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Sample records for relational ethics perspective

  1. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Keyko, Kacey

    2014-12-01

    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

  2. Unresolved pain in children: a relational ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Deborah L; Scott, Shannon D; Austin, Wendy J

    2010-11-01

    It is considered the right of children to have their pain managed effectively. Yet, despite extensive research findings, policy guidelines and practice standard recommendations for the optimal management of paediatric pain, clinical practices remain inadequate. Empirical evidence definitively shows that unrelieved pain in children has only harmful consequences, with no benefits. Contributing factors identified in this undermanaged pain include the significant role of nurses. Nursing attitudes and beliefs about children's pain experiences, the relationships nurses share with children who are suffering, and knowledge deficits in pain management practices are all shown to impact unresolved pain in children. In this article, a relational ethics perspective is used to explore the need for nurses to engage in authentic relationships with children who are experiencing pain, and to use evidence-based practices to manage that pain in order for this indefensible suffering of children to end. PMID:21097968

  3. Relative Values: Perspectives on a Neuroimaging Technology From Above and Within the Ethical Landscape.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Cribb, Alan; Owens, John; Williams, Clare

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we contribute to "sociology in bioethics" and help clarify the range of ways sociological work can contribute to ethics scholarship. We do this using a case study of an innovative neurotechnology, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and its use to attempt to diagnose and communicate with severely brain-injured patients. We compare empirical data from interviews with relatives of patients who have a severe brain injury with perspectives from mainstream bioethics scholars. We use the notion of an "ethical landscape" as an analogy for the different ethical positions subjects can take-whereby a person's position relative to the landscape makes a difference to the way they experience and interact with it. We show that, in comparison to studying abstract ethics "from above" the ethical landscape, which involves universal generalizations and global judgements, studying ethics empirically "from the ground," within the ethical landscape foregrounds a more plural and differentiated picture. We argue it is important not to treat empirical ethics as secondary to abstract ethics, to treat on-the-ground perspectives as useful only insofar as they can inform ethics from above. Rather, empirical perspectives can illuminate the plural vantage points in ethical judgments, highlight the "lived" nature of ethical reasoning, and point to all ethical vantage points as being significant. This is of epistemic importance to normative ethics, since researchers who pay attention to the various positions in and trajectories through the ethical landscape are unlikely to think about ethics in terms of abstract agency-as can happen with top-down ethics-or to elide agency with the agency of policymakers. Moreover, empirical perspectives may have transformative implications for people on the ground, especially where focus on the potential harms and benefits they face brings their experiences and interests to the forefront of ethical and policy discussion. PMID:27334528

  4. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  5. Historical Roots and Future Perspectives Related to Nursing Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Lorraine

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)

  6. Historical roots and future perspectives related to nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Freitas, L

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the development and the refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The importance and the relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) to the development of the code and other ANA programs and structural units is also presented. The recognized need for a code of ethics to establish nursing as a profession has been present throughout the evolution of the professional nursing organization. A distinction between ethical conduct of nurses and a code of ethics for professional nurses has been made by nursing leaders. The code has been refined to reflect nursing's changing relationship to society and the societal concerns of the times. PMID:2198306

  7. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  8. Hippocrates and Bernays: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    While comparisons of public relations practitioners and attorneys remain attractive among practitioners and scholars searching for evidence of public relation's emergence as a profession, practitioners would be better served by emulating physicians in their "healing" role rather than attorneys in their "advocacy" role. Public relations's use of…

  9. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  10. Perspectives on ethics

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    In his recent paper about understanding ethical issues, Boyd suggests that traditional approaches based on principles or people are understood better in terms of perspectives, especially the perspective‐based approach of hermeneutics, which he uses for conversation rather than controversy. However, we find that Boyd's undefined contrast between conversation and controversy does not point to any improvement in communication: disputes occur during conversation and controversy may be conducted in gentle tones. We agree with Boyd, that being prepared to listen and learn are excellent attitudes, but his vague attempts to establish these and similar virtues in hermeneutic theory are not plausible. Additionally, the current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research shows Boyd missing the opportunity to illustrate how conversation would improve understanding. PMID:17209105

  11. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  12. Lifelong Learning from Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najder-Stefaniak, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…

  13. Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Roy V.

    1996-01-01

    States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

  14. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  15. Ethics in International Business Education: Perspectives from Five Business Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)

  16. Ethical perspectives on managed care as it relates to child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Geraty, R D; Hendren, R L; Flaa, C J

    1992-05-01

    Managed health care is providing an increasing influence in the way child and adolescent psychiatry is practiced. The goals of managed care have been to manage price, service, and quality. As external forces are brought to bear on child and adolescent psychiatry, ethical and legal dilemmas are faced. Underlying principles and the impact of society force physicians to reexamine their values and reeducate themselves about legal developments. PMID:1592769

  17. Ethical Perspectives on Evaluating Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Dan; King, Stephanie; Blendinger, Jack; Davis, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Because the process of faculty evaluation in the community college gives rise to ethical concerns about what is evaluated, who is involved in the process, and how data are collected and used, the purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful ethical perspective for conducting faculty evaluation. The authors discuss ethical issues that arise in…

  18. Environmental Ethics: A Hindu Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asopa, Sheel K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Hindu religious scriptures as teachings about the human relationship with the environment and attitude toward ecology. Describes how religion has been a historical teacher of environmental ethics. Presents the Hindu view of humanity as it relates to the environment as portrayed in the Hindu theories. (10 references) (MCO)

  19. [Xenotransplantation from a Christian-ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is a question of "ethics between man and animal". Because those affected in different ways by xenotransplantation (patients, relatives, medical doctors, laypeople) have different perceptions, "foreign" perspectives must be consciously considered next to one's own perspective in the ethical judgement. As xenotransplantation is still at the stage of preclinical research, this special opportunity for an early public ethical discussion should be taken. According to biblical teaching, man is responsible for his fellows before God, therefore every decision of a patient (or a doctor) in favour of a xenotransplantation made without consideration of the social environment or the society as a whole cannot be ethically justified. From the Jewish-Christian point of view, the "innate value of man's fellow creatures" should be considered. What happens to the animals used for research into transplantation may not simply "vanish" before the vision of a successful xenotransplantation. What man's responsibility to creatures should prevent commonly happens: animals are exploited as instruments or treated as objects to reach human goals, they are perceived only as their utility value. We humans, with God's biblical mandate for our fellow creatures, must remember that the unavoidable weighing up between the (proposed) welfare of man and the welfare of animals should not be decided to the detriment of the animals too easily. The effects of medical technological possibilities on the conception of man and on our value system show themselves in a special way in xenotransplantation. Are the hopes set in xenotransplantation an expression of a mechanistic understanding of the human body and a conception of man that blends out the mortality and imperfection of human life? Focussing on human-ethical aspects leads to the neglect of the animal-ethical aspects by some Protestant ethicists. However, it is necessary to forego at least extremely severe animal experiments and so

  20. Socioscience and ethics in science classrooms: Teacher perspectives and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    2006-04-01

    This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative to the following two questions. (1) How do science teachers conceptualize the place of ethics in science and science education? (2) How do science teachers handle topics with ethical implications and expression of their own values in their classrooms? Profiles were developed to capture the views and reported practices, relative to the place of ethics in science and science classrooms, of participants. Profile A comprising teachers who embraced the notion of infusing science curricula with SSI and cited examples of using controversial topics in their classes. Profile B participants supported SSI curricula in theory but reported significant constraints which prohibited them from actualizing these goals. Profile C described teachers who were non-committal with respect to focusing instruction on SSI and ethics. Profile D was based on the position that science and science education should be value-free. Profile E transcended the question of ethics in science education; these teachers felt very strongly that all education should contribute to their students' ethical development. Participants also expressed a wide range of perspectives regarding the expression of their own values in the classroom. Implications of this research for science education are discussed.

  1. Medical ethics: principles, persons, and perspectives: from controversy to conversation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K M

    2005-08-01

    Medical ethics, principles, persons, and perspectives is discussed under three headings: History, Theory, and Practice. Under Theory, the author will say something about some different approaches to the study and discussion of ethical issues in medicine--especially those based on principles, persons, or perspectives. Under Practice, the author will discuss how one perspectives based approach, hermeneutics, might help in relation first to everyday ethical issues and then to public controversies. In that context some possible advantages of moving from controversy to conversation will be explored; and that will then be illustrated with reference to a current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research. The paper begins with history, and it begins in the author's home city of Edinburgh. PMID:16076975

  2. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. PMID:26894906

  3. A public health perspective on research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, D R; Miller, F G

    2006-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient‐participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re‐assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. PMID:17145915

  4. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861

  5. Ethics in surgery: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tung, T; Organ, C H

    2000-01-01

    Ethics codes and guidelines date back to the origins of medicine in virtually all civilizations. Developed by the medical practitioners of each era and culture, oaths, prayers, and codes bound new physicians to the profession through agreement with the principles of conduct toward patients, colleagues, and society. Although less famous than the Hippocratic oath, the medical fraternities of ancient India, seventh-century China, and early Hebrew society each had medical oaths or codes that medical apprentices swore to on professional initiation. The Hippocratic oath, which graduating medical students swear to at more than 60% of US medical schools, is perhaps the most enduring medical oath of Western civilization. Other oaths commonly sworn to by new physicians include the Declaration of Geneva (a secular, updated form of the Hippocratic oath formulated by the World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire, France) and the Prayer of Moses Maimondes, developed by the 18th-century Jewish physician Marcus Herz. PMID:10636339

  6. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  7. What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wing May

    2015-01-01

    Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50 years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

  8. "Ethics and Clinical Research" in Biographical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Henry K. Beecher (1904-1976) played an important role in the development of bioethics. His 1966 article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine intensified concern about the welfare of patients participating in clinical research, and his leadership in the 1968 Harvard Ad Hoc Committee on Brain Death redefined the determination of death. Beecher deserves, and even demands, explanation and explication. This essay offers a biographical perspective on the Harvard professor. In addition to his early life and education in both Kansas and Boston, the essay explores how Beecher's experiences in World War II and in the new geopolitical realities of the Cold War shaped his views about the ethical dilemmas of clinical research. PMID:27499482

  9. Uterine Transplantation: Ethical Considerations within Middle Eastern Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Altawil, Zaid; Arawi, Thalia

    2016-08-01

    The field of reproductive medicine witnessed a breakthrough in September 2014 with the first successful live birth post uterine transplantation. This success represents the culmination of decades' worth of research on infertility and reproductive medicine. This subject of infertility gathers special attention in the Middle East, as childbearing is given paramount importance in the family unit. And as with any new medical advancement, Middle Eastern people look to their religious authorities for guidance. This paper describes the various ethical quandaries related to uterine transplantation, from a perspective of the religious and societal factors that are unique to the Middle East, and embeds them within the conversation of its alternative solutions. PMID:25982588

  10. Ethical Challenges in Evaluation with Communities: A Manager's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, David; Mojica, Maria I.

