethics of care. This discussion is necessary because the ethics of care evolves by making use of insights from varying disciplines. As this involves the risk of contamination of the care ethical discipline, the challenge for care ethical scholars is to ensure to retain a distinct care ethical perspective. This may be supported by an open and critical debate on the criteria and boundaries of the ethics of care. As a contribution, this article proposes a tentative outline of the care ethical discipline. What is characteristic of this outline is the emphasis on relational programming, situation-specific and context-bound judgments, a political-ethical perspective, and empirical groundedness. It is argued that the ethics of care is best developed further by means of an intradisciplinary approach. Two intradisciplinary examples show how within the frame of one discipline, other disciplines are absorbed, both with their body of knowledge and their research methodology. PMID:24154572

Klaver, Klaartje; Elst, Eric van; Baart, Andries J

2014-11-01

220

Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

2014-01-01

221

The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed\\u000a to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at\\u000a the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions\\u000a about a number of topics. First,

Femke Nijboer; Jens Clausen; Brendan Z. Allison; Pim Haselager

2011-01-01

222

Children between liberation and care: ethical perspectives on the rights of children and parent–child relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is accepted in nearly all countries in the world although the idea of children’s rights is still much discussed. The author distinguishes two perspectives for interpreting the children’s rights’ convention correlated with different child images. On the one hand there is the ‘caretaker perspective’, mainly based on the idea that

Annemie Dillen

2006-01-01

223

Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

Froehlich, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

224

Ethical stockmanship.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

Hemsworth, P H

2007-05-01

225

Suicide and Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

1983-01-01

226

The dramaturgical perspective in relation to self and culture.  

PubMed

Social scientists have studied human behavior from the dramaturgical perspective (DP), through which society is viewed as an elaborate play or game in which individuals enact different roles. The DP is more than a theoretical construct; members of individualist, secular societies occasionally adopt the DP with relation to their own lives. The current research examined the consequences of adopting the DP for evaluations of the self and conceptions of reality at large. Study 1 examined the attitudinal correlates of DP endorsement to test our claim that the DP is situated in an ideological context of individualism and secular modernism. Supporting our claim that the DP invalidates external information about the self's value, in Studies 2A and 2B individuals endorsed the DP to a greater extent after a self-esteem threat, and Studies 2C and 3 showed that exposure to the DP (but not a direct system threat) buffered self-esteem threats. Examining moderators of the DP's influence on self-esteem, Study 4 showed that taking the DP with regard to the ultimate value (vs. concrete experience) of a social role decreased self-esteem and investment in that role. Studies 5A and 5B examined the DP's consequences for perceived moral objectivism. Adopting the DP decreased moral objectivism and moralization of various behaviors but not when the intrinsic self was dispositionally or situationally salient. The latter finding suggests that although contemporary individuals can and occasionally do adopt a reflective stance toward their place within social reality, they nevertheless continue to believe in a true, core self that transcends that precarious drama. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243413

Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Young, Isaac F; Stewart, Sheridan A

2014-11-01

227

Ethical Decision-Making: Issues and Applications to American Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…

Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.

1998-01-01

228

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

229

Causal Relation Analysis Tool of the Case Study in the Engineer Ethics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In engineering ethics education, the virtual experiencing of dilemmas is essential. Learning through the case study method is a particularly effective means. Many case studies are, however, difficult to deal with because they often include many complex causal relationships and social factors. It would thus be convenient if there were a tool that could analyze the factors of a case example and organize them into a hierarchical structure to get a better understanding of the whole picture. The tool that was developed applies a cause-and-effect matrix and simple graph theory. It analyzes the causal relationship between facts in a hierarchical structure and organizes complex phenomena. The effectiveness of this tool is shown by presenting an actual example.

Suzuki, Yoshio; Morita, Keisuke; Yasui, Mitsukuni; Tanada, Ichirou; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu

230

Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

2011-01-01

231

Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.  

PubMed

In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. PMID:22987619

Weng, Naidong

2012-11-01

232

The Relative Returns from Research and Teaching: A Market Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employs a market perspective to explain why financial returns to college teaching and research are necessarily unequal. Research will receive greater rewards so long as its market reach is longer, research talent is in shorter supply, and the benefits of research can be partially appropriated by individual scholars. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

Hum, Derek

2000-01-01

233

Children between Liberation and Care: Ethical Perspectives on the Rights of Children and Parent-Child Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is accepted in nearly all countries in the world although the idea of children's rights is still much discussed. The author distinguishes two perspectives for interpreting the children's rights' convention correlated with different child images. On the one hand there is the "caretaker…

Dillen, Annemie

2006-01-01

234

New-World Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)

Hatcher, Tim

2003-01-01

235

The Ethical Employee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

236

Ethics and Dying at Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Death at home has become increasingly common. End of life care at home creates ethical challenges that are very different from those encountered in the hospital or nursing home. Geographic disparities in rates of death at home raise ethical issues related to access to care. Home health agencies and communities make decisions, possibly ethically based, regarding investments in home-based end

Edward R. Ratner; John Y. Song

2003-01-01

237

Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa.  

PubMed

The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more 'situated ethics' of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in 'doing ethics' in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting the ethical priority of capacity strengthening in medical research, social science and research ethics in Africa to ensure that local and national priorities and concerns are considered at both the micro and macro levels. PMID:18455856

Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P Wenzel

2008-09-01

238

Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa  

PubMed Central

The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting the ethical priority of capacity strengthening in medical research, social science and research ethics in Africa to ensure that local and national priorities and concerns are considered at both the micro and macro levels. PMID:18455856

Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel

2008-01-01

239

An Exploration of forest service partnerships from an interorganizational relations perspective  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE May 1992 Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences Recreation and Resources Development AN EXPLORATION OF FOREST SERVICE PARTNERSHIPS FROM AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS PERSPECTIVE A... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE May 1992 Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences Recreation and Resources Development AN EXPLORATION OF FOREST SERVICE PARTNERSHIPS FROM AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS PERSPECTIVE A...

Peterson, Erik D.

2012-06-07

240

Accountability in nursing: reflecting on ethical codes and professional standards of nursing practice from a global perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of accountability is a concept closely aligned with public trust and confidence with a healthcare discipline. It is of vital importance to the discipline of nursing to define and examine the obligations and duties of professional nurse. The term is referred to and often defined through international and national professional codes of nursing and in standards of nursing practice documents. This column will begin exploration of the concept with offering a definition from a humanbecoming perspective. PMID:18953006

Milton, Constance L

2008-10-01

241

Protecting vulnerable research participants: a Foucault-inspired analysis of ethics committees.  

PubMed

History has demonstrated the necessity of protecting research participants. Research ethics are based on a concept of asymmetry of power, viewing the researcher as powerful and potentially dangerous and establishing ethics committees as external agencies in the field of research. We argue in favour of expanding this perspective on relationships of power to encompass the ethics committees as one among several actors that exert power and that act in a relational interplay with researchers and participants. We employ Michel Foucault's ideas of power as an omnipresent force which is dynamic and unstable, as well as the notion that knowledge and power are inextricably intertwined. The article discusses how research ethics committees may affect academic freedom. In addition it is pointed out that research participants could be harmed - not only by unfortunate research practices, but also by being subjected to the protective efforts of ethics monitoring bodies. PMID:21646327

Juritzen, Truls I; Grimen, Harald; Heggen, Kristin

2011-09-01

242

Journalism Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalism ethics, the norms of responsible journalism, can be traced back to the beginning of modern journalism in Europe during the seventeenth century. This chapter provides an overview of contemporary journalism ethics by following its evolution, by reviewing and critiquing major approaches, and by suggesting future work. The chapter begins with a view of ethics as practi- cal normative activity

Stephen J. A. Ward

2008-01-01

243

Marketing Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saucier examines marketing ethics, focusing on the nature of new ethical breaches made possible by the increasing capabilities of technology. Chapter topics include the use of fear appeals, intrusive advertising in daily lives, the American materialistic culture, body image advertising, and puffery and deceptive advertising practice. Appendices include the American Marketing Association Code of Ethics, the Parents' Bill of Rights,

Rick D. Saucier

2008-01-01

244

Contemporary Ethics in Relation to Academics and the Use of a Professor's Own Text or Fellow Faculty Member's Text as a Course Requirement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done of higher education faculty members' views of ethics in relation to academics and the use of a professor's own text or a fellow faculty member's text as a course requirement. A questionnaire was sent to 210 accounting professors selected at random of whom 53 percent responded. The response rate alone indicated a widespread…

Fay, Jack R.; Stryker, Judson P.

245

The Caring Relation in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…

Noddings, Nel

2012-01-01

246

Relation of functional physical impairment and goal perspectives of wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation of functional classification in wheelchair basketball and its relation to the theory of psychological goal perspectives for 59 adult male competitive players. Participants completed the 13-item Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire designed for wheelchair basketball players. Analyses indicated that Flemish wheelchair basketball players were similar in their goal perspectives to able-bodied athletes. The present sample was predominantly task-oriented. No significant differences were found between high-point and low-point players in their goal perspectives, indicating that players can be severely or minimally disabled and still share the same goal perspective and the same motivational profile. These findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that severity of disability is associated with the motivation profile of disabled athletes. PMID:12831249

Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

2003-06-01

247

Clinical ethics support services: an evolving model.  

PubMed

Ethical issues arising in clinical practice are complex and clinicians must be able to manage the needs of ethically vulnerable patients and families. This paper describes a model for providing Clinical Ethics Support Services as a broad spectrum of care for management of conflict and ethically difficult situations in health care and describes how an ethics consultation process was transformed to a Holistic Care Continuum for managing the needs of ethically vulnerable patients. During a 4-year journey at a regional medical center, a Family Support Team played a central role in identification of ethically vulnerable patients/family, interdisciplinary connectivity, and iterative engagement in the clinical milieu. Concepts of professional advocacy and interdisciplinary perspectives resulted in a model for ethically sound patient care promoting communication among patients/family, staff, and professionals; clarification of interdisciplinary roles and responsibilities; establishment of mutually derived goals and shared solutions; and implementation of interventions maximizing institutional resources. PMID:22357314

Schlairet, Maura C; Kiser, Ken; Norris, Stephen

2012-01-01

248

A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

Fitch, Kate

2013-01-01

249

Biomedical Ethics Policy in Korea: Characteristics and Historical Development  

PubMed Central

Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature. PMID:22661876

Hahm, Ki-Hyun

2012-01-01

250

Health and wellness policy ethics.  

PubMed

This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of "wellness" policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a "healthy" lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect "non-healthy" employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

Cavico, Frank J; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G

2013-08-01

251

Ethical issues faced by clinician/managers in resource-allocation decisions.  

PubMed

This article explores the ethical issues faced by clinicians with management responsibilities (clinician/managers) when making decisions related to resource allocation and utilization at a Canadian teaching hospital. Using a focus group method, 28 individuals participated in four homogeneous groups that included nurse managers, managers from other professional groups, and physician managers. Ethical issues that recurred throughout the discussions included fairness, concern with preventing harm, consumer/patient choice, balancing needs of different groups of patients, conflict between financial incentives and patient needs, and professional autonomy. The particular issue of conflict is analyzed from two perspectives--a theory of professional-bureaucratic roles and of obligation--that illustrate how both management and philosophical issues are related. The findings suggest that decentralizing resource allocation and utilization decisions does raise ethical issues for clinician/managers and that a better understanding of these issues can be obtained using an interdisciplinary perspective. PMID:10160949

Lemieux-Charles, L; Meslin, E M; Aird, C; Baker, R; Leatt, P

1993-01-01

252

Ethical Ideologies of Future Marketers: The Relative Influences of Machiavelliamsm and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the relative influences of Machiavellianism and gender on the two basic dimensions of marketing students' moral philosophies, idealism and relativism. Results from a mail survey of student members of the American Marketing Association show a negative relationship between Machiavellianism and idealism and a positive relationship between Machiavellianism and relativism. The results also indicate male students tend to

Anusorn Singhapakdi; Scott J. Vitell

1994-01-01

253

Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  

PubMed

The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

2014-06-01

254

Work-related suicide in Victoria, Australia: a broad perspective.  

