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1

Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

Keyko, Kacey

2014-12-01

2

Ethics in a time of contagion: a relational perspective.  

PubMed

In times of contagion, the key role of nurses brings fears, dangers, and unique demands. The ethics of such challenges need to be explored and understood. Using Callahan's framework for thinking ethically and Taylor's "worries" of modern life, the author elucidates some of the challenges and then argues that the current approach to pandemic ethics, with its reliance on moral reasoning, is insufficient to guide nurses' ethical actions. Relational ethics, which explicitly situates ethics within relationships and our commitment to one another, and which recognizes that context matters in ethical decision-making, is offered as a viable alternative for nurses in considering how to respond. PMID:19186783

Austin, Wendy

2008-12-01

3

A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that Moslem culture heavily influences much of Middle Eastern practice, and that contemporary public relations literature indicates that "ethical" public relations practices embrace a "two-way symmetrical" model. Describes a counterthesis that contends that public relations is culturally relative in both theories and techniques, and that a…

Kruckeberg, Dean

1996-01-01

4

Historical Roots and Future Perspectives Related to Nursing Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)

Freitas, Lorraine

1990-01-01

5

Ethical, Political, & Aesthetic Perspectives On Violence  

E-print Network

Ethical, Political, & Aesthetic Perspectives On Violence: call for papers Our experiences in relation to violence raise political and ethical questions for us and, furthermore, have pro- duced many professors and graduate students to think about violence anew from an ethical, political and/or aesthetic

Huang, Jianyu

6

Hippocrates and Bernays: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Ethics of Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While comparisons of public relations practitioners and attorneys remain attractive among practitioners and scholars searching for evidence of public relation's emergence as a profession, practitioners would be better served by emulating physicians in their "healing" role rather than attorneys in their "advocacy" role. Public relations's use of…

Kruckeberg, Dean

7

Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.  

PubMed

The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

Barbosa, António

2012-01-01

8

Ethics as a Discipline -- Background in Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a 14-page PDF that provides an overview of ethics as a discipline. The materials are designed to introduce students to the scholarly study of ethics and some of the language and concepts used in the field. This should help students investigate the relationship between their position on issues and the various ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

9

An ethical basis for relationship marketing: a virtue ethics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an ethical foundation for relationship marketing using a virtue ethics approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is a conceptual one providing a background on relationship marketing from both American and European perspectives. Earlier studies published in EJM on relationship marketing are featured in a table. Findings – The proposed ethical relationship

Patrick E. Murphy; Gene R. Laczniak; Graham Wood

2007-01-01

10

Moral objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's discourse ethics, and public relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective in the field is still situational. The reason for this, at least in part, is the loss of the traditional grounds of moral objectivity—tradition, religion, and universal reason. But the situational perspective fails to provide adequate standards for an ethical basis for

Roy V Leeper

1996-01-01

11

Ethical Perspectives on Evaluating Community College Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the process of faculty evaluation in the community college gives rise to ethical concerns about what is evaluated, who is involved in the process, and how data are collected and used, the purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful ethical perspective for conducting faculty evaluation. The authors discuss ethical issues that arise in…

Stumpf, Dan; King, Stephanie; Blendinger, Jack; Davis, Ed

2013-01-01

12

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

13

Ethical perspectives of reimbursement under economic pressures.  

PubMed

Health care is a primary need and an important goal for individuals and for society overall. From an ethical perspective, resources should be allocated appropriately so everyone can enjoy the best health care possible. With limited resources available from an economic reimbursement perspective, we need to analyze the philosophy and values that are important to us to make ethical decisions. This article describes key values and philosophies and concerns about societal attempts to reform the system. PMID:11855240

Marsee, V D

2000-09-01

14

Race relations in police operations: A legal and ethical perspective for officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation looks beyond the contemporary controversy over the use of race in drug courier profiling and examines the\\u000a broad spectrum of rare relations affecting police operations. Racial controversy is not new to law enforcement, nor is it\\u000a a recent phenomenon in American society. American police do not get enough credit for the enormous amount of positive daily\\u000a interaction within

Carl Milazzo; Ronald Hansen

2002-01-01

15

Doing good medical ethics: a Christian perspective.  

PubMed

Despite the rise of the secular state, religion remains a significant force in society. Within Christianity this encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. These range from simple assertions of theism in a cultural context to complex theologies; from liberal emphases on uncertainty and exploration to dogmatic views of divine revelation. How one 'does' good medical ethics depends on these perspectives. Contingently, the Christian contribution to medical ethics has been huge and constructive. Central to that contribution is a core belief in the intrinsic value of human life, respect for which we are accountable to God. Christianity continues to deserve its place 'in the public square' and, specifically, in medical ethical discourse. PMID:25516951

Saunders, John

2015-01-01

16

Ethics in Health Care: Perspectives and Applications  

E-print Network

April 1, 2012 (or on site registration available) Physician Medical Resident Nurse Practitioner3rd Annual Ethics in Health Care: Perspectives and Applications Taking Your Pulse: Coping Panel Discussion and Case Study Tuesday, May 1, 2012 8:30 am--12:00 noon Virginia Mason Medical Center

Anderson, Richard

17

Reflections on ethical issues in psychopharmacology: an American perspective.  

PubMed

Psychopharmacology has revolutionized psychiatric practice but raises a number of ethical issues. This review from an American perspective first describes ethics analyses and attempts to portray the ethical practitioner. Pressures that interfere with appropriate prescribing come from outside the prescriber and from within, including from insurers, other treatment staff and the prescriber's own will to act for the patient. Clinicians also face binds in which alternate choices seem to have merit and leave the prescriber feeling pulled in contradictory directions, frequently related to risk-benefit dilemmas. The ethics of psychopharmacology poses many questions that cannot yet be answered at the current state of the field. Pharmacology also seems to promote extremes of attitudes, such as "All such drugs are poisons" and the like. This review then provides some risk management principles, and concludes that such a review, though not comprehensive, may serve to open questions that are not always considered by clinicians. PMID:23063110

Gutheil, Thomas G

2012-01-01

18

Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

Hutchison, Liese L.

2002-01-01

19

What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

Kong, Wing May

2015-01-01

20

Coercion and the Mentally Ill: Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal procedures have long been implemented to protect the rights of persons with mental illness, to mandate treatment for those unable to care for themselves, and to protect society from dangerous behavior. Although legal, mandated treatment poses ethical concerns. This article analyzes ethical issues emerging from a case study. Ethical principles, considered within a common morality framework, are applied to

Cindy Diamond Zolnierek

2007-01-01

21

Further Validation of the Relational Ethics Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted two studies to examine effects of marital status and age on Relational Ethics Scale. Study One indicated that scale was reliable and valid among single, never married young adults (n=162). Study Two examined differences between scores for this population and original normative sample. Findings suggest that ethical issues with…

Hargrave, Terry D.; Bomba, Anne K.

1993-01-01

22

Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

Hamilton, Peter K.

23

Ethical Perspectives on Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri

2013-01-01

24

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.  

PubMed

Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

Serour, G I

2013-11-01

25

Public Administration EthicsA Postmodern Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administration ethics today is dominated by two distinct ethical frameworks: the bureaucratic ethos, which stresses efficiency and strict obedience to elected officials, and the democratic ethos, which stresses adherence to certain higher order moral principles embedded in the notion of democratic government. Both the bureaucratic and democratic ethos are foundational in that each is based on the search for

Gary M. Woller; Kelly D. Patterson

1997-01-01

26

Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning  

PubMed Central

The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

2013-01-01

27

ORIGINAL PAPER A Quantitative Perspective on Ethics in Large Team  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A Quantitative Perspective on Ethics in Large Team Science Alexander M. Petersen endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future science is also important for the future of scientific research, which ultimately depends on the quality

28

Placebos and paradoxes in psychiatric research: an ethics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of placebos in clinical trials, particularly in research with mentally ill people, has emerged as a subject of considerable controversy. We first outline ethical aspects of the primary scientific arguments for and against placebo use in research. Three examples of paradoxical aspects of the ethical use of placebos are discussed: involvement of relatively more vulnerable populations, use of

Laura Weiss Roberts; John Lauriello; Cynthia Geppert; Samuel J Keith

2001-01-01

29

Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.  

PubMed

On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

Diekema, Douglas S

2009-01-01

30

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

31

Ethical perspectives on the erotic in retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To define erotic retailing in the context of shops selling sexually arousing products to women, and the ethical implications of High Street “porno-chic”. Its purpose is to assess the moral implications of access to sexual imagery and products in the High Street and examines the boundaries of its acceptability in society. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is inter-disciplinary, with

Tony Kent

2005-01-01

32

Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

2013-01-01

33

Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

2013-01-01

34

Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.  

PubMed

Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology. PMID:22865482

Al-Delaimy, Wael K

2012-09-01

35

The Ethics Pyramid: Making Ethics Unavoidable in the Public Relations Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To move from the realm of good intent to verifiable practice, ethics needs to be approached in the same way as any other desired outcome of the public relations process: that is, operationalised and evaluated at each stage of a public relations campaign. A pyramid model—the 'ethics pyramid'—is useful for incorporating ethical reflection and evaluation processes into the standard structure

Elspeth Tilley

2005-01-01

36

The nexus between ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility : An internal organisational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The commentary aims to consider the nexus between corporate marketing, ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility. It seeks to take an explicit internal organisational perspective. It also aims to identify future research avenues. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The commentary explains the relevance of the previous interlinking concepts with a discussion based on a review of past

Shaun M. Powell

2011-01-01

37

What is it to do good medical ethics? An orthodox Jewish physician and ethicist's perspective.  

PubMed

This article, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Medical Ethics, approaches the question 'what does it mean to do good medical ethics?' first from a general perspective and then from the personal perspective of a Jewish Orthodox physician and ethicist who tries, both at a personal clinical level and in national and sometimes international discussions and debates, to reconcile his own religious ethical values-especially the enormous value given by Jewish ethics to the preservation of human life-with the prima facie 'principlist' moral norms of contemporary secular medical ethics, especially that of respect for patients' autonomy. PMID:25516953

Steinberg, Avraham

2015-01-01

38

Brainwashing, LSD, and CIA: historical and ethical perspective.  

PubMed

The history of various attempts at thought control and chemical warfare is briefly reviewed. Brainwashing, thought control, industrial and national espionage, and covert activities are becoming more sophisticated. These issues have been revived and accentuated by the Vietnam war, the Middle East Crisis, Watergate, the CIA investigations and the Patty Hearst trial. Historical perspective and the ethical implications of these activities are explored. It is suggested that there is a growing level of individual and international mistrust amounting to paranoia and complicating the issues of individual freedom, civil rights and human experimentation. PMID:863610

Buckman, J

1977-01-01

39

EHR in the perspective of security, integrity and ethics.  

PubMed

Success stories of modern applications in healthcare and welfare, like the electronic health record, are always linked to end user awareness, confidence, and acceptance. Reports and surveys have given proof of these dependencies. Knowing about existing and emerging concerns and weaknesses right in advance allows to taking actions on an ethical, social, and societal level. This paper gives a review of specific observations regarding security, privacy, authentication, integrity and ethical aspects when operating an electronic health record (EHR) system in a hospital, an open care department and in a wider community of the health care sector. A reference is given to existing and emerging international standards related to the aforementioned aspects. PMID:17095827

Nordberg, Ragnar

2006-01-01

40

Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

Pratt, Cornelius B.

1994-01-01

41

Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

Schmidt, Patrick

2012-01-01

42

A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science  

E-print Network

The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the scientists' ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norm...

Petersen, Alexander M; Semendeferi, Ioanna

2014-01-01

43

Ethical Perspectives in Biogerontology Sebastian Sethe and Joo Pedro de Magalhes  

E-print Network

than in other demographic groups. Animal research may involve keeping animals a longer time to do with a researchers' personal ethics: How one treats one's students and staff, how one behavesChapter 13 Ethical Perspectives in Biogerontology Sebastian Sethe and João Pedro de Magalhães 13

de Magalhães, João Pedro

44

Ethical Considerations in Biobanks: How a Public Health Ethics Perspective Sheds New Light on Old Controversies.  

PubMed

Biobanks, collections of biospecimens with or without linked medical data, have increased dramatically in number in the last two decades. Their potential power to identify the underlying mechanisms of both rare and common disease has catalyzed their proliferation in the academic, medical, and private sectors. Despite demonstrated public support of biobanks, some within the academic, governmental, and public realms have also expressed cautions associated with the ethical, legal, and social (ELSI) implications of biobanks. These issues include concerns related to the privacy and confidentiality of data; return of results and incidental findings to participants; data sharing and secondary use of samples; informed consent mechanisms; ownership of specimens; and benefit sharing (i.e., the distribution of financial or other assets that result from the research). Such apprehensions become amplified as more researchers seek to pursue national and cross-border collaborations between biobanks. This paper provides an overview of two of the most contentious topics in biobank literature -informed consent and return of individual research results or incidental findings - and explores how a public health ethics lens may help to shed new light on how these issues may be best approached and managed. Doing so also demonstrates the important role that genetic counselors can play in the ongoing discussion of ethically appropriate biobank recruitment and management strategies, as well as identifies important areas of ongoing empirical research on these unresolved topics. PMID:25348083

Virani, Alice Hawkins; Longstaff, Holly

2014-10-29

45

A Developmental Perspective of Marriage and Family Therapist's Ethical Principles: Support for the Practitioner–Ethics Relationship Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored therapists' professional ethics by assessing therapist “at-risk” behaviors as they relate to ethical proficiency in the field of Marriage and Family Therapy. A survey assessing practice behaviors was distributed among marriage and family therapists (MFTs) of varying levels of experience. Data gathered were analyzed using factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple regression. Results indicate a positive

Shamla L. McLaurin; Ronald J. Ricci; Lenore M. McWey

2004-01-01

46

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2010-10-01

47

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2012-10-01

48

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2011-10-01

49

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

...2014-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2014-10-01

50

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2013-10-01

51

Microcultural Differences and Perceived Ethical Problems: An International Business Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the importance of microcultural differences on perceived ethical problems. This study also sought to identify the relationship between perceived ethical problems and value orientations as shown in the Hunt and Vitell's (1993) General Theory of Marketing Ethics. The data was collected from 173 Javanese, 128 Batak, and 170 Indonesian-Chinese marketing managers in Indonesia. The results indicate that,

Slamet S. Sarwono; Robert W. Armstrong

2001-01-01

52

Ethics for Professionals in Education: Perspectives for Preparation and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines ethical principles governing the conduct of teachers, administrators, and other education professionals. The collection of articles, some with conflicting views, provides an overview of the many issues that define the place of ethics in professional preparation and practice. Following the introduction, "Ethics in Educational…

Strike, Kenneth A., Ed.; Ternasky, P. Lance, Ed.

53

The Ethics of Human Genetic Intervention: A Postmodern Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance

Allen R. Dyer

1997-01-01

54

Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

2012-01-01

55

Business ethics and job-related constructs: A cross-cultural comparison of automotive salespeople  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of articles have addressed ethical perceptions and behaviors, few studies have examined ethics across cultures. This research focuses on measuring the job satisfaction, customer orientation, ethics, and ethical training of automotive salespersons in the U.S. and Taiwan. The relationships of these variables to salesperson performance were also investigated. Ethics training was found to be negatively related to

Earl D. Honeycutt; Judy A. Siguaw; Tammy G. Hunt

1995-01-01

56

Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.  

PubMed

Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

Minucci, Daria

2013-12-01

57

Learning to Care during Storytime in the Current Context: Moral Education from the Perspective of Care Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an examination of storytelling in the present context, this study addresses the teaching of moral education from the standpoint of care ethics. Through observations, interviews, and surveys in one school committed to care ethics, this study aims to show how the philosophical perspective of care ethics can inform practice. Teachers engaged…

Rabin, Colette

2011-01-01

58

Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

Haverkamp, Beth E.

2005-01-01

59

Ethical Perspectives in Open and Distance Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death…

Anitha, C.; Harsha, T. S.

2013-01-01

60

Analysis of Medical Confidentiality from the Islamic Ethics Perspective.  

PubMed

Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

2013-11-24

61

[A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].  

PubMed

Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients. PMID:25271028

Wang, Wen-Sheng

2014-10-01

62

Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy  

E-print Network

Novo, in which he sees the therapeutic relationship as one of temenos, that is, sacred space. The transference/countertransference dynamic fully respects boundaries in an ethical sense, yet transcends them in our daily en- counter to contain... the opposites of good and evil and facilitate new beginnings and meanings in the context of a gentle, safe, and unique therapeutic relationship. In a real sense, this book is about an alchemy of ethics. It heralds the importance of containing and transforming...

Zoja, Luigi

2007-01-01

63

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

64

[Ethics and laws related to human subject research].  

PubMed

Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

2011-10-01

65

Translating neuroethics: reflections from Muslim ethics: commentary on "Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an islamic perspective".  

PubMed

Muslim ethics is cautiously engaging developments in neuroscience. In their encounters with developments in neuroscience such as brain death and functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures, Muslim ethicists might be on the cusp of spirited debates. Science and religion perform different kinds of work and ought not to be conflated. Cultural translation is central to negotiating the complex life worlds of religious communities, Muslims included. Cultural translation involves lived encounters with modernity and its byproduct, modern science. Serious ethical debate requires more than just a mere instrumental encounter with science. A robust Muslim approach to neuroethics might require an emulsion of religion and neuroscience, thought and body, and body and soul. Yet one must anticipate that Muslim debates in neuroethics will be inflected with Muslim values, symbols and the discrete faith perspectives of this tradition with meanings that are specific to people who share this worldview and their concerns. PMID:23054670

Moosa, Ebrahim

2012-09-01

66

Opportunities for African Small Farmers in Ethical Foods Markets: An Entrepreneurial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Income growth in many countries is fuelling expansion of the ethical consumer segment and creating an unprecedented opportunity for small African farmers. The challenge is how to organize these farmers to seize the opportunities being offered by the emerging market. We argue in this paper that the development of entrepreneurial perspectives on small farmers' realities could help alleviate the current

Vincent Amanor-Boadu

2007-01-01

67

Opportunities for African Small Farmers in Ethical Foods Markets: An Entrepreneurial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Income growth in many countries is fuelling expansion of the ethical consumer segment and creating an unprecedented opportunity for small African farmers. The challenge is how to organize these farmers to seize the opportunities being offered by the emerging market. We argue in this paper that the development of entrepreneurial perspectives on small farmers’ realities could help alleviate the current

Vincent Amanor-Boadu

2008-01-01

68

Ethical Concerns Related to Developing Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies for Addiction  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction threaten to exacerbate already dramatic disparities in the burden of drug dependence for minority and other underserved populations. PMID:22003420

Shields, Alexandra E.

2011-01-01

69

The Ethics of Mutuality and Feminist Relational Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper articulates the compatibility of Aristotle's ethics and the Stone Center's relational model of therapy that recognizes our need for “growth-fostering relationships.” To Aristotle, the achievement of mutuality in genuine friendships is the highest expression of moral excellence. Since mutuality is so important for us, both psychologically and morally, we need to understand whatever hampers its actual achievement. Four

Susan S. Stocker

2005-01-01

70

Nurse educators and professional ethics--ethical principles and their implementation from nurse educators' perspectives.  

PubMed

This study describes nurse educators' knowledge of the ethical principles of professional codes of ethics and educators' assessment of the implementation of principles of fairness and human respect. Data for this study was collected from nurse educators in Finland. The data was analyzed by SPSS (15.0) for Windows. A total of 342 nurse educators participated. The response rate was 46%. Nurse educators knew well the ethical principles of professional codes governing their work. Older and more experienced educators knew the principles better than younger and less experienced. According to the educators the principle of fairness was implemented the best whereas fair treatment of nurse educators and respect for educators' opinions in the society were implemented the weakest. Educators who knew the principles well assessed themselves to act in a fairer way and to respect other persons' opinions in a better way than educators who knew these principles less well. They also felt themselves to be better treated than educators having less knowledge of the principles. These findings can be utilized to develop nurse educators' ethics education. Further research should focus on students', colleagues' and superiors' assessments of nurse educators' ethical knowledge base to gain comparative data on the phenomenon. PMID:22154952

Salminen, Leena; Metsämäki, Riikka; Numminen, Olivia H; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2013-02-01

71

Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

English, R.