    1999-01-01

    Senior staff members at a family foundation share their perspectives, as managers and practitioners, on the ethical challenges and opportunities facing professionals engaged in the evaluation of comprehensive, community-based initiatives and other nontraditional program strategies. (Author/SLD)

  11. Ethical issues in astrobiology: a Christian perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, R. O.

    2009-12-01

    With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that

  12. Further Validation of the Relational Ethics Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Terry D.; Bomba, Anne K.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted two studies to examine effects of marital status and age on Relational Ethics Scale. Study One indicated that scale was reliable and valid among single, never married young adults (n=162). Study Two examined differences between scores for this population and original normative sample. Findings suggest that ethical issues with…

  13. Issues in the Ethics of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Peter K.

    There is little doubt that the field of public relations needs to be concerned with both the ethical standards and behaviors of practitioners and the perceptions of these standards and actions held by clients, other communications professionals, and the public. What constitutes ethical standards and practices, however, continues to be debated…

  14. Ethical perspectives for public and environmental health: fostering autonomy and the right to know.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy William; Soskolne, Colin L; Bergum, Vangie; Howell, James; Dossetor, John B

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop an ethical perspective for public and environmental health practice in consideration of the "right to know" by contrasting consequential and deontological perspectives with relational ethics grounded in the concept of fostering autonomy. From the consequential perspective, disclosure of public and environmental health risks to the public depends on the expected or possible consequences. We discuss three major concerns with this perspective: respect for persons, justice, and ignorance. From a deontological perspective, the "right to know" means that there is a "duty" to communicate about all public health risks and consideration of the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. Relational ethics develops from consideration of a mutual limitation of the traditional perspectives. Relational ethics is grounded in the relationship between the public and public/environmental health providers. In this paper we develop a model for this relationship, which we call "fostering autonomy through mutually respectful relationships." Fostering autonomy is both an end in public health practice and a means to promote the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. We discuss these principles as they relate to practical issues of major disasters and contaminants in food, such as DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, and mercury. PMID:12573894

  15. Ethical Perspectives on Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

  16. Science, technology and ethics: from critical perspective to dialectical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Sylvain

    2005-06-01

    It has been agreed upon, according to critical perspective, to distinguish the problems raised by scientific issues on the one hand and the problems raised by moral issues on the other. This distinction, at the genesis of theoretical ideology, postulates that experimental science is mere knowledge which, since it has nothing to do with action, cannot raise a moral problem. Yet the use of experimental techniques turns out to be a necessary means, although an insufficient one, to put to the test and to confirm the theoretical hypothesis of science. Thus, those techniques produce perceptible effects which can be assimilated to genuine transformation and are consequently capable of raising moral problems. It follows that the technical imperative of science can be conditioned by a moral imperative of technique, which leads to modification of the object of the research and dubs it, a dialectical object. It is, however, advisable to effect a demarcation between that which, within the frame work of research in experimental science, can pose a moral problem and which cannot. The criterion of refusability of practical projects, by analogy with Popper's criterion of refutability of theoretical conjectures, allows for this demarcation to be implemented. It postulates that only the technical projects of science, apart from scientific theories, can pose a moral problem or can be recognized as moral, providing that the conditions of a possible ethical refusal can be expressed. From the analysis and the synthesis of heterogeneous possibilities, dialectical perspective thus outlined represents an endeavour to go beyond critical perspective, while trying to seek an intermediary channel between the "progressist dogmatism" of science and the obscurantist scepticism" of morals. PMID:16619430

  17. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  18. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Allon N.

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  19. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  20. Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the ‘Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects’ in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  1. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  2. Ethics in health care marketing: the Twin Cities perspective.

    PubMed

    Sodergren, L

    1990-03-01

    Do hospital-based marketers have a common perspective on what practices are ethical for the promotion of health services to consumers? Do they find adequate guidance in making ethical decisions on marketing practices from the mission statements of their institutions? The author sought answers to these questions through a survey of marketers and other health care professionals in the highly competitive Twin Cities health care environment. PMID:10104015

  3. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals. PMID:21733960

  4. Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

  5. Ethical Perspectives on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ethical considerations are essential in planning for and responding to outbreaks of infectious diseases. During the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Republic of Korea in 2015, serious challenges emerged regarding important ethical issues, such as transparency and the protection of privacy. The development of bioethics in Korea has been influenced by individualistic perspectives applied in clinical contexts, leading to a paucity of ethical perspectives relevant to population-level phenomena such as outbreaks. Alternative theories of public health ethics include the perspectives of relational autonomy and the patient as victim and vector. Public health actions need to incorporate clear and systematic procedures founded upon ethical principles. The MERS-CoV epidemic in Korea created significant public support for more aggressive early interventions in future outbreaks. This trend makes it all the more imperative for ethical principles and procedures to be implemented in future planning and responses to outbreaks in order to promote perceptions of legitimacy and civic participation. PMID:26841881

  6. New perspectives on the theory of justice: implications for physical therapy ethics and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    Recent revisions of physical therapy codes of ethics have included a new emphasis concerning health inequities and social injustice. This emphasis reflects the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. This perspective article suggests that there is a "disconnect" between the societal obligations and aspirations expressed in the revised codes and the individualist ethical frameworks that predominantly underpin them. Primary health care is an approach to health care arising from an understanding of the nexus between health and social disadvantage that considers the health needs of patients as expressive of the health needs of the communities of which they are members. It is proposed that re-thinking ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics can both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. This perspective article provides a new focus on the ethical principle of justice: the ethical principle that arguably remains the least consensually understood and developed in the ethics literature of physical therapy. A relatively recent theory of justice known as the "capability approach to justice" is discussed, along with its potential to assist physical therapy practitioners to further develop moral agency in order to address situations of health inequity and social injustice in clinical practice. PMID:21885447

  7. Can Suicide Be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David B.

    2006-01-01

    In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…

  8. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  9. Ethical Perspectives on RNA Interference Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.; Andersen, Svend; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference is a mechanism for controlling normal gene expression which has recently begun to be employed as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide range of disorders, including cancer, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. Clinical trials with RNA interference have begun. However, challenges such as off-target effects, toxicity and safe delivery methods have to be overcome before RNA interference can be considered as a conventional drug. So, if RNA interference is to be used therapeutically, we should perform a risk-benefit analysis. It is ethically relevant to perform a risk-benefit analysis since ethical obligations about not inflicting harm and promoting good are generally accepted. But the ethical issues in RNA interference therapeutics not only include a risk-benefit analysis, but also considerations about respecting the autonomy of the patient and considerations about justice with regard to the inclusion criteria for participation in clinical trials and health care allocation. RNA interference is considered a new and promising therapeutic approach, but the ethical issues of this method have not been greatly discussed, so this article analyses these issues using the bioethical theory of principles of the American bioethicists, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress. PMID:18612370

  10. Learned Ethical Behavior: An Academic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…

  11. Teachers' Professional Ethics from Avicenna's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Mohammad Hossein; Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Mottagi, Zohre; Amini, Mehrnosh; Shiri, Ali Shiravani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to express Avicenna's standpoints in the area of teachers' professional ethics. Making use of a qualitative approach and a descriptive-analytic method, this study attempted to describe and analyze Avicenna's viewpoints on prerequisites of teaching profession by the help of the available resources. In general, the…

  12. [Organizing health care: an ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Health care at population level is a complex problem. Having this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the goods that are ethically relevant in the process of caring for health at this level. We briefly analyze some of the Chilean health statistics that, although they show important improvements along the years, demonstrate that certain conditions are to be deemed as inadequate by both healthcare providers and patients. Ethics is a central component to determine how to structure and organize health care systems and how they should operate. We emphasize human dignity as an ethical corner stone of the health care system, along with other important values such as justice and humanization, under the scope of the ends of medicine, and other components such as technical competence of providers and the financing of the whole process. We conclude that as far as a health care system is organized in a way that medical practice is well ordered, primarily and fundamentally according the ends of medicine and the good of persons, such a health care system is ethically adequate. PMID:24121582

  13. The ethics of cost containment from the anesthesiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Vogel, W A; Manecke, G R; Poppers, P J

    1999-02-01

    Cost containment, as an essential part of current effort to manage health care, has been examined thoroughly from the perspectives of finance and patient care. In this article, the ethics of cost containment are discussed from the vantage point of the health care provider. Cost-cutting initiatives, however necessary and sound, nevertheless may place anesthesiologists in situations of ethical conflict and ultimately interfere with their rights as workers and professionals. The anesthesiology community is encouraged to investigate the effect of cost-cutting measures on patients and physicians alike. PMID:10396723

  14. Diversity, Power and Influence: Multiple Perspectives on the Ethics of School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    1994-01-01

    Explores ethical issues of cultural diversity, power, and influence embedded in leadership and school practices. Explores ethical criteria suggested by various perspectives (functionalism, interpretivism, and critical theory), arguing that ethical issues can be more thoroughly addressed by using criteria from multiple perspectives. Single-lens…

  15. Overservicing in dental practice--ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Johan; Hasegawa, Thomas K

    2003-10-01

    Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or

  16. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  17. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  18. Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