PubMed

While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000-December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of broadly defined work-relatedness. Inclusion criteria for work-related suicide were at least one of: suicide means was work related, work stressors were identified in police reports to the Coroners or the Coroner's finding, the suicide method involved another person's work (e.g. rail suicide, heavy vehicle) or the suicide location was a workplace. Cases still open for investigation were excluded. Of 642 work-related suicides, 55% had an association with work stressors; 32% jumped or lay in front of a train or heavy vehicle; 7% involved a work location and 6% involved work agents. Work stressor cases identified included business difficulties, recent or previous work injury, unemployment/redundancy or conflict with supervisors/colleagues (including workplace bullying). Work-related suicide is a substantial problem, for which few detailed population wide studies are available. Further research is required to understand the contribution of work stressors and effective interventions. PMID:22132703

Routley, Virginia Hazel; Ozanne-Smith, Joan E

2012-01-01

255

Ethical Issues Relating to the Health Effects of Long Working Hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research evidence has accumulated indicating that there is an increased likelihood for illness and injury among\\u000a employees working in long-hour schedules and schedules involving unconventional shift work (e.g., night and evening shifts).\\u000a In addition, studies show that fatigue-related errors made by employees working in these kind of demanding schedules can have\\u000a serious and adverse repercussions for public safety. As

Allard E. Dembe

2009-01-01

256

Towards developing an ethical institutional brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a perspective that ethical practices in higher education institutions can be a powerful tool for branding and attaining competitive advantage. The paper proposes that an ethical institutional brand can be built on the basis of just and fair practices at the institution, and quality admission and assessment processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Puja Khatri; Yukti Ahuja Sharma

2011-01-01

257

Age-related macular degeneration: a perspective on genetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease in the developed world and recent studies have shown that specific genes may be associated with it and may contribute to a higher risk of developing AMD.ObjectiveOur objective was to review systematically recent publications related to the genetics of AMD and provide relevant information that would help both scientists and clinicians

N Patel; T Adewoyin; N V Chong; Victor Chong

2008-01-01

258

Centric relation definition: a historical and contemporary prosthodontic perspective.  

PubMed

Centric relation (CR) is a core topic of dentistry in general and prosthodontics in particular. The term CR has become thoroughly confusing because of many conflicting definitions. Unfortunately definition of CR changed repeatedly over past ten decades. All the existing definitions in the dental literature, for the past 81 years, are segregated into definitions from 1929 to 1970, 1970-1980, and 1980-2010 and are critically analyzed. Both PubMed (key words: centric relation/centric jaw relation) and hand searches were employed, from citation in other publications, to identify relevant articles in English language peer reviewed PubMed journals from 1956 to 2010; although the review is from 1929. Numerous definitions for CR have been given, however, no consensus exists and the definition given by a current glossary of prosthodontic terms is confusing. It relates CR to many clinically invisible parts and cannot guide a dental surgeon to record the CR following its description. The purpose of this article is not only to review all the definitions critically but to propose a self explanatory definition to minimize the confusion in the minds of dental practitioners and students for better understanding of the concept of CR. Centric relation is clinically significant since it is the only clinically repeatable jaw relation and the logical position to fabricate prosthesis. PMID:24431728

Palaskar, Jayant N; Murali, R; Bansal, Sanjay

2013-09-01

259

Ethical Aspects of Patient Information in Radiation Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While legal aspects of patient information in radiotherapy are often discussed in clinical literature, ethical aspects are mainly a topic of debate only in bioethical literature. Nevertheless, patient information about radiation oncology has many ethical implications which must be considered in order to provide an optimal patient care. Therefore, this publication describes these ethical aspects from a clinical perspective.

Christof Schäfer; Manfred Herbst

2003-01-01

260

Business Ethics in China: A Human Resource Management Issue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is widely perceived as having a problem in business ethics. One view holds that elements of Chinese culture tend to encourage unethical business decisions. Another perspective says that China has business ethics issues because its economy is in transition. The unclear rules of the game create opportunity for business ethics problems. The large amount of new wealth creates incentive

John Hulpke; Cubie Lau

2008-01-01

261

Accountant ethics: A brief examination of neglected sociological dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional treatments of accountant ethics make implicit assumptions inconsistent with a sociological perspective. This paper identifies the ways in which accountant ethics have been approached both in literature pertaining to practice and the classroom. The boundaries of the topic, when its definitions are left tacit, systematically preclude many important features of ethics. Included in these are sociological treatments of the

Timothy J. Fogarty

1995-01-01

262

MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

263

Perspectives on Public Relations Training in International Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…

Bunnell, Tristan

2005-01-01

264

Relations between Money and Love in Postdivorce Families: Children's Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…

Haugen, Gry Mette D.

2005-01-01

265

A theoretical perspective on running-related injuries.  

PubMed

The etiology of running-related injuries remains unknown; however, an implicit theory underlies much of the conventional research and practice in the prevention of these injuries. This theory posits that the cause of running-related injuries lies in the high-impact forces experienced when the foot contacts the ground and the subsequent abnormal movement of the subtalar joint. The application of this theory is seen in the design of the modern running shoe, with cushioning, support, and motion control. However, a new theory is emerging that suggests that it is the use of these modern running shoes that has caused a maladaptive running style, which contributes to a high incidence of injury among runners. The suggested application of this theory is to cease use of the modern running shoe and transition to barefoot or minimalist running. This new running paradigm, which is at present inadequately defined, is proposed to avoid the adverse biomechanical effects of the modern running shoe. Future research should rigorously define and then test both theories regarding their ability to discover the etiology of running-related injury. Once discovered, the putative cause of running-related injury will then provide an evidence-based rationale for clinical prevention and treatment. PMID:24725045

Gallant, Jodi Lynn; Pierrynowski, Michael Raymond

2014-03-01

266

Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

267

Marital Relations and Combat Stress Reaction: The Wives' Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes over time in marital relations of Israeli combat veterans who sustained combat stress reaction (CSR) during 1982 Lebanon War. Interviewed wives of CSR veterans and non-CSR veterans. CRS couples were characterized at four points in time by more conflict, less intimacy, less consensus, less cohesion, and less expressiveness that…

Solomon, Zahava; And Others

1992-01-01

268

Women in sport – gender relations and future perspectives1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting off from deliberations on the ‘nature’ and significance of gender differences and gender relations, I first of all present in this contribution my theoretical framework: a constructivist approach to gender. If gender is understood as a social construction, gender differences are not ‘natural’ but acquired and enacted, and also vary according to the particular social and gender order. Currently

Gertrud Pfister

2010-01-01

269

Constructivist learning perspectives in the online public relations classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers and educators use constructivist theory to analyse what works well in online classrooms. Past research suggests successful online teaching strategies involve community learning, shared interactions, and meaningful learning experiences. In this study, educators who taught public relations online, in either graduate or undergraduate settings, were interviewed using in-depth key informant surveys. Most interviewees reported successful integration of community

Ann Peru Knabe

270

Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public health action-research project. In carrying out such projects, careful attention and effort is needed to establish and maintain respectful relationships amongst those involved, acknowledge and address differences of power and position, and evaluate burdens and risks for individuals and groups. PMID:24555854

2014-01-01

271

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives. Marc Aubry1,*  

E-print Network

1 TITLE PAGE TITLE Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives,version1-18Jul2008 #12;3 ABSTRACT PAGE ABSTRACT The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of duodenal enterocytes. The challenge from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1 *  

E-print Network

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1> Abstract The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step of its homeostasis. But the control approach, we identified 60 genes over-expressed in hemin (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Overt and relational aggression and victimization: Multiple perspectives within the school setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study involved a comprehensive comparative examination of overt and relational aggression and victimization across multiple perspectives in the school setting (peers, teachers, observers in the lunchroom, self-report). Patterns of results involving sociometic status, ethnicity and gender were explored among 4th graders, with particular emphasis on girls. Controversial and rejected children were perceived as higher on both forms of

Martha Putallaz; Christina L. Grimes; Kristen J. Foster; Janis B. Kupersmidt; John D. Coie; Karen Dearing

2007-01-01

274

Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

2011-01-01

275

"Ethics Shock."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities, the need for reform in college athletics…

Knefelkamp, L. Lee

1990-01-01

276

Egocentric Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

2004-01-01

277

Ethical Considerations: Sense and Sensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counselors and other service providers face daily ethical dilemmas that involve confidentiality, dual relationships within the Deaf community, boundary issues and questions related to self-disclosure. Most human services professions have ethical guidelines or standards that focus on various areas of professionalism. This article will provide information on issues related to professional competence, moral and legal standards, the use of professional

Debra S. Guthmann

278

Ethical and legal issues in the use of related donors for therapeutic insemination.  

PubMed

Donor insemination involving family members can be complex. Although it may offer some advantages to the requesting individuals, to the donor, or to the family, related donation does raise a significant number of concerns. The specific circumstances of these requests should be considered carefully--in most cases more carefully than with anonymous sperm donation. Still, in the United States the freedom of couples or individuals to decide whether, when, and how to reproduce is highly valued. Respect for the autonomy of the involved family members would favor serious consideration of proposals for intrafamilial sperm donation, when all parties have freely consented to participate. Without exception, standards governing anonymous sperm donation should be followed in evaluating the proposed sperm donor for infectious and genetic diseases. The semen specimens should be frozen and quarantined for 180 days. In many cases, the 6-month delay that results from this quarantine will discourage a couple from pursuing intrafamilial sperm donation. Adequate time is essential to assess these relationships when requested. Multiple visits to physicians, nurses, counselors, and lawyers may be necessary for a thorough assessment. Programs should require prospective participants, including recipients, donors, and partners of donors, to undergo psychologic counseling by a professional knowledgeable about gamete donation. Counselors should address issues such as emotional risks, potential impact on family relationships, the donor-recipient relationship, the future role of the donor in the offspring's life, and what information will be disclosed to the offspring. The process of obtaining informed consent from the requesting individuals, the donor, and, possibly, the donor's wife should involve a thorough discussion of potential risks to all parties. Clinicians should assure that the decision to be a sperm donor has been voulntary and free from manipulative and coercive influences. Financial incentives, including direct and indirect payment and inheritance, should not be so substantial that they become inducements that may lead the prospective donor to discount the emotional risk associated with the procedure. Legal counsel should be strongly encouraged to clarify issues of disclosure, rights, and duties, as well as the donor's relationship to the resulting offspring. Any possible changes in these issues in the event of divorce or death of requesting individuals should be addressed. In certain cases, requests should be immediately denied. Gametes from consanguineous relationships should never be used to initiate a pregnancy. Because of potential parental conflicts of interest, programs should not allow minors under the age of 18 years to donate sperm. The use of a family member may not be appropriate when sperm donation is chosen to prevent genetic diseases. Careful genetic counseling should be done before intrafamilial sperm donation is allowed in this situation. If, after careful consideration of the proposed arrangement, the physician chooses to facilitate the relationship, then all precautions should be taken to prevent medical, psychologic, and legal harm to the requesting couple or individual, the potential donor, and the prospective child. Programs that offer these arrangements should make every effort to obtain long-term follow up on the outcomes of these relationships, so that programs can provide more accurate information to families considering these relationships in the future. The physician or program should not feel obligated to agree to every request for intrafamilial sperm donation. When the assessment reveals consistent concerns about coercion of the prospective donor or about unhealthy family dynamics, the physician should feel free to deny these procedures. The physician should advise the requesting couple or individual to seek alternative methods, such as anonymous sperm donation, to conceive. PMID:12516757

Marshall, Lorna A

2002-11-01

279

Client involvement in home care practice: a relational sociological perspective.  