1985-01-01

72

Codes of Ethics in Australian Education: Towards a National Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…

Forster, Daniella J.

2012-01-01

73

Institutional Responses to Medical Mistakes: Ethical and Legal Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care institutions must decide whether to inform the patient of a medical error. The barriers to disclosure are an aversion to admitting errors, a concern about implicating other practitioners, and a fear of lawsuits and liabil- ity. However, admission of medical errors is the ethical thing to do and may be required by law. When examined, the barriers to

Andrew E. Thurman

2001-01-01

74

Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

English, Raymond, Ed.

75

Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

Stephenson, James H.

2010-01-01

76

The Ethics of Animal Research: A UK Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, an independent body in the United Kingdom, has published a 2005 report titled The Ethics of Research Involving Animals. The Report, pro- duced by a Working Party that represented a wide range of views, seeks to clarify the debate that surrounds this topic and aims to help people identify and analyze the relevant scientific and

Pauline Perry

77

Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

2003-01-01

78

Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

Tavis, Timothy M.

79

Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

Smudde, Peter M.

2011-01-01

80

Brain to Computer Communication: Ethical Perspectives on Interaction Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable one to control peripheral ICT and robotic devices by processing brain activity on-line.\\u000a The potential usefulness of BCI systems, initially demonstrated in rehabilitation medicine, is now being explored in education,\\u000a entertainment, intensive workflow monitoring, security, and training. Ethical issues arising in connection with these investigations\\u000a are triaged taking into account technological imminence and pervasiveness of

Guglielmo Tamburrini

2009-01-01

81

Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethicsrelated training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

2012-01-01

82

Preventing seclusion in psychiatry: a care ethics perspective on the first five minutes at admission.  

PubMed

In this article, an intervention aimed at improving quality of care to prevent seclusion in psychiatry by focusing on the first five minutes at admission is analyzed from a care ethics perspective. Two cases are presented from an evaluation study in a psychiatric hospital. In both cases, the nurses follow the intervention protocol, but the outcome is different. In the first case, the patient ends up in the seclusion room. In the second case, this does not happen. Analyzing the cases from a care ethics perspective, we conclude that applying the intervention in the right way implies more than following the steps laid down in the protocol. It requires a new way of thinking and acting, resulting in new relationships between nurses and patients. Care ethics theory can help clarify what good care is actually about and keep in mind what is needed to apply the intervention. Thus, care ethics theory can be highly practical and helpful in changing and improving healthcare practice. PMID:24036666

Voskes, Yolande; Kemper, Martijn; Landeweer, Elleke G M; Widdershoven, Guy A M

2014-11-01

83

Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

Atweh, Bill

2011-03-01

84

Intercorporeality and Ethical Commitment: An Activity Perspective on Classroom Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a sociocultural alternative to contemporary constructivist conceptions of classroom interaction. Drawing on the work of Vygotsky and Leont'ev, we introduce an approach that offers a new perspective through which to understand the "specifically human" forms of knowing that emerge when people engage in joint activity. To…

Radford, Luis; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2011-01-01

85

Perspectives: Human Relations Training in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered human relations training in Israel from the perspective of a visitor, who claimed that the field is almost unknown, and from the perspective of a Sabra, who maintained that Israel has a substantial number of individuals working in human relations training. The journal is available from University Associates, Publishers and Consultants,…

Pfeiffer, J. William

1976-01-01

86

Ethics  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

87

Complementary medicine in intensive care: ethical and legal perspectives.  

PubMed

Complementary medicine continues to increase in popularity in the general community. As a result it is likely that requests for the administration of complementary medicine to intensive care patients will be more frequent in the future. It is therefore prudent for intensive care clinicians to address this issue and develop an approach that is consistent. Complementary medicine has not been subjected to well conducted trials to determine its efficacy and risks. Consequently decisions about its use cannot be based on risk/benefit analyses and genuine informed consent cannot be achieved. Therefore complementary medicine should not be incorporated into intensive care practice. Strict adherence to a policy of negating requests for administration of complementary medicine in intensive care patients may result in significant conflicts between intensive care clinicians, patients and families. On occasions the patient or family may insist on the use of complementary medicine and it may be seen as important to their psychological wellbeing to accede to the request. The intensive care clinician is still legally responsible for any treatment administered to the patient, even if it is against medical advice. Nevertheless if there is no demonstrable risk to the patient, complementary medicine can be administered following appropriate counselling and documentation. This review addresses the legal and ethical difficulties that may arise and an approach that may be followed when requests are made for complementary medicine in intensive care patients. PMID:11439792

Young, R J; Worswick, D; Stoffell, B

2001-06-01

88

Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics  

PubMed Central

Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

2011-01-01

89

Balancing truth-telling in the preservation of hope: a relational ethics approach.  

PubMed

Truth-telling in healthcare practice can be regarded as a universal communicative virtue; however, there are different views on what consequence it has for giving or diminishing hope. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the concepts of truth-telling and hope from a relational ethics approach in the context of healthcare practice. Healthcare staff protect themselves and others to preserve hope in the care of seriously sick patients and in end-of-life care. This is done by balancing truth-telling guided by different conditions such as the cultural norms of patients, family and staff. Our main conclusion is that the balancing of truth-telling needs to be decided in a mutual understanding in the caring relationship, but hope must always be inspired. Instead of focusing on autonomy as the only guiding principle, we would like to propose that relational ethics can serve as a meaningful perspective in balancing truth-telling. PMID:22140184

Pergert, Pernilla; Lützén, Kim

2012-01-01

90

End-of-life ethics and disability: differing perspectives on case-based teaching.  

PubMed

The way in which medical professionals engage in bioethical issues ultimately reflects the type of care such patients are likely to receive. It is therefore critical for doctors and other health care professionals to have a broad understanding of disability. Our purpose in this paper is to explore ways of teaching bioethical issues to first year medical students by integrating alternative approaches. Such approaches include (a) the use of the narrative format, (b) the inclusion of a disability perspective, and (c) the presentation and facilitation of classes by people with disabilities. We consider how these new kinds of presentations are evaluated by students, faculty, people with disabilities and professional ethicists. We hope new knowledge may provide health care professionals with a greater understanding of the perspectives of patients with disabilities, who are confronted by conflicting ethical values and frameworks for decision-making in their interaction with such professionals. PMID:20024625

Kaufert, Joseph; Wiebe, Rhonda; Schwartz, Karen; Labine, Lisa; Lutfiyya, Zana Marie; Pearse, Catherine

2010-05-01

91

Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

2007-01-01

92

Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of natural disasters from the survivors' perspective.  

PubMed

Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of disaster depend on various factors. The impact of a disaster on a particular culture depends on the people in that culture and the strength and resilience of the culture. Disasters may slow cultural development; however, typically the customs, beliefs, and value systems remain the same even if the outward expressions of culture change. Critical to survivors is the implication of aid that is culturally sensitive. Ethical questions and dilemmas associated with disasters and their management are profound. Adhering to ethical principles does not solve all of the issues related to disaster management, but awareness of their utility is important. People affected by a disaster may not be capable of responding to human rights violations, so it is the first responders who must be cognizant of their responsibility to protect the victims’ dignity and rights. Ethical treatment of survivors entails a crucial blend of knowledge about ethnic culture, religious beliefs, and human rights. A strong awareness of ethical principles is merely a beginning step to well-informed decision making in disaster situations. The literature also suggests that during a crisis, spirituality helps victims to cope. Important to any catastrophic event is the understanding that every disaster creates unique circumstances that require relief responses tailored to the specific situation. PMID:21095559

Varghese, Shainy B

2010-12-01

93

Ethical Issues for Photojournalists: A Comparative Study of the Perspectives of Journalism Students and Law Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the study described in this paper, 221 students in beginning and senior level university journalism and law courses read descriptions of ten cases of alleged invasions of privacy by photojournalists, gave their opinions on the ethics of taking and publishing the pictures, and indicated their degree of interest in a number of topics related to…

Remole, Mary K.; Brown, James W.

94

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...

2013-10-01

95

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...

2011-10-01

96

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...

2012-10-01

97

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...

2014-10-01

98

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...

2010-10-01

99

Demographic & related differences in ethical views among small businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of demographic characteristics on ethical perceptions. While earlier research has produced conflicting results regarding the predictive power of these variables, significant and definite insights were obtained with proper controls. The following predictors of ethical attitudes are examined: age, gender, marital status, education, dependent children status, region of the country and years in business, while controlling

Paul J. Serwinek

1992-01-01

100

A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

101

Ethical and Professional Issues with Computer-Related Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists have an ethical imperative to determine the ways computers can facilitate practice because of the potential to improve effectiveness and efficiency. At the same time, psychologists have a parallel imperative to consider carefully ethical and professional practice implications. The aspects of computers that render them most…

Harvey, Virginia Smith; Carlson, Janet F.

2003-01-01

102

Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

2014-01-01

103

The Positive Role of Professionalism and Ethics Training in Medical Education: A Comparison of Medical Student and Resident Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the perspectives and preferences of medical students and residents regarding professionalism and ethics education. Methods: A new written survey with 124 items (scale: "strongly disagree" = 1, "strongly agree" = 9) was sent to all medical students (n = 308) and PGY 1-3 residents (n = 233) at one academic center. Results: Of…

Roberts, Laura Weiss; Hammond, Katherine A. Green; Geppert, Cynthia M. A.; Warner, Teddy D.

2004-01-01

104

Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

2015-02-01

105

A Canadian Perspective on Using Vignettes to Teach Ethics in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vignettes depicting ethical dilemmas are used widely in teaching and learning professional ethics. Such an approach can facilitate learning by allowing opportunities to work through ethical dilemmas using practical, realistic, and complex material that enables participants to: engage in discussion; explore applicable ethical principles; and ideally, to achieve a deeper level of ethical understanding. Despite their widespread use, little research

Michelle C. E. McCarron; Donald W. Stewart

2011-01-01

106

Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

2009-01-01

107

Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

Harrison, Stanley L.

108

The ethics of forensic psychiatry: moving beyond principles to a relational ethics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychiatry has been described as a ‘moral minefield’. The competing obligations at the interface of the justice and healthcare systems raise questions about the very viability of an ethical framework for guiding practice. The explicit need for security and detention, and the implicit ‘untrustworthiness’ of forensic patients shape practitioners' everyday reality. Suspicion colors client–practitioner relationship and fundamental care concepts,

Wendy Austin; Erika Goble; Julija Kelecevic

2009-01-01

109

Throwing Out the Relativity Bath Water without Losing the Diversity Baby: Teaching Diversity versus Relativity in a Communication Ethics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper holds that despite, or perhaps because of, the development of recent ideas about diversity and cultural relativity, universities are obligated to teach communication ethics. Further, it holds that the implications of giving bachelor's degrees to students who do not have a solid grasp of universal ethical guidelines are potentially…

Martinson, Jay; Haughey, Paul

110

Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.  

PubMed

When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052

Schmidt, Kirsten

2011-06-01

111

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…

Weinstein, Matthew

2008-01-01

112

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

113

Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

Sloan, P.R.

1996-09-25

114

Health equity for internal migrant labourers in India: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

In the developing countries, internal migration is a survival strategy for many labourers in search of a better livelihood and opportunities. It is inevitable that many of them will leave their home towns and villages in the coming years, and that the future will see an increase in the number of migrant labourers in developing countries such as India. Migrant workers face unique health problems and it is important for the health system to prepare itself to face these. In this context, the system will need to address certain key ethical issues. There is plenty of published literature on international migration and its ethical aspects.However, there is a scarcity of information on ethical issues relating to internal migration. This article examines these issues in the context of India. It addresses the issues of equity, non-discrimination,the provision of culturally competent care to migrants, allocation of scarce resources, and achieving a balance between benefits and risks for migrants. Our analysis should be considered while planning any healthcare intervention for internal migrant workers in all developing countries. PMID:25377036

Akinola, Ajoke Basirat; Krishna, Anil Kumar Indira; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

115

Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

2014-01-01

116

A survey of students` ethical attitudes using computer-related scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students ascending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper will present data accumulated by an on-going study in which students are presented seven scenarios--all of which involve some aspect of computing technology. These students were randomly selected from a small, Christian, liberal-arts university.

Hanchey, C.M.; Kingsbury, J.

1994-12-31

117

Towards an empirical ethics in care: relations with technologies in health care.  

PubMed

This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945

Pols, Jeannette

2015-02-01

118

Legal and ethical issues related to nonheart beating organ donation.  

PubMed

Major breakthroughs in immunosuppressant medication and advances in surgical techniques have increased the number of successful transplantations, but the demand for organs far outweighs the supply. People continue to die while waiting for donor organs to become available. Nonheart beating organ donation is a means of increasing the supply of organs to be transplanted. It is based on cardiac cessation criteria. This article explores the ethical and legal considerations, as well as implications for perioperative nurses. PMID:12769327

McKenney, Elizabeth; Parker, Bridgette

2003-05-01

119

ETHICS, THE ACTUAL STAKE OF RESTRUCTURING THE TRADE RELATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the ethical binom promise-expectation specific to the relationship firm-consumer ,being built upon certain previous researches which discovered: significant changes in consumers’ values and life styles influencing the process of collectingin- formation about products; efforts carried out by com- panies in order to understand the present consumer’ requirements, to prioritize their requirements, co-operate with them to suggest priorities

Theodor Valentin Purcarea; Anca Purcarea

2008-01-01

120

The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

2009-01-01

121

“It’s my blood”: ethical complexities in the use, storage and export of biological samples: perspectives from South African research participants  

PubMed Central

Background The use of biological samples in research raises a number of ethical issues in relation to consent, storage, export, benefit sharing and re-use of samples. Participant perspectives have been explored in North America and Europe, with only a few studies reported in Africa. The amount of research being conducted in Africa is growing exponentially with volumes of biological samples being exported from the African continent. In order to investigate the perspectives of African research participants, we conducted a study at research sites in the Western Cape and Gauteng, South Africa. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured both quantitative and qualitative information at 6 research sites in South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Our study indicates that while the majority of participants were supportive of providing samples for research, serious concerns were voiced about future use, benefit sharing and export of samples. While researchers view the provision of biosamples as a donation, participants believe that they still have ownership rights and are therefore in favour of benefit sharing. Almost half of the participants expressed a desire to be re-contacted for consent for future use of their samples. Interesting opinions were expressed with respect to export of samples. Conclusions Eliciting participant perspectives is an important part of community engagement in research involving biological sample collection, export, storage and future use. A tiered consent process appears to be more acceptable to participants in this study. Eliciting opinions of researchers and research ethics committee (REC) members would contribute multiple perspectives. Further research is required to interrogate the concept of ownership and the consent process in research involving biological samples. PMID:24447822

2014-01-01

122

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

Weinstein, Matthew

2008-09-01

123

Relational Ethics, Depressive Symptoms, and Relationship Satisfaction in Couples in Therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction as problems related to relational ethics in one's family of origin and current partner relationships in a sample of 68 other-sex couples seeking therapy at a large university clinic. We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to analyze dyadic data collected prior to beginning therapy. Specifically, we found significant actor effects between relational ethics in one's family of origin and depressive symptoms, as well as between depressive symptoms and low relationship satisfaction for both male and female partners. We also found significant partner effects for relational ethics in current partner relationship, depressive symptoms, and low relationship satisfaction. Clinical application of contextual therapy theory is discussed. PMID:24798508

Gangamma, Rashmi; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Hartwell, Erica E; Glebova, Tatiana

2014-05-01

124

Selecting candidates for liver transplantation: a medical ethics perspective on the microallocation of a scarce and rationed resource.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation has evolved over the past 35 years from an experimental procedure with high perioperative mortality to an accepted form of treatment with an approximate 85% one-year and 80% three-year patient survival rate. Following the success and acceptance of transplantation in the treatment of end-stage liver disease, there has been a progressive increase in the number of patients seeking a limited supply of donor organs. The ethical focus, on a microallocation level, has therefore changed from that of the 1960s, when the question was whether the procedure should be offered at all, to that of the 1990s and beyond, when the focus is on the proper allocation of a scarce, life-saving resource. The ethical issues concerning fair allocation surrounding liver transplantation are explored, from both the referring physician's perspective and the perspective of the transplant physician. In particular, the contrasting viewpoints of bioethicists Nicholas Rescher and James Childress, with respect to nonmedical and social criteria in the selection of patients for scarce, life-saving therapies are explored. Lastly, some alternative ethical models for patients selection are reviewed. PMID:9582546

Yoshida, E M

1998-04-01

125

West Meets East: A Cross-cultural Look at American and Russian Public Relations Students' Perceptions of Leadership Style and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study represents an attempt to examine ethical inclination, similarities and differences between public relations students in Russia and the United States. Scholars recognize that perception of an ethical issue is an important prerequisite for the ethical decision process, and this survey explored perceptions of 377 American and Russian public relations students regarding professional ethics and leadership styles. Results

Elina Erzikova; Bruce Berger

2008-01-01

126

Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor  

PubMed Central

Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

2014-01-01

127

What is it to practise good medical ethics? A Muslim's perspective.  

PubMed

Good medical ethics should aim at ensuring that all human beings enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. With the development of medical technology and health services, it became necessary to expand the four basic principles of medical ethics and link them to human rights. Despite the claim of the universality of those ethical principles, their perception and application in healthcare services are inevitably influenced by the religious background of the societies in which those services are provided. This paper highlights the methodology and principles employed by Muslim jurists in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics, and it explains how ethical principles are interpreted through the lens of Islamic theory. The author explains how, as a Muslim obstetrician-gynaecologist with a special interest in medical ethics, including international consideration of reproductive ethics issues, he attempts to 'practise good medical ethics' by applying internationally accepted ethical principles in various healthcare contexts, in ways that are consistent with Islamic principles, and he identifies the evidence supporting his approach. He argues that healthcare providers have a right to respect for their conscientious convictions regarding both undertaking and not undertaking the delivery of lawful procedures. However, he also argues that withholding evidence-based medical services based on the conscientious objection of the healthcare provider is unethical as patients have the right to be referred to services providing such treatment. PMID:25516952

Serour, G I

2015-01-01

128

Public (relations) disturbances and civil disobedience: Why I use “The Yes Men Fix the World” to teach public relations ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This “best practices” essay suggests that instructors consider using the movie “The Yes Men Fix the World” as a tool for teaching and discussion of public relations ethics. Although this movie appears at first to skewer the public relations industry and its uses in the corporate sector, in fact the movie provides a number of opportunities for discussion of important

Jessalynn R. Strauss

129

[Exactly what is ethical nursing care? the perspective of the clinical humanities].  

PubMed

As Taiwan enters the post-modern era of professional medical care, a host of issues relating to nursing care are becoming increasingly pressing. On the one hand, the wide range of ailments of body and mind requiring treatment is placing a major financial burden on the national health care system. On the other hand, few hospitals are able to provide "comprehensive care of body and mind." In addition to primary prevention, the most effective way to reduce the overall cost of medical care is to effectively bring volunteer caregivers (those who have an "ethical connection" with the patient, i.e., family, friends, neighbors, volunteers, etc.) into all levels of the caregiving process. Moreover, as medical ethics becomes increasingly focused on the well-being of the patient, more attention is being given to the healing relationship itself. Due to its ability to swiftly relieve a wide variety of ailments, the Western medical model has become widely accepted in Asia. Yet, a patient may feel a greater sense of healing when treatment is based on the principles of ethical caregiving. For example, in the way it quickly relieves the prevailing symptoms, psychiatric medication is like a freeway. By contrast, volunteer caregiving is more like a local road, which may be slower, but eventually takes one all the way home. Thus, making nursing care more person-centered and indigenized gives the patient a sense of not only being cured, but also being "cared for." However, for a long time the theory and practice of nursing education in Taiwan has been based on the Western model of nursing. In this model nursing is treated as a branch of the biological sciences, an overall approach quite different from the traditional view of caregiving in Asian societies. Nonetheless, recent research and clinical practice indicates that an indigenized form of nursing care may be a more suitable approach to comprehensive care, and that such an approach has much potential for widespread application in Taiwan and other Chinese societies. PMID:25271029

Yu, An-Bang

2014-10-01

130

Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.  