    2009-03-01

    Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics. PMID:19161568

  19. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology. PMID:22865482

  20. Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions

  1. Solicitude: balancing compassion and empowerment in a relational ethics of hope-an empirical-ethical study in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Olsman, Erik; Willems, Dick; Leget, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The ethics of hope has often been understood as a conflict between duties: do not lie versus do not destroy hope. However, such a way of framing the ethics of hope may easily place healthcare professionals at the side of realism and patients at the side of (false) hope. That leaves unexamined relational dimensions of hope. The objective of this study was to describe a relational ethics of hope based on the perspectives of palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare professionals. A qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories was used. Semi-structured interviews on hope were conducted with twenty-nine palliative care patients, nineteen friends or family members, and fifty-two healthcare professionals, which were recorded and transcribed. Data on hope were thematically analyzed. The researchers wrote memos and did member checking with participants. When participants spoke about hope, they referred to power and empowerment, like the powerful bonding of hope between patients and physicians. They also associated hope with the loss of hope and suffering. Several participating healthcare professionals tried to balance both sides, which involved acknowledgment of hope and suffering. Hope and power were reflected in the ethical concept of empowerment, whereas suffering and the loss of hope were reflected in the ethical concept of compassion. Empowerment and compassion can be balanced in solicitude. In conclusion, a relational ethics of hope requires solicitude, in which healthcare professionals are able to weigh empowerment and compassion within particular relationships. PMID:25944316

  2. Human experimentation in historical and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, N

    1982-01-01

    Prepared as background material for a World Health Organization/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences document, Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (1982), this article reviews historical aspects of human experimentation and considers several current issues. It refers to early experiments, including auto-experiments by physicians; traces the history of drug trials through the pharmacotherapeutic revolution and the thalidomide tragedy; and describes the formulation of ethical requirements during the Weimar Republic in Germany. Contemporary problems discussed are the use of controls and placebos, investigators as subjects, special categories of subjects, and informed and vicarious consent. The text of the proposed WHO/CIOMS Guidelines is appended. PMID:6753169

  3. Experiences of ethical dilemmas in rehabilitation: Swedish occupational therapists' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Skär, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Swedish occupational therapists' experiences of encountering ethical dilemmas in rehabilitation and strategies they used to handle the situations. Twelve occupational therapists who work with adults with developmental disabilities were interviewed using a semi-structured interview design. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that ethical dilemmas were common in the occupational therapists' daily work within rehabilitation. Many situations that created ethical dilemmas were related to occupational therapists who worked with clients and their relatives, and other healthcare providers. The results showed further that occupational therapists found it difficult to make decisions and to optimize clients' participation in decision-making, to set limits and act professionally, and to best handle the situation for the client and avoid ethical dilemmas. This study indicates the importance of illustrating experiences of ethical dilemmas within occupational therapy praxis and the meaning of discussing ethical dilemmas with different healthcare providers to reach a divided view of the client in order to develop successful and healthy strategies that will optimize the rehabilitation of clients with developmental disabilities. PMID:18609243

  4. Telemedicine: medical, legal and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Harrison, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Technological innovations in medical care have led to the development of telemedicine programs in both rural and urban environments. The necessity for telemedicine has increased immensely as more cost-effective treatment options have become available for both patients and physicians through the addition of telecommunication technologies to medical practice. The development of telemedicine systems began as a means of providing access to health care resources for individuals living in isolated rural areas, grew into advanced medical intervention techniques for soldiers on the battlefield, and have become prevalent in urban medical centers both as a resource to the underserved populations and as a platform for physicians off-site to conduct patient consults remotely. Urban telemedicine systems, as monitored in the Mercy Health System (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center (Atlantic City, New Jersey), display the enormous benefits of telemedicine as a form of preliminary analysis of patients for the treatment of various medical conditions including chronic disease, mental health disorders and stroke. However, the initiation of telemedicine programs requires new protocols and safeguards to be initiated to protect patient confidentiality/privacy, ensure the appropriate licensure of physicians practicing across state borders, and educate patients on the use of new technological systems. Telemedicine represents the progression of medicine in the presence of improving communication technologies and should be instituted in all urban medical centers. This conclusion is based upon the ethical responsibility to treat all persons with dignity and respect, which in this case, mandates the provision of the most cost-effective, beneficial medical care for all populations. PMID:21119593

  5. Ethics of tobacco harm reduction from a liberal perspective.

    PubMed

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-05-01

    Mixed evidence on the possible harms, benefits and usage patterns of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or 'e-cigarettes'), has led to vigorous and ongoing debates on the issue. The ethical trade-off often represented is that, though smokers should be permitted access to ENDS as a less harmful alternative to smoking, this comes at the expense of non-smokers and children who may experiment with ENDS, become addicted to them, or experience health issues from long-term exposure to passive ENDS vapour. Lacking from many debates is a balanced analysis based on sound ethical reasoning, so this paper aims to examine the issue from a liberal perspective. More specifically, focus is on how ENDS policy can help to promote freedom in a broader sense, with 'freedom' considered as originating from having options and the necessary information and ability to autonomously choose between these options. PMID:26612426

  6. What is it to do good medical ethics? An orthodox Jewish physician and ethicist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    This article, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Medical Ethics, approaches the question 'what does it mean to do good medical ethics?' first from a general perspective and then from the personal perspective of a Jewish Orthodox physician and ethicist who tries, both at a personal clinical level and in national and sometimes international discussions and debates, to reconcile his own religious ethical values-especially the enormous value given by Jewish ethics to the preservation of human life-with the prima facie 'principlist' moral norms of contemporary secular medical ethics, especially that of respect for patients' autonomy. PMID:25516953

  7. An Investigation of Ethical Leadership Perspectives among Ohio School District Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Denver J.; Johnson, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ethical leadership perspectives of Ohio public school superintendents. Secondly, this study examined to what extent ethical leadership perspectives of Ohio public school superintendents vary according to school district characteristics. Furthermore, the study examined to what extent do ethical…

  8. EHR in the perspective of security, integrity and ethics.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Ragnar

    2006-01-01

    Success stories of modern applications in healthcare and welfare, like the electronic health record, are always linked to end user awareness, confidence, and acceptance. Reports and surveys have given proof of these dependencies. Knowing about existing and emerging concerns and weaknesses right in advance allows to taking actions on an ethical, social, and societal level. This paper gives a review of specific observations regarding security, privacy, authentication, integrity and ethical aspects when operating an electronic health record (EHR) system in a hospital, an open care department and in a wider community of the health care sector. A reference is given to existing and emerging international standards related to the aforementioned aspects. PMID:17095827

  9. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

  10. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  11. Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

  12. A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy. PMID:24919946

  13. Pediatric Nurses’ Information and Applications Related To Ethical Codes

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, Ayse Sonay; Savaser, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethics is defined as the entirety of moral principles that form the basis of individuals’ behavior; it can also be defined as “moral theory” or “theoretical ethics”. Objectives: To determinate information and applications related to ethical codes of pediatric nurses. Patients and Methods: Participants were nurses attending the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nursing Course and the Pediatric Nursing Course conducted in Istanbul between September 2011 and December 2012. A total of nurses attending the courses at the specified dates and who agreed to participate in the study were included in the analysis. Data were collected through a questionnaire that we developed in accordance with current literature on nursing ethics. Results 140 nurses participated in this study. Information and applications were related to ethical codes of nurses including four categories; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. The principle of confidentiality/keeping secrets. Exactly 64.3% of nurses reported having heard of nursing ethical codes. The best-known ethical code was the principle of justice. Furthermore, while the rates were generally low, some nurses engaged in unethical practices such as patient discrimination and prioritizing acquaintances. Conclusions: We conclude that most nurses working in pediatric clinics act in compliance with ethical codes. We also found that the majority of nurses wanted to learn about ethical codes. For this reason, we recommended that nurses working in clinics and future nurses in training be informed of the appropriate ethical behavior and codes. PMID:26199697

  14. International Nursing Consultation: A Perspective on Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Margaret M.; Fargotstein, Barbara P.

    1986-01-01

    The ethical issues faced by international nurse consultants are examined, and the ways in which ethical theories can be useful to nurses dealing with ethical conflicts while serving as consultants of other countries are explored. (Author/MLW)

  15. Philosophical and ethical perspectives on cardiovascular disease risk in low-wage workers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won Ju

    2011-01-01

    One of the overriding goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities observed among Americans. Because workers in small businesses tend to have little or no access to health screening or preventive health education programs, they may be unaware of their unique risk factors and are thus more at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, occupational health nurses are more likely to be available in health programs to employees in large rather than small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how nursing values and philosophy might influence public health nurses' thinking about nursing science and ethical issues relating to the risk of CVD among low-wage workers. The following questions will guide the exploration of health disparities among low-wage workers: (a) What are the health disparities observed among low-wage workers with CVD risk? (b) What are the philosophical and ethical perspectives on the issues presented? (c) Based on these findings, how should limited resources be allocated? and (d) How does this affect nursing? These approaches will provide the foundation for developing a culturally sensitive ethical and philosophical perspective to prevent CVD and promote cardiovascular health among low-wage workers. PMID:21732971

  16. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Christine Y; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2008-01-01

    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are used as an example by which to discuss the ethical issues associated with the current scheme. Consideration of ethical aspects of the PBS and similar programs is important in order to achieve the fairest outcomes for individual patients, as well as for the community. PMID:18489760

  17. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The decision to inform or not will vary depending on what moral theory is used. Utilising the utilitarian and libertarian theories produces different outcomes. The principles of justice and non-maleficence will also play an important role in the decision. PMID:16507657

  18. Social and ethical perspectives of landslide risk mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsnes, Bjørn; Vangelsten, Bjørn V.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide risk may be mitigated by use of a wide range of measures. Mitigation and prevention options may include (1) structural measures to reduce the frequency, severity or exposure to the hazard, (2) non-structural measures, such as land-use planning and early warning systems, to reduce the hazard frequency and consequences, and (3) measures to pool and transfer the risks. In a given situation the appropriate system of mitigation measures may be a combination of various types of measures, both structural and non-structural. In the process of choosing mitigation measures for a given landslide risk situation, the role of the geoscientist is normally to propose possible mitigation measures on basis of the risk level and technical feasibility. Social and ethical perspectives are often neglected in this process. However, awareness of the need to consider social as well as ethical issues in the design and management of mitigating landslide risk is rising. There is a growing understanding that technical experts acting alone cannot determine what will be considered the appropriate set of mitigation and prevention measures. Issues such as environment versus development, questions of acceptable risk, who bears the risks and benefits, and who makes the decisions, also need to be addressed. Policymakers and stakeholders engaged in solving environmental risk problems are increasingly recognising that traditional expert-based decision-making processes are insufficient. This paper analyse the process of choosing appropriate mitigation measures to mitigate landslide risk from a social and ethical perspective, considering technical, cultural, economical, environmental and political elements. The paper focus on stakeholder involvement in the decision making process, and shows how making strategies for risk communication is a key for a successful process. The study is supported by case study examples from Norway and Italy. In the Italian case study, three different risk mitigation

  19. Strikes by physicians: a historical perspective toward an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2006-01-01

    Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike. PMID:16878396

  20. [Poverty, demographic growth, and birth control: a critique of Peter Singer s ethical perspective on the relationship between rich and poor].