PubMed

'Client involvement' has been a mantra within health policies, education curricula and healthcare institutions over many years, yet very little is known about how 'client involvement' is practised in home-care services. The aim of this article is to analyse 'client involvement' in practise seen from the positions of healthcare professionals, an elderly person and his relative in a home-care setting. A sociologically inspired single case study was conducted, consisting of three weeks of observations and interviews. The study has a focus on the relational aspects of home care and the structural, political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: 'Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care'; 'Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life'; 'Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting'; and 'Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life'. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which involvement of the client in public home-care practice remains limited. PMID:23217061

Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjær, Lone; Praestegaard, Jeanette

2013-12-01

280

Nursing and euthanasia: a review of argument-based ethics literature.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the nursing ethics arguments on euthanasia in general, and on nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular, through an argument-based literature review. An in-depth study of these arguments in this literature will enable nurses to engage in the euthanasia debate. We critically appraised 41 publications published between January 1987 and June 2007. Nursing ethics arguments on (nurses' involvement in) euthanasia are guided primarily by the principles of respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. Ethical arguments related to the nursing profession are described. From a care perspective, we discuss arguments that evaluate to what degree euthanasia can be considered positively or negatively as a form of good nursing care. Most arguments in the principle-, profession- and care-orientated approaches to nursing ethics are used both pro and contra euthanasia in general, and nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular. PMID:19528103

Quaghebeur, Toon; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

2009-07-01

281

Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

Tarone, Elaine

2013-01-01

282

Managing wildlife ethics issues ethically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been

R. Bruce Gill

2000-01-01

283

Applying an international perspective in defining PTSD and related disorders: comment on Friedman (2013).  

PubMed

We address the general perspective of the World Health Organization towards the classification process of the 11(th) revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11); give a short description of the ICD-11 proposals related to "disorders specifically associated with stress" and the differentiation between posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and prolonged grief disorder; and comment on the most important aim of classifying mental disorders-to provide the best treatments available. PMID:24151003

Maercker, Andreas; Perkonigg, Axel

2013-10-01

284

Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

2008-01-01

285

The capacity to forgive: An object relations perspective.  

PubMed

Forgiveness is commended by Christianity, as well as other religious traditions, as one of the most central of virtues, so central that the New Testament links man's very salvation to his ability to forgive. However, mental health professionals have correctly pointed out that the mandate to forgive is often used by religious patients in the service of defenses such as reaction formation, undoing, and denial. The forgiveness ideal is often misunderstood as a command not to experience aggressive feelings.It is the thesis of this paper that the capacity for genuine forgiveness is central not only to spiritual development but to psychological development as well. It is suggested that Kernberg's object relations theory provides the best model for understanding the nature and importance of forgiveness. Mature forgiveness does not involve the elimination of negative feelings toward others (or oneself) but the integration of negative and positive self-object representations and their connected affect. Anger at the offending persons must then be tempered by appreciation for their concomitant good qualities and motivations or, at the very least, empathy for the flaws which prompted them to behave destructively. The result is a more realistic and balanced view of others (and oneself), a more genuine relationship to the full range of one's own inner experience, and a greater ability to respond constructively to frustrating persons and situations. PMID:24302439

Gartner, J

1988-12-01

286

Feminism and public health ethics  

PubMed Central

This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

Rogers, W A

2006-01-01

287

Feminism and public health ethics.  

PubMed

This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

Rogers, W A

2006-06-01

288

A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.  

PubMed

The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. PMID:24291070

de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

2014-02-01

289

The Historical Basis of Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are different objects and motives between scientists and engineers. Science is to create new knowledge (episteme), while technology (techne) is to create new utility. Both types of social responsibility are required for engineer, because modern technology is tightly connected with science. The relationship between ethics for scientists and engineers is discussed as an evolution of ethical objects. A short history of engineering societies in U.S.A. and Japan are introduced with their ethical perspectives. As a conclusion, respect for fundamental rights for existence of those who stand in, with, and around engineers and their societies is needed for better engineering ethics.

Furuya, Keiichi

290

Ethical issues in integrative oncology.  

PubMed

Integrative oncology relates to an emerging dialog between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) scholars, oncologists, family practitioners, and other health care providers who envision an extended and holistic patient-centered approach to oncology care. The multiple commitments of integrative oncology to a medical humanistic approach and to a strong evidence-based foundation may impose considerable ethical concerns and dilemmas. The authors use narrative ethics to present a case study that exemplifies the ethical challenges confronting physicians and health care providers who wish to provide an integrative approach for their patients. An ethical analysis of the narrative is provided to help clarify the ethical issues and conflicts within it. Finally, a framework that may transform ethical constraints to a communication tool is proposed. PMID:18638699

Ben-Arye, Eran; Schiff, Elad; Golan, Ofra

2008-08-01

291

Ethical aspects of biotechnology applications.  

PubMed

This paper examines ethical issues associated with two recent major developments in biotechnology: 1. The question of whether it is ethically acceptable to patent living organisms and genes and 2. Ethical issues related to the ability to predict or prognosticate disease susceptibility using increasingly refined genetic markers. In both instances, a pragmatic consequentialist approach is proposed which encourages biotechnology development while adhering to ethical standards. The paper concludes by encouraging public education about modern genetics in order to avoid inappropriate public fear and concern. PMID:10607855

Siegler, M

1999-01-01

292

Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

2012-01-01

293

Further Contributions from the Ethical Turn in Composition/Rhetoric: Analyzing Ethics in Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I propose that the field of composition/rhetoric can make important contributions to the understanding of ethics based on our critical perspective on language as interactional and rhetorical. The actual language of decision making with ethical dimensions has rarely been studied directly in the literature, a crucial gap our field can…

Barton, Ellen

2008-01-01

294

Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…

White, Judith; Taft, Susan

2004-01-01

295

Ethical leadership.  

PubMed

In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

Keselman, David

2012-01-01

296

An integrated approach to ethical decision-making in the health team.  

PubMed

When making ethical decisions there are different perspectives that health care professionals may use. This may lead to conflict and insufficient co-operation between the members of the health team. Two of these perspectives are the ethics of justice and the ethics of care. In a bid to gain a better understanding of the nature of ethical decision-making in the health team, a comparison was drawn between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care. The investigation into and comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care revealed that the deficiencies in each of the two perspectives in isolation, in fact, necessitate the application of a combination of both perspectives. The aim of the article is to describe how the members of the health team can, in an integrated manner, apply both the ethics of justice and the ethics of care in their ethical decision-making. The central argument of the article is based on the following premises: (1) the inadequacy of the ethics of justice and the ethics of care in isolation necessitates that both these perspectives be applied; (2) the application of both these perspectives again requires an extended rationality and discourse and (3) discourse, in its turn, requires that the emphasis falls on a specific telos and that the participants in the discourse be endowed with certain virtues in order to abide by the rules of discourse. PMID:11114991

Botes, A

2000-11-01

297

The Ethical Foundation of Performativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the debate among theorists of performativity as to whether this concept is founded in an ethical relation. I argue that recent theorisations of the performative, which ground the development of the performative subject within sociality, necessarily make ethics intrinsic to any understanding of performativity. Using the case of serial killer Karla Homolka, I explore four aspects

Belinda Morrissey

2005-01-01

298

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

I D Young

1984-01-01

299

Patients' ethical obligation for their health.  

PubMed Central

In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice. PMID:6502640

Sider, R C; Clements, C D

1984-01-01

300

Incorporating global components into ethics education.  

PubMed

Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

2013-03-01

301

Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.  

PubMed

Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

2014-10-01

302

Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.  

PubMed

The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. PMID:24610789

Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

2014-10-01

303

Understanding the relations between different forms of racial prejudice: a cognitive consistency perspective.  

PubMed

Research on racial prejudice is currently characterized by the existence of diverse concepts (e.g., implicit prejudice, old-fashioned racism, modern racism, aversive racism) that are not well integrated from a general perspective. The present article proposes an integrative framework for these concepts employing a cognitive consistency perspective. Specifically, it is argued that the reliance on immediate affective reactions toward racial minority groups in evaluative judgments about these groups depends on the consistency of this evaluation with other relevant beliefs pertaining to central components of old-fashioned, modern, and aversive forms of prejudice. A central prediction of the proposed framework is that the relation between "implicit" and "explicit" prejudice should be moderated by the interaction of egalitarianism-related, nonprejudicial goals and perceptions of discrimination. This prediction was confirmed in a series of three studies. Implications for research on prejudice are discussed. PMID:18299634

Gawronski, Bertram; Peters, Kurt R; Brochu, Paula M; Strack, Fritz

2008-05-01

304

Relative affine structure: theory and application to 3D reconstruction from perspective views  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an affine framework for perspective views, captured by a single extremely simple equation based on a viewer-centered invariant we call relative affine structure. Via a number of corollaries of our main results we show that our framework unifies previous work-including Euclidean, projective and affine-in a natural and simple way. Finally, the main results were applied to a real

Amnon Shashua; Nassir Navab

1994-01-01

305

Coaching as a profession: Ethical concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Professional Coaching Association (CPCA) recently developed a code of ethics for coaches that was based on the Canadian Psychological Association's ethical code. Because the CPCA did not use coaches' actual experiences to develop their code, we solicited sport-related ethical concerns from coaches to determine the comprehensiveness of the code. Twelve male and seven female coaches from both individual

Colleen J. Haney; Bonita C. Long; Gail Howell-jones

1998-01-01

306

Ethical Dilemmas in College Counseling Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey of ethical dilemmas faced by college counselors are presented. Findings and implications are discussed as they relate to types and frequencies of ethical dilemmas encountered and how they are resolved. A typical ethical dilemma is described. (Author)

Hayman, Peter M.; Covert, Joy A.

1986-01-01

307

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

308

Assessing Relational Learning Deficits in Perspective-Taking in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspective-taking, or the ability to demonstrate awareness of informational states in oneself and in others, has been of recent interest in behavioral psychology. This is, in part, a result of a modern behavioral approach to human language and cognition known as Relational Frame Theory, which views perspective-taking as generalized operant…

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Dillen, Jeffrey E.; Ziomek, Megan M.; Kowalchuk, Rhonda K.

2007-01-01

309

Convivial software: an end-user perspective on free and open source software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free and open source software (Foss) movement deserves to be placed in an historico-ethical perspective that emphasizes\\u000a the end user. Such an emphasis is able to enhance and support the Foss movement by arguing the ways it is heir to a tradition\\u000a of professional ethical idealism and potentially related to important issues in the history of science, technology, and

Carl Mitcham

2009-01-01

310

Syphilis and human experimentation from the first appearance of the disease to World War II: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.  

PubMed

Physicians have conducted research on syphilis for centuries, seeking to understand its etiology and the means of transmission as well as find ways to prevent and cure the disease. Their research practices often strayed from today's ethical standards. In this paper we review ethical aspects of the long history of research on syphilis with emphasis on the experiments performed in the 20th century. The description of research around the time of World War II covers medical experiments carried out in US prisons and in the experimentation centers established by Japanese doctors in occupied territory, as well as experiments in Nazi Germany and the treatment of syphilitics there. PMID:24268559

Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valentí, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

2014-10-01

311

GIS and Ethics Undergraduate  

E-print Network

GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

312

A transdisciplinary perspective of chronic stress in relation to psychopathology throughout life span development.  