PubMed

Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

2012-08-01

131

Ethics Education Adherence by Teacher Trainees during Teaching Practice: A Botswana Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to find out the extent to which teacher trainees understand and observe professional ethics. It also sought the contribution of the Faculty of Education and secondary schools make in promoting teacher ethics among trainees on teaching practice. Data were gathered from randomly chosen 90…

Moswela, Bernard; Gobagoba, Marina

2014-01-01

132

Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.  

PubMed

Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. PMID:22373629

Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

2012-03-01

133

Germ-Line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of

Nelson A. Wivel; Leroy Walters

1993-01-01

134

Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

135

Infusing Professional Ethics into Counselor Education Programs: A Multicultural/Social Justice Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…

Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

136

Research ethics : Re-evaluating the consequentialist perspective of using covert participant observation in management research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence that focuses on the use of covert participant observation as a method of data collection and consider the ethical nature of this method as a means to create knowledge that leads to direct management action. This ethical debate centres on issues such as informed consent, rights and consequences.

John Oliver; Keith Eales

2008-01-01

137

[The newly revised Declaration of Helsinki: what do the changes mean from an ethical perspective?].  

PubMed

The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki is one of the most influential documents in research ethics. A revised version of the Declaration was adopted in October 2008. This paper discusses selected changes regarding the Declaration's normative status, subject protection and issues in international research in light of current debates in research ethics. PMID:19941238

Rid, A; Schmidt, H

2009-12-01

138

Ethical ideology and ethical judgment regarding ethical issues in business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),

Tim Barnett; Ken Bass; Gene Brown

1994-01-01

139

Ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS: case reports.  

PubMed

The continents of Africa and Asia have the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world. Worldwide there are 42 million and 29.7 million (70%) are in sub Saharan Africa [United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). Available from: www.unaids.org]. The stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS are hampering control of the disease. Family life has greatly been disrupted by the pandemic. AIDS causes illness, disability and death as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to the families. The epidemic is well established in South Africa. The mortality will be doubled over the next five years. A broad range of coercive measures has been considered to be applied internationally in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Responsibility of the employers to their HIV/AIDS employees at workplace, choice of termination of pregnancy when a woman is HIV positive, attitude of health care provider to their HIV infected patients, informed consent for taking blood to protect from transmission of infection in a case of accidental prick, and forced resignation from employment, are discussed in this manuscript. The ethical problems are highlighted, and possible solutions recommended. PMID:15914310

Meel, B L

2005-06-01

140

Wayfaring Metaphors and Environmental Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metaphors of home, place, and bioregion often fill the narrative of environmental ethics. But, these metaphors often exclude perspectives related to women and diversity, carry with them negative and restrictive connotations of home and family, and miss the lives and experiences of people disconnected from or uninterested in home and bioregional spaces. This paper explores the potentials and limitations

Karen M. Fox; Leo H. McAvoy

141

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.  

PubMed

Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450

Birkhäuser, Martin

2013-11-01

142

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

143

Assessing and Addressing Moral Distress and Ethical Climate Part II: Neonatal and Pediatric Perspectives.  

PubMed

Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented. PMID:25470266

Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

2015-01-01

144

Sham Surgery Trial Controls: Perspectives of Patients and Their Relatives  

PubMed Central

THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

Swift, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

145

Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?  

PubMed

The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

2013-09-01

146

Regulations and ethical considerations in animal experiments: international laws and islamic perspectives.  

PubMed

Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes. PMID:23407588

Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

2012-07-01

147

76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is adopting as final, without...also provides that the Designated Agency Ethics Official (DAEO) or alternate DAEO may...concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics, is adopting the interim rule...

2011-03-18

148

75 FR 79261 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), intends to issue an interim...supervisors and the Designated Agency Ethics Official (DAEO) of that disqualification...to properly implement their respective ethics programs. The FLRA, with OGE's...

2010-12-20

149

Research ethics committees: Need for harmonization at the national level, the global and Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

Ethics committee (EC) organization and standardization is an important aspect of clinical research. There is a healthy trend worldwide to register and/or accredit research ECs reviewing clinical research. This article tries to focus on the existing model of ECs worldwide, as against the Indian backdrop. The article reviews literature, journals, websites, and studies conducted in 10 different countries and outlines the working model of ECs in these countries. The challenges faced during the ethical review, especially in case of multicenter trials, have been identified. A solution has been suggested to overcome these challenges, and to ensure the overall smooth functioning of clinical trials. The article proposes the development of national and regional central ECs to counter the current drawbacks in the ethical review mechanisms in India. PMID:24741482

Walanj, Aparna Sanjiv

2014-01-01

150

Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman,  

E-print Network

CHANCE 51 Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman, Column Editor A n ethics problem arises when you, and (c) violates some rule. Other definitionsarepossible;thereisavastlit- erature on professional ethics that I will not discuss, instead focusing here on my own perspective as a statistician. Any ethical

Gelman, Andrew

151

Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329600

Graf, C; Deakin, L; Docking, M; Jones, J; Joshua, S; McKerahan, T; Ottmar, M; Stevens, A; Wates, E; Wyatt, D

2014-12-01

152

Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

2014-12-01

153

Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

2008-01-01

154

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

155

How an Exchange of Perspectives Led to Tentative Ethical Guidelines for Visual Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…

Pope, Clive C.; De Luca, Rosemary; Tolich, Martin

2010-01-01

156

Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

2014-01-01

157

Ethics and Decision Making in Green Product Design: Business, Science, and Policy Perspectives  

E-print Network

the development, production, and marketing of green products. While these decisions usually purport to rely 1 Ethics and Decision Making in Green Product Design: Business, Science, and Policy (Berkeley Center for Green Chemistry) SYLLABUS I. Introduction and Learning Objectives This 1 credit seminar

Iglesia, Enrique

158

[Relationship health care professional-patient from personalistic perspective. To know how to communicate is like ethical imperative].  

PubMed

The ability to communicate with patients is part of health care practice and contributes to the humanization of such care and to the objectives. With basic coaching tools and personalized attention, the life of the patient can be transformed from the first moments of intervention. Beyond words, patient, in all their multidimensionality, need to be comforted and fell that they are being taken care of. The health care professionals transmits information verbally and non-verbally. ?Positive? consultations are described as warm, friendly, firm and reassuring, and there exists an emphatic response to the cognitive and emotional concerns of the patient. The opposite approach involves the assumption of roles and a lack of empathy (paternalism, servility, authoritarianism, laissez-faire, etc.). The ability to communicate is an ethical need in health care training. A personalized perspective, open to transcendence, is especially suitable in the health field, where communication must take into account the complex reality that the patient is living. PMID:23320637

Montaner Abasolo, M Carmen; Soler Company, Enrique

2012-01-01

159

Ethical Perspectives, Reactions to Other's Moral Behavior, and Consequent Moral Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…

Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

160

Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism  

PubMed Central

Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should include the development of a website for ongoing discussion that could contribute to a raised awareness of these concerns and potentially increase social responsibility in the medical tourism industry. PMID:24314027

2013-01-01

161

A procedural, pragmatist account of ethical objectivity.  

PubMed

This article offers a procedural, pragmatist account of objectivity in the domain of the good that is inspired by pragmatic and feminist critiques of objectivity in philosophy of science and epistemology. I begin by asking first what we want to capture--or ought to want to capture--with a notion of ethical objectivity and in answer to this question I identify four "points" to ethical objectivity: undergirding the possibility of mistakenness, making genuine disagreement possible, making sense of our appreciation of the ethical perspectives of others, and making possible a sense of ethical improvement or learning. I then lay out a process-based account of objectivity in ethics that makes good on the four points I have identified. Finally, I consider worries related to convergence, bias, and ontology and defend the procedural, pragmatist account in light of those potential objections. PMID:23888836

Roth, Amanda

2013-06-01

162

Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.  

PubMed

Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures. PMID:20054074

Reybold, L Earle

2009-01-01

163

Best Practice Guidelines on Publishing Ethics: A Publisher's Perspective, 2nd Edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. These guidelines are also published in: Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25330311

Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

2015-01-01

164

Teaching ethics in religious or cultural conflict situations: a personal perspective.  

PubMed

This article portrays the unique aspects of ethics education in a multicultural, multireligious and conflict-based atmosphere among Jewish and Arab nursing students in Jerusalem, Israel. It discusses the principles and the methods used for rising above this tension and dealing with this complicated situation, based on Yoder's ;bridging' method. An example is used of Jewish and Arab students together implementing two projects in 2008, when the faculty decided to co-operate with communities in East Jerusalem, the Arab side of the city. The students took it upon themselves to chaperon the teachers who came to watch them at work, translate, and facilitate interaction with a guarded and suspicious community. This approach could also be relevant to less extreme conditions in any inter-religious environment when trying to produce graduates with a strong ethical awareness. PMID:19528100

Benari, Gili

2009-07-01

165

Ethical Considerations for Outcome-adaptive Trial Designs: A Clinical Researcher's Perspective.  

PubMed

In a typical comparative clinical trial the randomization scheme is fixed at the beginning of the study, and maintained throughout the course of the trial. A number of researchers have championed a randomized trial design referred to as 'outcome-adaptive randomization.' In this type of trial, the likelihood of a patient being enrolled to a particular arm of the study increases or decreases as preliminary information becomes available suggesting that treatment may be superior or inferior. While the design merits of outcome-adaptive trials have been debated, little attention has been paid to significant ethical concerns that arise in the conduct of such studies. These include loss of equipoise, lack of processes for adequate informed consent, and inequalities inherent in the research design which could lead to perceptions of injustice that may have negative implications for patients and the research enterprise. This article examines the ethical difficulties inherent in outcome-adaptive trials. PMID:24547903

Saxman, Scott Brian

2015-02-01

166

Portrait of the Other as a Woman with Gloves: Ethical Perspectives in John Banville's The Book of Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his introduction to the recent PMLA issue on ethical criticism, Lawrence Buell observes that “ethics has gained a new resonance in literary studies over the past dozen years” (7). Indeed, the number of special issues of literary and philosophical journals, recently published books, and round-table conferences on ethics testifies to this trend. This “ethical turn” can also be observed

Elke Dhoker

2002-01-01

167

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

168

Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.  

PubMed

Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning. PMID:24447658

Buckeridge, John

2014-01-01

169

"Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific Practice" An innovative advanced research course for PhD students from a range of disciplines: Autumn 2012  

E-print Network

"Collaboration in Scientific Research: Ethical, Philosophical, and Other Perspectives on Scientific with philosophy of science and ethics and values. Students' current research is a starting point for discussion Practice" An innovative advanced research course for PhD students from a range of disciplines: Autumn 2012

Heller, Barbara

170

Experiencing everyday ethics in context: frontline data collectors perspectives and practices of bioethics.  

PubMed

Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to 'the what' and 'the why' in bioethics - what action is taken place and why - these should be considered along 'the who' - who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the circumstances they experienced. Their practice of bioethics demonstrates their contribution to the conduct of research and the shortcomings of an over-emphasis on autonomy. PMID:24210881

Kingori, Patricia

2013-12-01

171

Experiencing everyday ethics in context: Frontline data collectors perspectives and practices of bioethics?  

PubMed Central

Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to ‘the what’ and ‘the why’ in bioethics – what action is taken place and why – these should be considered along ‘the who’ – who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the circumstances they experienced. Their practice of bioethics demonstrates their contribution to the conduct of research and the shortcomings of an over-emphasis on autonomy. PMID:24210881

Kingori, Patricia

2013-01-01

172

Ethics CORE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.

173

Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspective  

PubMed Central

Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada’s universal health care system. PMID:25381149

2014-01-01

174

Money ethic, moral conduct and work related attitudes : Field study from the public sector in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations,

Gbolahan Gbadamosi; Patricia Joubert

2005-01-01

175

Business & Society\\/Business Ethics CoursesTwenty Years at the Crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a historical perspective for reviewing the evolution of Business & Society\\/Business Ethics courses at business schools and programs in the United States. The study carefully reviews the findings of 11 major studies relating to the role and number of Business & Society\\/Business Ethics courses in business school\\/program curricula. Included in these 11 studies are the results of

Denis Collins; Steven L. Wartick

1995-01-01

176

Toward a systemic ethics of public-private partnerships related to food and health.  

PubMed

Public-private partnerships have become widespread in the pursuit of both health-related research and public health interventions--most notably, in recent measures intended to address obesity. Participants emphasize synergies between the missions or goals of the public and private partners. However, the missions usually diverge in significant ways. Consequently, these partnerships can have serious implications for the integrity of, as well as trust and confidence in, the public partners. In this article, I highlight systemic concerns presented by public-private partnerships related to food and health. These include research agenda distortion and framing effects--not least, the characterization of obesity primarily as a question of individual behavior, and the minimization or neglect of the role of food systems and other social and environmental factors on health. Prevailing analytical approaches to public-private partnerships tend to downplay or ignore these systemic effects and their ethical implications. In this article, I offer guidance intended to help actors in the public sector fulfill their mission while thinking more critically and systemically about the ethical implications of public-private partnerships. PMID:25423851

Marks, Jonathan H

2014-09-01

177

Alleviating existential distress of cancer patients: can relational ethics guide clinicians?  

PubMed

Most people have a heightened awareness of death at the moment they receive a cancer diagnosis. Medical treatment attempts to demystify and manage death, yet surprisingly, care that alleviates existential distress is the least provided psychosocial care. A review of empirical research [quantitative and qualitative studies (n = 85) and seven literature reviews] was conducted to explore the experiences of clinicians (primarily nurses) working with cancer patients who experience existential distress. This paper summarizes clinicians' experiences with cancer patients who face the threat of mortality. Given that the majority of literature was found to be in nursing, emphasis in this paper tends to be on nurses' experiences. However, findings are suggested to have implications for other clinicians who deal with similar concerns. A lens of relational ethics was inductively found to organize and highlight problems and gaps that originate from interpersonal concerns. This paper describes four themes requiring further research and education related to existential distress: engagement, embodiment, environment and mutual respect. Implications for oncology care are suggested at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels to encourage clinicians to ethically respond to patients' existential distress needs. PMID:19912294

Leung, D; Esplen, M J

2010-01-01

178

The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.  

PubMed

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4(th) International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research. PMID:24273623

Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

2013-01-01

179

Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.  

PubMed

English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur. PMID:22104051

Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

2012-01-01

180

The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism: an ethical perspective for liver transplant programs.  

PubMed

Transplant programs are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who return after receiving an organ transplant abroad. These patients will require ongoing medical care to monitor their immunosuppression and to provide treatment when the need arises. Transplant societies have condemned transplantation with organs purchased abroad and with organs procured from executed prisoners in China. Nevertheless, transplant programs require guidance on how to respond to the needs of returning transplant tourists and to the needs of patients who may choose to become transplant tourists. This discussion presents a case that raised such issues in our program. It goes on to offer reasons for considering a program's responses in terms of the most relevant principles of medical ethics, namely beneficence and nonjudgmental regard. PMID:20104478

Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond

2010-02-01

181

Impact of Written Ethics Policy on Euthanasia From the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses: A Multiple Case Study in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia decision making is a complex process for physicians and nurses that involves clinical, legal, ethical, and personal–emotional aspects. In this respect, attention has been given to hospitals’ written ethics policies on euthanasia. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of a written ethics policy on euthanasia, as experienced by physicians and nurses involved in euthanasia care

Joke Lemiengre; Chris Gastmans; Paul Schotsmans; Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé

2010-01-01

182

International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

2005-01-01

183

Relational Leadership: Underrepresented Student Perspectives on Diversity Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a qualitative examination of the perspectives of Black and Latino students, traditionally underrepresented at predominately White institutions, in the environment of the mandatory diversity course at Western University. Students were qualitatively queried regarding their views on how diversity courses shape elements of relational

Caviglia, Emily A.

2010-01-01

184

Assessing Perspective Taking in Schizophrenia Using Relational Frame Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study assessed deictic relational responding in people with schizophrenia. A perspective-taking task and a mental states attribution task were employed with a sample of 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 age-matched controls. Results revealed poorer performance of participants with schizophrenia in responding in accordance…

Villatte, Matthieu; Monestes, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baque, Esteve; Loas, Gwenole

2010-01-01

185

An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

186

US perspective on gluten-related diseases  

PubMed Central

The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. PMID:24493932

Leonard, Maureen M; Vasagar, Brintha

2014-01-01

187

Ethical Leadership: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Criterion-Related and Incremental Validity.  

PubMed

This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25420055

Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

2014-11-24

188

Ethical perspectives on emerging assistive technologies: insights from focus groups with stakeholders in long-term care facilities.  

PubMed

ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ARE RELATIVELY novel tools for research and daily care in long-term care (LTC) facilities that are faced with the burgeoning of the older adult population and dwindling staffing resources. The degree to which stakeholders in LTC facilities are receptive to the use of these technologies is poorly understood. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups and one interview were conducted with relevant groups of stakeholders at seven LTC facilities in southwestern Pennsylvania. Common themes identified across all focus groups centered on concerns for privacy, autonomy, cost, and safety associated with implementation of novel technologies. The relative importance of each theme varied by stakeholder group as well as the perceived severity of cognitive and/or physical disability. Our findings suggest that ethical issues are critical to acceptance of novel technologies by their end users, and that stakeholder groups are interdependent and require shared communication about the acceptance of these emerging technologies. PMID:19374478

Dorsten, Aimee-Marie; Sifford, K Susan; Bharucha, Ashok; Mecca, Laurel Person; Wactlar, Howard

2009-03-01

189

Ethical aspects and dilemmas of fertility control of unwanted wildlife: an animal welfarist's perspective.  

PubMed

Proposals to manipulate the fertility of wild, free-living animals extend the domination humans already exercise over domesticated animals. Current lethal methods for population control include poisoning, trapping, hunting, dogging, shooting, explosives, fumigants, and deliberately introduced disease. Animal welfare interests are based on individual animal suffering, but those interests are often overshadowed by labelling of groups of animals as pests, resource species, national emblem or endangered species. Public concern for animal welfare and acceptance of new population control methods will be influenced by such labels. The animal welfare implications of new population control technology must be balanced against the existing inhumane lethal methods used. It will be difficult to resolve the dilemma of a mechanism for disseminating a fertility control agent that will cause some animal suffering (e.g. a genetically-manipulated myxoma virus for European rabbits), yet may reduce future rabbit populations and therefore the number suffering from lethal methods. An Animal Impact Statement is proposed as a tool to assist debate during development of fertility control methods and for decision making prior to their use. A comprehensive and objective Animal Impact Statement may introduce an ethic that moves the pendulum from attitudes that allow sentient animals to be destroyed by any and all available means, towards a more objective selection of the most effective and humane methods. PMID:9109207

Oogjes, G

1997-01-01

190

Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective  

SciTech Connect

Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.

Sauer, P.J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen University Medical Centre, PO Box 90.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.j.j.sauer@bkk.umcg.nl

2005-09-01

191

Are You Ethical? Please Tick Yes ? Or No ? On Researching Ethics in Business Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore the empirical agenda of business ethics research from a methodological perspective. It is argued that the quality of empirical research in the field remains relatively poor and unconvincing. Drawing on the distinctions between the two main philosophical positions from which methodologies in the social sciences are derived – positivism and interpretism – it is argued

Andrew Crane

1999-01-01

192

General Relativity from a Thermodynamic Perspective  

E-print Network

I show that the gravitational dynamics in a bulk region of space can be connected to a thermodynamic description in the boundary of that region, thereby providing clear physical interpretations of several mathematical features of classical general relativity: (1) The Noether charge contained in a bulk region, associated with a specific time evolution vector field, has a direct thermodynamic interpretation as the gravitational heat content of the boundary surface. (2) This result, in turn, shows that all static spacetimes maintain holographic equipartition; in these spacetimes, the number of degrees of freedom in the boundary is equal to the number of degrees of freedom in the bulk. (3) In a general, evolving spacetime, the rate of change of gravitational momentum is related to the difference between the number of bulk and boundary degrees of freedom. It is this departure from the holographic equipartition which drives the time evolution of the spacetime. (4) When the equations of motion hold, the (naturally defined) total energy of the gravity plus matter within a bulk region, will be equal to the boundary heat content. (5) After motivating the need for an alternate description of gravity (if we have to solve the cosmological constant problem), I describe a thermodynamic variational principle based on null surfaces to achieve this goal. The concept of gravitational heat density of the null surfaces arises naturally from the Noether charge associated with the null congruence. The null surface variational principle, in fact, extremises the total heat content of the matter plus gravity system. Several variations on this theme and implications are described. [Abridged

T. Padmanabhan

2014-10-30

193

Teaching of Legal and Ethical Standards for Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the importance of stressing business ethics in marketing courses, and presents a model ethical perspectives exercise to stimulate student thinking on legal, ethical, and community considerations of market research.