    PubMed

    Romero, D E

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between population growth and ethical principles relating to poverty. The paper is a critical approach to the thesis presented by Peter Singer in his book Practical Ethics. The first part briefly examines the principal topics of his thesis. The author then analyzes the basis of Singer's theory with respect to the following questions: 1. Is overpopulation the main reason for poverty? Is it possible to establish an association between the poverty phenomenon and population growth? 2. Is Singer s demographic perspective valid? 3. Can problems of resource distribution be ignored when talking about poverty from an ethical perspective? 4. Is it true that birth control policy was successfully implemented in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil? 5. Does Singer s position on population growth have a negative influence on the "collective imagination"? The paper concludes by suggesting some useful arguments for understanding an ethical perspective towards poverty. PMID:9761607

  1. [Ethical questions related to nutrition and hidration: basic aspects].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, E; Girela, E

    2011-01-01

    Conditions that pose ethical problems related to nutrition and hydration are very common nowdays, particularly within Hospitals among terminally ill patients and other patients who require nutrition and hydration. In this article we intend to analyze some circumstances, according to widely accepted ethical values, in order to outline a clear action model to help clinicians in making such difficult decisions. The problematic situations analyzed include: should hydration and nutrition be considered basic care or therapeutic measures?, and the ethical aspects of enteral versus parenteral nutrition. PMID:22411365

  2. Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Daria

    2013-12-01

    Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

  3. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  4. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the “price condition”) or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the “production method condition”), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  5. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  6. Publication ethics from the perspective of PhD students of health sciences: a limited experience.

    PubMed

    Arda, Berna

    2012-06-01

    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This article is devoted to the presentation of opinions of PhD candidate students in health sciences in Ankara concerning publication ethics. The data obtained from 143 PhD students from the fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary reveal limited but unique experiences. It also shows that plagiarism is one of the worst issues in the publication ethics from the perspective of these young academics. PMID:21318323

  7. An Epistemological and Ethical Categorization of Perspectives on Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ok Seung

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on contemporary early childhood education, categorizing perspectives on early childhood curriculum according to their core epistemological and ethical views about the mission of institutions of early childhood education. Identifies four perspectives guiding the curricula: idealism, empiricism, developmentalism, and…

  8. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  9. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  10. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a publisher's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment. PMID:17206953

  11. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment. PMID:17229169

  12. Ethical issues in clinical neuroscience research: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Perry D; Herman, Linda; Jedlinski, Sheryl; Willocks, Peggy; Wittekind, Paula

    2007-07-01

    A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public confidence in medical research. Parkinson advocates' views on clinical trial participation, perceived risks and benefits, placebo controls, and sham surgery are presented. These views reflect the sense of urgency and the unique perspective that comes from living with this progressive, debilitating condition full time. A patient-centered paradigm that includes authentic voices of patients as collaborators at every stage of development will help to resolve conflicts, build trust, recruit trial participants, and accelerate new therapies. Key elements are adaptive clinical trial methods and the development of information technology for the assessment of outcomes and surveillance of safety over the life cycle of a medical product. Supported by the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, the Parkinson Pipeline Project is a grassroots group of Parkinson's patients whose goal is to represent an authentic voice for patients in the treatment development process. This group promotes education and communication between members of the Parkinson's community and active stakeholders in medical research, industry, and regulatory agencies. Its members are an example of a new breed of knowledgeable consumers, armed with first-hand access to research findings and reinforced by on-line connections to like-minded peers throughout the world. PMID:17599719

  13. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  14. Examining Ethical and Moral Values of Public Relations People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald K.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the basic ethical and moral values of public relations practitioners, emphasizing the sender in the communication process. Finds that the structure of moral values in the North American public relations person includes the influences of socio-economics, religion, social responsibility, and finances. (MS)

  15. The Ethics of Writing Instruction: Issues in Theory and Practice. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Michael A., Ed.

    This collection of essays reveals a keen awareness of the degree to which ethics and ethical systems are located in particular instructional contexts. The essays consider the implications of these contexts from a variety of perspectives, both theoretical and pedagogical. In the collection's first part, Ethics and the Composition Classroom, are the…

  16. Ethical Perspectives in Open and Distance Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anitha, C.; Harsha, T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death…

  17. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  18. A Model of Ethical Decision Making from a Multicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun

    2005-01-01

    Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…

  19. Teaching Ethics to Engineers--A Research-Based Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research underpinning a course, developed in Australia, on ethics for engineers. The methodology used, that of identifying the principal ethical issues facing the discipline and designing the course around these issues, would be applicable to other disciplines and in other countries. The course was based on the assumption that…

  20. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  1. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  2. How the "Public Relations Journal" Responds to Criticism of Public Relations Ethics: A Qualitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    A quantitative analysis of 40 years of articles appearing in the "Public Relations Journal" was made to determine how the journal has responded to ethical criticism of public relations over the years. While 17% of the articles during one eight-year period discussed questions touching on ethics in some way, quantitative analytical tools did not…

  3. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  4. Differentiating between rights-based and relational ethical approaches.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Irena; Herbst, Majda; Zvanut, Bostjan

    2009-05-01

    When forced treatment in mental health care is under consideration, two approaches guide clinicians in their actions: the dominant rights-based approach and the relational ethical approach. We hypothesized that nurses with bachelor's degrees differentiate better between the two approaches than nurses without a degree. To test this hypothesis a survey was performed in major Slovenian health institutions. We found that nurses emphasize the importance of ethics and personal values, but 55.4% of all the nurse participants confused the two approaches. The results confirmed our hypothesis and indicate the importance of nurses' formal education, especially when caring for patients with mental illness. PMID:19372123

  5. Ethics in Disciplines and Professions Related to Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Jody L., Ed.; Morris, Michael, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethical codes within evaluation and related disciplines and processions and discusses implications for content, dissemination, and compliance. An immediate issue is expanding the dialog that the American Evaluation Association document "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" was intended to create. (Author/SLD)

  6. [Ethical principles in research related to regenerative therapy].

    PubMed

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    Recently published data on the function and properties of stem cells are examined and analyzed. This knowledge enhances our understanding of human development: stem cells follow a precise hierarchical pattern both in time and space, and they are part of the symbiosis of fetus and mother. The data do not support the idea of the existence of an early stage of the embryo development lacking a personal character. It has been suggested that an early embryo lacks an entity of sufficient ontological autonomy, which would be acquired with organogenesis at later stages. It is an ethical commitment of the scientific community to provide serious and precise information about the advances, problems and solutions involved an regenerative therapy. The use of autologous or heterologous human cells in this field demands of rules which determine their use and commercial potential. The induced reprogramming of adult cells to an embryonic stage (iPS) opens up new important perspectives both in basic research and for clinical treatments. The ethical commitment of Yamanaka, developer of this technology, with regard to its use in clinical treatments, is an example of the researcher's responsibility of the researcher, and, at the same time, an illustration of how that science may render a service to mankind only through ethical principles. PMID:18611071

  7. Essentials of ethics in clinical practice: a communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Gartland, G

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge of ethics and communication skills is essential to professional practice, just as it is essential to treatment techniques in the clinical application of physical therapy. Ethics has personal, professional and legal implications which, if neglected, may result in adverse consequences for both the clinician and the patient. The purpose of this paper is to outline four practical ethical doctrines and their import on clinical practice. The emphasis is on communication. Improvement in technical, clinical and research expertise is a continuing objective in the development of Canadian physical therapy. The maintenance of a parallel focus on human needs and values, along with ethics and interpersonal communication skills, serves to enhance the image of physical therapy as an holistic and caring profession. PMID:10282425

  8. The Ethical Perspective of British and American Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of responses from 38 U.S. and 27 British preservice teachers on the Ethics Position Questionnaire indicated that both groups had high idealism. U.S. teachers had lower relativism scores. (SK)

  9. [Physicians' strikes and health services: an ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    Goić, A

    1996-07-01

    For the public opinion, medical strikes are a controversial issue; physician's ethical judgments are also different. The present article analyses the requisites to consider legitimate a strike and, based on these, the ethical duties of physicians; the features of medical unionism; the ethical duties of authority; the manipulation of ill people by the strike and the social factors that may cause these conflicts. In a medical strike, universal ethical values based on the Hyppocratic oath and promoted by the profession, are endangered. This article concludes that a medical strike may be explainable due to different reasons, but it is not ethically justifiable beyond any doubt. The health profession that is not prepared to give up strikes as gremial pressure tool, should not choose a profession that takes care of the ill. The best way to avoid medical strike is to prevent them: the society and the authority have the ethical obligation to create work conditions that elude conflicts. To settle disputes between physicians and health institutions, the creation of a permanent arbitral instance agreed by physicians and the authority, i.e. a high level committee integrated by respected individuals and physicians, could be necessary. This committee should send forth veredicts that would be obeyed by the contending parties. PMID:9138378

  10. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

  11. Teaching ethics to engineers - a research-based perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Peter

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes research underpinning a course, developed in Australia, on ethics for engineers. The methodology used, that of identifying the principal ethical issues facing the discipline and designing the course around these issues, would be applicable to other disciplines and in other countries. The course was based on the assumption that identifying the major ethical issues in the discipline, and subsequently presenting and analysing them in the classroom, would provide the future professional with knowledge of the ethical problems that they were likely to face on graduation. The student has then to be given the skills and knowledge to combat these concerns, should he/she wish to. These findings feed into several components of the course, such as the development of a code of ethics, the role of a professional society or industry association and the role of ethical theory The sources employed to identify the issues were surveys of the literature and about 30 case studies, in Australia and overseas. The issues thus identified were then put before a sample of engineering managers to assess the relevance to the profession.