PubMed

The allostatic load (AL) model represents an interdisciplinary approach to comprehensively conceptualize and quantify chronic stress in relation to pathologies throughout the life cycle. This article first reviews the AL model, followed by interactions among early adversity, genetics, environmental toxins, as well as distinctions among sex, gender, and sex hormones as integral antecedents of AL. We next explore perspectives on severe mental illness, dementia, and caregiving as unique human models of AL that merit future investigations in the field of developmental psychopathology. A complimenting transdisciplinary perspective is applied throughout, whereby we argue that the AL model goes beyond traditional stress-disease theories toward the advancement of person-centered research and practice that promote not only physical health but also mental health. PMID:21756430

Juster, Robert-Paul; Bizik, Gustav; Picard, Martin; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Sindi, Shireen; Trepanier, Lyane; Marin, Marie-France; Wan, Nathalie; Sekerovic, Zoran; Lord, Catherine; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Plusquellec, Pierrich; McEwen, Bruce S; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-08-01

313

Ethical considerations in international nursing research: a report from the International Centre for Nursing Ethics.  

PubMed

Ethical issues in international nursing research are identified and the perspectives o International Centre for Nursing Ethics are offered in an effort to develop an international consensus of ethical behaviour in research. First, theoretical issues are reviewed, then initial conditions for ethical conduct are defined, and protocol design and procedure considerations are examined. A concerted effort is made to identify and avoid a western bias. Broad guiding principles for designing and reviewing research are offered: (1) respect for persons; (2) beneficence; (3) justice; (4) respect for community; and (5) contextual caring. A collaborative model of the researcher-participant relationship is suggested and discussed. PMID:12659484

2003-03-01

314

Consumer Awareness and Evaluation of Retailers' Social Responsibility: An Exploratory Approach into Ethical Purchase Behavior from a U.S Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility has become a very important issue for researchers (Greenfield, 2004; Maignan & Ralston, 2002; McWilliams et al., 2006; Pearce & Doh 2005), and many consider it necessary for businesses to define their role in society and apply social and ethical standards to their businesses (Lichtenstein et al., 2004). As a result, a significant number of retailers have

Min-Young Lee; Vanessa P. Jackson

2010-01-01

315

The use of personal data from medical records and biological materials: ethical perspectives and the basis for legal restrictions in health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the moral justification for using personal data without informed consent, from both medical records and biological materials, in research where subjects are not physically present in the study and will never have any contact with the study investigators. Although the idea of waiving the requirement for informed consent in certain investigations has been mentioned in several ethical

Enrique Regidor

2004-01-01

316

The Ethics of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case is designed for use in courses that explore ethics or issues related to the change process. The superintendent in this case is faced with a decision that could facilitate the adoption of much needed reform in the district. This decision would not only assure better learning and brighter futures for thousands of students but avert his own…

Wegner, Scott; Moseman, Gerald; Watson, Robert

2004-01-01

317

Code of Ethical Conduct Code of Ethical Conduct  

E-print Network

ethical standards. All of our endeavors � research, academic, business, athletic, community relations not engage in supplemental activities that undermine their ability to perform their jobs for the university

Sridhar, Srinivas

318

Towards an Ethical Approach to Perspective-taking and the Teaching of Multicultural Texts: Getting Beyond Persuasion, Politeness and Political Correctness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to problematize perspective-taking – an instructional practice widely thought to be useful in helping students develop the ability to better understand their own worlds and the worlds of others in multicultural texts. We provide examples that illustrate difficulties discovered in implementing a perspective-taking approach to teaching multicultural texts across three diverse classrooms. Specifically, these examples suggest that

Amanda Haertling Thein; DeAnn Long Sloan

2012-01-01

319

“Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined  

PubMed Central

This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

2009-01-01

320

Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

Welsh, Lynn

2014-10-22

321

Research ethics and private harms.  

PubMed

This commentary addresses the emotionally powerful account of Nicole Taus Kluemper from the perspective of a psychologist familiar with the administrative operation of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the ethics of the profession. The application of the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct to the case is discussed, and alternative methods of response that researchers who have concerns about case studies might use are offered. The author concludes that existing ethical principles-the aspirational standards in particular-do bear upon the matter in question. However, the enforceable code of conduct is not sufficiently clear about obligations to those whom psychologists publicly discuss when the psychologist does not have a specific duty of care to an individual. PMID:24870964

Koocher, Gerald P

2014-12-01

322

Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.  

PubMed

Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders. PMID:24877710

Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

2014-06-01

323

Buddhism and Medical Ethics: A Bibliographic Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ,This article provides an introduction to some contemporary issues in medical ethics and the literature which addresses them from a Buddhist perspective. The first part of the article discusses Buddhism,and medicine,and outlines some of the main issues in contemporary,medical ethics. In the rest of the paper three subjects are considered: i) moral personhood, ii) abortion, and iii) death, dying

James J. Hughes

1995-01-01

324

Covert medication in psychiatric emergencies: is it ever ethically permissible?  

PubMed

Covert administration of medications to patients, defined as the administration of medication to patients without their knowledge, is a practice surrounded by clinical, legal, ethics-related, and cultural controversy. Many psychiatrists would be likely to advocate that the practice of covert medication in emergency psychiatry is not clinically, ethically, or legally acceptable. This article explores whether there may be exceptions to this stance that would be ethical. We first review the standard of emergency psychiatric care. Although we could identify no published empirical studies of covert administration of medicine in emergency departments, we review the prevalence of this practice in other clinical settings. While the courts have not ruled with respect to covert medication, we discuss the evolving legal landscape of informed consent, competency, and the right to refuse treatment. We discuss dilemmas regarding the ethics involved in this practice, including the tensions among autonomy, beneficence, and duty to protect. We explore how differences between cultures regarding the value placed on individual versus family autonomy may affect perspectives with regard to this practice. We investigate how consumers view this practice and their treatment preferences during a psychiatric emergency. Finally, we discuss psychiatric advance directives and explore how these contracts may affect the debate over the practice. PMID:22635297

Hung, Erick K; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

2012-01-01

325

Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

2012-01-01

326

Using a Corporate Code of Ethics to Assess Students' Ethicality: Implications for Business Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author used a corporate code of ethics as a roadmap to create 18 scenarios for assessing business students' ethicality as measured by their behavioral intention. Using a logistic regression analysis, the author also examined 8 factors that could potentially influence students' ethicality. Results indicate 6 scenarios related to 5 areas of the…

Persons, Obeua

2009-01-01

327

Subretinal Hemorrhages Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Psychological and Vision-Related Functional Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess psychological, visual and functional aspects associated with subretinal hemorrhages secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Method: In this prospective, comparative, longitudinal study, 90 eyes of 90 patients with a subretinal hemorrhage, secondary to AMD, of at least 1 disk diameter were treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) and gas, and compared to 25 eyes of 25

Maneli Mozaffarieh; Stefan Sacu; Thomas Benesch; Andreas Wedrich

2008-01-01

328

Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.  

PubMed

Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

2010-11-01

329

[A proposal for the prevention of ethical problems related to drug promotion: a national network for drug information].  

PubMed

The promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies are becoming an increasingly hot topic among healthcare workers and the general public. There are many studies in the literature claiming that drug promotion may lead to ethical problems, irrational use of medication, and increased costs, as well as negative effects on the patient-physician relationship and the medical profession. When considering that healthcare workers generally acquire their knowledge from the pharmaceutical industry, the problems mentioned, which are indeed of paramount importance, and the need for effective and sustainable interventions are clearly revealed. Many kinds of interventions have been recommended by various authorities and studies in order to prevent the kinds of problems mentioned above, including training healthcare workers, publishing professional codes to serve as guidelines about which professional values should be protected and how to cope with different situations in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, or applying the business ethics codes of the pharmaceutical companies. Studies that assessed the effectiveness of different interventions, however, revealed that educating healthcare workers about marketing methods and state regulations are the only effective interventions. In this article, after defining the problem, a proposed national network for drug information is to decrease the negative effects of drug promotion and to promote the rational choice of medicines is described. According to the World Health Organization, rational use of medicine is the most effective, safe, applicable/suitable, and, lastly, the most cost effective option. A national network that will gather drug information by compiling evidence-based knowledge and taking rational use of medicine measures into account should be established. It should transmit information to all healthcare workers in a fast, equal, up to date, easily accessible, and free way. The network should also support institutional regulations that aim to limit the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies. PMID:18791884

Civaner, Murat

2008-01-01

330

Responsibilities to Plan for Ancillary Care Pose Ethical Challenges for Nutrition Research in the Community Setting12  

PubMed Central

Investigators who conduct nutrition research in the community setting, particularly among underserved populations, face the ethical question of whether and how to respond to participants’ unmet health needs. The research ethics literature conceptualizes this question as one of ancillary care (AC): what is the nature and extent of researchers’ ethical responsibilities, if any, to provide or facilitate health care that research participants need but that is not necessary to ensure the safety or scientific validity of the research? In this paper, we highlight 3 ethical challenges involved in the planning of AC responses for nutrition research conducted in the community setting: influence of provision of AC on primary study outcomes as an issue of trial design; whether to extend the provision of AC beyond research participants to nonparticipants with the same health needs; and how best to train field workers who may be the most likely members of the study team to encounter the health needs anticipated among participants. Although the global ethical discussion of AC is gaining in depth, breadth, and practical influence, it remains relatively uninformed by perspectives specific to nutrition research. Our objective is to encourage nutrition researchers to engage proactively in the emerging ethical discussion of AC, so that their relevant experiences and concerns can be taken into account in the eventual formation of ethical guidelines and policies. PMID:22933751

Merritt, Maria W.; Taylor, Holly A.

2012-01-01

331

A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics  

PubMed Central

Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

Agarwal, A. K.

2010-01-01

332

Science and ethics: Some issues for education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-11-01

333

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding.  

PubMed

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in patients with dementia and dysphagia. Given the lack of documented benefit of gastrointestinal feeding in these patients, the literature has focused on selection of appropriate patients for this medical intervention. Ethical care involves compassion, communication, consultation, and collaboration in dealing with emotionally difficult circumstances. PMID:15245701

Lipman, Timothy O

2004-08-01

334

The Ethic of Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

Furman, Gail C.

2004-01-01

335

Our Ethical Responsibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to diminished public esteem means intensifying efforts to create an ethical college climate. Educators face these ethical challenges: managing institutions ethically; teaching ethics to students, both in class and in dealing with student behavior in an educational setting; and serving as ethical leaders for the wider community. (MSE)

Perlman, Daniel H.