Franklin D. Krohn

1982-01-01

194

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well. PMID:21992627

2011-01-01

195

What is it to do good medical ethics? From the perspective of a practising doctor who is in Parliament.  

PubMed

This article is a personal reflection on work as a physician with work as a member of the UK Parliament's House of Lords. Ethical thinking should underpin everything we do; the 'four principles' of medical ethics provide an applicable and relevant ethical framework. This article explores its application in both domains of work-as a clinician and as a legislator-with some examples of its use 'to do good medical ethics' in both roles. Debates around tobacco and drug control, pandemic control, abortion and assisted suicide are explored. PMID:25516943

Finlay, Ilora G

2015-01-01

196

Routes to Non-NHS Ethical Approval for Health Related Research Projects Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine  

E-print Network

will involve animals External Funding Internal Funding How will your project be funded? RESEARCH IDEA Are youRoutes to Non-NHS Ethical Approval for Health Related Research Projects Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Definitions: IRAS ­ Integrated Research Application System found at: https

197

“Order three advertisements and get one news story free”: Public relations ethics practices of Turkish and international companies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the ethics of communication in print media in Turkey by exploring the potential incidences of publishing custom-made news stories and editorials by newspapers and magazines about Turkish and international businesses for promoting their advertising space. The study establishes that the incidence of corresponding news stories or editorials in newspapers and magazines and related paid advertisements increased by

Erdogan Koc

2006-01-01

198

Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

2009-01-01

199

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

200

Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical

Thoms, Karen Jarrett

201

Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).  

PubMed

The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms. PMID:17703564

Petros, B

2007-01-01

202

Legal and Ethical Aspects of Informed Consent: A Nursing Research Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues related to the doctrine of informed consent for research on human subjects are discussed as they concern the conduct of nursing research. They include the subject's capacity to consent, disclosure of information, and freedom to decide. (MSE)

Cassidy, Virginia R.; Oddi, Lorys F.

1986-01-01

203

Ethics across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

Matchett, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

204

Information related to prenatal genetic counseling: interpretation by adolescents, effects on risk perception and ethical implications.  

PubMed

Being raised in the genomic era may not only increase knowledge of available genetic testing but may also have an impact on how genetic information is perceived. However, little is known about how current adolescents react to the language commonly used by health care professionals providing prenatal counseling. In addition, as risk communication is related to numbers and figures, having different educational backgrounds may be associated with variability in risk perceptions. In order to investigate these issues, a previously developed questionnaire studying different ways of being told about hypothetical anomalies in a baby and corresponding risks (Abramsky and Fletcher Prenatal Diagnosis 22(13):1188-1194, 2002) was administered to high-school students in Sweden. A total of 344 questionnaires were completed by students belonging to a natural science or a social science program. The data show that teenage participants found technical jargon and words such as rare and abnormal more worrying than the presented comparison terms. Negative framing effects and perception differences related to numeric risk formats were also present. Additionally, participants' gender and educational program did not seem to have an effect on risk assessment. In addition to reporting the questionnaire results, we discuss the ethical implications of the data based on the norm of non-directiveness and make some recommendations for practice. In general, genetic counselors should be aware that the language used within clinical services can be influential on this group of upcoming counselees. PMID:22037899

Melas, Philippe A; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Juth, Niklas; Bui, The-Hung

2012-08-01

205

Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

2009-01-01

206

Ethical considerations in clinical training, care and research in psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training. PMID:20860879

Strous, Rael D

2011-04-01

207

Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. Methods We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. Results The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Conclusions Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be informed of incidental findings related to their health. Patients had a great deal of trust in their medical professionals and publically-funded researchers as opposed to profit-based industries and insurance companies. PMID:23497701

2013-01-01

208

The Ethical and Practical Implications of Systems Architecture on Identity in Networked Learning: A Constructionist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through relational dialogue, learners shape their identities by sharing information about the world and how they see themselves in it. As learners interact, they receive feedback from both the environment and other learners which, in turn, helps them assess and adjust their self-presentations. Although learners retain choice and personal agency,…

Koole, Marguerite L.; Parchoma, Gale

2012-01-01

209

Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.  

PubMed

Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

2014-10-16

210

Environmental Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.

211

Ethics and accounting doctoral education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the literature on accounting ethics education by considering the teaching of ethics in accounting doctoral education. Some of the ethical issues that might be addressed in accounting doctoral education are reviewed. A number of matters relating to teaching ethics to accounting doctoral students are considered. The paper concludes with a summary and some final remarks.

Stephen E. Loeb

1994-01-01

212

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

213

Tax Practitioners' Ethical Sensitivity: A Model and Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical sensitivity triggers the entire ethical decision-making process (i.e., recognition of ethical content in work situations). In this article, five factors are examined that affect tax practitioners' professional ethical sensitivity. The five factors that were examined include role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, professional commitment, and ethical orientation. Ethical content in work situations is examined in relation to professional ethics

Scott A. Yetmar; Kenneth K. Eastman

2000-01-01

214

Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences  

PubMed Central

Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers. PMID:25216254

Pereira, Dolores

2014-01-01

215

Improving female participation in professional engineering geology to bring new perspectives to ethics in the geosciences.  

PubMed

Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students "leak out" at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students' preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man's world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students' education and future careers. PMID:25216254

Pereira, Dolores

2014-09-01

216

Some Thoughts on John Dewey's Ethics and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The philosopher and educator, John Dewey, explores the emergence of the terms "ethics" and "education" from a pragmatist's perspective, i.e., within the linguistic and social components' framework, and society's existing cognitive and cultural level. In the current article, we examine the development, logical control and the relation between…

Karafillis, Gregorios

2012-01-01

217

Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

2014-01-01

218

The current state of clinical ethics and healthcare ethics committees in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Ethics committees are the most important practical instrument of clinical ethics in Belgium and fulfil three tasks: the ethical review of experimental protocols, advising on the ethical aspects of healthcare practice, and ethics consultation. In this article the authors examine the current situation of ethics committees in Belgium from the perspective of clinical ethics. Firstly, the most important steps which thus far have been taken in Belgium are examined. Secondly, recent opinion by the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics with regard to ethics committees is presented and the activities of Belgian ethics committees are discussed. Finally, the option to bring research ethics and clinical ethics under the roof of just one committee is criticised using a pragmatic and a methodological argument. Concomitantly, the authors build an argument in favour of the further development of ethics consultation. PMID:15923477

Meulenbergs, T; Vermylen, J; Schotsmans, P

2005-01-01

219

Engaging with research ethics in central Francophone Africa: reflections on a workshop about ancillary care  

PubMed Central

Research ethics is predominantly taught and practiced in Anglophone countries, particularly those in North America and Western Europe. Initiatives to build research ethics capacity in developing countries must attempt to avoid imposing foreign frameworks and engage with ethical issues in research that are locally relevant. This article describes the process and outcomes of a capacity-building workshop that took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo in the summer of 2011. Although the workshop focused on a specific ethical theme – the responsibilities of researchers to provide health-related care to their research participants – we argue that the structure of the workshop offers a useful method for engaging with research ethics in general, and the theme of ancillary care encourages a broad perspective on research ethics that is highly pertinent in low-income countries. The workshop follows an interactive, locally driven model that could be fruitfully replicated in similar settings. PMID:22866822

2012-01-01

220

Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review  

E-print Network

.Ethics, Medical. 3.Ethical review - standards. 4.Ethics committees. 5.Patient selection. 6.Guidelines. IStandards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-Related Research with Human expedited call separation ideas #12;Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health

Rosen, Jay

221

Ethical Issues in Australian Marketing Research Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on Australian marketing research professionals' perceptions toward ethics in the marketing research profession and research services. These perceptions are specifically related to the ethical environment, ethical guidance, and leadership responsibility, factors leading to unethical marketing research practices and ethical climate characteristics. Overall findings underscore the importance of the role of management in setting the ethical tone and

Madhav N. Segal; Ralph W. Giacobbe

2007-01-01

222

Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.  

PubMed

Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained. PMID:23920461

Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

2013-01-01

223

Reviews: Ethics, consulting, and communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethics in Human Communication (2nd ed.). Edited by Richard L. Johannesen. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1983, pp. x + 244. $8.95.Ethics, Morality and the Media: Reflections on American Culture. Edited by Lee Thayer. New York: Hastings House, 1980, pp. xvi + 302. $21.50 (cloth) or $11.95 (paper).Ethical Perspectives and Critical Issues in Intercultural Communication. Edited by Nobleza C. Asuncion?Landé.

David A. Carter; Alison Alexander; Gary T. Hunt; Sue De Wine

1982-01-01

224

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-01-01

225

Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

1997-01-01

226

Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

Kuzu, Abdullah

2009-01-01

227

Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

Walsh, Justin

228

This chapter appears in Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Melissa J. Dark.  

E-print Network

-to-peer networks are one of the main sources of Internet traffic, and yet remain very controversial. On the one, and censorship resilience. On the other hand, peer-to-peer networks pose considerable ethical and legal with the Napster file-sharing service, peer-to-peer networks have grown to become a predominant source of Internet

Sadeh, Norman M.

229

Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

2015-01-01

230

ERST-PHIL 3300Y Environmental Ethics  

E-print Network

1 ERST-PHIL 3300Y Environmental Ethics Fall/Winter 2012-2013 Instructor: Stephanie Rutherford that address such ethical questions, including deep ecology, ecofeminism, Indigenous perspectives, and animal theories of environmental ethics are embedded in practice. We will give specific attention to ecological

Fox, Michael

231

Islamic Ethics and the Implications for Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global business operations expand, managers need more knowledge of foreign cultures, in particular, information on the ethics of doing business across borders. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to share the Islamic perspective on business ethics, little known in the west, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the relationships between ethics and business, and (2)

Gillian Rice

1999-01-01

232

Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.  

PubMed

'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. PMID:25516944

de Zulueta, Paquita C

2015-01-01

233

New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Relativity is almost 100 years old. Classically, Einstein's theory, is a geometric theory with a metric equating gravity and acceleration. This Principle of Equivalence determines the kinematics. Padmanabhan uses accelerated Rindler frames to derive general relativistic actions, including the Einstein-Hilbert action, and the Einstein equations. This determines the dynamics. There is another formulation of General Relativity due to Göckeler and Schücker, a gauge theory in terms of differential forms, which reduces to the Einstein-Hilbert action and implies the Einstein equations including torsion. My thesis, “New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology”, contains, in part: • Padmanabhan discovered a differential relation between the volume and surface terms for generalized Lagrangians in Einstein-Hilbert type actions. I found a generalization of this using the Göckeler and Schücker form from which Padmanabhan's relations can be deduced under contraction. The new formulation constrains the curvature and torsion and allows other generalizations. • Padmanabhan has recently derived Einstein's Equations from thermodynamical assumptions on the surface term in the Action. Horizons which block information are a relatively new feature in Physics. Padmanabhan has done alot in advancing the goal of elucidating the relation between General Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory. • Hawking found that black holes radiate in a thermal spectrum and calculated the temperature. This (nonquantum) temperature is novel in General Relativity. • Unruh and others found vacuum states which exhibit thermal properties dependent on the motion of the observer. Vacuums are nonunique in noninertial frames and curved spacetimes. • Recent observations indicate the presence of an unclustered material acting like a fluid with negative pressure causing the acceleration of the Universe and amounting to about 70% of its energy density. The simplest explanation for this Dark Energy is the Cosmological Constant. Padmanabhan has derived the correct value for this vacuum energy by gauging away the bulk value and evaluating the vacuum fluctuations in terms of surface dimensions. • There has been considerable progress recently in understanding the History on the Universe, although there remains much is unknown. This is the Standard Model of Cosmology. The Standard Model of Particle Physics and the gauge theory of General Theory of Relativity are not only the current fundamental theories of physics but also the way the Universe has evolved. • Despite the progress of the Ashtekar formulation, the development of spin foams, and String theory with its spin-2 graviton, there does not exist a complete theory of Quantum Gravity. The search continues for the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom and the gravitational notions of energy and entropy.

Smoot, Dennis G.

234

A Synthesis of Ethical Decision Models for Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of current models of ethical decision making are described and evaluated on a comparative basis. From the synthesis of these frameworks an integrated model is derived. The integrated model combines both cognitive-affect and social-learning theory to produce a more complete perspective of the ethical decision process. This perspective acknowledges that ethical decision making is affected by both external

O. C. Ferrell; Larry G. Gresham; John Fraedrich

1989-01-01

235

Objections to the teaching of business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date the teaching of business ethics has been examined from the descriptive, prescriptive, and analytical perspectives. The descriptive perspective has reviewed the existence of ethics courses (e.g., Schoenfeldtet al., 1991; Bassiry, 1990; Mahoney, 1990; Singh, 1989), their historical development (e.g., Sims and Sims, 1991), and the format and syllabi of ethics courses (e.g., Hoffman and Moore, 1982). Alternatively, the

Gael M. McDonald; Gabriel D. Donleavy

1995-01-01

236

Ethical Decision-Making: Issues and Applications to American Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…

Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.

1998-01-01

237

Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

2011-01-01

238

The NAFSA Ethics Program. Ethical Practice in International Educational Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains complete information on the NAFSA Ethics Program developed by NAFSA: the Association of International Educators. It includes the NAFSA Code of Ethics, the Principles of International Educational Exchange, and details of procedures for ethics-related complaints. The Association of International Educators promotes the exchange…

NAFSA - Association of International Educators, Washington, DC.

239

Managing to be ethical: debunking five business ethics myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of recent corporate scandals, managers and researchers have turned their attention to questions of ethics management. We identify five common myths about business ethics and provide responses that are grounded in theory, research, and business examples. Although the scientific study of business ethics is relatively new, theory and research exist that can guide executives who are trying

Linda Klebe Trevino; Michael E. Brown

2004-01-01

240

Teaching Ethical Standards for Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses perspectives and approaches that teachers can utilize in demonstrating for students the importance and complexity of ethical decisions in the oral and written composition process. Explores the use of religious, legal, political, dialogical, situational, and human nature perspectives. (Author/GC)

Johannesen, Richard L.

1980-01-01

241

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

242

Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

Avci, Suleyman

2013-01-01

243

Ethics versus corruption in globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals and organizations will exhaust all available gains from trade and the resulting allocation of resources will be efficient when allocation will reflect accurately society's opportunities and preferences – including preferences related to individuals' ethical standards. Which behaviours are ethical and which are unethical? International society due to globalization has to develop and establish common ethical principles of behaviour in

Georgios I. Zekos

2004-01-01

244

The dramaturgical perspective in relation to self and culture.  

PubMed

Social scientists have studied human behavior from the dramaturgical perspective (DP), through which society is viewed as an elaborate play or game in which individuals enact different roles. The DP is more than a theoretical construct; members of individualist, secular societies occasionally adopt the DP with relation to their own lives. The current research examined the consequences of adopting the DP for evaluations of the self and conceptions of reality at large. Study 1 examined the attitudinal correlates of DP endorsement to test our claim that the DP is situated in an ideological context of individualism and secular modernism. Supporting our claim that the DP invalidates external information about the self's value, in Studies 2A and 2B individuals endorsed the DP to a greater extent after a self-esteem threat, and Studies 2C and 3 showed that exposure to the DP (but not a direct system threat) buffered self-esteem threats. Examining moderators of the DP's influence on self-esteem, Study 4 showed that taking the DP with regard to the ultimate value (vs. concrete experience) of a social role decreased self-esteem and investment in that role. Studies 5A and 5B examined the DP's consequences for perceived moral objectivism. Adopting the DP decreased moral objectivism and moralization of various behaviors but not when the intrinsic self was dispositionally or situationally salient. The latter finding suggests that although contemporary individuals can and occasionally do adopt a reflective stance toward their place within social reality, they nevertheless continue to believe in a true, core self that transcends that precarious drama. PMID:25243413

Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Young, Isaac F; Stewart, Sheridan A

2014-11-01

245

Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

Fajen, Ava Lee

246

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

247

Ethical Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measuring ICT Ethics of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…

Jung, Insung

2009-01-01

248

Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.  

PubMed

Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

2014-11-01

249

An Integrated Model for Ethical Decisions in Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many models of ethical decision-making in marketing have been presented in the literature, no recent attempts have been made to explicitly account for ethical decision-making from a marketing research perspective. We present an ethical framework for marketing research, the various philosophies of ethics, and a few enduring marketing ethical decision-making models, thus laying the foundation for a descriptive model

Naresh K. Malhotra; Gina L. Miller

1998-01-01

250

Accountability in nursing: reflecting on ethical codes and professional standards of nursing practice from a global perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of accountability is a concept closely aligned with public trust and confidence with a healthcare discipline. It is of vital importance to the discipline of nursing to define and examine the obligations and duties of professional nurse. The term is referred to and often defined through international and national professional codes of nursing and in standards of nursing practice documents. This column will begin exploration of the concept with offering a definition from a humanbecoming perspective. PMID:18953006

Milton, Constance L

2008-10-01

251

Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care  

PubMed Central

In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

2013-01-01

252

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Patient Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this second of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

253

The Caring Relation in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…

Noddings, Nel

2012-01-01

254

Socio-ethical education in nanotechnology engineering programmes: a case study in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The unique properties of nanotechnology have made nanotechnology education and its related subjects increasingly important not only for students but for mankind at large. This particular technology brings educators to work together to prepare and produce competent engineers and scientists for this field. One of the key challenges in nanotechnology engineering is to produce graduate students who are not only competent in technical knowledge but possess the necessary attitude and awareness toward the social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. In this paper, a research model has been developed to assess Malaysian nanotechnology engineering students' attitudes and whether their perspectives have attained the necessary objectives of ethical education throughout their programme of study. The findings from this investigation show that socio ethical education has a strong influence on the students' knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to socio ethical issues related to nanotechnology. PMID:23149672

Balakrishnan, Balamuralithara; Er, Pek Hoon; Visvanathan, Punita

2013-09-01

255

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

256

Guidelines for Ethical Review of Research Proposals for Human Somatic Cell Gene Therapy and Related Therapies  

E-print Network

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from AusInfo. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, Legislative Services, AusInfo, GPO Box 1920, Canberra ACT 2601. The strategic intent of the NHMRC is to work with others for the health of all Australians, by promoting informed debate on ethics and policy, providing knowledge based advice, fostering a high quality and internationally recognised research base, and applying research rigour to health issues. NHMRC documents are prepared by panels of experts drawn from appropriate Australian academic,(òrofessional, community and government organisations. NHMRC is grateful to these people for the excellent work they do on its behalf. This work is usually performed on an honorary basis and in addition to their usual work commitments. This document is sold through AusInfo Government Info Bookshops at a price which covers the cost of printing and distribution only. For publication purchases please contact AusInfo on their toll-free number 132 447, or through their internet address:

unknown authors

257

A SIKH PERSPECTIVE ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PUNJABI-SIKH PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Sikh perspective on the use of alcohol and drugs. In doing so, it takes into account the dichotomy that exists between Sikh ethical values and the Punjabi cultural attitude toward alcohol and drugs. It further discusses the Sikh perspective on treating substance-related disorders in the light of contemporary approaches to addiction, such as the bio-psychosocial model

Jaswinder Singh Sandhu

2009-01-01

258

Ethics Education Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

2012-05-11

259

Ethics on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical issues related to the Internet based on two speeches given at the Online 95 conference. Topics include pornography; copyright; libel and slander; and censorship imposed on the Internet by the secret service in Israel. (LRW)

Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996

1996-01-01

260

Monocular vision using inverse perspective projection geometry: analytic relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author derives a variety of relationships, all in the reference frame of the camera, between 3-D points; 3-D lines; collections of 3-D lines; the angles between lines lying in common planes; the planes in which lines may lie; and the corresponding perspective projection of the 3-D points, lines and angles. These relationships are useful in many aspects of model-based

R. M. Haralick

1989-01-01

261

Saving lives in road traffic-ethical aspects.  