  12. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    NGUI, EMMANUEL M.; KHASAKHALA, LINCOLN; NDETEI, DAVID; ROBERTS, LAURA WEISS

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  13. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  14. International pharmaceutical social risk regulation: An ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Cameron

    2011-03-01

    Pharmaceutical production and distribution constitute big business. For the companies the rewards can be substantial. Rates of return on drug company investments tend to be higher than many other manufacturing enterprises. But reward is only one side of the story. There is also the issue of social risk, the focus of this article. Social risk for pharmaceutical production is especially pronounced. An ineffective or, worse, dangerous drug, can have dire consequences for the population at large. For this reason, there is elaborate government regulation and oversight of drug safety and risk. These systems, especially in the US and Europe, will be the main focus of this paper. The two systems will be described, and then compared and contrasted in terms of their framing of social risk and actions governments take to limit it. Systems elsewhere, especially in the developing world, are increasing in relative importance and these will be briefly discussed as well. Ethical issues that have arisen in these various systems will be surfaced and analysed. The paper will close with some conclusions and suggestions for further research. PMID:21406340

  15. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate. PMID:23443210

  16. The Terri Schiavo case: legal, ethical, and medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Churchill, Larry R; Kirshner, Howard S

    2005-11-15

    Although tragic, the plight of Terri Schiavo provides a valuable case study. The conflicts and misunderstandings surrounding her situation offer important lessons in medicine, law, and ethics. Despite media saturation and intense public interest, widespread confusion lingers regarding the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state, the judicial processes involved, and the appropriateness of the ethical framework used by those entrusted with Terri Schiavo's care. First, the authors review the current medical understanding of persistent vegetative state, including the requirements for patient examination, the differential diagnosis, and the practice guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology regarding artificial nutrition and hydration for patients with this diagnosis. Second, they examine the legal history, including the 2000 trial, the 2002 evidentiary hearing, and the subsequent appeals. The authors argue that the law did not fail Terri Schiavo, but produced the highest-quality evidence and provided the most judicial review of any end-of-life guardianship case in U.S. history. Third, they review alternative ethical frameworks for understanding the Terri Schiavo case and contend that the principle of respect for autonomy is paramount in this case and in similar cases. Far from being unusual, the manner in which Terri Schiavo's case was reviewed and the basis for the decision reflect a broad medical, legal, and ethical consensus. Greater clarity regarding the persistent vegetative state, less apprehension of the presumed mysteries of legal proceedings, and greater appreciation of the ethical principles at work are the chief benefits obtained from studying this provocative case. PMID:16287796

  17. Perspectives on Child Abuse and Labour: Global Ethical Ideals Versus African Cultural Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…

  18. Ethical Perspectives and Practice Behaviors Involving Computer-Based Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Mark R.; Ellens, Brent M.; Soref, Erez

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed 364 members of the Society for Personality Assessment to determine how they use computer-based test interpretation software (CBTI) in their work, and their perspectives on the ethics of using CBTI. Psychologists commonly use CBTI for test scoring, but not to formulate a case or as an alternative to a written report. (SLD)

  19. Ethical dimensions of yousheng (healthy birth or eugenics): the perspective of a Chinese ethicist.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kailin

    2002-10-01

    Yousheng meaning eugenics or healthy-birth and youyu meaning good-upbringing are necessary requirements for the development of human beings and therefore of humankind generally. There are enormous ethical issues involved in eugenics. An important task or calling of contemporary bioethics and ethics of population is to discuss these issues in order for people, even people in different countries and cultures, to reach some basic consensus and have practical ethical guidance. Based on the practice of yousheng in contemporary China, this paper offers a Chinese perspective on ethical dimensions of eugenics. It will argue that individuals, as members of society, have a duty to provide society with healthy and normal children. Moreover, this paper examines the relationships between the aim and the means and conflicts between collective value and individual value, in yousheng. PMID:15587510

  20. [The complexity of obesity--some ethical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Porz, Rouven; Bally-Zenger, Christine

    2013-02-01

    The clinically oriented debate in the context of obesity is often blurred when in comes to morality, professional ethos and societal values. Surgeons, for example, might bring different normative approaches to the operation rooms than psychiatrists to their therapeutic sessions. These values often remain unspoken, but might change the medical conveyor belt of the patients affected. In this text, we want to focus on this so called "implicit normativity" of different stake holders. In addition, we question the concept of "illness" as obesity can be labelled as an illness and/or symptom - depending on the eyes of the observer. From a more societal perspective, any effort of prevention also comes with normative strings attached. Thus we plea for a stronger awareness of one's own values related to obesity, either in a clinical, personal or societal setting. PMID:23385195

  1. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required. PMID:19170738

  2. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  3. Perspectives on the Ethical Bases of Moral Agency in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Elizabeth; Thiessen, Dennis

    This paper introduces a qualitative study, currently in progress, entitled "The Moral and Ethical Bases of Teachers' Interactions with Students." The main focus of the study is the teacher's role as moral agent and the orientations within the classroom toward issues of right and wrong as identified by teachers and the researchers. The primary…

  4. A Circular Evolution of Perspectives regarding Ethical Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, E. Sam

    The contemporary view of ethical communication has come full circle, returning to the approach of Aristotle. Almost every public speaking textbook includes discussion of the basic concepts of what Aristotle called ethos, pathos, and logos. Of particular significance is Aristotle's conception of ethos, as elaborated in his work, "The Rhetoric."…

  5. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  6. Ethics Instruction in Community College Leadership Programs: Southern Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Nikisha Green

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…

  7. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  8. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  9. Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

  10. Codes of Ethics in Australian Education: Towards a National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Daniella J.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…

  11. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  12. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  13. "Reality surgery"--a research ethics perspective on the live broadcast of surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Judson B; Mathews, Robin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the live broadcasting of medical and surgical procedures has gained worldwide popularity. While the practice has appropriately been met with concerns for patient safety and privacy, many physicians tout the merits of real time viewing as a form of investigation, accelerating the process leading to adoption or abolition of newer techniques or technologies. This view introduces a new series of ethical considerations that need to be addressed. As such, this article considers, from a research ethics perspective, the use of live surgical procedure broadcast for investigative purposes. PMID:21292217

  14. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation. PMID:19938130

  15. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  16. Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohajjel-Aghdam, Alireza; Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Khameneh, Saied; Moghaddam, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective. Methods: A descriptive study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13. Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives. PMID:25276730

  17. Analyzing dignity: a perspective from the ethics of care.

    PubMed

    Leget, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The concept of dignity is notoriously vague. In this paper it is argued that the reason for this is that there are three versions of dignity that are often confused. First we will take a short look at the history of the concept of dignity in order to demonstrate how already from Roman Antiquity two versions of dignity can be distinguished. Subsequently, the third version will be introduced and it will be argued that although the three versions of dignity hang together, they should also be clearly distinguished in order to avoid confusion. The reason for distinguishing the three versions is because all three of them are only partially effective. This will be demonstrated by taking the discussion about voluntary 'dying with dignity' as an example. Inspired by both Paul Ricoeur's concept of ethics and the ethics of care a proposition will be done as to how the three versions of dignity may sustain each other and help achieve what neither one of the versions can do on its own. PMID:22791296

  18. Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

  19. Commercial surrogacy and the commodification of children: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the children born from such arrangements. We focus on the claim that surrogacy entails the wrongful commodification or transfer of children, thereby degrading them and disrespecting their inherent moral value as individual human beings. PMID:8523997

  20. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  1. When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Anne; Dunne, John D

    2015-10-01

    In the past 20 years, mindfulness therapeutic programs have moved firmly into the mainstream of clinical practice and beyond. As they have, we have also seen the development of an increasingly vocal critique. At issue is often less whether or not these mindfulness practices "work," and more whether there is a danger in dissociating them from the ethical frameworks for which they were originally developed. Mindfulness, the argument goes, was never supposed to be about weight loss, better sex, helping children perform better in school, helping employees be more productive in the workplace, or even improving the functioning of anxious, depressed people. It was never supposed to be a merchandized commodity to be bought and sold. The larger clinical and religious community, however, has not always been troubled by the idea that (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436312

  2. Transplant Ethics: Let's Begin the Conversation Anew : A Critical Look at One Institute's Experience with Transplant Related Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Shafran, David; Smith, Martin L; Daly, Barbara J; Goldfarb, David

    2016-06-01

    Standardizing consultation processes is increasingly important as clinical ethics consultation (CEC) becomes more utilized in and vital to medical practice. Solid organ transplant represents a relatively nascent field replete with complex ethical issues that, while explored, have not been systematically classified. In this paper, we offer a proposed taxonomy that divides issues of resource allocation from viable solutions to the issue of organ shortage in transplant and then further distinguishes between policy and bedside level issues. We then identify all transplant related ethics consults performed at the Cleveland Clinic (CC) between 2008 and 2013 in order to identify how consultants conceptually framed their consultations by the domains they ascribe to the case. We code the CC domains to those in the Core Competencies for Healthcare Consultation Ethics in order to initiate a broader conversation regarding best practices in these highly complex cases. A discussion of the ethical issues underlying living donor and recipient related consults ensues. Finally, we suggest that the ethical domains prescribed in the Core Competencies provide a strong starting ground for a common intra-disciplinary language in the realm of formal CEC. PMID:26055878

  3. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  4. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G. Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), insula and amygdala. This study sought to inform the long standing debate of whether care and justice moral ethics represent one or two different forms of cognition. Methodology/Principal Findings Model-free and model-based connectivity analysis were used to identify functional neural networks underlying care and justice ethics for a moral sensitivity task. In addition to modest differences in patterns of associated neural activity, distinct modes of functional and effective connectivity were observed for moral sensitivity for care and justice issues that were modulated by individual variation in moral ability. Conclusions/Significance These results support a neurobiological differentiation between care and justice ethics and suggest that human moral behavior reflects the outcome of integrating opposing rule-based, self-other perspectives, and emotional responses. PMID:21364916