1992-01-01

336

Reiki and related therapies in the dialysis ward: an evidence-based and ethical discussion to debate if these complementary and alternative medicines are welcomed or banned  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) are increasingly practiced in the general population; it is estimated that over 30% of patients with chronic diseases use CAMs on a regular basis. CAMs are also used in hospital settings, suggesting a growing interest in individualized therapies. One potential field of interest is pain, frequently reported by dialysis patients, and seldom sufficiently relieved by mainstream therapies. Gentle-touch therapies and Reiki (an energy based touch therapy) are widely used in the western population as pain relievers. By integrating evidence based approaches and providing ethical discussion, this debate discusses the pros and cons of CAMs in the dialysis ward, and whether such approaches should be welcomed or banned. Discussion In spite of the wide use of CAMs in the general population, few studies deal with the pros and cons of an integration of mainstream medicine and CAMs in dialysis patients; one paper only regarded the use of Reiki and related practices. Widening the search to chronic pain, Reiki and related practices, 419 articles were found on Medline and 6 were selected (1 Cochrane review and 5 RCTs updating the Cochrane review). According to the EBM approach, Reiki allows a statistically significant but very low-grade pain reduction without specific side effects. Gentle-touch therapy and Reiki are thus good examples of approaches in which controversial efficacy has to be balanced against no known side effect, frequent free availability (volunteer non-profit associations) and easy integration with any other pharmacological or non pharmacological therapy. While a classical evidence-based approach, showing low-grade efficacy, is likely to lead to a negative attitude towards the use of Reiki in the dialysis ward, the ethical discussion, analyzing beneficium (efficacy) together with non maleficium (side effects), justice (cost, availability and integration with mainstream therapies) and autonomy (patients’ choice) is likely to lead to a permissive-positive attitude. Summary This paper debates the current evidence on Reiki and related techniques as pain-relievers in an ethical framework, and suggests that physicians may wish to consider efficacy but also side effects, contextualization (availability and costs) and patient’s requests, according also to the suggestions of the Society for Integrative Oncology (tolerate, control efficacy and side effects). PMID:23799960

2013-01-01

337

Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve. PMID:14722800

Horner, Jennifer

2003-11-01

338

Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1995 under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the Ethics center is designed to provide "engineers, scientists, science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life" or for including ethical problems in their courses. To that end, this site offers an array of resources. In the Research Ethics section, users will find activities, scenarios, case studies, and guides, as well as related links. The Cases section offers an even larger selection of proposed and actual cases along with annotated links. Among the many other offerings at the site are essays on science and engineering ethics, sample ethical codes, corporate setting ethical scenarios, and studies on diversity. Additional resources include conference listings (a bit outdated), a bibliography, a glossary, and an internal search engine.

2007-05-23

339

Throwaway ethic in America  

SciTech Connect

The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.

Busch, J.C.

1983-01-01

340

Trials within trials? Researcher, funder and ethical perspectives on the practicality and acceptability of nesting trials of recruitment methods in existing primary care trials  

E-print Network

at random from each group, randomly selecting an alternative if they declined. The remainder of our sample was sought from funders and ethics committees. The major UK public research funding bodies (Medical Research Council, NIHR Health Technology Assessment... might not agree to random allocation. 'Well the first thing that springs to mind is if you get your GPs together for a meeting and discuss that, then I could see some going, "Oh, but I only wanted to have that bit of the study", and - because you even...

Graffy, Jonathan; Bower, Peter; Ward, Elaine; Wallace, Paul; Delaney, Brendan; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Collier, David; Miller, Julia

2010-04-30

341

Overt and Relational Aggression and Victimization: Multiple Perspectives within the School Setting  

PubMed Central

The current study involved a comprehensive comparative examination of overt and relational aggression and victimization across multiple perspectives in the school setting (peers, teachers, observers in the lunchroom, self-report). Patterns of results involving sociometic status, ethnicity and gender were explored among 4th graders, with particular emphasis on girls. Controversial and rejected children were perceived as higher on both forms of aggression than other status groups, but only rejected children were reported as victims. Both European American and African American girls showed a greater tendency toward relational aggression and victimization than overt aggression or victimization. Results indicated negative outcomes associated with both relational and overt victimization and especially overt aggression for the target girl sample. Poorer adjustment and a socially unskillful behavioral profile were found to be associated with these three behaviors. However, relational aggression did not evidence a similar negative relation to adjustment nor was it related to many of the behaviors examined in the current study. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:18836518

Putallaz, Martha; Grimes, Christina L.; Foster, Kristen J.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Coie, John D.; Dearing, Karen

2007-01-01

342

Examining the Crossroads of Law, Ethics, and Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…

Bon, Susan C.

2012-01-01

343

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

344

Impact of dementia progression on food-related processes: a qualitative study of caregivers' perspectives.  

PubMed

As dementia progresses, one area that can help maintain connection and memories with others is within the food domain. There is little research in this area particularly from the informal caregivers' perspectives. Therefore, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of dementia progression on food-related processes from the perspectives of informal caregivers. The aim of the study was to document the methodology used and to disseminate the findings to researchers, care providers, and policy makers. A total of 10 men and 10 women caregivers of those with dementia underwent a semistructured interview. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. The caregivers' narratives indicated a set pattern of decline, with food shopping being the first ability to decline, followed by food preparation and the ability to eat. Caregivers adapted to their food roles, for example, by becoming responsible for financial issues. These adaptations were described as stressful yet satisfying as food care was seen as an important social time. Educating caregivers' about the likely adaptations to food processes may increase food satisfaction in both the parties. PMID:23813792

Papachristou, Ilia; Giatras, Nikolette; Ussher, Michael

2013-09-01

345

Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

2011-01-01

346

Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.  

PubMed

While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking. PMID:24786355

Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

2014-07-01

347

Integrating Psychology and Philosophy in Teaching a Graduate Course in Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent surveys of doctoral and master's programs in clinical psychology suggest that there are major gaps in the frequency and quality of ethical training. After describing a model of the ethical decision-making process, we present a thorough and formal course in ethical issues that integrates the perspectives of psychology and philosophy. The course was team taught by a philosopher and

Mark A. Fine; Lawrence P. Ulrich

1988-01-01

348

Ethical values and sustainable development: Lithuanian experience in the context of globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article overviews the ethical aspects of sustainable development in Lithuania under the conditions of globalisation. With reference to the accumulated theoretical and practical material, evaluating the principles of a sustainable development implementation and the systems of ethical behaviour, further development perspectives of sustainable development on the ethical plane in Lithuania are analysed. Spirituality plays a very important role because

Remigijus ?iegis; Algirdas Gavenauskas; Nijole Petkevi?i?te; Dalia Štreimikiene

2008-01-01

349

The discourse of ethics in nursing education: experience and reflections of Brazilian teachers - case study.  

PubMed

From a scenario of political and technological changes in work and health education, the purpose of this study was to understand the ethics discourse in nurses' education process in Brazilian nursing schools. A research was performed with a qualitative approach, characterized as a case study, involving six schools of a region in the south of Brazil. The data were collected by focal groups involving 50 teachers. The results were organized in three categories: (1) experience and motivation to teach ethics and bioethics, (2) indicators of change identified in global and local contexts and (3) challenges in the education of ethics, values and related themes. The teachers have highlighted complex elements related to scientific, educational and professional contexts, and pointed out the need for a critical perspective on the professional scenario and on their own situations as nurses and educators. The analyzed discourse brings to light the topic of ethics, seen as peculiar to the present day and in intimate connection with the daily routine of clinical, pedagogical and political professional practices. The findings suggest that the reflections on nurses' ethics education should not be limited to discussing content and pedagogical strategies but should be extended to include a commitment to the adoption of values in professional practice and to the process of the construction of a professional identity. PMID:23317508

Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Brehmer, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Schmoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Lorenzetti, Jorge

2013-10-01

350

Ethical issues in psychopharmacology  

PubMed Central

The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

McHenry, L

2006-01-01

351

Comprehension: The art of not knowing. Dialogical and ethical perspectives on empathy as dialogue in personal and person-centred relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy is an innate ability of the human being that develops from the early infant stage. As opposed to cognitive social perspective taking, which always aims at specific goals in order to gain some advantage for oneself, empathy is a social bridge that comes without a particular intention but always as an expression of the personal quality of solidarity. This

Peter F. Schmid

352

Nurses and whistleblowing: the ethical issues.  

PubMed

Whistleblowing - the public exposure of organizational wrongdoing - presents practical and ethical dilemma for nurses, and needs to be seen as part of a spectrum of increasingly confrontative actions against miscreant organizations by their employees. The ethics of whistleblowing can only be understood in relation to its moral purpose, whether that is to achieve a good outcome (a consequentialist view) or fulfil a duty (a deontological view). The consequentialist perspective is unable on its own to resolve problems arising from the balance of good and harm resulting from the act of whistleblowing (where considerable harm might be caused) or of responsibility for that harm. A deontological approach provides an analysis of these problems but raises its own problem of conflicting duties for nurses. However, a strong argument can be made for the precedence of the nurse's duty to the patient over her duty to the employer. Although both duties are based on an implicit or an explicit promise, the promise to a person (the patient) must take precedence over the promise to an organization. It can even be argued that duty to the employer may in fact justify whistleblowing by nurses in some circumstances. However, the consequences of whistleblowing are forced upon nurses in a different way by the fact that the danger of reprisals acts as a deterrent to whistleblowers, however justified their actions may be. A more robust approach to the protection of whistleblowers is needed on the part of the government and the National Health Service (NHS) to remedy this situation. PMID:11114987

Wilmot, S

2000-11-01

353

Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

Baum, Seth D.

2010-02-01

354

Priority setting of ICU resources in an influenza pandemic: a qualitative study of the Canadian public's perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans. PMID:22449119

2012-01-01

355

Medical ethics in the media.  

PubMed

The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions. PMID:19241950

Raman, Usha

2009-01-01

356

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS  

E-print Network

of environmental justice, which were mentioned above. We then turn to considering whether the environmental crisisTom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS EPE399/PHIL331/PLSC335 Summer Session: https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/environmental-ethics ClassesV2 website with downloadable

357

Env~rormentalEthics EnvironmentalEthics  

E-print Network

of and concern about such things as the noticeable increase in air and water pollution in large cities, rapid.g., water and air pollution). This era of environmental thinking also spawned much of the "doomsday), pp.445-49. #12;Environmental Ethics Aldo Leopold Defines the "Land Ethic" The land ethic simply

Nelson, Michael P.

358

Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives' perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

2013-01-01

359

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, Religion & Ethics Newsweekly has been a PBS fixture since September 1997. The program takes on the important subjects of religion and ethics in a manner that is rather engaging, and the same can be said of their very fine website. Users can listen to the entire weekly show in its entirety, or download it and take it with them on their personal audio device. Educators will want to take a look at the "For Educators" area, which features a number of lesson plans and teaching tips designed to be used in conjunction with segments from the program and related websites. Finally, visitors can also search the contents of the site via a handy search engine that sits at the right-hand corner of every page.

360

Data and knowledge gaps in glacier, snow and related runoff research - A climate change adaptation perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier and snow cover changes with related impacts on melt runoff can seriously affect human societies which are depending on fresh water from cryospheric sources. Observed trends and projected future evolutions of climatic and cryospheric variables clearly show the need to adapt to these changes. Accordingly, the topics addressed herein have been put on the agendas of many larger funding agencies. This article provides a brief overview on major ongoing activities on glacier, snow and related runoff research in order to then analyze data gaps and research needs from a climate change adaptation perspective. Major data needs are identified with respect to the spatial and temporal coverage of local-scale data and related needs for (data) services that distribute and maintain these data sets. Moreover, clear research needs are also recognized at the local scale where process knowledge needs to be improved (e.g., the influence of albedo on snow and ice or debris cover on glaciers) in order to derive plausible climate change impacts assessments. The paper then discusses directions on how to move forward to better serve the practical needs for climate change adaptation planning. In the future, substantial support by large funding agencies might be key for capacity building in target regions of climate change adaptation programs, for longer-term and more sustainable commitments, and for the development of approaches, which aim at assessing the transferability of data, techniques, and tools.

Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Stoffel, Markus

2014-10-01

361

The ethicality of altruistic corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary questions commonly held assumptions about corporate social responsibility (CSR). It discusses the morality of altruistic CSR – philanthropic CSR activities that are not necessarily beneficial to the firm’s financial position. Evaluating altruistic CSR from all major ethical perspectives – utilitarianism, rights, justice and care – leads to the conclusion that, for publicly held corporations, such activity is immoral.

Geoffrey P. Lantos

2002-01-01

362

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

363

Controversies in nursing ethics: a historical review.  