PubMed

AIM: This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion concerning these alternative ways of designing the system should be encouraged. PMID:21088693

Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica

2009-12-01

262

The context of ethics in the health care industry.  

PubMed

Examines ethics in the health care industry from the perspectives of investors, employees, patients, competitors and the environment. Ethical behaviour in the health care industry is essential and desirable; however, determining which behavioural actions are ethical and which are unethical is difficult. Although never will everyone agree on specific ethical standards, everyone should agree that setting ethical standards is vital. Therefore, administrators of health care institutions and health care providers should work together to establish codes of ethics which define boundaries for ethical behaviours in the health care industry. PMID:10157835

Wells, B; Spinks, N

1996-01-01

263

Ethics of environment and development  

SciTech Connect

How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.

Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.

1990-01-01

264

Health and Wellness Policy Ethics  

PubMed Central

This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

2013-01-01

265

[Man and animal from the ethical view  

PubMed

This review over the books, articles in Journals and newspapers in 1996 and 1997 reports about the development in the field of man-animal- and man-nature-relations. The review considers the following themes: development, trends and perspectives, philosophy, theology, eco-ethics, legal questions, animal experimentation, freedom of research, teaching and conscience, farm animals, hunting and fishing, zoo and circus, bio-technology, violence, killing, vegetarism and dignity of creatures. The review includes a bibliography with about 300 quatoations. PMID:11178503

Teutsch, Gotthard M.

1997-01-01

266

Ebola: what it tells us about medical ethics.  

PubMed

Good medical ethics needs to look more to the resources of public health ethics and use more societal, population or community values and perspectives, rather than defaulting to the individualistic values that currently dominate discussion. In this paper I argue that we can use the recent response to Ebola as an example of a major failure of the global community in three ways. First, the focus has been on the treatment of individuals rather than seeing that the priority ought to be public health measures. Second, the advisory committee on experimental interventions set up by the WHO has focused on ethical issues related to individuals and their guidance has been unclear. Third, the Ebola issue can be seen as a symptom of a massive failure of the global community to take sufficient notice of global injustice. PMID:25516949

Dawson, Angus J

2015-01-01

267

Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  

PubMed

The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

2014-06-01

268

HRC of New Zealand Ethics Summer Studentship HEALTH RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS SUMMER STUDENTSHIP 2012-2013  

E-print Network

HRC of New Zealand Ethics Summer Studentship HEALTH RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS SUMMER STUDENTSHIP 2012-2013 BACKGROUND The Health Research Council (HRC) of New Zealand has available one Ethics Summer Studentship for a University of Waikato student to conduct research during the summer break in a health-related ethics field

Waikato, University of

269

Ethics are local: Engaging cross-cultural variation in the ethics for clinical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little consideration has heretofore been given to the interaction between Western clinical research ethics and non-Western ethical expectations. How should any conflict that might arise when a biomedical investigator and a research subject come from different cultural settings and have different ethical expectations be addressed? Which ethics should govern such trans-cultural clinical research? The answers to these questions are

Nicholas A. Christakis

1992-01-01

270

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Duty to Foster an Ethical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Patricia C. Seifert

2002-01-01

271

The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

Phuma, Ellemes

2010-01-01

272

[Chronic pain related to AIDS: perspective of nurses and doctors].  

PubMed

The objective was to identify the features and the management of chronic pain associated to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) from the perspective of nurses and doctors. Qualitative study conducted at a reference hospital in Fortaleza- CE, Brazil, with 20 professionals. It was applied semi-structured interview and the speeches were analyzed using content analysis of Bardin, emerging three categories: Characterization of pain, Clinical evaluation of pain and Clinical care of pain. It was found that pain in AIDS manifests itself as persistent, disabling, with difficult control, and its management based on accurate identification of the causal factors and on implementation of pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment offered by the interdisciplinary team. The study provides relevant data on pain in AIDS patients, demonstrating the need to rethink the model of care management interventions to promote greater efficacy of analgesia and to improve interdisciplinary approach to pain for better pain evaluation and treatment. PMID:24676069

Oliveira, Roberta Meneses; da Silva, Lucilane Maria Sales

2014-01-01

273

A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

Fitch, Kate

2013-01-01

274

Relative Risk and Odds Ratio: A Data Mining Perspective (Corrected Version)  

E-print Network

Relative Risk and Odds Ratio: A Data Mining Perspective (Corrected Version) Haiquan Li, Jinyan Li of "odds ratio": The odds that a case has been exposed to a risk factor is compared to the odds for a case that has not been exposed. The efficient extraction of patterns that have good relative risk and/or odds

Wong, Limsoon

275

Applied Ethics and ICT-Systems in Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the ethical implications of information and communication technology in health care and how can new ICT-systems fit in an ethically based health care system? In this chapter, new ICT-applications in health care are assessed from an ethical perspective. The first application assessed is a system making patient in - formation accessible for all health care units at a

Göran Collste

276

Ethical Aspects of Patient Information in Radiation Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While legal aspects of patient information in radiotherapy are often discussed in clinical literature, ethical aspects are mainly a topic of debate only in bioethical literature. Nevertheless, patient information about radiation oncology has many ethical implications which must be considered in order to provide an optimal patient care. Therefore, this publication describes these ethical aspects from a clinical perspective.

Christof Schäfer; Manfred Herbst

2003-01-01

277

Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

2010-01-01

278

Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

1994-01-01

279

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

280

LA PERSPECTIVA ÉTICA DE LA EVALUACIÓN DE LOS APRENDIZAJES DESDE UN ENFOQUE CONSTRUCTIVISTA THE ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE LEARNING ASSESMENT FROM A CONSTRUCTIVIST POINT OF VIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay has the purpose to study the main points in learning assessment from a constructionist view. Also, this view can be used as an ethical device to reflex upon the use that the Ministry or Education of Costa Rica has given to learning assessment. Thus, dialogue is considered the main assessment ethical device to be carried out from a

Mario Segura Castillo

2007-01-01

281

Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

Burger, Kimberly R.

2009-01-01

282

Preaching What We Practice: Teaching Ethical Decision-Making to Computer Security Professionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders [1]. Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.

Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

283

Ethics in Strategic Communication Campaigns: The Case for a New Approach to Public Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public relations, issues management, and most marketing communication cam paigns are instances of the broad category of strategic communication, although by no means the only instances. Such campaigns can be conducted from several models, but these can be broadly grouped into monological and dialogical approaches. In an information society such campaigns increasingly provide the point of contact between an organization

Carl Botan

1997-01-01

284

Towards an Understanding of Ethical Behaviour in Small Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allthough small business accounts for over 90% of businesses in U.K. and indeed elsewhere, they remain the largely uncharted area of ethics. There has not been any research based on the perspective of small business owners, to define what echical delemmas they face and how, if at all, they resolve them. This paper explores ethics from the perspective of small

S. Vyakarnam; A. Bailey; A. Myers; D. Burnett

1997-01-01

285

Investigating Socialization, Work-Related Norms, and the Ethical Perceptions of Marketing Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the influence of socialization on work-related norms (WORKNORM). We tested the hypothesis that organizational\\u000a (ORGSOC) and professional socialization (PROFSOC) are antecedent influences on WORKNORM, employing a sample of 339 marketing\\u000a practitioners. The results of covariance structural analysis indicate that ORGSOC and PROFSOC and WORKNORM are discriminant\\u000a constructs within the tested model. The study also reveals that the

Nicholas McClaren; Stewart Adam; Andrea Vocino

2010-01-01

286

Egocentric Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

2004-01-01

287

Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

Morris, Michael

2004-01-01

288

Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

Vetter, Ron

2003-04-21

289

Human Relations Perspectives on Motivation: A Critical Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the appellation of Human Relationist has fallen into disuse today vestiges of this tradition persist in many approaches to "humanize" organizations. In this paper, Human Relations assumptions about the motivation of workers and their desire for participation are analyzed and assessed in relation to empirical studies. A typology of models of…

Kaplan, H. Roy; And Others

290

Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public health action-research project. In carrying out such projects, careful attention and effort is needed to establish and maintain respectful relationships amongst those involved, acknowledge and address differences of power and position, and evaluate burdens and risks for individuals and groups. PMID:24555854

2014-01-01

291

The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

Callahan, Jay

1994-01-01

292

The Historical Basis of Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are different objects and motives between scientists and engineers. Science is to create new knowledge (episteme), while technology (techne) is to create new utility. Both types of social responsibility are required for engineer, because modern technology is tightly connected with science. The relationship between ethics for scientists and engineers is discussed as an evolution of ethical objects. A short history of engineering societies in U.S.A. and Japan are introduced with their ethical perspectives. As a conclusion, respect for fundamental rights for existence of those who stand in, with, and around engineers and their societies is needed for better engineering ethics.

Furuya, Keiichi

293

Antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction - perspectives from neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction is not only a common symptom in major depression but also a frequent side-effect of antidepressant medication, mainly of the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRI) that are often prescribed as a first line treatment option. Despite of the increasing incidence and prescription rates, neuronal mechanisms underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction are poorly understood and investigations on this topic are scarce. Neuroimaging techniques, mainly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provide a feasible approach to investigate these mechanisms since SSRI-related sexual dysfunction is most likely related to central nervous processes. This review summarizes the recent literature regarding the basic clinical findings and imaging correlates of antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction linking brain regions and networks potentially involved to phases and subcomponents of sexual processing and antidepressant action. In particular, fMRI studies on SSRI antidepressants including paroxetine and SNRIs including bupropion are highlighted. PMID:24333547

Graf, Heiko; Walter, Martin; Metzger, Coraline D; Abler, Birgit

2014-06-01

294

Centric relation definition: a historical and contemporary prosthodontic perspective.  

PubMed

Centric relation (CR) is a core topic of dentistry in general and prosthodontics in particular. The term CR has become thoroughly confusing because of many conflicting definitions. Unfortunately definition of CR changed repeatedly over past ten decades. All the existing definitions in the dental literature, for the past 81 years, are segregated into definitions from 1929 to 1970, 1970-1980, and 1980-2010 and are critically analyzed. Both PubMed (key words: centric relation/centric jaw relation) and hand searches were employed, from citation in other publications, to identify relevant articles in English language peer reviewed PubMed journals from 1956 to 2010; although the review is from 1929. Numerous definitions for CR have been given, however, no consensus exists and the definition given by a current glossary of prosthodontic terms is confusing. It relates CR to many clinically invisible parts and cannot guide a dental surgeon to record the CR following its description. The purpose of this article is not only to review all the definitions critically but to propose a self explanatory definition to minimize the confusion in the minds of dental practitioners and students for better understanding of the concept of CR. Centric relation is clinically significant since it is the only clinically repeatable jaw relation and the logical position to fabricate prosthesis. PMID:24431728

Palaskar, Jayant N; Murali, R; Bansal, Sanjay

2013-09-01

295

[Public health, genetics and ethics].  

PubMed

Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics. PMID:12471377

Kottow, Miguel H

2002-10-01

296

Managing wildlife ethics issues ethically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been

R. Bruce Gill

2000-01-01

297

From Dissociation to Negotiation: A Relational Psychoanalytic Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relational psychoanalytic model for conceptualizing the dynamics and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is presented, integrating trauma\\/dissociation theories with postclassical psychoanalytic perspectives. MPD is conceptualized as a chronic trauma syndrome and as a particular variation of narcissistic personality organization involving an overreliance on omnipotent defenses, the collapse of intersubjective experiencing and significant derailments of the developmental lines of

Harvey L. Schwartz

1994-01-01

298

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives. Marc Aubry1,*  

E-print Network

1 TITLE PAGE TITLE Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives,version1-18Jul2008 #12;3 ABSTRACT PAGE ABSTRACT The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of duodenal enterocytes. The challenge from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1 *  

E-print Network

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1> Abstract The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step of its homeostasis. But the control approach, we identified 60 genes over-expressed in hemin (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Women, The Built Environment and The Professional Perspective, In Relation to Women Chartered Surveyors in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The growing amount of literature written on women and the built environment from a feminist perspective has fallen into two main categories: firstly, academic material seeking to study the evidence of the reproduction of social relations over space; and secondly, practical material, from women architects and town planners, pre- senting alternative ways of creating and designing housing, neighbourhoods, facilities,

Clara H. Greed

301

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

302

Responsibilities to plan for ancillary care pose ethical challenges for nutrition research in the community setting.  

PubMed

Investigators who conduct nutrition research in the community setting, particularly among underserved populations, face the ethical question of whether and how to respond to participants' unmet health needs. The research ethics literature conceptualizes this question as one of ancillary care (AC): what is the nature and extent of researchers' ethical responsibilities, if any, to provide or facilitate health care that research participants need but that is not necessary to ensure the safety or scientific validity of the research? In this paper, we highlight 3 ethical challenges involved in the planning of AC responses for nutrition research conducted in the community setting: influence of provision of AC on primary study outcomes as an issue of trial design; whether to extend the provision of AC beyond research participants to nonparticipants with the same health needs; and how best to train field workers who may be the most likely members of the study team to encounter the health needs anticipated among participants. Although the global ethical discussion of AC is gaining in depth, breadth, and practical influence, it remains relatively uninformed by perspectives specific to nutrition research. Our objective is to encourage nutrition researchers to engage proactively in the emerging ethical discussion of AC, so that their relevant experiences and concerns can be taken into account in the eventual formation of ethical guidelines and policies. PMID:22933751

Merritt, Maria W; Taylor, Holly A

2012-10-01

303

MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

304

Social Relations in Childhood and Adolescence: The Convoy Model Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the development of social relations has been largely fragmented along role-specific lines and dominated conceptually by attachment theory. The Convoy Model is presented as an alternative to traditional approaches that fail to capture the complexity of social relationships across time and context. Research based on the model converges…

Levitt, Mary J.

2005-01-01

305

Relations between Money and Love in Postdivorce Families: Children's Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…

Haugen, Gry Mette D.

2005-01-01

306

Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

307

Perspectives on Public Relations Training in International Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…

Bunnell, Tristan

2005-01-01

308

Further Contributions from the Ethical Turn in Composition/Rhetoric: Analyzing Ethics in Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I propose that the field of composition/rhetoric can make important contributions to the understanding of ethics based on our critical perspective on language as interactional and rhetorical. The actual language of decision making with ethical dimensions has rarely been studied directly in the literature, a crucial gap our field can…

Barton, Ellen

2008-01-01

309

Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…

White, Judith; Taft, Susan

2004-01-01

310

Predatory vs. Dialogic Ethics: Constructing an Illusion or Ethical Practice as the Core of Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethical conduct of research is addressed from two perspectives, as a regulatory enterprise that creates an illusion of ethical practice and as a philosophical concern for equity and the imposition of power within the conceptualization and practice of research itself. The authors discuss various contemporary positions that influence…

Cannella, Gaile S.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

2007-01-01

311

Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

Tarone, Elaine

2013-01-01

312

Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

2001-01-01

313

Ethics in Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Edward F. Gehringer, Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science, NC State University has posted this website on Ethics in Computing. An interactive image of a map guides visitors through different topics covered on this website, so you can start with the Basics or jump right into one of the issue areas. The areas covered include: Social Justice Issues, Commerce, Computer Abuse, Speech Issues, Risks, Privacy, and Intellectual Property. Under each area are links to other resources on the Web, providing definitions, relevant data, case examples, and offering various perspectives on the issues. Some of the links are out of date, but there is still plenty of information to be gleaned from this website on ethics.

314

Liouville Quantum Gravity & the Kpz Relation:. a Rigorous Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Proceeding describes joint work [1, 2] with SCOTT SHEFFIELD, and presents a (mathematically rigorous) probabilistic and geometrical proof of the Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) relation between scaling exponents in a Euclidean planar domain D and in Liouville quantum gravity. The Liouville quantum gravity measure on D is the weak limit as ? ? 0 of d??,? = ??2/2e?h?(z)dz, where dz is the standard 2D Euclidean (i.e., Lebesgue) measure on D, ? is a real parameter, 0 ? ? < 2, and h?(z) denotes the mean value on the circle of radius ? centered at z of an instance h of the Gaussian free field on D. The proof can be extended to the boundary geometry. The singular case ? > 2 is related to the quantum measure d??', ?' < 2, by the fundamental duality ??' = 4.

Duplantier, Bertrand

2010-03-01

315

Management of sorafenib-related adverse events: a clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is being evaluated in phase II and III clinical trials, which include treatment as a single agent (locally advanced/metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer [DTC]), as part of multimodality care (HCC), and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents (metastatic breast cancer). Sorafenib-related adverse events (AEs) that commonly occur across these tumor types include hand-foot skin reaction (HSFR), rash, upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) distress (ie, diarrhea), fatigue, and hypertension. These commonly range from grade 1 to 3, per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), and often occur early in treatment. The goal for the management of these AEs is to prevent, treat, and/or minimize their effects, thereby enabling patients to remain on treatment and improve their quality of life. Proactive management, along with ongoing patient education (before and during sorafenib treatment), can help to effectively manage symptoms, often without the need for sorafenib dose modification or drug holidays. Effective management techniques for common sorafenib-related AEs, as well other important disease sequelae not directly related to treatment, are presented. Recommendations and observations are based on physician/author experience and recommendations from published literature. PMID:24576654

Brose, Marcia S; Frenette, Catherine T; Keefe, Stephen M; Stein, Stacey M

2014-02-01

316

[Migration and social gender relations: the anthropological perspective].  

PubMed

"This article reviews Mexican research of female migration. An analysis is made of socio-demographic and anthropological studies that cover the relations between inequality among the genders, the causes and features of migration, and the work performed by female migrants in their places of origin and destination. The paper responds to the growing interest shown in international literature [on] migration in order to determine the influence of gender identity in the motivations and features of the migration of women, as well as the consequences of spatial mobility on their social conditions and their autonomy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291011

Szasz, I

1994-01-01

317

Historical perspectives and identification of Neisseria and related species.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic Neisseria spp., N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, have been studied extensively and rapid identification procedures have been designed to distinguish these species from the commensal Neisseria and related species that are normal flora of the oro- and nasopharynx. The commensal Neisseria spp. have been largely ignored except for isolated studies. It is important that we know about these species, however, because not only may some be misidentified as pathogenic species if identified with inappropriate procedures, but also they may occasionally be isolated from unusual sites and must be correctly identified to the species level for clinical purposes. PMID:3069201

Knapp, J S

1988-01-01

318

Patients' ethical obligation for their health.  

PubMed Central

In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice. PMID:6502640

Sider, R C; Clements, C D

1984-01-01

319

African ethics and voluntary euthanasia.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the relationship between euthanasia and its ethical norms and practices in a part of West Africa. The various sub-types of euthanasia are described in detail, parallel with the role of African ethical theories in determining their relevance. The author discusses the implications of this approach relative to the social and economic state of African communities. PMID:15532957

Omonzejele, P F

2004-01-01

320

Client involvement in home care practice: a relational sociological perspective.  