  5. Ethical Considerations for Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine Clinical Trials: A Cross-cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zaslawski, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    MANY ETHICAL CONCERNS REVOLVE AROUND THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH: merit and integrity, respect for human beings, weighting of risk-benefit and justice. These principles form the basis for any discussion concerning human research ethics and are applicable to all areas of research including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. World Health Organisation document, Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, states that 'consideration should be given to the different value systems that are involved in human rights such as social, cultural and historical issues' and that 'further studies should be conducted in relation to ethical issues involved in clinical research on acupuncture'. In addition to outlining the four basic principles, this paper will also examine the effect of Asian culture on Western human research ethics and how this may impact upon issues such as informed consent and weighting of risk-benefit. PMID:18955359

  6. The systemic view of violence: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, J S; Cottone, R R

    1998-01-01

    Systems theory has been critiqued by a number of feminist writers who felt that it did not adequately address the issues of violence and male domination in families. This essay argues that systems theory describes the world from an "exogenic" perspective--the scientific world of nature, which is intrinsically amoral. In the exogenic world all causality is circular, as nature maintains a system that has survived for billions of years. Bateson found "mind" to be within the system of nature, implying that mind must also be amoral. However, most people view the world from an "endogenic" perspective, a personal construction of reality molded by the environment in which they live, and which inevitably incorporates morality. Humans believe that violence is wrong, not for intellectual reasons, but for moral reasons. Implications for therapy are presented. A postmodern or constructivist position is taken as a way to acknowledge the influence of relationships on problems and definitions of problems, while allowing for a moral or legal consensus to pervade the therapeutic enterprise. PMID:9589281

  7. Transgressive ethics: Professional work ethics as a perspective on ‘aggressive organ harvesting’

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anja MB

    2013-01-01

    Occasionally brain-dead organ donors go into cardiac arrest before reaching the operating theater. In such cases, the needed resuscitation of the potential donor stimulates a range of concerns among the responsible staff. If the intensive care unit staff are going to carry out the organ retrieval, they must rush in with demanding treatment measures such as defibrillation shock and cardiac massage that may break breast bones and make the donor vomit. Such treatment measures conflict with widespread ideals of tranquility in donor care and yet they are currently under consideration in Danish intensive care units. Why is this type of ‘aggressive organ harvesting’, as it is sometimes called, considered a likely development, even to the extent that the interviewed health professionals request a policy prescribing procurement measures they morally deplore? We suggest that to understand this change of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground and thus can theoretically develop our understanding of the mechanisms associated with increasingly ‘aggressive organ harvesting’.

  8. Balancing truth-telling in the preservation of hope: a relational ethics approach.

    PubMed

    Pergert, Pernilla; Lützén, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Truth-telling in healthcare practice can be regarded as a universal communicative virtue; however, there are different views on what consequence it has for giving or diminishing hope. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the concepts of truth-telling and hope from a relational ethics approach in the context of healthcare practice. Healthcare staff protect themselves and others to preserve hope in the care of seriously sick patients and in end-of-life care. This is done by balancing truth-telling guided by different conditions such as the cultural norms of patients, family and staff. Our main conclusion is that the balancing of truth-telling needs to be decided in a mutual understanding in the caring relationship, but hope must always be inspired. Instead of focusing on autonomy as the only guiding principle, we would like to propose that relational ethics can serve as a meaningful perspective in balancing truth-telling. PMID:22140184

  9. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  10. Ethical and Professional Issues with Computer-Related Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia Smith; Carlson, Janet F.

    2003-01-01

    School psychologists have an ethical imperative to determine the ways computers can facilitate practice because of the potential to improve effectiveness and efficiency. At the same time, psychologists have a parallel imperative to consider carefully ethical and professional practice implications. The aspects of computers that render them most…

  11. Differentiating the Related Concepts of Ethics, Morality, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Terry T.

    1996-01-01

    Four terms central to the dialog about ethics are defined and differentiated: ethics; morality; justice; and law. Several problems in understanding the terms are identified, including differences between the classical and current meanings, common but inappropriate usages, confusion of one term for another, and merging of terms in common usage.…

  12. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  13. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  14. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  15. An Ecological Perspective of Power in Transformational Learning: A Case Study of Ethical Vegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    1999-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…

  16. Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

  17. Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.

    PubMed

    Woods, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. PMID:22176548

  18. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  19. Critique of the Classical Theory of Situational Ethics in U.S. Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that ethics in public relations is a consequence of practitioners' perfunctory adherence to three motifs of situationism--"agapeic" love, human welfare, and happiness--rather than of their preference for situational ethics in its classical context. Suggests that practitioners' decisions be guided by these motifs while applying classical…

  20. Throwing Out the Relativity Bath Water without Losing the Diversity Baby: Teaching Diversity versus Relativity in a Communication Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Jay; Haughey, Paul

    This paper holds that despite, or perhaps because of, the development of recent ideas about diversity and cultural relativity, universities are obligated to teach communication ethics. Further, it holds that the implications of giving bachelor's degrees to students who do not have a solid grasp of universal ethical guidelines are potentially…

  1. [Performance-related health disorders in farm animals--the ethical dimension].

    PubMed

    Luy, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The term "performance-related health disorders" has been defined by Bergmann (1992) as catabolic phenomena and pathological processes that are related to or caused by high productivity levels. In the past few years, a cause and effect relationship has been determined between numerous health disorders found in farm animals and their increased productivity. In contrast to the classic hereditary diseases, the performance-related health disorders are anthropogenic diseases. The severity of these disorders is, as a rule, determined by anthropogenic environmental factors. Breeding and keeping animals in such a way that they suffer from performance-related health disorders therefore is an ethical problem. Furthermore, it has also been a legal problem since the implementation of Section 11b of the German Protection of Animals Act (TierSchG) in 1986. However, this ban has not been enforced; the federal ministry responsible argues that this is because there is still a "very controversial discussion" on the question of when the "line that separates breeding from 'problem' or 'agony breeding' (Qualzucht)" has been reached or overstepped. The following article takes a close look at the almost 20-year-old debate on the lack of enforcement. There is a large amount of circumstantial evidence that indicates that the problems that arise in determining whether specific animals fall under Section 11b TierSchG do not arise from a veterinary dispute but rather from the difficulty of identifying responsibilities. The traditional ethical model used to appeal to the feelings of responsibility in a layperson is the so-called Golden Rule ("do unto others as you would have them do unto you") which so far has not been applied to the area of animal breeding. The following article presents a model on how to create an awareness for ethical malpractice. The model makes it possible to use the change of perspective demanded by the Golden Rule and apply it to the area of animal breeding. This

  2. Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical…

  3. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  4. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  5. Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2011-06-01

    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052

  6. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  7. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    PubMed

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  8. A survey of students` ethical attitudes using computer-related scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, C.M.; Kingsbury, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students ascending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper will present data accumulated by an on-going study in which students are presented seven scenarios--all of which involve some aspect of computing technology. These students were randomly selected from a small, Christian, liberal-arts university.

  9. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…

  10. [Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].

    PubMed

    Friedel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

  11. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  12. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  13. Ways of relating during childbirth: an ethical responsibility and challenge for midwives.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Anita; Kihlgren, Mona; Olsson, Pia

    2005-11-01

    The way in which midwives relate to expectant parents during the process of childbirth greatly influences the parents' childbirth experiences for a long time. We believe that examining and describing ways of relating in naturally occurring interactions during childbirth should be considered as an ethical responsibility. This has been highlighted in relation to parents' experiences and in the light of the relational ethics of Løgstrup. Four couples' and nine midwives' ways of relating were documented by 27 hours of observation, including 14.5 hours of video-recorded sessions. A qualitative content analysis was conducted. The midwives strongly influenced the different ways of relating and three aspects of professional competence were disclosed. The results can contribute to reflections about current praxis as an ethical demand for midwives. PMID:16312089

  14. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In

  15. The Body as a Site of Gender-Related Distress: Ethical Considerations for Gender Variant Youth in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Roen, Katrina

    2016-03-01

    The present article maps out understandings about embodied distress among gender-nonconforming youth. Feminist bioethics and queer-inflected clinical perspectives are used to inform thinking about ethical, nonpathologizing health care in the case of gender-related distress. Specific attention is directed at self-harming among gender variant and trans youth. This is contextualized in relation to the role that self-harm plays for some LGBT youth, where it may be seen as a rite of passage or as reasonable and inevitable way of coping. The particular complexities of self-harm among trans youth seeking clinical intervention are examined. Queer bioethics is proposed as potentially facilitating productive uncertainty with regard to the diverse imagined futures of gender variant and trans youth. PMID:26644176

  16. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  17. Ethical Decision-Making by Educational Leaders: Its Foundations, Culture and More Recent Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Steven; Trabichet, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The belief that educational leaders need to be ethical decision-makers is recent. Thomas and Bainbridge suggest that an educational leader needs to develop technical competency in ethical leadership. Yet few leaders in schools have been trained in conflict resolution of an ethical nature and little importance has been given to this within existing…

  18. The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

  19. Diversity, Power and Influence: Multiple Perspectives on the Ethics of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection and clash between prevailing norms of schooling and increasing sensitivity to diversity raises a host of previously ignored ethical considerations for school administrators. These ethical issues remain largely invisible to many school leaders and thus are addressed only minimally or inadequately. This paper explores ethical issues…

  20. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  1. A phenomenological-contextual, existential, and ethical perspective on emotional trauma.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    After a brief overview of the author's phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective, the paper traces the evolution of the author's conception of emotional trauma over the course of three decades, as it developed in concert with his efforts to grasp his own traumatized states and his studies of existential philosophy. The author illuminates two of trauma's essential features: (1) its context-embeddedness-painful or frightening affect becomes traumatic when it cannot find a context of emotional understanding in which it can be held and integrated, and (2) its existential significance-emotional trauma shatters our illusions of safety and plunges us into an authentic Being-toward-death, wherein we must face up to our finitude and the finitude of all those we love. The paper also describes the impact of trauma on the phenomenology of time and the sense of alienation from others that accompanies traumatic temporality. The author contends that the proper therapeutic comportment toward trauma is a form of emotional dwelling. He concludes with a discussion of the implications of all these formulations for the development of an ethics of finitude. PMID:25688682

  2. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

  3. “It’s my blood”: ethical complexities in the use, storage and export of biological samples: perspectives from South African research participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of biological samples in research raises a number of ethical issues in relation to consent, storage, export, benefit sharing and re-use of samples. Participant perspectives have been explored in North America and Europe, with only a few studies reported in Africa. The amount of research being conducted in Africa is growing exponentially with volumes of biological samples being exported from the African continent. In order to investigate the perspectives of African research participants, we conducted a study at research sites in the Western Cape and Gauteng, South Africa. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured both quantitative and qualitative information at 6 research sites in South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Our study indicates that while the majority of participants were supportive of providing samples for research, serious concerns were voiced about future use, benefit sharing and export of samples. While researchers view the provision of biosamples as a donation, participants believe that they still have ownership rights and are therefore in favour of benefit sharing. Almost half of the participants expressed a desire to be re-contacted for consent for future use of their samples. Interesting opinions were expressed with respect to export of samples. Conclusions Eliciting participant perspectives is an important part of community engagement in research involving biological sample collection, export, storage and future use. A tiered consent process appears to be more acceptable to participants in this study. Eliciting opinions of researchers and research ethics committee (REC) members would contribute multiple perspectives. Further research is required to interrogate the concept of ownership and the consent process in research involving biological samples. PMID:24447822

  4. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  5. Islamic medical ethics: a primer.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

  6. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  7. Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs.

    PubMed

    Panocchia, N; Bossola, M; Silvestri, P; Midolo, E; Teleman, A A; Tazza, L; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Di Pietro, M L; Spagnolo, A G

    2013-09-01

    The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient. PMID:24034000

  8. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  9. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable. PMID:19507516

  10. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Anne; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Kirk, Catherine; Ng, Lauren; Mushashi, Christina; Bizimana, Justin I.; Beardslee, William; Raviola, Giuseppe; Smith, Stephanie; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    A “risk of harm” protocol to identify youth in need of immediate emergency assistance in a study on mental health and HIV in Rwanda among 680 youth ages 10–17 is described. Cases are presented that describe the experience in using this protocol to ensure safety of participants, with ethical and logistical challenges considered. Among the population of the study, 3.2% were deemed “risk of harm.” The most prevalent presenting problem was non-fatal suicidal behavior (91% of risk of harm cases), with 36% having a history of a reported previous attempt. Challenges included: acute food insecurity/significant poverty; lack of support/adequate supervision from family members; family violence; alcohol abuse; and HIV-related stigma. Development of a “risk of harm” protocol and collaboration between study staff, community leadership, health authorities, and health workers are critical to ensuring participants’ safety in research among vulnerable populations. PMID:27351337

  11. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Stevenson, Anne; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Kirk, Catherine; Ng, Lauren; Mushashi, Christina; Bizimana, Justin I; Beardslee, William; Raviola, Giuseppe; Smith, Stephanie; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    A "risk of harm" protocol to identify youth in need of immediate emergency assistance in a study on mental health and HIV in Rwanda among 680 youth ages 10-17 is described. Cases are presented that describe the experience in using this protocol to ensure safety of participants, with ethical and logistical challenges considered. Among the population of the study, 3.2% were deemed "risk of harm." The most prevalent presenting problem was non-fatal suicidal behavior (91% of risk of harm cases), with 36% having a history of a reported previous attempt. Challenges included: acute food insecurity/significant poverty; lack of support/adequate supervision from family members; family violence; alcohol abuse; and HIV-related stigma. Development of a "risk of harm" protocol and collaboration between study staff, community leadership, health authorities, and health workers are critical to ensuring participants' safety in research among vulnerable populations. PMID:27351337

  12. What is it to practise good medical ethics? A Muslim's perspective.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2015-01-01

    Good medical ethics should aim at ensuring that all human beings enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. With the development of medical technology and health services, it became necessary to expand the four basic principles of medical ethics and link them to human rights. Despite the claim of the universality of those ethical principles, their perception and application in healthcare services are inevitably influenced by the religious background of the societies in which those services are provided. This paper highlights the methodology and principles employed by Muslim jurists in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics, and it explains how ethical principles are interpreted through the lens of Islamic theory. The author explains how, as a Muslim obstetrician-gynaecologist with a special interest in medical ethics, including international consideration of reproductive ethics issues, he attempts to 'practise good medical ethics' by applying internationally accepted ethical principles in various healthcare contexts, in ways that are consistent with Islamic principles, and he identifies the evidence supporting his approach. He argues that healthcare providers have a right to respect for their conscientious convictions regarding both undertaking and not undertaking the delivery of lawful procedures. However, he also argues that withholding evidence-based medical services based on the conscientious objection of the healthcare provider is unethical as patients have the right to be referred to services providing such treatment. PMID:25516952

  13. [Exactly what is ethical nursing care? the perspective of the clinical humanities].

    PubMed

    Yu, An-Bang

    2014-10-01

    As Taiwan enters the post-modern era of professional medical care, a host of issues relating to nursing care are becoming increasingly pressing. On the one hand, the wide range of ailments of body and mind requiring treatment is placing a major financial burden on the national health care system. On the other hand, few hospitals are able to provide "comprehensive care of body and mind." In addition to primary prevention, the most effective way to reduce the overall cost of medical care is to effectively bring volunteer caregivers (those who have an "ethical connection" with the patient, i.e., family, friends, neighbors, volunteers, etc.) into all levels of the caregiving process. Moreover, as medical ethics becomes increasingly focused on the well-being of the patient, more attention is being given to the healing relationship itself. Due to its ability to swiftly relieve a wide variety of ailments, the Western medical model has become widely accepted in Asia. Yet, a patient may feel a greater sense of healing when treatment is based on the principles of ethical caregiving. For example, in the way it quickly relieves the prevailing symptoms, psychiatric medication is like a freeway. By contrast, volunteer caregiving is more like a local road, which may be slower, but eventually takes one all the way home. Thus, making nursing care more person-centered and indigenized gives the patient a sense of not only being cured, but also being "cared for." However, for a long time the theory and practice of nursing education in Taiwan has been based on the Western model of nursing. In this model nursing is treated as a branch of the biological sciences, an overall approach quite different from the traditional view of caregiving in Asian societies. Nonetheless, recent research and clinical practice indicates that an indigenized form of nursing care may be a more suitable approach to comprehensive care, and that such an approach has much potential for widespread application in

  14. Ethical Guidelines for Human Communication and Public Discussion: A Gandhian Intercultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert A.

    Ethical communication scholars frequently find national popular rhetoric unethical. Some proposed ethical guidelines for the public presentation of ideas call for such elements as habits of search, justice, preference for public versus private motives, respect for dissent, airing of all relevant arguments, and persuasion without coercion or…

  15. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  16. Can Ethics Be Taught? Perspectives, Challenges, and Approaches at Harvard Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Thomas R.; And Others

    This book describes in five chapters how the Harvard Business School has redeveloped its curriculum to place leadership, ethics, and corporate responsibility at the center of its mission. Chapter 1, "Rediscovery of Purpose: The Genesis of the Leadership, Ethics, and Corporate Responsibility Initiative," (Thomas R. Piper) describes the context for…

  17. Ethics Education Adherence by Teacher Trainees during Teaching Practice: A Botswana Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moswela, Bernard; Gobagoba, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to find out the extent to which teacher trainees understand and observe professional ethics. It also sought the contribution of the Faculty of Education and secondary schools make in promoting teacher ethics among trainees on teaching practice. Data were gathered from randomly chosen 90…

  18. Constructive Readings of Interactive Episodes: Examining Ethics in Physical Education from a Social Constructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dean M.; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Puhse, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate how ways of thinking about ethics are tied up with sport and physical education practice and introduce an alternative approach that can help to develop ethical pedagogies. We begin by locating socio-moral education in physical education within historical and contemporary pedagogical scholarship. Our argument is that the…

  19. Speaking to the World: Four Protestant Perspectives. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Richard John

    This volume contains an address by Richard John Neuhaus entitled "Let the Church Be the Church" in which it is asserted that the crisis in Christian social ethics today is a crisis of faith which calls for spiritual, theological, and ethical renewal. The address is a retrospective look at the Vietnam-era debate between Neuhaus and Paul Ramsey,…

  20. Infusing Professional Ethics into Counselor Education Programs: A Multicultural/Social Justice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…

  1. Bringing Ethics into the Classroom: Making a Case for Frameworks, Multiple Perspectives and Narrative Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Corley, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for the need to discuss the topic of ethics in the classroom and presents five frameworks of ethics that have been applied to education. A case analysis used in workshops with educators in the field of Special Education is described, and the benefits of sharing narratives are discussed. The authors offer suggestions, grounded…

  2. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242

  3. Sham surgery trial controls: perspectives of patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Swift, Teresa L

    2012-07-01

    This study reports on qualitative research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson's Disease and their relatives on the subject of "sham surgery." It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients' research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

  4. Citizenship, human rights, and dementia: Towards a new embodied relational ethic of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Pia; Grigorovich, Alisa; Kontos, Alexis P; Miller, Karen-Lee

    2016-05-01

    Sexual citizenship and sexual rights scholarship have made important contributions to broadening citizenship and more fully accommodating rights related to sexuality. However, this scholarship has concentrated primarily on the sexuality and intimacy-related needs of younger people and those who are not cognitively impaired. Consequently, it has inadvertently served to marginalize persons living with dementia who reside in long-term residential care settings. We argue that supporting sexual rights for persons with dementia requires a particular human rights ontology for citizenship-one that recognizes that corporeality is a fundamental source of self-expression, interdependence, and reciprocal engagement. This is an ontology that underpins our model of relational citizenship and that grounds our articulation of an ethic of embodied relational sexuality. In our view, this ethic offers important direction for the development of policy, legislation, and clinical guidelines to support sexual rights for persons with dementia in long-term residential care. PMID:27170584

  5. [A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients. PMID:25271028

  6. Ethics of Clinical Decision-Making for Older Drivers: Reporting Health-Related Driving Risk.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Barbara; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Lemoignan, Josée; Gélinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Naglie, Gary; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    The number of older drivers will continue to increase as the population ages. Health care professionals have the responsibility of providing care and maintaining confidentiality for their patients while ensuring public safety. This article discusses the ethics of clinical decision-making pertaining to reporting health-related driving risk of older drivers to licensing authorities. Ethical considerations inherent in reporting driving risk, including autonomy, confidentiality, therapeutic relationships, and the uncertainty about determining individual driving safety and risk, are discussed. We also address the moral agency of reporting health-related driving risk and raise the question of whose responsibility it is to report. Issues of uncertainty surrounding clinical reasoning and concepts related to risk assessment are also discussed. Finally, we present two case studies to illustrate some of the issues and challenges faced by health care professionals as they seek to balance their responsibilities for their patients while ensuring road safety for all citizens. PMID:27117942

  7. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question

  8. Choosing embryos: ethical complexity and relational autonomy in staff accounts of PGD

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie; Sandall, Jane; Scott, Rosamund

    2007-01-01

    The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce ‘ethical problems’ for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two ‘grey areas’ raised by staff are discussed in terms of how far staff are, or in the future may be, able to support autonomous choices of women/couples: accepting ‘carrier’ embryos within the goal of creating a ‘healthy’ child; and sex selection of embryos for social reasons. These grey areas challenged the staff's resolve to offer individual informed choice, in the face of their awareness of possible collective social effects that might ensue from individual choices. We therefore argue that these new forms of choice pose a challenge to conventional models of individual autonomy used in UK genetic and reproductive counselling, and that ‘relational autonomy’ may be a more suitable ethical model to describe the ethical principles being drawn on by staff working in this area. PMID:18092985

  9. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis-obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs-seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), the founding father of artificial parthenogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  10. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  11. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    PubMed

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  12. Linking the levels: network and relational perspectives for community psychology.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Christens, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field. PMID:24752731

  13. Confidentiality of the medical records of HIV-positive patients in the United Kingdom – a medicolegal and ethical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the legal and ethical issues that surround the confidentiality of medical records, particularly in relation to patients who are HIV positive. It records some historical background of the HIV epidemic, and considers the relative risks of transmission of HIV from individual to individual. It explains the law as it pertains to confidentiality, and reports the professional guidance in these matters. It then considers how these relate to HIV-positive individuals in particular. PMID:22312224

  14. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented. PMID:25470266

  15. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues regarding data collection and sharing. Thereafter, this article concludes with a brief discussion of six principles that can inform the practice of ethical conduct when implementing CBPR studies. This article also lists additional reading resources on the importance of ethics in the conduct of CBPR. PMID:20038649

  16. Placebo Effects and the Ethics of Therapeutic Communication: A Pragmatic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Annoni, Marco; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-03-01

    In this article we explore the ethics of manipulating verbal information for the sake of influencing health outcomes through placebo and nocebo responses. Recent scientific research on placebo and nocebo effects has drawn attention to the ways in which communication by health professionals may modulate the symptoms of patients across an array of highly prevalent conditions such as pain, depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, and Parkinson's disease. The positive and negative effects of clinicians' communication on patient outcomes pose important ethical issues, which we describe in this article under the label of "the ethics of therapeutic communication" (TC). We begin by reviewing available evidence supporting the claim that doctor-patient communication has therapeutic effects. We then identify in truthfulness, helpfulness, and pragmatism three morally relevant considerations that can guide clinicians in therapeutic communication with their patients. Finally, we examine the ethics of using TC to enhance the effectiveness of proven medical interventions and open-label placebos. PMID:27157112

  17. Information, consent and treatment of patients with Morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

  18. Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake. PMID:11953789

  19. Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Itaru

    Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

  20. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life. PMID:6520850

  1. Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education: Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas. Topics in Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

    This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…

  2. Research ethics committees: Need for harmonization at the national level, the global and Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Walanj, Aparna Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Ethics committee (EC) organization and standardization is an important aspect of clinical research. There is a healthy trend worldwide to register and/or accredit research ECs reviewing clinical research. This article tries to focus on the existing model of ECs worldwide, as against the Indian backdrop. The article reviews literature, journals, websites, and studies conducted in 10 different countries and outlines the working model of ECs in these countries. The challenges faced during the ethical review, especially in case of multicenter trials, have been identified. A solution has been suggested to overcome these challenges, and to ensure the overall smooth functioning of clinical trials. The article proposes the development of national and regional central ECs to counter the current drawbacks in the ethical review mechanisms in India. PMID:24741482

  3. A clinician's understanding of ethics in palliative care: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James E

    2003-04-01

    I believe the standard for making ethical decisions should be the same for all patients: appropriate medical interventions, carefully weighing their benefits and burdens, and trying to honor the wishes of the patients. When cure is not possible, the balance between benefits and burdens should shift to greater consideration of the burden side of the equation. The ascendancy of autonomy over other medical ethical principles is the center for most of the ethical dilemmas encountered in palliative care. This paper discusses the issues of autonomy, informed consent, patient capacity, advance directives, futility, "do-not-resuscitate" orders, withholding or withdrawing interventions, euthanasia, and sedation therapy. After 41 years of my personally caring for over 4000 terminally ill patients, primarily at Calvary Hospital, the most practical approach has been to establish trust with patients and families, determining their goals, and diligently applying the principles of beneficence (benefits) and nonmaleficence (burdens) in everyday practice. PMID:12672515

  4. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  5. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

  6. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, C; Deakin, L; Docking, M; Jones, J; Joshua, S; McKerahan, T; Ottmar, M; Stevens, A; Wates, E; Wyatt, D

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329600

  7. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  8. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas. PMID:11273452

  9. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  10. The Relationship between Ethical Positions and Methodological Approaches: A Scandinavian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Eriksson, Anita

    2010-01-01

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of…

  11. Value System Changes Resulting from a Media Ethics Course: A Postmodern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry Z.

    This pre- and post-test study examined value system changes resulting from a media ethics course. Over three semesters, 74 students participated in the study. They were given M. Rokeach's lists of terminal and instrumental values on the first day and again on the last day of class and asked to rank each value on the lists in terms of its…

  12. How an Exchange of Perspectives Led to Tentative Ethical Guidelines for Visual Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Clive C.; De Luca, Rosemary; Tolich, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…

  13. Ethical Leadership Development as Care of the Self: A Foucauldian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignatelli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This essay addresses the care of the self as an important aspect in the development of educational leaders. It draws upon Michel Foucault's analysis of power and its relationship to his understanding of ethics as a practice one cultivates and takes on in the interests of leadership development. Foucault's work in these areas is timely for graduate…

  14. Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

  15. Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

  16. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel--Ethical and Systems Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-06-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code's articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles--giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand--was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their health

  17. Relevance and Effectiveness of the WHO Global Code Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel – Ethical and Systems Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruairí; Crowe, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is being reviewed in 2015. The Code, which is a set of ethical norms and principles adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2010, urges members states to train and retain the health personnel they need, thereby limiting demand for international migration, especially from the under-staffed health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Most countries failed to submit a first report in 2012 on implementation of the Code, including those source countries whose health systems are most under threat from the recruitment of their doctors and nurses, often to work in 4 major destination countries: the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Political commitment by source country Ministers of Health needs to have been achieved at the May 2015 WHA to ensure better reporting by these countries on Code implementation for it to be effective. This paper uses ethics and health systems perspectives to analyse some of the drivers of international recruitment. The balance of competing ethics principles, which are contained in the Code’s articles, reflects a tension that was evident during the drafting of the Code between 2007 and 2010. In 2007-2008, the right of health personnel to migrate was seen as a preeminent principle by US representatives on the Global Council which co-drafted the Code. Consensus on how to balance competing ethical principles – giving due recognition on the one hand to the obligations of health workers to the countries that trained them and the need for distributive justice given the global inequities of health workforce distribution in relation to need, and the right to migrate on the other hand – was only possible after President Obama took office in January 2009. It is in the interests of all countries to implement the Global Code and not just those that are losing their

  18. Sham Surgery Trial Controls: Perspectives of Patients and Their Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

  19. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  20. Ethical Perspectives, Reactions to Other's Moral Behavior, and Consequent Moral Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…

  1. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet

  2. One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

    2012-11-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

  3. Ethical considerations for conducting health disparities research in community health centers: a social-ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-12-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  4. Ethical and human rights perspectives on providers' obligation to ensure adolescents' rights to privacy.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Karin

    2007-12-01

    The rights of adolescents to privacy and confidentiality as stipulated in international human rights conventions are poorly protected in reproductive health-care settings. Fear that their private information will become known, particularly to a parent, has been shown to be a major factor in adolescents' failure to seek the services they need. The tension between parental interests in guiding the development of children and public interest in maintaining a healthy population is considered in light of the ethical principles that bear upon these decisions. In practice, health-care workers are the intermediaries who must ensure that the privacy rights of adolescent clients are protected. They are bound through obligations engendered in human rights conventions as well as by ethical principles, especially that of nonmaleficence, to provide the young with information and confidential services, skills that must be acquired through training. Enhancing the survival of adolescents promotes the greater social good. PMID:18284039

  5. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25327898

  6. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2015-01-14

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. These guidelines are also published in: Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25330311

  7. Ethical Considerations for Conducting Health Disparities Research in Community Health Centers: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  8. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sarnaik, Ajit A.

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  9. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Sarnaik, Ajit A

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  10. Is in-vitro fertilization for older women ethical? A personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Perla, L

    2001-03-01

    Fertility treatments raise a range of social and ethical issues regarding self-identity for family, sexual intimacy, and the interests and welfare of potential children. Eggs and sperm are combined to produce fertilized eggs. These eggs are then implanted as embryos and grow into viable fetuses, which are carried by the original mother or a surrogate mother. This artificial form of conception can challenge religious values and family structures. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) can be considered either as a medical miracle or playing with divinity. What obligation do medical professionals have to infertile women and to what extent? The bioethical dilemma of IVF use encompasses different moral issues for all involved in the process. Ethical issues address respect for personal autonomy, access and care, and the duty of the health care provider to be compassionate to persons whose actions and moral values may be different from their own. Health care providers need to impart empathy, understanding and sensitivity towards this unique type of patient population. The conflict for those treating patients who are trying to conceive by IVF includes respect for personal autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, utility and the ethics of care. As a registered nurse in a postpartum hospital unit, I have seen antepartum and postpartum women involved with this new technology. I have worked with mothers and their partners as they experience different levels of anxiety and hope for the future. There is an underlying psychosocial connection with patients who undergo IVF treatments. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical use of IVF on older women. Is this type of biotechnolgy being applied for the right reasons and for the best patient population? PMID:16010890