PubMed

The author critiques the dialectic between justice-based ethics and an ethic of caring from a historical perspective (by analogy with the dialectic between agape and friendship). Justice-based ethics have been problematic for nursing because of the decontextualized approach. The ethic of caring is problematic because caring, being contextual, is particularistic and therefore can be based on morally irrelevant factors, such as liking. There is a tradition of writing which seeks to reconcile the particularistic obligations of friendship with the moral duty to all others equally. Ideas from the following authors are reviewed for relevance to nursing: Aristotle, Aelred of Rievaulx, Augustine, John Cassian, Cicero, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, Michel de Montaigne, Jeremy Taylor and Max Weber. The authors concludes by noting that both sides of the dialectic are synthesized in the lived experience of individuals. A synthesis in thought is called for on this basis. PMID:1401542

Olsen, D P

1992-09-01

364

Ethics in Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the ethical dilemmas in publication and provides recommendations for guidelines involving publication ethics. Counselors may be confronted with a variety of ethical dilemmas such as authorship issues, student-professor research, plagiarism, and other publication problems. The American Counseling Association's "Code of Ethics and…

Jones, Karen Dayle

1999-01-01

365

Putting Law into Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

366

Ethics and Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical

Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

2001-01-01

367

Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

368

Fair shares: a preliminary framework and case analyzing the ethics of offshoring.  

PubMed

Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that "in the long run" that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its "rightness" or "wrongness?" Little analysis of the ethics of offshoring has been completed thus far. This paper develops a preliminary framework for analyzing the ethics of offshoring and then applies this framework to basic case study of offshoring in the U.S. The paper following discusses the definition of offshoring; shifts to the basic philosophical grounding of the ethical concepts; develops a template for conducting an ethics analysis of offshoring; applies this template using basic data for offshoring in the United States; and conducts a preliminary ethical analysis of the phenomenon in that country, using a form of utilitarianism as an analytical baseline. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research. PMID:19629753

Gordon, Cameron; Zimmerman, Alan

2010-06-01

369

Experiences of gout-related disability from the patients' perspective: a mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Disability is a common problem in patients with gout. Recently, the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) was recommended for assessing patient reported activity limitations in gout. However, few studies have explored experiences and issues of disability from the perspective of gout patients themselves. The objectives of this study were to explore disability issues in patients with gout and to examine the content validity of the HAQ-DI in this patient group. Two studies were performed: a semi-structured interview study with seven male gout patients and a cross-sectional survey study among 34 other patients with gout. In both studies, specific examples of activity limitations were elicited using open-ended methods. The survey study additionally aimed to quantify the relevance of the activities listed in the HAQ-DI. Most patients experienced several gout attacks in the previous year. Limitations were reported to occur during a flare, but patients were generally not limited between attacks. During an attack, patients mainly experienced limitations related to mobility, especially walking and climbing stairs. Patients also mentioned limitations in activities related to domestic life, such as gardening and doing housework. Limitations related to self-care or activities requiring the use of the upper extremities were rarely mentioned. Corresponding HAQ-DI items were skewed towards very low disability scores over the past week. Assessments of gout-related disability should particularly focus on mobility and lower extremity functioning and should consider the intermittent nature of the disease. The HAQ-DI may not adequately meet these requirements, suggesting the need to explore other measures of gout-related disability PMID:24077900

ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Voshaar, Martijn A H Oude; Bode, Christina; van de Laar, Mart A F J

2014-08-01

370

What Is an Exceptional Cancer Trajectory?: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Cancer Trajectories in Relation to Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although links between exceptional cancer trajectories (ECTs) and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) have been suggested, most research on ECT uses predefined criteria for ECTs without necessarily including CAM use. Little knowledge can be found about subjective perspectives of ECTs in relation to CAM. Objectives: This Swedish study explores how patients, significant others, and CAM and biomedical health care

Johanna Hök; Anette Forss; Torkel Falkenberg; Carol Tishelman

2009-01-01

371

Early Intervention Approaches to Enhance the Peer-Related Social Competence of Young Children with Developmental Delays: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a framework for future research and program development designed to support children's peer-related social competence. Intervention research is examined within a historical perspective culminating with a discussion of contemporary translational approaches capable of integrating models of normative development, developmental…

Guralnick, Michael J.

2010-01-01

372

A Relational Perspective on Issues of Cultural Diversity and Equity as They Play Out in the Mathematics Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a relational perspective in which cultural diversity is viewed as a relationship between people's participation in the practices of different communities. Suggests that the gatekeeping role that mathematics plays in students' access to educational and economic opportunities includes difficulties that students experience in reconciling…

Cobb, Paul; Hodge, Lynn Liao

2002-01-01

373

An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educational reform programs, including No Child Left Behind, operate from the perspective that gaps in academic achievement can be reduced by improvements in the educational process directed by school administrators and teachers. This perspective ignores the ecological context in which underachieving schools are typically embedded. Using a…

Whipple, Sara Sepanski; Evans, Gary W.; Barry, Rachel L.; Maxwell, Lorraine E.

2010-01-01

374

Personalism for public health ethics.  

PubMed

In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination. PMID:20567073

Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

2010-01-01

375

Ethics in Prion Disease  

PubMed Central

This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

2013-01-01

376

A secular perspective on 21st century ethics in human reproduction: why religious views and attitudes are becoming obsolete and possibly dangerous.  

PubMed

The application of reproductive technologies to humans has brought about a radical change in traditional perspectives about sexuality and reproduction. In the past, the field was surrounded by an aura of mystery, which allowed religion to grasp the subject firmly. Now an explosion of knowledge, and a new capacity to control all aspects of human reproduction are beginning to modify attitudes, so that the arenas of sexuality and reproduction are apparently undergoing a process of rapid secularization. As a result, religious solutions to reproductive problems are becoming obsolete and possibly dangerous, since they no longer adequately fulfill the needs of humanity in our modern era. PMID:18983737

Mori, Maurizio

2008-01-01

377

The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

Kruckeberg, Dean

378

Ethical School Leadership: Defining the Best Interests of Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the alternate ways ethical school leadership in the best interests of students is conceptualized in the educational leadership literature from several foundational perspectives including philosophy, psychology, critical theory and case law. Perspectives which are grounded solely in theory are differentiated from those…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline; Begley, Paul T.

2007-01-01

379

Ethics and the Law: Friend or Foe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discussed the relation between ethical standards for counselors and the legal principles of our society as it affects the client-counselor relationship. The concepts of client confidentiality and counselor liability are defined. A client-counselor situation is outlined, with suggested counselor responses to the ethical/legal issues…

Stude, E. W.; McKelvey, James

1979-01-01

380

Computing Curricula: Social, Ethical, and Professional Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can notice that the general public awareness on ethical aspects of technology is increasing. The high level of media attention given to computer- related disasters in technical systems such as the explosion of Ariane V in 1996 and the Therac-25 computerized radiation machine overdoses has increased interest in Computer Ethics. The aim of this paper is to shed light

Gordana DODIG-CRNKOVIC

381

The ethics of human reproductive cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable

Carson Strong

2005-01-01

382

Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical issues related to the possible future creation of machines with general intellectual capabilities far outstripping those of humans are quite distinct from any ethical problems arising in current automation and information systems. Such superintelligence would not be just another technological development; it would be the most important invention ever made, and would lead to explosive progress in all

Nick Bostrom

383

The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

Bridger, James A.

1977-01-01

384

Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.  

PubMed

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

2013-02-01

385

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

PubMed Central

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A.; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Mc Garrigle, Sarah; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J.; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A.; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J.

2013-01-01

386

Exploring Ethical Implications for Acting Faithfully in Professional Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obligation to act faithfully poses ethical issues as nurses live nursing from day to day. In this column, the ethics of acting faithfully is explored in relation to four scenarios drawn from different realms of professional nursing. The scenarios illustrate ethical issues that may arise when attempting to uphold personal integrity and fulfill one's duty to act faithfully. The

F. Beryl Pilkington

2004-01-01

387

Suggested Management Responses to Ethical Issues Raised by Technological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of technology raises an array of ethical issues related to work. Many of these ethical issues are old issues surfacing under new guises. Technology has not changed the issues, but technology makes the issues' analysis and application more complex. This paper identifies several new ethical issues raised by technological change: computer crime, an over-reliance on computer controlled systems,

William P. Cordeiro

1997-01-01

388

Ethical decision making: An investigation of services marketing professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relative influences of professional values and selected demographic variables on the ethical perceptions of services marketing professionals. The relationship between ethical perceptions and ethical judgments of service marketers is also examined. The data were obtained from a mail survey of the American Marketing Association's professional members of service industries. The survey results indicate a positive relationship

Anusorn Singhapakdi; C. P. Rao; Scott J. Vitell

1996-01-01

389

Moral intensity and ethical decision-making of marketing professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical decisions are often situational or issue-related. This study represents an initial attempt to investigate the impact of the intensity of a moral issue on two important components of marketing ethics decisions: perceptions of an ethical problem and intentions. The aspects of moral intensity investigated are the magnitude of consequences, social consensus, the probability of effect, temproal immediacy, proximity, and

Kenneth L. Kraft; Scott J. Vitell

1996-01-01

390

The evaluation of “outcomes” of accounting ethics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores five important issues relating to the evaluation of ethics education in accounting. The issues that are considered include: (a) reasons for evaluating accounting ethics education (see Caplan, 1980, pp. 133–35); (b) goal setting as a prerequisite to evaluating the outcomes of accounting ethics education (see Caplan, 1980, pp. 135–37); (c) possible broad levels of outcomes of accounting

Stephen E. Loeb

1991-01-01

391

Education and Teaching of Accountancy Ethics in Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of accounting information, which is vital to the modern economy, is directly related to the accountants' ethics. However, the importance of the accountancy ethics education is neglected by the universities in China. This study is to research the situation and the improvement approaches of the ethics education in terms of the curriculum provision, course content, the teaching methods,

Xuwen Han

2011-01-01

392

Research Integrity andResearch Integrity and Publication Ethics  

E-print Network

ethical issues relating to research and publication in biomedical journal publishing #12;The three `wiseResearch Integrity andResearch Integrity and Publication Ethics Sabine Kleinert, Senior Executive Editor, The Lancet Vice-Chair of the Committee on Publication Ethics Oxford, Nov 22, 2010 #12;Definitions

Oxford, University of

393

Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

394

Engineering Ethical Decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage showcases a series of engineering ethical decision classes. Manufacturing students and instructors would find the following class and assignment of particular interest: The final class in the breadth sequence, Manufacturing Ergonomics, Safety, and Health (MESH) is different from the courses discussed to this point, in that it has a smaller audience and does not use case studies in the same manner as the other courses. MESH is a course for Manufacturing Engineering Technology majors, although it is sometimes taken by other students as an elective; it is both smaller and more focused toward a specific field. Ethics, starting with both the NSPE and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) codes of ethics, represent one of the justifications for implementing ergonomic and safety programs in manufacturing facilities. As such, the course starts with a discussion of the basis for implementing ergonomic and safety programs, including ethics, and then these ideas remain underlying concepts throughout the course. Case studies with direct ethical implications are not used consistently in the course as examples, but students are required to complete an accident summary and analysis as one of their assignments. As part of the analysis in this assignment, students are asked to assess behavior relative to both Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) codes and acceptable professional behavior, if engineers were involved in or responsible for the accident. Based on their comments, this assignment makes a strong impression on many students, especially concerning the disregard that some people have for the safety of themselves or their co-workers. Although this topic has been addressed before, the case study approach is interesting, and includes very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. It is highly adoptable for many different courses at many different levels. Case studies can be isolated and adopted. There is also plenty of pedagogical supporting information that faculty may find interesting and useful. Reviewer Comments: This resource is of high quality and current. The case study approach is interesting, and has very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. Case Studies can be isolated and adopted. Faculty may find the pedagogical supporting information interesting and useful. There are some dead links on the website.