PubMed

'Client involvement' has been a mantra within health policies, education curricula and healthcare institutions over many years, yet very little is known about how 'client involvement' is practised in home-care services. The aim of this article is to analyse 'client involvement' in practise seen from the positions of healthcare professionals, an elderly person and his relative in a home-care setting. A sociologically inspired single case study was conducted, consisting of three weeks of observations and interviews. The study has a focus on the relational aspects of home care and the structural, political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: 'Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care'; 'Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life'; 'Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting'; and 'Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life'. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which involvement of the client in public home-care practice remains limited. PMID:23217061

Glasdam, Stinne; Henriksen, Nina; Kjær, Lone; Praestegaard, Jeanette

2013-12-01

321

Children's Lost Voices: Ethical Issues in Relation to Undertaking Collaborative, Practice-Based Projects Involving Schools and the Wider Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing emphasis on teachers as "reflective" and "expert practitioners" has led to a noticeable increase in action research involving a wide range of educational practitioners as well as professionals from the academic community. In the light of the complex demands frequently faced by action researchers, this article examines the ethical

Jones, Marion; Stanley, Grant

2008-01-01

322

Ethics (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

323

Whose crisis is it? A relational psychoanalytic perspective.  

PubMed

Life crises are severe psychological states that may elicit either growth and positive change or harm and limited development in those experiencing them. This article examines various intersubjective elements of crisis states in light of some of the significant theoretical and clinical developments in psychoanalytic thinking. Amongst these is the mutual influence believed to exist between those experiencing a crisis and those in close relational surroundings. It is proposed herein that some of the actions and reactions of those experiencing a crisis are, in fact, enactments expressing the wishes, fantasies, and needs of others around them. An appropriate interpretation of these enactments can relieve the anxiety accompanying the sense of loneliness, strangeness, and exceptionality that so often characterize crisis states. PMID:21043334

Yerushalmi, Hanoch

2010-01-01

324

Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.  

PubMed

Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

2014-08-01

325

Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

Sherry, Patrick

1991-01-01

326

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

327

Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical

N. Khanlou; E. Peter

2005-01-01

328

Ethics at Israeli universities: unlearned lessons from professional ethics.  

PubMed

At the practical level, sustained attention to ethical issues in academia in Israel is inadequate. This paper suggests that professional models of ethics education and training present constructive alternatives. The author views this topic from the dual perspective of a professional clinical psychologist and a committed faculty member. After a brief introduction, the paper opens with a case vignette of ethical violations of trust in academia, its handling, and how a similar case 25 years later illustrates the lack of progress in preparing the academic community for such things. A discussion of normative actions and behavioral norms in academia follows. Three lessons from the professions are offered: 1) the importance of involving members in the process of identifying ethical violations; 2) the value of adopting for academia current practices preparing persons for work in research, (for example the standardization of online modules for training in ethics); and c) the significance of addressing self-interest and its limits. If silence around a code of ethics is being practiced, that silence should be broken. PMID:21528798

Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2011-03-01

329

Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications.  

PubMed

Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Methods Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author's guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal. PMID:25628189

Santos, Lígia Gabrielle Dos; Fonseca, Ana Carolina da Costa E; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

2014-12-01

330

Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.  

PubMed

The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. PMID:24610789

Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

2014-10-01

331

Chapter 10. Perspectives on treatment, alliance and narratives concerning substance use-related dependency.  

PubMed

This article considers different perspectives on the treatment of substance use-related dependency, focusing on the importance of a therapeutic relationship, working alliance, counseling, and the use of narrative methods. The article also discusses some unresolved critical issues concerning the possibilities and limitations of acquiring necessary knowledge about substance use-related dependency when using narrative research methods. The main conclusion is that the therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the client is of crucial importance for a positive outcome of treatment and that narrative methods provide a detailed empirical database for analyses of substance use-related dependency. PMID:24087872

von Braun, Thérèse; Larsson, Sam; Sjöblom, Yvonne

2013-11-01

332

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics  

E-print Network

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies References · Laura Shanner, Prof

Hillen, Thomas

333

Professional Ethics and the Teacher: Towards a General Teaching Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores key ethical and professional issues related to the ethical bias of teaching that must be solved before it is possible to establish a General Teaching Council. The chapters discuss "The Professions in the 1990s"; "What Are Professional Ethics?""The Role of the Professional Community"; "Are Professional Ethics Relevant in the…

Thompson, Meryl

334

Insurance Ethics—From the Inside Looking Out  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to appraise the ethical posture of the insurance industry is complicated by the fact that it is an in separable mixture of business and professional relations, while business ethics and professional ethics are by no means the same. No code of ethics applying to the industry as a whole has been composed, although some groups of insurance prac

Henry K. Duke

1966-01-01

335

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Accountability and Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this third of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Jackie L. Berlandi

2002-01-01

336

Ethics in Perioperative Practice-Commitment to the Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this fourth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Patricia C. Seifert

2002-01-01

337

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this first of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

338

Ethics and Involuntary Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the ethical issues related to involuntary psychiatric treatment, including the conflicts between the principles of beneficence, autonomy, and nonmaleficence with regard to involuntary treatment for the patient's interests versus those of society. Describes moral problems as centering around disagreements regarding the patient's…

Wettstein, Robert M.

1987-01-01

339

Ethics and animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions related to the ethics of research with animals have received little attention, and this is a serious omission. The specialized vocabulary of experimental psychology is an important factor in creating and maintaining current attitudes toward laboratory animals. In most experiments in which pain is inflicted on animals, no significant human need is being met. Also, much of the literature

Alan D. Bowd

1980-01-01

340

Commercial Surrogacy in India: An Ethical Assessment of Existing Legal Scenario from the Perspective of Women’s Autonomy and Reproductive Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the reasons behind the rising popularity of commercial surrogacy in India against the backdrop of the landmark Baby Manji case, and its implications for the existing legal scenario and the debate on reproductive rights. It also highlights some ethical frames that have been applied in the Indian context. These include (a) the liberal feminist principle of women’s

Sreeja Jaiswal

2012-01-01

341

Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.  

PubMed

Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account. PMID:21761243

Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

2013-03-01

342

A transdisciplinary perspective of chronic stress in relation to psychopathology throughout life span development.  

PubMed

The allostatic load (AL) model represents an interdisciplinary approach to comprehensively conceptualize and quantify chronic stress in relation to pathologies throughout the life cycle. This article first reviews the AL model, followed by interactions among early adversity, genetics, environmental toxins, as well as distinctions among sex, gender, and sex hormones as integral antecedents of AL. We next explore perspectives on severe mental illness, dementia, and caregiving as unique human models of AL that merit future investigations in the field of developmental psychopathology. A complimenting transdisciplinary perspective is applied throughout, whereby we argue that the AL model goes beyond traditional stress-disease theories toward the advancement of person-centered research and practice that promote not only physical health but also mental health. PMID:21756430

Juster, Robert-Paul; Bizik, Gustav; Picard, Martin; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Sindi, Shireen; Trepanier, Lyane; Marin, Marie-France; Wan, Nathalie; Sekerovic, Zoran; Lord, Catherine; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Plusquellec, Pierrich; McEwen, Bruce S; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-08-01

343

(Un)ethical behavior in organizations.  

PubMed

This review spotlights research related to ethical and unethical behavior in organizations. It builds on previous reviews and meta-analyses of the literature on (un)ethical behavior in organizations and discusses recent advances in the field. The review emphasizes how this research speaks to the influence of the organizational context on (un)ethical behavior, proceeding from a more macro to a more micro view on (un)ethical behavior and covering ethical infrastructures, interpersonal influences, individual differences, and cognitive and affective processes. The conclusion highlights opportunities for future research. PMID:23834354

Treviño, Linda Klebe; den Nieuwenboer, Niki A; Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J

2014-01-01

344

Consumer ethics: An empirical investigation of factors influencing ethical judgments of the final consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs

Scott J. Vitell; James Muncy

1992-01-01

345

PRIVACY, THE INDIVIDUAL AND GENETIC INFORMATION: A BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTBioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer\\/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data,

SORAJ HONGLADAROM

2009-01-01

346

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments  

E-print Network

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments ajor topicExpert assessments are an area of the CNRS, the French National Centre for Scientific Research, made a formal request to the ethics committee programme on Ethics and Evaluation (see http://www2.cnrs.fr/band/254.htm), the COMETS began its study

van Tiggelen, Bart

347

Ethics Checklist Senate Committee on Ethics  

E-print Network

Ethics Checklist 1 Senate Committee on Ethics in Human Research and Scholarship (SCEHRS) Revised: July 2010 Category `B' Human Ethics Checklist Category B includes all research/scholarship not exempted from ethics review that is NOT about an individual in the public arena or an artist. This Checklist

Martin, Jeff

348

Ethics Checklist Senate Committee on Ethics  

E-print Network

Ethics Checklist 1 Senate Committee on Ethics in Human Research and Scholarship (SCEHRS) Revised: July 2010 Category `A' Human Ethics Checklist Category A includes research/scholarship about a living and for categories of research/scholarship exempted from ethics review, see the SCHERS Policies and Procedures

Martin, Jeff

349

Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

Callender, Craig

350

A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics  

PubMed Central

Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

Agarwal, A. K.

2010-01-01

351

Science and ethics: Some issues for education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-11-01

352

Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

2014-01-01

353

Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1995 under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the Ethics center is designed to provide "engineers, scientists, science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life" or for including ethical problems in their courses. To that end, this site offers an array of resources. In the Research Ethics section, users will find activities, scenarios, case studies, and guides, as well as related links. The Cases section offers an even larger selection of proposed and actual cases along with annotated links. Among the many other offerings at the site are essays on science and engineering ethics, sample ethical codes, corporate setting ethical scenarios, and studies on diversity. Additional resources include conference listings (a bit outdated), a bibliography, a glossary, and an internal search engine.

354

Ethical foundations of knowledge as a commons Seoul -October 8, 2010  

E-print Network

://www.iuwis.de/ Funded by the German Research Community (DFG) #12;7 This talk is not particularly about ethics as a commons 12 Information ethics economics politics knowledge Information markets copyright ethics ethics knowledge Information markets copyright Multidirectional relations for informations ethics #12

Kuhlen, Rainer

355

Perspectives on the ethical concerns and justifications of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing: HIV screening policy changes  

PubMed Central

Background The 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised recommendations for HIV testing in clinical settings contained seven specific changes to how health care facilities should provide HIV testing. These seven elements have been both supported and challenged in the lay and medical literature. Our first paper in BMC Medical Ethics presented an analysis of the three HIV testing procedural changes included in the recommendations. In this paper, we address the four remaining elements that concern HIV screening policy changes: (1) nontargeted HIV screening, (2) making HIV screening similar to screening for other treatable conditions, (3) increasing HIV screening without assured additional funding for linkage to care, and (4) making patients bear the costs of increased HIV screening in health care settings. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the four changes to HIV screening policies. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results Participants commented that nontargeted HIV screening and making HIV screening similar to screening for other treatable medical conditions was ethical when it broadened the scope of people being tested for HIV. However, they believed it was unethical when it did not respect the exceptional nature of HIV and HIV testing. Some participants favored more testing regardless if there was assured additional funding for linkage to care or if patients might bear the costs of testing because they believed that merely alerting patients of their status was beneficial and would lead to positive consequences. Other participants found ethical flaws with testing without assured linkage to care and patients bearing the costs of testing, as this could discriminate against those who could not pay. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are fundamental ethical disagreements that shape views on CDC’s recommended HIV testing policies. Differences remain on whether or not HIV remains an exceptional condition that requires it to be treated differently than other treatable conditions. Disagreement also exists on the responsibilities of health care providers and rights of patients in regards to screening in (1) the absence of assured linkage to care after an HIV diagnosis and (2) paying for the costs of HIV screening. Resolution of these disagreements is needed to serve the common goal of using testing to facilitate medical care for those who are HIV infected and for reducing HIV transmission. PMID:24219238

2013-01-01

356

Throwaway ethic in America  

SciTech Connect

The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.

Busch, J.C.

1983-01-01

357

Eer ethics  

SciTech Connect

Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

Orwant, C.J.

1994-12-31

358

Ethical consideration.  

PubMed

The twofold distinction between interventions into the germ line and interventions into somatic cells on the one hand and between the treatment of diseases and enhancement on the other hand resulted in the concept of somatic gene therapy. There is a nearly unanimous agreement that somatic gene therapy has a high-ranking moral objective and uses methods that extend current techniques for treating diseases in a morally acceptable way. In its experimental phase principles of research ethics as the autonomy and the informed consent of the patient or the test person, a fair selection of test persons and a careful weighing of risks and benefits have to be taken into account and several specific points have to be considered. Experimental somatic gene therapy requires a positive vote of a competent and independent ethics committee. PMID:21590407

Fuchs, Michael

2011-01-01

359

American Association for the Advancement of Science Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion: Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) provides this Website offering "resources on the scientific content of evolutionary theory and its place in education; historical, philosophical, legal and religious perspectives on evolution; and commentary on current issues" (including the AAAS Board Statement on the Kansas State Board of Education decision). The site is organized into seven main sections: Current Issues, Educational Resources, Scientific Resources, Perspectives, Court Cases (including the "Balanced Treatment" Law), Historical Documents (by Darwin), and Epic of Evolution (essays from a forthcoming volume). Documents at the site reflect current thinking by the leading scholars in the field of evolution and provide historical context for evaluating current thinking. A careful collection of related links augments each section. For further information, see the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) homepage.

360

Embracing Excellence: A Positive Approach to Ethical Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics courses may provoke fear and uncertainty in art therapy students and practitioners if taught from a risk management perspective, which focuses on reducing therapist exposure to risk and avoiding harm to clients. In contrast, a positive ethical approach fosters empowerment, embraces limits, and enhances trust between art therapists and their…

Hinz, Lisa D.

2011-01-01

361

The ethical dimensions of curriculum leadership in Scandinavian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Schooling is a significant tool for fostering future generations, which, in turn, implies that the curriculum is an ethical document. It mirrors the society's notion of what is valuable, useful and necessary from a societal and individual perspective. The purpose of this paper is to address the Scandinavian curricula's ethical framework, which is negotiated by school leaders and

Katarina Norberg; Olof Johansson

2010-01-01

362

Examining the Crossroads of Law, Ethics, and Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…

Bon, Susan C.

2012-01-01

363

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

364

The influence of firm behavior on purchase intention: do consumers really care about business ethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posits that although behaving “ethically” should be important for its own sake, whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically may also have a significant influence on consumers’ purchase decisions. Examines the issue of unethical corporate behavior from the perspective of consumers. Addresses several questions. First, what are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethicality of corporate behavior? Second, is whether a firm

Elizabeth H. Creyer

1997-01-01

365

Knowledge of ethics, perceived ethical problems and ethical judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to investigate: the influence of knowledge of ethics (KOE) on auditors' perceived ethical problems (PEB); the influence of PEB on ethical judgments (EJ); and the mediating impact of PEB that mediate the relationship between KOE and EJ. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 940 questionnaires were distributed to auditors of audit firms in Malaysia and 250

Maheran Zakaria; Hasnah Haron; Ishak Ismail

2010-01-01

366

The Ethics Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.

367

Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities  

E-print Network

BEMH Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration Stanford University School? The Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration is part of the new initiative at Stanford interactions, neonatology, issues of limited resources, ethics of medical advances, informed consent issues

Ford, James

368

Ethics in perioperative practice--duty to foster an ethical environment.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the sixth statement, which emphasizes the nurse's duty to promote a working environment that enhances quality patient care and fosters the values and behaviors that form the foundation of ethical practice. PMID:12227291

Seifert, Patricia C

2002-09-01

369

Personality and racial/ethnic relations: a perspective from Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory.  

PubMed

The five articles in this special section examine personality and racial/ethnic relations from the perspective of Mischel and Shoda's Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Theory. In this introductory piece, we first provide a primer on CAPS theory. In particular, we try to highlight the role that context plays in the construction and manifestation of personality as well as the dynamic ways that people interpret and react to input from their environment. We then review research on race-based rejection sensitivity as a programmatic illustration of the role expectancies play in racial/ethnic relations. Finally, we summarize and tie together the articles that comprise this section via a set of emergent themes that are common to the present contributions. PMID:19686458

Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Goldman-Flythe, Michelle

2009-10-01

370

The Evolving Face of Ethics in Technical and Professional Communication: Challenger to Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our view of ethics in professional and technical communication has evolved, paralleling developments throughout society. Earlier views on ethics and values have grown into a broad perspective of complex gradations with people at many levels affecting eventual practical outcomes. This newer perspective includes not only persons but social forces and organizations. The organizational culture of NASA, for example, was specifically

Paul M. Dombrowski

2007-01-01

371

Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.  

PubMed

While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking. PMID:24786355

Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

2014-07-01

372

Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.  

PubMed

The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family. PMID:22218080

Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

2008-10-01

373

Risk Communication and Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to discuss the relation between risk communication and engineering ethics. While public safety has been regarded as the paramount issue in engineering ethics, the importance of risk communication in assuring public safety has been overlooked. As for the problems with risk information, the literature of engineering ethics has discussed them in mainly terms of informed consent. However, the concept of informed consent is not applicable to engineering, for it presupposes a face-to-face relationship between the sender and the receiver of risk information. In this paper I would like to argue that the concept of risk communication should be introduced into engineering ethics, and I also wish to characterize the features of a form of risk communication suitable for engineering.

Ishihara, Kohji

374

Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. PMID:20193964

Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

2010-11-01

375

Intersectional perspectives on family involvement in nursing home care: rethinking relatives' position as a betweenship.  

PubMed

This study seeks to understand, in the context of intersectional theory, the roles of family members in nursing home care. The unique social locus at which each person sits is the result of the intersection of gender, status, ethnicity and class; it is situational, shifting with the context of every encounter. A content analysis of 15 qualitative interviews with relatives of nursing home residents in Sweden was used to gain a perspective on the relationships between relatives and residents, relatives and the nursing home as an institution, and relatives and the nursing home staff. We sought to understand these relationships in terms of gendered notions of the family and the residents, which are handed down from generation to generation and thus condition who and how relatives should be involved in care, and the ways in which relationships change as care moves from home to nursing home. It requires knowledge and awareness that the nursing home culture is based on intersectional power structures in order for relatives to be involved in nursing home care in alternative and individual ways. PMID:23875545

Holmgren, Jessica; Emami, Azita; Eriksson, Lars E; Eriksson, Henrik

2014-09-01

376

Ethical Aspects of Information Security and Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches\\u000a to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance\\u000a of computer security, the relation between computer security and national security, the morality of hacking and computer crime,\\u000a the nature of cyberterrorism and information

Philip Brey

377

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

378

A Philosophical Perspective on the Relation between Cortical Midline Structures and the Self  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been increasing evidence that an area in the brain called the cortical midline structures (CMSs) is implicated in what has been termed self-related processing. This article will discuss recent evidence for the relation between CMS and self-consciousness in light of several important philosophical distinctions. First, we should distinguish between being a self (i.e., being a subject of conscious experience) and being aware of being a self (i.e., being able to think about oneself as such). While the former consists in having a first-person perspective on the world, the latter requires the ability to explicitly represent one’s own perspective as such. Further, we should distinguish between being aware of oneself “as subject” and being aware of oneself “as object.” The focus of existing studies investigating the relation between CMS and self has been predominantly on the ability to think about oneself (and in particular thinking of oneself “as object”), while the more basic aspects involved in being a self have been neglected. However, it is important to widen the scope of the cognitive neuroscience to include the latter, not least because this might have important implications for a better understanding of disorders of the self, such as those involved in schizophrenia. In order to do so, cognitive neuroscience should work together with philosophy, including phenomenology. Second, we need to distinguish between personal and subpersonal level explanations. It will be argued that although it is important to respect this distinction, in principle, some subpersonal facts can enter into constitutive conditions of personal-level phenomena. However, in order for this to be possible, one needs both careful conceptual analysis and knowledge about relevant cognitive mechanisms. PMID:24032013

Musholt, Kristina

2013-01-01

379

Fair shares: a preliminary framework and case analyzing the ethics of offshoring.  

PubMed

Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that "in the long run" that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its "rightness" or "wrongness?" Little analysis of the ethics of offshoring has been completed thus far. This paper develops a preliminary framework for analyzing the ethics of offshoring and then applies this framework to basic case study of offshoring in the U.S. The paper following discusses the definition of offshoring; shifts to the basic philosophical grounding of the ethical concepts; develops a template for conducting an ethics analysis of offshoring; applies this template using basic data for offshoring in the United States; and conducts a preliminary ethical analysis of the phenomenon in that country, using a form of utilitarianism as an analytical baseline. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research. PMID:19629753

Gordon, Cameron; Zimmerman, Alan

2010-06-01

380

A mobile user-interface for elderly care from the perspective of relatives.  

PubMed

As the number of elderly people rises, relatives' care-taking responsibilities increase accordingly. This creates a need for developing new systems that enable relatives to keep track of aged family members. To develop new mobile services for elderly healthcare we tried to identify the most wanted features of a mobile user-interface from the perspective of relatives. Feature mapping was based on two online surveys: one administered to the relatives (N?=?32) and nurses (N?=?3) of senior citizens and the other to nursing students (N?=?18). Results of the surveys, confirmed by face-to-face interviews of the relatives (N?=?8), indicated that the most valued features of the mobile user-interface are Accident Reporting (e.g. falling), Alarms (e.g. fire-alarm), Doctor Visits and evaluation of the General Condition of the Senior. The averaged importance ratings of these features were 9.2, 9.0, 8.6 and 8.5, respectively (on a scale from 0 to 10). Other important considerations for the user-interface development are aspiration to simplicity and ease-of-use. We recommend that the results are taken into account, when designing and implementing mobile services for elderly healthcare. PMID:25418754

Warpenius, Erika; Alasaarela, Esko; Sorvoja, Hannu; Kinnunen, Matti

2015-03-01

381

Ethical and Spiritual Values in Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a compilation of articles previously published in the journal "Counseling and Values." The follwing articles are included: (1) "Ethics and Spirituality: The Prevailing Forces Influencing the Counseling Profession" (Judith Miranti, Mary Thomas Burke); (2) "Three Contributions of a Spiritual Perspective to Counseling,…

Burke, Mary Thomas, Ed.; Miranti, Judith G., Ed.

382

Research with Children: Methodological and Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methodological and ethical challenges that researchers face when they conduct research with children are the focus of this article. The discussion is based on a study conducted with 2-6-year-old children in Iceland, where the purpose was to shed light on children's perspectives on their early childhood settings. The study is built on the…

Einarsdottir, Johanna

2007-01-01

383

American Legal Ethics Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute site (LII), the American Legal Ethics Library contains rules or codes, ethics opinions, judicial conduct codes, legal commentaries, and other materials relating to the law governing lawyers. Codes or rules are available for most of the nation's 50 states. Currently, the site also offers eleven commentaries on the "law of lawyering" for eleven different jurisdictions, written by legal scholars and major law firms in each jurisdiction's area. Another twelve narratives are in progress, including one for the European community. Accessible by topic or jurisdiction, the information is also available on CD-ROM. The hypertext format makes it easy to link from commentaries to relevant codes and rules. Roger C. Cramton, the Robert S. Stevens Professor of Law at Cornell, directs the project.

384

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, Religion & Ethics Newsweekly has been a PBS fixture since September 1997. The program takes on the important subjects of religion and ethics in a manner that is rather engaging, and the same can be said of their very fine website. Users can listen to the entire weekly show in its entirety, or download it and take it with them on their personal audio device. Educators will want to take a look at the "For Educators" area, which features a number of lesson plans and teaching tips designed to be used in conjunction with segments from the program and related websites. Finally, visitors can also search the contents of the site via a handy search engine that sits at the right-hand corner of every page.

385

Controversies in nursing ethics: a historical review.  

PubMed

The author critiques the dialectic between justice-based ethics and an ethic of caring from a historical perspective (by analogy with the dialectic between agape and friendship). Justice-based ethics have been problematic for nursing because of the decontextualized approach. The ethic of caring is problematic because caring, being contextual, is particularistic and therefore can be based on morally irrelevant factors, such as liking. There is a tradition of writing which seeks to reconcile the particularistic obligations of friendship with the moral duty to all others equally. Ideas from the following authors are reviewed for relevance to nursing: Aristotle, Aelred of Rievaulx, Augustine, John Cassian, Cicero, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, Michel de Montaigne, Jeremy Taylor and Max Weber. The authors concludes by noting that both sides of the dialectic are synthesized in the lived experience of individuals. A synthesis in thought is called for on this basis. PMID:1401542

Olsen, D P

1992-09-01

386

The unique ethics of sports medicine.  

PubMed

The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices. PMID:15183565

Johnson, Rob

2004-04-01

387

Ethical beliefs related to HIV and AIDS among nursing students in South Africa and the United States: A cross-sectional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe ethical issues associated with HIV and AIDS are challenging and complex because of beliefs about HIV and AIDS, stigma surrounding the epidemic, lack of knowledge, and fear. Both South Africa and the United States have a nursing code of ethics which endorses a nurse's responsibility to maintain a patient's right to confidentiality, involvement in decision-making, autonomy, and informed consent.

Michael V. Relf; Katherine Laverriere; Caitlin Devlin; Theresa Salerno

2009-01-01

388

Some important factors underlying ethical decisions of Middle-Eastern marketers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the marketing ethics decision-making process of Middle-Eastern marketers. In particular, it examines the relative influences of ethical perceptions, perceived importance of ethics, and age on ethical intentions of marketers in the Middle East. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection technique for this study. Perception of ethical problem and ethical intention were operationalized by means

Janet K. Mullin Marta; Anusorn Singhapakdi; Ashraf Attia; Scott J. Vitell

2004-01-01

389

An Ethics Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

2008-01-01

390

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy  

E-print Network

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

Kasman, Alex

391

Certificate Ethics Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Ethics Certificate Program Passion Purpose Rigor #12;#12;Ethics Certificate Program From, the Ethics Certificate provides you with the skills and confidence you need to create and evaluate solutions to ethical dilemmas. Does a government have the right to insist on another government's adherence to human

Zhou, Pei

392

Seamless Integration of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

Beggs, Jeri Mullins

2011-01-01

393

Ethical doings in naturecultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

What new forms of ethical engagement are emerging in naturecultural worlds? In this paper I explore the example of the practical ethics of the permaculture movement. I put these in dialogue first with new approaches to ethics in biopolitics and naturecultures and second with a reading of feminist care ethics. Across this discussion I focus on the potential of ethos

María Puig de la Bellacasa

2010-01-01

394

Putting Law into Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

395

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

396

[Ethics in committees].  

PubMed

The management of techno-scientific and multicultural societies, open and evolving, can neither be conceived nor carried out on the basis of fundamentalist, essentialist rules that are characteristic of closed, immobile societies. Within a global civilisation, fundamentalisms are only acceptable as individual or community beliefs. Against the background of our civilisation on the chaotic road to globalisation described here, what are the methodological rules for bioethics committees? A first rule concerns the composition of the committees: it must be multidisciplinary and pluralist. The second rule concerns the distinction of types, which is less evident at a time which cultivates postmodernism. The "types" which absolutely must be distinguished are: science, ethics, morals, law, politics. The third rule concerns the concluding procedures. A majority vote procedure after information and limited discussion makes it possible to conclude easily and rapidly. But it generally seems not to be very ethical, especially if it does not allow minorities to have their divergent opinions appear among the conclusions in an explicit argued manner. The "lazy dissensus" must, however also be avoided: it consists in not really engaging the interdisciplinary, pluralist discussion, simply exposing and explaining each position, on the pretext that pluralism is respecting diversity, the freedom to believe, to think and to express oneself either each for himself or in the name of one's community or tradition. This sort of "postmodern" methodology, individualistic and communitarian to an extreme, is precariously balanced in relation to the committee's ethical vocation. It is therefore very important that an ethics committee really engages in discussion and expresses, let's say, a preference for consensus. This preference is the expression of its "ethical" nature: in this word (as in the word "moral", in fact), there is a reference to what is common, to what unites and makes social life possible. The aim of consensus, the idea that it is better to get on than to ignore each other or oppose each other; is methodologically prevalent in ethics. But on the express condition that the agreement is freely and consciously accepted. The symmetrical danger to that of "lazy dissensus" which loses sight of the aim of agreement, is "forced consensus". Pragmatic consensuses are extremely precious and even indispensable in our complex societies if we want to set up common operating rules while preserving the freedom to think and the diversity of beliefs. They also ensure that it is possible to re-open the debate: a pragmatic agreement is on a different scale from an essentialist dogma or a fundamentalist norm, which try to regulate not only behaviour but also thought. PMID:17902575

Hottois, Gilbert

2007-01-01

397

Understanding the Complexity of Catch-and-Release in Recreational Fishing: An Integrative Synthesis of Global Knowledge from Historical, Ethical, Social, and Biological Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on catch-and-release (C&R) in recreational fishing has been conducted from a disciplinary angle focusing on the biological sciences and the study of hooking mortality after release. This hampers understanding of the complex and multifaceted nature of C&R. In the present synopsis, we develop an integrative perspective on C&R by drawing on historical, philosophical, socio-psychological, biological, and managerial insights

Robert Arlinghaus; Steven J. Cooke; Jon Lyman; David Policansky; Alexander Schwab; Cory Suski; Stephen G. Sutton; Eva B. Thorstad

2007-01-01

398

Safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in developing countries: the case of Uganda.  

PubMed

The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women's participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries. PMID:23178827

Baguma, David; Hashim, Jamal H; Aljunid, Syed M; Loiskandl, Willibald

2013-01-01

399

The impact of chronic pain: The perspective of patients, relatives, and caregivers.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of chronic pain on the family environment from the patient's, relative's and caregiver's perspective, we undertook cross-sectional study on a representative sample of Spanish adults who suffered pain at least 4 days a week for ?3 months and on relatives and caregivers of patients that fulfilled these criteria. The characteristics of pain and the perception of its impact on the family environment were assessed, using logistic regression models to reveal the variables associated with the impact of pain on the family. From a total of 1,957 subjects, 325 experienced chronic pain and 34.6% of them perceived that their pain affected their family environment. These patients recognized a stronger impact when their relatives were sad (OR = 3.61; CI:1.57, 8.27) and had modified the leisure activities because of the pain (OR = 3.62; CI:1.56, 8.38). Among the 131 relatives, 51.2% perceived that pain was affecting the family, causing changes in their leisure activities (OR = 1.17; CI:1.04, 9.94) and sleep disturbance (OR = 1.40; CI:1.32, 12.58). Of the 36 caregivers, mainly women over 50 years of age, 66.7% indicated that pain affected the family, although 72.8% were satisfied with the help they provided. Chronic pain has a very strong impact on the family, although this is perceived distinctly by patients, relatives, and caregivers. Recognizing that factors related to pain affect the family's well-being, and adopting a global approach to pain that takes into consideration the family's experiences, should improve the therapeutic response, and enhance the patient's and relative's quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25000222

Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Dueñas, María; Torres, Luís Miguel; Micó, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

2014-12-01

400

Virtue and the Scientist: Using Virtue Ethics to Examine Science's Ethical and Moral Challenges.  

PubMed

As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronêsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronêsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronêsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronêsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses. PMID:24497005

Chen, Jiin-Yu

2015-02-01

401

Can't we all just get along: Cultural variables in codes of ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues in the practice of public relations become increasingly complex when international borders are crossed. Differences in what “counts” as public relations as well as what “counts” as ethical practice abound. Rather than taking the position that a specific, “objective” code of ethics can be developed or arguing that cultural diversity makes ethical standards impossible, this paper argues that

Nancy L. Roth; Todd Hunt; Maria Stavropoulos; Karen Babik

1996-01-01

402

Ethics in prion disease.  

PubMed

This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind et al., 2010a; Paterson et al., 2012b), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D

2013-11-01

403

Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

Price, David W.

1997-01-01

404

Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

Goodyear, Leslie

2012-01-01

405

Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

Stahl, Bernd Carsten

2011-01-01

406

[Open questions in neurotransplantation. Attempted at an unbiased ethical analysis].  

PubMed

Neurotransplantation utilizing fetal (embryonic) tissue for treating Morbus Parkinson is a matter of ethical debate, among professionals as well as the public at large. Here, we take a systematic approach to the questions raised to facilitate an unbiased ethical analysis and to attempt adequate answers. Possible functions of ethics in medicine, principles of ethical reflexion in medicine and perspectives of ethical reflexion are differentiated resp. combined. Relevant areas of ethical conflict may thus be identified separating at the same time the context of explantation from that of implantation. Taking as our starting point a systematic discussion of the various open questions, we put forward 5 conclusions. These should help clarify under which conditions the therapy model of neurotransplantation will be admissible. PMID:8571696

Reiter-Theil, S

1995-01-01

407

The Protestant Ethic as a personality variable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a scale comprised of items selected on the basis of a series of factor analyses and a battery of personality measures to 117 undergraduates in an effort to explore the psychological meaning of the protestant ethic. Scores on the Protestant Ethic Scale were positively related to the Mosher scales for Sex Guilt and Morality Conscience Guilt but were unrelated

Herbert L. Mirels; James B. Garrett

1971-01-01

408

Concerns of college students regarding business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some attention has been devoted to assessing the attitudes and concerns of businesspeople toward ethics, relatively little attention has focused on the attitudes and concerns of tomorrow's business leaders, today's college students. In this investigation a national sample was utilized to study college students' attitudes toward business ethics, with the results being analyzed by academic classification, academic major, and

Richard F. Beltramini; Robert A. Peterson; George Kozmetsky

1984-01-01

409

Teaching Business IT Ethics: A Professional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In UK higher education a primary aim of business IT-related qualifications is the preparation of students for a relevant career. In this article we discuss an approach to teaching business IT ethics in a university context that prepares students for the ethical problems that they may meet in their future IT careers, and we demonstrate how this…

Taylor, Mark; Moynihan, Eddie; McWilliam, Jennie; Gresty, David

2004-01-01

410

Focus: current issues in medical ethics  

PubMed Central

The authors, both child psychiatrists, discuss some of the ethical problems that arise in their practice, in relation to advice given in the British Medical Association's Handbook of Medical Ethics. They find that the main problems occur when multidisciplinary cooperation is needed. Their concern about confidentiality is shared in the papers by Kenny, Pheby and their commentators, which follow this one. PMID:7069737

Black, Dora; Subotsky, Fiona

1982-01-01

411

Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

1986-01-01

412

Using Art in Counseling: Ethical Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various mental-health professionals use drawings and other art in therapy, but relatively little has been written on the ethics surrounding this technique. Should artwork be viewed as equivalent to verbal communication? A variety of ethical issues including confidentiality, documentation, ownership, research, publication, and display of work are…

Hammond, Lynn C.; Gantt, Linda

1998-01-01

413

Ethical Issues in Advanced Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical issues related to the possible future creation of machines with general intellectual capabilities far outstripping those of humans are quite distinct from any ethical problems arising in current automation and information systems. Such superintelligence would not be just another technological development; it would be the most important invention ever made, and would lead to explosive progress in all

Nick Bostrom

414

The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

Bridger, James A.

1977-01-01

415

Teachers' Ethical Responsibilities in a Diverse Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that learning to teach cannot be separated from learning to inquire, I argue that teachers have specific relational and ethical responsibilities to their students, particularly in the context of a diverse society. Using my research experiences with Aboriginal people as examples, I propose an ethical framework based upon four underlying…

Piquemal, Nathalie

2004-01-01

416

Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

Glennen, Robert E.

417

The Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold  

E-print Network

no ethic dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it. Land, likeThe Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold 1949 [ This essay is excerpted from Aldo Leopold's book A Sand a process in ecological evolution. Its sequences may be described in ecological as well as well

Harms, Kyle E.

418

Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

419

The Relation between School Leadership from a Distributed Perspective and Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Source of the Leadership Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study the relationship between school leadership and teachers' organizational commitment is examined by taking into account a distributed leadership perspective. The relation between teachers' organizational commitment and contextual variables of teachers' perceptions of the quality and the source of the supportive and supervisory…

Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

2011-01-01

420

Ethics and Participatory Water Planning K.A. Daniell1  

E-print Network

Ethics and Participatory Water Planning K.A. Daniell1 , I. White2 and D. Rollin3 1 Centre attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

PROCEDURES FOR THE ETHICAL REVIEW OF RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN PARTICIPANTS  

E-print Network

PROCEDURES FOR THE ETHICAL REVIEW OF RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN PARTICIPANTS As per Policy for the Ethical Review of Research Involving Human Participants (VPRGS-3) These Procedures are related to the Policy for the Ethical Review of Research Involving Human Participants (VPRGS-3) and reflect current

Doedel, Eusebius

422

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

American Psychologist, 2002

2002-01-01

423

Exploring Ethical Implications for Acting Faithfully in Professional Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obligation to act faithfully poses ethical issues as nurses live nursing from day to day. In this column, the ethics of acting faithfully is explored in relation to four scenarios drawn from different realms of professional nursing. The scenarios illustrate ethical issues that may arise when attempting to uphold personal integrity and fulfill one's duty to act faithfully. The

F. Beryl Pilkington

2004-01-01

424

Ethics in Classroom Assessment Practices: Issues and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from a web-based survey…

Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.

2007-01-01

425

The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study. PMID:23388345

2013-01-01

426

Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics.  

PubMed

The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care. PMID:24609755

Barina, Rachelle

2014-12-01

427

Ethical Ideologies of Senior Australian Managers: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forsyth’s (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire and Hunt et al.’s (1989) Corporate Ethical Value Questionnaire are used to\\u000a examine the ethical ideologies of senior managers from organizations listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. The results\\u000a indicate how corporate ethical values, religion, gender, and age are related to the idealism and relativism of senior Australian\\u000a managers. After discussing the results, limitations of the

Mario Fernando; Shyamali Dharmage; Shamika Almeida

2008-01-01

428

Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.  

PubMed

From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing. PMID:17036422

Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

2006-01-01

429

Towards an ethics of authentic practice.  

PubMed

This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities. PMID:19018894

Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Geneviève

2008-10-01

430

An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educational reform programs, including No Child Left Behind, operate from the perspective that gaps in academic achievement can be reduced by improvements in the educational process directed by school administrators and teachers. This perspective ignores the ecological context in which underachieving schools are typically embedded. Using a…

Whipple, Sara Sepanski; Evans, Gary W.; Barry, Rachel L.; Maxwell, Lorraine E.

2010-01-01

431

Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?  

PubMed

This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471

Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

2015-02-01

432

UNESCO REPORT 2010 Engineering Ethics  

E-print Network

UNESCO REPORT 2010 Engineering Ethics Christelle DIDIER, Ethics Department, Catholic university of Lille, France Introduction Ethical reflections applied to engineering are a lot more recent than to other professional activities. Nevertheless, there is a subject called "engineering ethics". Established

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Engineering Ethical Decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage showcases a series of engineering ethical decision classes. Manufacturing students and instructors would find the following class and assignment of particular interest: The final class in the breadth sequence, Manufacturing Ergonomics, Safety, and Health (MESH) is different from the courses discussed to this point, in that it has a smaller audience and does not use case studies in the same manner as the other courses. MESH is a course for Manufacturing Engineering Technology majors, although it is sometimes taken by other students as an elective; it is both smaller and more focused toward a specific field. Ethics, starting with both the NSPE and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) codes of ethics, represent one of the justifications for implementing ergonomic and safety programs in manufacturing facilities. As such, the course starts with a discussion of the basis for implementing ergonomic and safety programs, including ethics, and then these ideas remain underlying concepts throughout the course. Case studies with direct ethical implications are not used consistently in the course as examples, but students are required to complete an accident summary and analysis as one of their assignments. As part of the analysis in this assignment, students are asked to assess behavior relative to both Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) codes and acceptable professional behavior, if engineers were involved in or responsible for the accident. Based on their comments, this assignment makes a strong impression on many students, especially concerning the disregard that some people have for the safety of themselves or their co-workers. Although this topic has been addressed before, the case study approach is interesting, and includes very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. It is highly adoptable for many different courses at many different levels. Case studies can be isolated and adopted. There is also plenty of pedagogical supporting information that faculty may find interesting and useful. Reviewer Comments: This resource is of high quality and current. The case study approach is interesting, and has very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. Case Studies can be isolated and adopted. Faculty may find the pedagogical supporting information interesting and useful. There are some dead links on the website.

Newcomer, Jeff

2009-08-04

434

[Governance and measures for the ethical and social aspects of biobanks].  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of measures regarding the ethical and social aspects of biobanks from the perspective of governance. A Biobanks is a system that manages samples taken from humans along with data of the sample donor(genetic information, information on medical records, information on lifestyle habits, etc.)in a centralized manner according to a set quality standard. In recent years, biobanks have become an essential research infrastructure, especiallyin the field of genome medical research and research concerning common diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Simultaneously, this indicates that biobanks are strongly linked to the realization of benefits that are highly public. For this reason, biobanks need to consider not only the promotion of medical research, but must also practice consideration for the ethical, social, and public aspects. In other words, biobanks need to be subject to governance. In this paper, three specific issues concerning the ethical and social aspects of biobank have been discussed: (i)issues regarding boroad or future consent, (ii)risks related to the handling of samples and data, and (iii) feedback on incidental findings. These are issues that accompany rapid advances in genome medicine and involve complex elements that cannot be completely resolved by the existing principles of life ethics and rules. For this reason, the parties managing biobanks are required to make an effort toward realizing an ethically and socially feasible operation of the biobank, with consideration paid not only to compliance but also to the reaction of research participants and society. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to establish a system of governance that enables organizational management with the wide perspective discussed here. PMID:22504670

Iwae, Sosuke; Masui, Tohru

2012-04-01

435

Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years  

PubMed Central

In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

Tiberius, Richard G.

1979-01-01

436

Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.  

PubMed

I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2008-10-01

437

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

438

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods  

E-print Network

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

439

Becoming the Denigrated Other: Group Relations Perspectives on Initial Reactions to a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one) and alcoholism (one). All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.” PMID:23049521

Goldberg, Susan G.

2012-01-01

440

Death competence: an ethical imperative.  

PubMed

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death competence evolved. Using the vehicle of a case study, the authors analyzed an example of empathic failure resulting from an apparent lack of death competence on the part of a mental health provider to illustrate the importance of this characteristic in delivering clinically effective and ethically sensitive grief counseling. PMID:24567993

Gamino, Louis A; Ritter, R Hal

2012-01-01

441

OHIO ETHICS COMMISSION Sarah M. Brown, Chairman 8 East Long Street, 10th  

E-print Network

OHIO ETHICS COMMISSION Sarah M. Brown, Chairman 8 East Long Street, 10th Floor Robert Browning, Executive Director Web site: www.ethics.ohio.gov Serving Ohio Since 1974 RESTRICTIONS ON NEPOTISM OR HIRING FAMILY MEMBERS: Ethics Commission Information Sheet # 1 I. Introduction The Ohio Ethics Law and related

Moore, Paul A.

442

Does believing that everyone else is less ethical have an impact on work behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers consistently report that individuals see themselves acting far more ethically than comparable others when confronted with ethically uncertain work-related behaviors. They suggest that this belief encourages unethical conduct and contributes to the degeneration of business ethics; however, they have not specifically investigated the consequences of this belief. If undesirable work behaviors actually do occur, educators and other ethics advocates

Thomas Tyson

1992-01-01

443

Undergraduate Student Ethics Outcomes 4/28/14 draft developed by the CSM Assessment Committee  

E-print Network

will apply the NSPE Code of Ethics to ethical situations that involve engineers, their clientsUndergraduate Student Ethics Outcomes 4/28/14 draft developed by the CSM Assessment Committee departments have struggled to develop meaning strategies to assess ethics (particularly in relation

444

8 Professional Ethics We have come through a strange cycle in programming, starting with the creation  

E-print Network

a code of ethics for an important computer-related discipline: software engineering. Our analysis leads the opportunity to use the software engineering code of ethics as a tool for ethical analysis. Finally, we discussCHAPTER 8 Professional Ethics We have come through a strange cycle in programming, starting

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

445

Ethics and the Marketing of Technology for Training and Performance Improvement: A Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary is intended to start a conversation on ethical behavior in the marketing of our work, with a special focus on the issues that arise when marketing technology and related services. The general literature on marketing ethics suggests that marketers have more relaxed ethical values than the general public. Therefore, ethics should be…

Carliner, Saul

2003-01-01

446

Ethically justified guidelines for defining sexual boundaries between obstetrician-gynecologists and their patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This article proposes ethically justified guidelines that should govern the ethical obligations of obstetrician-gynecologists when they experience sexual feelings toward patients. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed literature on physician-patient sexual contact and related that literature to ethical principles. RESULTS: Existing guidelines that prohibit sexual contact between physicians and patients are based on an ethical argument that such relationships violate the

Laurence B. McCullough; Frank A. Chervenak; John H. Coverdale

1996-01-01

447

Ethics for Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

Jaques, Elliott

2003-01-01

448

The ethics of sin taxes.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional. PMID:21198817

Green, Rebecca

2011-01-01

449

Case study in psychobiographical ethics.  

PubMed

This article addresses ethical issues relative to the conduct and reporting of psychobiographical research. The author's recent psychobiographical study of World Chess Champion Bobby Fischer (1943-2008) is used to illustrate particular ethical challenges and responses in six areas: (1) institutional review board (IRB) evaluation and informed consent; (2) balancing objective research with respect for psychobiographical subject; (3) inviting subject or next-of-kin to read and comment on working drafts of psychobiography; (4) reporting never-before-revealed sensitive information on a subject; (5) role of interdisciplinary consultation in conducting psychobiography; and (6) the value and cautions of including psychological diagnoses as part of the psychological profile. A "bill of rights and responsibilities" for the psychobiographer is introduced as a stimulus for ongoing discussion and empirical research on ethical practice in psychobiography. PMID:24169418

Ponterotto, Joseph G

2013-10-01

450

Culture, Ethics, Scripts, and Gifts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses gift-giving patterns in different cultures, particularly in relation to teacher-student interactions in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Situations in which gift-giving can raise ethical questions and how to teach culturally diverse students about this issue are highlighted. Script theory provides a theoretical basis for…

Messerschmitt, Dorothy; Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Vandrick, Stephanie

1997-01-01

451

Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

2012-01-01

452

Ethics in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning environments require policies balancing different expectations of participants and considering how the users perceive ethics during online learning. As in the case of face-to-face classes; learners must show respect and tolerance among each other, and conduct civil relations and interaction based on pre-determined rules. Starting with a…

Toprak, Elif; Ozkanal, Berrin; Aydin, Sinan; Kaya, Secil

2010-01-01

453

Giftedness and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2012-01-01

454

Nurses’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures  

PubMed Central

Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents’ ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as “balancing on a tightrope” in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

2014-01-01

455

Nurses' perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures.  

PubMed

Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents' ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as "balancing on a tightrope" in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

2014-01-01

456

The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

2014-01-01

457

Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.  

PubMed

Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

2013-05-01

458

[Considering body ethics in the healthcare profession].  

PubMed

This article uses the theory of body phenomenology and Watson's caring theory to develop and apply body ethics to the clinical healthcare profession. This attempt is meant to facilitate deep, humanistic experiences for healthcare personnel. The analysis of body phenomenology reveals that the soul is banished from her familiar and comfortable "at-home" status when illness and pain invade the body. In such situations, the body becomes an external object that is self-alienated. This experience induces experiences such as solitude and violence. However, it also holds the potential to expose the original morality of the body. Additionally, this article discusses popular tools used in clinical ethics such as principalism and virtual-based ethics, which are based on moral reasoning and moral feeling. In contrast to these, body ethics seek a more profound and humble level of sensibility that is able to implant authenticity into the ethics. Finally, we offer some suggestions related to Watson's caring theory. PMID:25271027

Wang, Shin-Yun

2014-10-01

459

Making Ethics Come Alive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

McQueeney, Edward

2006-01-01

460

Student Research and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical codes of practice have largely ignored student project work, although there has been some discussion that it ought to be treated as a special case and handled by less stringent ethical review. However, if ethical review is about safeguarding the interests and rights of those who volunteer to participate, then there can be no case for…

Foot, Hugh C.

2006-01-01

461

GIS and Ethics Undergraduate  

E-print Network

#12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom ...research shows that the Canadian polar bear"p://pbsg.npolar.no/en/status/statustable.html USGS:Polar_Bear_Habitat.png #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Context of Ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

462

Designing an Ethics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

463

ETHICS AND DRUG RESISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis paper reviews the dynamics behind, and ethical issues associated with, the phenomenon of drug resistance. Drug resistance is an important ethical issue partly because of the severe consequences likely to result from the increase in drug resistant pathogens if more is not done to control them. Drug resistance is also an ethical issue because, rather than being a mere

MICHAEL J. SELGELID

2007-01-01

464

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)

2003-02-01

465

Evaluating institutional capacity for research ethics in Africa: a case study from Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in the volume of research conducted in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), has brought a renewed international focus on processes for ethical conduct of research. Several programs have been initiated to strengthen the capacity for research ethics in LMIC. However, most such programs focus on individual training or development of ethics review committees. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to institutional capacity assessment in research ethics and application of this approach in the form of a case study from an institution in Africa. Methods We adapted the Octagon model originally used by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency to assess an organization along eight domains in research ethics: basic values and identity; structure and organization; ability to carry out activities; relevance of activities to stated goals; capacity of staff and management; administrative, financing and accounting systems; its relations with target groups; and the national context. We used a mixed methods approach to collect empirical data at the University of Botswana from March to December 2010. Results The overall shape of the external evaluation Octagon suggests that strengths of the University of Botswana are in the areas of structure, relevance, production and identity; while the university still needs more work in the areas of systems of finance, target groups, and environment. The Octagons also show the similarities and discrepancies between the 'external' and 'internal' evaluations and provide an opportunity for exploration of these different assessments. For example, the discrepant score for 'identity' between internal and external evaluations allows for an exploration of what constitutes a strong identity for research ethics at the University of Botswana and how it can be strengthened. Conclusions There is a general lack of frameworks for evaluating research ethics capacity in LMICs. We presented an approach that stresses evaluation from both internal and external perspectives. This case study highlights the university's rapid progress in developing research ethics capacity and points to some notable areas for improvement. We believe that such an empirically-driven and participatory assessment allows a more holistic measurement and promotion of institutional capacity strengthening for research ethics in LMICs. PMID:23899301

2013-01-01

466

PARENTAL CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES IN RELATION TO WEIGHT-RELATED BEHAVIORS AND CONCERNS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN GIRLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine whether cultural perspectives of parents may influence children’s eating and physical activity behaviors and patterns of weight gain. African-American girls (ages 8 to 10 years) and their parents (or caregivers) (n = 210) participated at one of four Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Stu...

467

Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong  

SciTech Connect

This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W. [City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1994-12-31

468

[Ethical and communicative significance of "personalised medicine"].  

PubMed

The first aim of the paper is to analyse in a culture-theoretical perspective those characteristic semantic markers that permit "personalized" medicine (PM) to figure as a prestigious seminal trend of future medicine. In fact, there is evidence that the ambiguity of the favourite semantic markers of PM engenders a conception of PM that is analogous to the tailoring of services to customers. There is an air of paradox: while patients are supposed to be the key beneficiaries of PM, their genuine preferences, at present, are seriously underarticulated. The second aim of the paper is to focus attention on some highlights within the multifarious ethical discourse that accompanies the development of PM. As a result, valuable methodological options are outlined that support a consistently ethical analysis of ethical value-conflicts pertaining to the rise of PM. PMID:25462619

Kettner, Matthias

2014-11-01

469

Investigators’ Perspectives on Translating Human Microbiome Research into Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Human microbiome research has the potential to transform the practice of medicine, fundamentally shifting the ways in which we think not only about human health, illness, and disease, but also about clinical practice and public health interventions. Drawing from a larger qualitative study on ethical, legal, and social dimensions of human microbiome research, in this article we document perspectives related to the translation of human microbiome research into clinical practice, focusing particularly on implications for health, illness, and disease. Methods We conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009–2010) with 63 researchers and National Institutes of Health project leaders (“investigators”) involved with human microbiome research. Interviews explored a range of ethical, legal, and social implications of human microbiome research, including investigators’ perspectives on potential strategies for translating findings to clinical practice. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. Results We identified three themes: (1) Investigators’ general perspectives on the clinical utility of human microbiome research, (2) Investigators’ perspectives on antibiotic use, overuse, and misuse, and (3) Investigators’ perspectives concerning future challenges of translating data to clinical practice. Conclusion The issues discussed by investigators concerning the clinical significance of human microbiome research, including embracing a new paradigm of health and disease, the importance of microbial communities, and clinical utility, will be of critical importance as this research moves forward. PMID:23615375

Slashinski, Melody J.; Whitney, Simon N.; Achenbaum, Laura S.; Keitel, Wendy A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; McGuire, Amy L.

2013-01-01

470

Universalism and cultural relativism in social work ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishGiven globalization and increasing multiculturalism, growing numbers of social workers face the challenges of respecting culture while upholding professional ethics. This article examines the perspectives of universalism and cultural relativism as applied to ethical decision-making in social work. A moderately universalist stance is recommended for social work, as valuing both diversity and human rights.FrenchFace à la mondialisation et à l'augmentation

Lynne M. Healy

2007-01-01

471

Spring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses Note: Crosslisted courses are listed. ************************************************************************************ Required Courses ETHICS 101D Challenges of Living an Ethical Life (POLSCI 120D) ETHICS 102S-1; ETHICS 102S02: Discussions in Ethics I & II ETHICS 490S: Capstone: Research Seminar in Ethics Other Ethics

Zhou, Pei

472

Professional Ethics in the College and University Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adopted by those engaged in one of the pursuits regarded as professions, such as law, medicine, engineering and science. Professional ethics derive from a moral ideal based on service. This ideal leads to a pair of bargains: an internal bargain that defines the internal code of practice within the profession, and an external bargain that defines the relationship between the profession and society. This article develops the internal and external bargains that are the basis of scientific ethics from both an historical and a philosophical perspective and makes suggestions as to how the teaching of scientific ethics can be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum.

Kovac, Jeffrey

473

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

474

Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment  

PubMed Central

Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

2012-01-01

475

[The aesthetic practice of care ethics].  

PubMed

Situated between the doctor and the patient, nurses play a central role in the doctor-patient relationship. Nurses attend to patients' exhaustion and take responsibility for the "Other," in Lévinas' sense of the word. In discussions of the doctor-patient relationship, the patient is often regarded as the "Other". This perspective seeks to challenge the traditional contention that the doctor plays the dominant role. In the structure of this relationship, the doctor, responsible for providing diagnoses, is the subject and the patient is the object. The latter constantly feels frustrated and helpless and requires the comfort of the nurse. In this sense, the nurse, having the direct contact with the patient, constantly sees the faces of the patients. In the care relationship, the patient's frustration and helplessness will sometimes be expressed to the nurse if the patient cannot be affectively affirmed. In this type of situation, the nurse bears not simply his / her routine work, but also affective devotion and endurance. On the one hand, the nurse must practice professional medical care in the face of patients' affective feelings and emotions and, on the other hand, he / she must treat the patient as a relative and suppress inner feelings and emotions. How does a nurse situate herself into the doctor-patient relationship? As the nurse is asked to treat the patient as a relative, how does he / she face inner emotions? This paper reflects on the possibility of the aesthetic practice of care ethics. PMID:23922085

Yang, Wan-I

2013-08-01

476

Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.  

PubMed

Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of suffering bodies than the currently accepted stereotypes. PMID:22877932

Calain, Philippe

2013-12-01

477

Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities Program in Biomedical Ethics  

E-print Network

Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities Program in Biomedical Ethics School of Medicine University of Virginia 2015 Summer Biomedical Ethics Internship The Program in Biomedical Ethics at the Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities at the University of Virginia School of Medicine invites

Acton, Scott

478

Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval  

E-print Network

Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval Contents Page INTRODUCTION PROCEDURES 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 3 2 Responsibilities of the University Research Ethics Committee 3 3 Terms of Reference of Faculty Research Ethics Committees 4 4 Responsibilities

Aickelin, Uwe

479

Ethical Ideology and the Ethical Judgments of Marketing Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends the study of individuals' ethical ideology withinthe context of marketing ethics issues. A national sample of marketing professionals participated. Respondents' ethical ideologies were classified as absolutists, situationists, exceptionists, or subjectivists using the Ethical Position Questionnaire (Forsyth, 1980). Respondents then answered questions about three ethically ambiguous situations common to marketing and sales. The results indicated that marketers'

Tim Barnett; Ken Bass; Gene Brown; Frederic J. Hebert

1998-01-01

480

Perceived Importance of Ethics and Ethical Decisions in Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influences of perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility on ethical intentions of marketing professionals. It also investigates the effects of perceived ethical problems and gender on ethical intentions. The results, based on a survey of practitioner members of the American Marketing Association, revealed that a marketing professional’s perception regarding the importance of ethics

Anusorn Singhapakdi

1999-01-01

481

Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements  

PubMed Central

Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review. PMID:14872068

DuVal, G

2004-01-01

482

Ethical obliqations and the dental office team.  

PubMed

A hypothetical case of alleged sexual misconduct in a practice with high employee turnover and stress is analyzed by three experts. This case commentary examines the ethical role expectations of an office manager who is not directly involved but becomes aware of the activities. The commentators bring the perspectives of a dental hygienist, academic administrator, and attorney; a teacher of behavioral sciences in a dental school; and a general dentist with many years of practice experience. PMID:24761582

Roucka, Toni M; Zarkowski, Pamela; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Patthoff, Donald E

2013-01-01

483

Ethical Aspects on Rare Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects\\u000a are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to\\u000a marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries.\\u000a Then we address problems related

Luis A. Barrera; Gilberto Cely Galindo

484

Do Nice Guys Really Finish Last? Exploring the Relations between Ethical Conduct, Motivation and Satisfaction among Undergraduates in the Domains of Academics and Athletics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored patterns of the ethical conduct of collegiate students in academic and athletic domains employing social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) using non-experimental, comparative and correlational designs. The study explored response patterns on anonymous surveys between varsity (N = 1151) and non-varsity (N = 227)…

Yukhymenko, Mariya A.

2012-01-01

485

Thinking ethically about professional practice in adapted physical activity.  

PubMed

There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or infringing on rights. The aim of this paper is to open a dialogue on what constitutes ethical practice in adapted physical activity. Ethical theories including principlism, virtue ethics, ethics of care, and relational ethics provide a platform for addressing questions of right and good and wrong and bad in the field of adapted physical activity. Unpacking of stories of professional practice (including sacred, secret, and cover stories) against the lived experiences of persons experiencing disability will create a knowledge landscape in adapted physical activity that is sensitive to ethical reflection. PMID:23027144

Goodwin, Donna L; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

2012-10-01

486

on education Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

the forum Abroad on education Code of Ethics for Education Abroad #12;The Forum on Education Abroad Code of Ethics for Education Abroad Contents Page Section I Preamble 2 Section II Ethical Principles for Education Abroad 3 Section III Ethical Guidelines: Examples of Ethical Best 6 Practices for Education Abroad

Illinois at Chicago, University of

487

Teaching Ethics in Medical School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

Ewan, Christine

1986-01-01

488

Academic espionage: dysfunctional aspects of the publish or perish ethic.  

PubMed

There are many dysfunctional manifestations relative to the tenure and promotion process. These are disruptive to academic life. Much of this is encouraged by the university because of their publish or perish ethic. Excellence in classroom teaching and success in the field of clinical and human endeavours are not highly valued in deliberations to grant tenure and advancement in academic rank. Research and publications are the major yardsticks upon which a faculty member is judged. This prevailing perspective poses a dilemma for many nursing faculty who have high clinical workloads and have not been socialized for academic survival. The pressures to publish and research can be achieved in a realistic and non-stressful way. Three aspects seem to be particularly relevant to facilitate this achievement; these are: anticipatory planning, balancing the workload, and understanding the interpersonal dimensions of collegiality. PMID:6924943

Mensah, L L

1982-11-01

489

Educating about biomedical research ethics.  

PubMed

This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal. PMID:24752379

Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

2014-11-01

490

Ethics of Inquiry: Issues in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains seven case studies about ethical issues faced by scholars of teaching and learning, each with commentary from individuals who bring different perspectives to bear on the issues. This case-plus-commentaries format enacts a central theme of the volume, which is tha