Newcomer, Jeff

2009-08-04

395

Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership  

PubMed Central

The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

2013-01-01

396

The Ethics of Research and the CCCC Ethical Guidelines: An Electronic Interview with Ellen Cushman and Peter Mortensen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an e-interview in which two leading scholars on research ethics discuss the current state of ethical research in relation to the 2001 Conference on College Composition and Communication "Guidelines for the Ethical Treatment of Students and Student Writing in Composition Studies." (SG)

Brooke, Robert; Goodburn, Amy

2003-01-01

397

Ethical aspects of tissue engineering: a review.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature. PMID:18834330

de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert

2008-12-01

398

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

399

Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy  

PubMed Central

I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

2008-01-01

400

Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years  

PubMed Central

In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

Tiberius, Richard G.

1979-01-01

401

Nursing ethics in an era of globalization.  

PubMed

We live in an era of globalization in which our essential interdependence is increasingly revealed. Transportation and communication technology plus worldwide health, environmental, and security risks and a world economy driven by transnational corporations are connecting us in a new kind of way. Incredible advances in biotechnology, the pressing demands of equity and justice in resource allocation, and the need for a universal perspective in health ethics are some of the issues challenging our moral imagination in significant ways. Nurses need to ask themselves: What changes for nursing ethics when the global-not the local-becomes the dominant frame of reference? PMID:11763366

Austin, W

2001-12-01

402

Die Soektog na die Etiese Moment in die Teater \\/ The Search for the Ethical Moment in the Theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theatre is often seen as something which makes an important contribution in working for social change—nowhere more so than in South Africa. This article analyses the different ways in which theatre can play such an ethical role, specifically when ethics is interpreted from a poststructural perspective. In this paradigm ethics moves beyond a definition of ‘right and wrong’, towards the

Wilmien Wicomb; Paul Cilliers

2004-01-01

403

Ethical dilemmas in human resource management: an application of a multidimensional framework, a unifying taxonomy, and applicable codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resource management (HRM) is currently undergoing rapid professionalization. One area, which has not been fully examined from a scholarly nor practitioner perspective, is that of ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas in HRM can be seen as multifaceted, involving personal, professional, and organizational considerations. A general model of five ethical dilemmas [Acad. Manage. Rev. 8 (1983) 690.] is applied to HRM

Kevin C. Wooten

2001-01-01

404

Factors related to employers' intent to hire, retain and accommodate cancer survivors: the singapore perspective.  

PubMed

Purpose Despite the growing importance of cancer and return-to-work issues in occupational rehabilitation literature in the last decade, academic discussion is largely limited to survivors' perspectives and some exploratory studies from the employer side. This paper applies two classic theoretical models-Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory-and key measures from previous studies to identify explicit relationships that explain employer factors to hire and retain cancer survivors. Methods Data were collected from online surveys with senior management executives and senior human resource specialists from various organizations in Singapore, with a total of 145 responses. The 72-item survey instrument included a series of independent variables: (1) Attitudes toward cancer and cancer survivors; (2) Employers' efficacy; (3) Perceived moral obligation; (4) Employers' experience; (5) Outcome expectations; (6) Employment situation; (7) Social norms; and (8) Incentives, and dependent variables: (a) Employers' intention to hire cancer survivors; and (b) Employers' intention to retain cancer survivors. Results Regression analyses showed that the top three factors related to employers' intention to retain cancer survivors are perceived moral obligations (? = .39, p < .001), followed by attitudes toward cancer (? = .25, p < .01), and employment situation (? = .17, p < .05). Employers' efficacy was associated with intention to hire (? = .22, p < .05), coupled with attitude toward cancer survivors (? = .22, p < .01). The findings also indicated the important role of existing relationship between an employer and an employee when it comes to retaining cancer survivors and government incentives for hiring cancer survivors in the workforce. Conclusions The present study provided an avenue to implement the proposed model-a potential study framework for the management of cancer survivors at work. Findings revealed that different messages should be tailored to employers toward hiring and retention issues and provided useful guidelines for employer education materials. PMID:24585342

Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Ho, Shirley S; Kim, Hyo Jung

2014-12-01

405

Death competence: an ethical imperative.  

PubMed

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death competence evolved. Using the vehicle of a case study, the authors analyzed an example of empathic failure resulting from an apparent lack of death competence on the part of a mental health provider to illustrate the importance of this characteristic in delivering clinically effective and ethically sensitive grief counseling. PMID:24567993

Gamino, Louis A; Ritter, R Hal

2012-01-01

406

Imitative learning from a third-party interaction: Relations with self-recognition and perspective-taking  

PubMed Central

Young children’s ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others’ subjective perspectives. The current study measured imitative learning of a novel action seen only in a third-party interaction, mirror self-recognition, and perspective-taking in a group of 48 children aged 18 to 20 months. Patterns of performance suggest that understanding self-other equivalence is related to third-party learning. PMID:18635193

Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

2008-01-01

407

Ethical Healthcare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have combined a bottom-up casuistry approach with a top-down implementation of an ethical theory to develop a system that\\u000a uses machine-learning to abstract relationships between prima facie ethical duties from cases of particular types of ethical dilemmas where ethicists are in agreement as to the correct action.\\u000a This system has discovered a novel ethical principle that governs decisions in

Michael Anderson; Susan Leigh Anderson

408

The role of task characteristics and organizational culture in non-work-related computing: a fit perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations have created control mechanisms and discipline systems to prevent employees from engaging in non-work-related computing (NWRC). Since such control mechanisms and discipline systems often fail to reduce NWRC, it is necessary to delineate task characteristics and organizational cultures that can enhance the effectiveness of NWRC management. Based on a fit perspective, we examined the effects of task characteristic-control

Gee-Woo Bock; Yuhyung Shin; Ping Liu; Hua Sun

2010-01-01

409

Culture, Ethics, Scripts, and Gifts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses gift-giving patterns in different cultures, particularly in relation to teacher-student interactions in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Situations in which gift-giving can raise ethical questions and how to teach culturally diverse students about this issue are highlighted. Script theory provides a theoretical basis for…

Messerschmitt, Dorothy; Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Vandrick, Stephanie

1997-01-01

410

Ethical issues in patient restraint.  

PubMed

This article examines the ethical issues that arise in relation to restraint in mental health, dementia care and stroke care. The themes can, however, be applied to all areas of healthcare. The article also discusses how "four quadrants" of practice situations--medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life and contextual features--can be used to analyse three different restraint situations. PMID:21667649

Gallagher, Ann

411

Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

2012-01-01

412

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS.  

E-print Network

-Frechette, Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2002) [3] Robert ETom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. EPE S399/PHIL S331/PLSC S335 Summer 2012 and argumentative skills required in legal and environmental advocacy. Course Requirements. To earn full credit, you

413

The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

2014-01-01

414

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)

2003-02-01

415

Ethics committees in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis the work of ethics committees in Croatia is being investigated for the first time. The 1997 Law on Health Protection introduced legal standards for the establishment of the so-called 'mixed' type of ethics committees in healthcare institutions. Our study aims to examine whether this top-down approach of ethics committee implementation was the right approach for Croatia and

Ana Borovecki

2007-01-01

416

Ethics, Income and Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between ethics and income among individuals of different religions in the HKSAR of China. The presence of both traditional Chinese religion and Christianity from the West makes our study particularly interesting. The content of ethical beliefs varies with religion and thus the effect of ethics on income may also vary across religion. Furthermore, a reverse

Kit-Chun Lam; Bill WS Hung

2005-01-01

417

Ethics and Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

2003-01-01

418

Ethical Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

419

Designing an Ethics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

420

Effects of Perspective Sentences in Social Stories[TM] on Improving the Adaptive Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of adding perspective sentences to Social Stories[TM] on improving the adaptive behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities. In Study 1, two students with ASD read two different types of Social Stories: Social Story without perspective sentences (SS without PS) and Social…

Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

2008-01-01

421

The Ethics of Abstinence-Only and Abstinence-Plus Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights some of the ethical dilemmas present in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…

Wiley, David C.

2002-01-01

422

The Status of Communication Ethics Scholarship in Speech Communication Journals from 1915 to 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 128 articles related to ethics of communication published in the disciplinary journals from l915 to l985 within the framework of (1) a communication ethics definition; (2) descriptions of five categories of communication ethics; and (3) discussion of a conceptual center that ties the diverse research on communication ethics together.…

Arnett, Ronald

1987-01-01

423

[Considering body ethics in the healthcare profession].  

PubMed

This article uses the theory of body phenomenology and Watson's caring theory to develop and apply body ethics to the clinical healthcare profession. This attempt is meant to facilitate deep, humanistic experiences for healthcare personnel. The analysis of body phenomenology reveals that the soul is banished from her familiar and comfortable "at-home" status when illness and pain invade the body. In such situations, the body becomes an external object that is self-alienated. This experience induces experiences such as solitude and violence. However, it also holds the potential to expose the original morality of the body. Additionally, this article discusses popular tools used in clinical ethics such as principalism and virtual-based ethics, which are based on moral reasoning and moral feeling. In contrast to these, body ethics seek a more profound and humble level of sensibility that is able to implant authenticity into the ethics. Finally, we offer some suggestions related to Watson's caring theory. PMID:25271027

Wang, Shin-Yun

2014-10-01

424

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

425

Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

Green, J; Stewart, A

1987-01-01

426

Synthetic biology ethics: a deontological assessment.  

PubMed

In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856

Heavey, Patrick

2013-10-01

427

Appraisals of intentional actions from three perspectives: Do they relate to paranoia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. People often show a bias of attributing their own actions to more positive causes (e.g., generosity) than other persons’ actions. Models of paranoia suggest links between paranoia and negative construals of others’ intentions. Research on these biases has focused on causal attributions from two explainer perspectives, the agent (the person performing the action) and the object (the person being

Leigh Harrington; John McClure; Richard Siegert

2009-01-01

428

Perspective Taking of Immigrant Children: Utilizing Children's Literature and Related Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspective taking, which is seeing a viewpoint other than one's own, is critical in interpersonal understanding and in cross-cultural communication. It is especially crucial in diverse societies such as the United States as well as in countries where immigrants from other nations are living as one community. Hence, this article focuses on…

Mabry, Malerie; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

2012-01-01

429

Computer related crime: ethical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computers, like automobiles and electricity, are exerting a daily--and rapidly growing--influence on all of us. Over the past three decades, computers have become more powerful, more utilized, more important, and insidiously more essential. Because of their ability to handle enormous amounts of data quickly and accurately, computers in many respects have created a revolution in the production, processing, and transfer

Richard Parker

1990-01-01

430

Occupational epidemiology and work related inequalities in health: a gender perspective for two complementary approaches to work and health research  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide a framework for epidemiological research on work and health that combines classic occupational epidemiology and the consideration of work in a structural perspective focused on gender inequalities in health. Methods Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described. Limitations in research on work related gender inequalities in health are identified. Finally, some recommendations for future research are proposed. Results Classic occupational epidemiology has paid less attention to women's problems than men's. Research into work related gender inequalities in health has rarely considered either social class or the impact of family demands on men's health. In addition, it has rarely taken into account the potential interactions between gender, social class, employment status and family roles and the differences in social determinants of health according to the health indicator analysed. Conclusions Occupational epidemiology should consider the role of sex and gender in examining exposures and associated health problems. Variables should be used that capture the specific work environments and health conditions of both sexes. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class. PMID:18000116

Artazcoz, Lucia; Borrell, Carme; Cortes, Imma; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena

2007-01-01

431

Physician-assisted suicide of patients with dementia. A medical ethical analysis with a special focus on patient autonomy.  

PubMed

For many years there has been a controversial international debate on physician-assisted suicide (PAS). While proponents of PAS regularly refer to the unbearable suffering and the right of self-determination of incurably ill patients, critics often warn about the diverse risks of abuse. In our article, we aim to present ethical arguments for and against PAS for patients in an early stage of dementia. Our focus shall be on ethical questions of autonomy, conceptual and empirical findings on competence and the assessment of mental capacity to make health care decisions. While the capacity to make health care decisions represents an ethically significant precondition for PAS, it becomes more and more impaired in the course of the dementia process. We present conditions that should be met in order to ethically justify PAS for patients with dementia. From both a psychiatric and an ethical perspective, a thorough differential diagnosis and an adequate medical and psychosocial support for patients with dementia considering PAS and their relatives should be guaranteed. If, after due deliberation, the patient still wishes assistance with suicide, a transparent and documented assessment of competence should be conducted by a professional psychiatrist. PMID:23850340

Gather, Jakov; Vollmann, Jochen

2013-01-01

432

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

433

Relating spatial perspective taking to the perception of other's affordances: providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others  

PubMed Central

Understanding what another agent can see relates functionally to the understanding of what they can do. We propose that spatial perspective taking and perceiving other's affordances, while two separate spatial processes, together share the common social function of predicting the behavior of others. Perceiving the action capabilities of others allows for a common understanding of how agents may act together. The ability to take another's perspective focuses an understanding of action goals so that more precise understanding of intentions may result. This review presents an analysis of these complementary abilities, both in terms of the frames of reference and the proposed sensorimotor mechanisms involved. Together, we argue for the importance of reconsidering the role of basic spatial processes to explain more complex behaviors. PMID:24068992

Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

2013-01-01

434

Mothers' perspectives on qualities of care in their relationships with health care professionals: the influence of relational and communicative competencies.  

PubMed

Research suggests that parents of seriously ill children place significant value on the relational context of their children's health care. This psychological phenomenological study explored mothers' perspectives on qualities that they found to be either helpful or unhelpful to their experiences of caregiving. Relational and communicative competencies were identified as most influential in mothers' assessments of provider care. Practitioners experienced in end-of-life care were viewed as highly supportive by the mothers in the study. Training for professionals in principles of palliative and end-of-life care is recommended for those who work with these children and families. PMID:19042889

Konrad, Shelley Cohen

2008-01-01

435

ETICA Workshop on Computer Ethics: Exploring Normative Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ETICA project aims to identify emerging information and communication technologies. These technologies are then analysed\\u000a and evaluated from an ethical perspective. The aim of this analysis is to suggest possible governance arrangements that will\\u000a allow paying proactive attention to such ethical issues. During the ETICA workshop at the summer school, participants were\\u000a asked to choose one of the 11

Bernd Carsten Stahl; Catherine Flick

436

The Rehabilitation of Indigenous Environmental Ethics in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the rehabilitation of the ethical dimension of human interactions with nature, using cross-cultural perspectives in Africa. Cross-cultural comparison of indigenous concepts of the relationship between people and nature with contemporary environmental and scientific issues facilitate the rehabilitation, renewal and validation of indigenous environmental ethics. Although increasing attention is being given to the environmental concerns of non-western traditions,

Workineh Kelbessa

2005-01-01

437

Investigators' Perspectives on Translating Human Microbiome Research into Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Human microbiome research has the potential to transform the practice of medicine, fundamentally shifting the ways in which we think not only about human health, illness, and disease, but also about clinical practice and public health interventions. Drawing from a larger qualitative study on ethical, legal, and social dimensions of human microbiome research, in this article we document perspectives related to the translation of human microbiome research into clinical practice, focusing particularly on implications for health, illness, and disease. Methods We conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009–2010) with 63 researchers and National Institutes of Health project leaders (“investigators”) involved with human microbiome research. Interviews explored a range of ethical, legal, and social implications of human microbiome research, including investigators’ perspectives on potential strategies for translating findings to clinical practice. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. Results We identified three themes: (1) Investigators’ general perspectives on the clinical utility of human microbiome research, (2) Investigators’ perspectives on antibiotic use, overuse, and misuse, and (3) Investigators’ perspectives concerning future challenges of translating data to clinical practice. Conclusion The issues discussed by investigators concerning the clinical significance of human microbiome research, including embracing a new paradigm of health and disease, the importance of microbial communities, and clinical utility, will be of critical importance as this research moves forward. PMID:23615375

Slashinski, Melody J.; Whitney, Simon N.; Achenbaum, Laura S.; Keitel, Wendy A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; McGuire, Amy L.

2013-01-01

438

How a Deweyan science education further enables ethics education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper questions the perceived divide between ‘science’ subject matter and ‘moral’ or ‘ethical’ subject matter. A difficulty that this assumed divide produces is that science teachers often feel that there needs to be ‘special treatment’ given to certain issues which are of an ethical or moral nature and which are ‘brought into’ the science class. The case is made in this article that dealing with ethical issues in the science class should not call for a sensitivity that is beyond the expertise of the science teacher. Indeed it is argued here that science teachers in particular have a great deal to offer in enabling ethics education. To overcome this perceived divide between science and values it needs to be recognised that the educative development of learners is both scientific and moral. I shall be using a Deweyan perspective to make the case that we as science teachers can overcome this apparent divide and significantly contribute to an ethics education of our students.

Webster, Scott

2008-09-01

439

[The aesthetic practice of care ethics].  

PubMed

Situated between the doctor and the patient, nurses play a central role in the doctor-patient relationship. Nurses attend to patients' exhaustion and take responsibility for the "Other," in Lévinas' sense of the word. In discussions of the doctor-patient relationship, the patient is often regarded as the "Other". This perspective seeks to challenge the traditional contention that the doctor plays the dominant role. In the structure of this relationship, the doctor, responsible for providing diagnoses, is the subject and the patient is the object. The latter constantly feels frustrated and helpless and requires the comfort of the nurse. In this sense, the nurse, having the direct contact with the patient, constantly sees the faces of the patients. In the care relationship, the patient's frustration and helplessness will sometimes be expressed to the nurse if the patient cannot be affectively affirmed. In this type of situation, the nurse bears not simply his / her routine work, but also affective devotion and endurance. On the one hand, the nurse must practice professional medical care in the face of patients' affective feelings and emotions and, on the other hand, he / she must treat the patient as a relative and suppress inner feelings and emotions. How does a nurse situate herself into the doctor-patient relationship? As the nurse is asked to treat the patient as a relative, how does he / she face inner emotions? This paper reflects on the possibility of the aesthetic practice of care ethics. PMID:23922085

Yang, Wan-I

2013-08-01

440

STUDENT PERSPECTIVES: Student Learning Experiences Survey = SLES 1 Perceptions relate to motivation ... hence ... "Which teaching/learning strategies will students respond to productively?"  

E-print Network

STUDENT PERSPECTIVES: Student Learning Experiences Survey = SLES 1 Perceptions relate to motivation ... hence ... "Which teaching/learning strategies will students respond to productively?" Data � survey asks Teaching & Learning Fellows (education support); see ref. 5. **RBIS = Research Based Instructional

441

Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler  

E-print Network

· plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

Song, Joe

442

Perceived Importance of Ethics and Ethical Decisions in Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influences of perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility on ethical intentions of marketing professionals. It also investigates the effects of perceived ethical problems and gender on ethical intentions. The results, based on a survey of practitioner members of the American Marketing Association, revealed that a marketing professional’s perception regarding the importance of ethics

Anusorn Singhapakdi

1999-01-01

443

Ethical Aspects on Rare Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects\\u000a are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to\\u000a marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries.\\u000a Then we address problems related

Luis A. Barrera; Gilberto Cely Galindo

444

Ethical obliqations and the dental office team.  

PubMed

A hypothetical case of alleged sexual misconduct in a practice with high employee turnover and stress is analyzed by three experts. This case commentary examines the ethical role expectations of an office manager who is not directly involved but becomes aware of the activities. The commentators bring the perspectives of a dental hygienist, academic administrator, and attorney; a teacher of behavioral sciences in a dental school; and a general dentist with many years of practice experience. PMID:24761582

Roucka, Toni M; Zarkowski, Pamela; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Patthoff, Donald E

2013-01-01

445

The Christian Ethics of Dante's Purgatory  

E-print Network

the commentators, both ancient and modern, are agreed in recognizing Jesus Christ in the griffin”’. 26 But Scott’s motive for a different interpretation is similarly underpinned by his identification of the Earthly Paradise at the summit of Purgatory with Dante... the Christian pilgrimage of penitence in this life) is explicitly unavailable to pagans. 68 This ethical direction, furthermore, would be completely alien and irrational from a pagan perspective as its demands surpass, and contradict, the requirements...

Corbett, George

2014-01-01

446

The Ethicality of Altruistic Corporate Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This personal opinion commentary,questions commonly,held assumptions about corporate social responsibility (CSR). It discusses the morality of altruistic CSR—philanthropic CSR activities that are not necessarily beneficial to the firm’s financial position. Evaluating altruistic CSR from all major ethical perspectives—utilitarianism, rights, justice, and care—leads to the conclusion that, for publicly held corporations, such activity is immoral. This is because altruistic CSR

Geoffrey P. Lantos

2001-01-01

447

Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.  

PubMed

Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of suffering bodies than the currently accepted stereotypes. PMID:22877932

Calain, Philippe

2013-12-01

448

IJESRT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY Computer Science and Ethics  

E-print Network

Ethics justifies about the status of task whether it is correct or not, with this it includes the factor of social adoption i.e. what we do. This paper involves the review study of various ethics themes like computer ethics, information ethics and other also. Finally we conclude various factors related to ethics and their impact issues associated with computer science. Keywords-Normative, e-government...

Ankur Singh Bist; Eep Singh

449

Girls' Perspectives on Family Scripts About Sex-Related Topics and Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores girls' perspectives of family scripts to develop family-based interventions to reduce HIV\\/AIDS and STIs. In-depth qualitative interviews with 33 teen girls revealed four common scripts: (a) waiting-to begin dating or to initiate sexual intercourse, (b) danger and protection, (c) abuse, and (d) taking charge. Most low-income families acknowledged pregnancy and HIV\\/STI risks but some girls experienced conflict

Anne M. Teitelman; Carol J. Loveland-Cherry

2005-01-01

450

Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?  

PubMed

Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen. PMID:22865925

Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

2013-08-01

451

Personality, attachment and sexuality related to dating relationship outcomes: contrasting three perspectives on personal attribute interaction.  

PubMed

Although people can bring personal attributes to their relationships that affect how satisfying and enduring those relationships are, it is more often personal attribute interaction that directly determines romantic relationship outcomes. In this study, three general perspectives on personal attribute interaction-similarity, complementarity and exchange perspectives-were contrasted empirically in their ability to predict dating relationship outcomes. Based on questionnaires completed by a sample of 44 heterosexual dating couples, feelings of relationship satisfaction were most closely associated with the interaction of socially valuable attributes, generally supporting the exchange perspective. Similarity of personal attributes was also connected with relationship satisfaction; however, this association was in the negative direction. That is, couples with dissimilar personality traits, attachment styles and sexual strategies were significantly more satisfied with their dating relationships. Complementarity of personal attributes had no link to satisfaction, but complementary couples experienced significantly higher ratings of relationship commitment, especially couples with complementary personalities. Discussion focused on the differences between personal attribute connections with romantic satisfaction and commitment and on the limitations of the present study. PMID:12593754

Schmitt, David P

2002-12-01

452

Relationalism  

E-print Network

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

Edward Anderson

2012-05-06

453

Law, ethics and research ethics committees.  

PubMed

This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

Beyleveld, Deryck

2002-01-01

454

Educating about biomedical research ethics.  

PubMed

This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal. PMID:24752379

Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

2014-11-01

455

Dismembering the ethical physician  

PubMed Central

Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity