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Canada is in the forefront of thinking about the unique and complex issues of contemporary public health ethics. However, an inordinate focus on the urgent issues of emergency preparedness in pandemic and reliance on bioethical analysis steeped in the autonomy and individual rights tradition of health care and research do not serve adequately as the basis for an ethic of public health with its focus on populations, communities and the common good. This paper describes some concerns regarding the focus on pandemic ethics in isolation from public health ethics; identifies inadequacies in the dominant individualistic ethics framework; and summarizes nascent work on the concepts of relational autonomy, relational social justice and relational solidarity that can inform a re-visioning of public health ethics. While there is still much work to be done to further refine these principles, they can help to reclaim and centre the common and collective good at risk in pandemic and other emergency situations. Minimally, these principles require a policy-making process that is truly transparent, fair and inclusive; is sensitive and responsive to the workings of systemic inequalities; and requires public recognition of the fact that we enter any crisis with varying degrees of inequity. Public policy response to crisis must not forseeably increase existing inequities. PMID:20364529
Kenny, Nuala P; Sherwin, Susan B; Baylis, Françoise E
This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)
In his recent paper about understanding ethical issues, Boyd suggests that traditional approaches based on principles or people are understood better in terms of perspectives, especially the perspective?based approach of hermeneutics, which he uses for conversation rather than controversy. However, we find that Boyd's undefined contrast between conversation and controversy does not point to any improvement in communication: disputes occur during conversation and controversy may be conducted in gentle tones. We agree with Boyd, that being prepared to listen and learn are excellent attitudes, but his vague attempts to establish these and similar virtues in hermeneutic theory are not plausible. Additionally, the current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research shows Boyd missing the opportunity to illustrate how conversation would improve understanding.
Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethicsrelated to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. PMID:18074896
Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan
States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethicalperspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relationsethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the issue of illegal downloading of music under an ethical lens. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical framework observed was one which included three independent variables: individual, situational and experimental elements. The dependent variable of the study was legal vs illegal downloading of music. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 84 respondents. The final four
This resource is a 14-page PDF that provides an overview of ethics as a discipline. The materials are designed to introduce students to the scholarly study of ethics and some of the language and concepts used in the field. This should help students investigate the relationship between their position on issues and the various ethicalperspectives.
|Discusses the Hindu religious scriptures as teachings about the human relationship with the environment and attitude toward ecology. Describes how religion has been a historical teacher of environmental ethics. Presents the Hindu view of humanity as it relates to the environment as portrayed in the Hindu theories. (10 references) (MCO)|
Purpose - The paper addresses the contemporary and very important area of electronic information (EI) management - the ethical dimension and implications. Specifically, this paper aims to analyze EI activities and management practices, the ethical dilemmas and implications; to relate effectiveness in EI ethics activities in the context of organizational ethics policy and practice, and to suggest a framework for
The problem is posed as to how, from an ethicalperspective, an established military force such as the United States Army, should respond to the challenge of terrorism. A basic ethical position is asserted which holds that the fact that an individual is a...
Xenotransplantation is a question of "ethics between man and animal". Because those affected in different ways by xenotransplantation (patients, relatives, medical doctors, laypeople) have different perceptions, "foreign" perspectives must be consciously considered next to one's own perspective in the ethical judgement. As xenotransplantation is still at the stage of preclinical research, this special opportunity for an early public ethical discussion should be taken. According to biblical teaching, man is responsible for his fellows before God, therefore every decision of a patient (or a doctor) in favour of a xenotransplantation made without consideration of the social environment or the society as a whole cannot be ethically justified. From the Jewish-Christian point of view, the "innate value of man's fellow creatures" should be considered. What happens to the animals used for research into transplantation may not simply "vanish" before the vision of a successful xenotransplantation. What man's responsibility to creatures should prevent commonly happens: animals are exploited as instruments or treated as objects to reach human goals, they are perceived only as their utility value. We humans, with God's biblical mandate for our fellow creatures, must remember that the unavoidable weighing up between the (proposed) welfare of man and the welfare of animals should not be decided to the detriment of the animals too easily. The effects of medical technological possibilities on the conception of man and on our value system show themselves in a special way in xenotransplantation. Are the hopes set in xenotransplantation an expression of a mechanistic understanding of the human body and a conception of man that blends out the mortality and imperfection of human life? Focussing on human-ethical aspects leads to the neglect of the animal-ethical aspects by some Protestant ethicists. However, it is necessary to forego at least extremely severe animal experiments and so also to do without the possible gain of knowledge, i.e. to consciously limit research interests for ethical reasons. The tendency towards the reduction of animal experiments should not be reverted by research into xenotransplantation. The ethical evaluation of xenotransplantation should also consider whether economic interests are placed above the welfare of humans and animals, thus supporting questionable research processes. Justice and partisanship for the disadvantaged is a central aspect of biblical tradition. The problem in deciding what is fair in xenotransplantation is multifaceted: How can fair allocation of organs be ensured when both animal and human organs are available at the same time? What effects will this medical technology have on the distribution of the (limited) resources on the national health system? And finally: can such a cost-intensive technology helping only a few be justified in the light of the lack of basic medical care in the poor regions of the earth? A technology which many experts warn will result in the opposite of the original goal, i.e. reduction of the lack of organs. PMID:14671705
This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative to the following two questions. (1) How do science teachers conceptualize the place of ethics in science and science education? (2) How do science teachers handle topics with ethical implications and expression of their own values in their classrooms? Profiles were developed to capture the views and reported practices, relative to the place of ethics in science and science classrooms, of participants. Profile A comprising teachers who embraced the notion of infusing science curricula with SSI and cited examples of using controversial topics in their classes. Profile B participants supported SSI curricula in theory but reported significant constraints which prohibited them from actualizing these goals. Profile C described teachers who were non-committal with respect to focusing instruction on SSI and ethics. Profile D was based on the position that science and science education should be value-free. Profile E transcended the question of ethics in science education; these teachers felt very strongly that all education should contribute to their students' ethical development. Participants also expressed a wide range of perspectives regarding the expression of their own values in the classroom. Implications of this research for science education are discussed.
Sadler, Troy D.; Amirshokoohi, Aidin; Kazempour, Mahsa; Allspaw, Kathleen M.
Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient?participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re?assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions.
Abstract The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861
Psychopharmacology has revolutionized psychiatric practice but raises a number of ethical issues. This review from an American perspective first describes ethics analyses and attempts to portray the ethical practitioner. Pressures that interfere with appropriate prescribing come from outside the prescriber and from within, including from insurers, other treatment staff and the prescriber's own will to act for the patient. Clinicians also face binds in which alternate choices seem to have merit and leave the prescriber feeling pulled in contradictory directions, frequently related to risk-benefit dilemmas. The ethics of psychopharmacology poses many questions that cannot yet be answered at the current state of the field. Pharmacology also seems to promote extremes of attitudes, such as "All such drugs are poisons" and the like. This review then provides some risk management principles, and concludes that such a review, though not comprehensive, may serve to open questions that are not always considered by clinicians. PMID:23063110
This article presents a normative set of recommendations for elevating the practice of marketing ethics. The approach is grounded in seven essential perspectives involving multiple aspirational dimensions implicit in ethical marketing. More important, each basic perspective (BP), while singularly useful, is also integrated with the other observations as well as grounded in the extant ethics literature. This combination of BPs,
Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…
Both bureaucratic and democratic ideals are essential elements of the public administration ethos, yet these two sets of ideals have not been effectively integrated in an ethic of public administration. Ethics has been approached primarily from a rule-oriented bureaucratic perspective that gives little guidance to administrators who wish to promote democratic ideals and function ethically in an increasingly political administrative
This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited. PMID:22371032
This study seeks to pursue three scholarly purposes concerning Asian communication ethics epitomised by fundamental Buddhist ethical dogmas. First, it critically reviews and reconfirms the rising essentiality of studying religious ethics in communication, especially intercultural communication, studies. Second, it attempts to religio-ethically conceptualise the four primary doctrinal ethics and precepts of traditional Buddhism: (1) the Twelve-Linked Chain of Causation; (2)
The moral ideology of banking and insurance employees in Spain was examined along with supervisor role modeling and ethics-related\\u000a policies and procedures for their association with ethical behavioral intent. In addition to main effects, we found evidence\\u000a supporting that the person–situation interactionist perspective in supervisor role modeling had a stronger positive relationship\\u000a with ethical intention among employees with relativist moral
Senior staff members at a family foundation share their perspectives, as managers and practitioners, on the ethical challenges and opportunities facing professionals engaged in the evaluation of comprehensive, community-based initiatives and other nontraditional program strategies. (Author/SLD)
This paper seeks to provide a cultural perspective on the organisational processes through which products with substantial ethical dimensions are developed and marketed. Drawing on qualitative research analysing one company's attempts to implement green marketing initiatives, the author illustrates the tactics that executives adopt in securing support and commitment for activities aimed at the marketing of ethical products. The emergent
Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)
Background: Past debate on ethics in goal planning for rehabilitation has tended to focus on tensions that can arise between ethical principles; in particular the principles of autonomy and beneficence. When setting goals, clinicians tend to prioritize the wishes of patients, justifying this from the perspective of maximizing patient autonomy. This is tempered by consideration of what is `realistic' and
With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that ecological community to become stronger? If after a thorough investigation we determine that no life exists and that a planet is nothing more than a lifeless body of rocks and dust, do we have an ethical obligation to attempt the creation of life through a process called planetary ecosynthesis? Or, do we have the opposite obligation to respect the rocks and dust for what they are, and refrain from any attempts to engineer life on a lifeless planet? While these two clusters of issues pose new ethical questions, I will argue that from a Christian perspective the framework for responding to these challenges would remain the Genesis Creation stories and the concept of the "imago dei". However, the new ethical challenges posed by Astrobiology require a re-framing of the "imago dei" that is closer to the intent of the original scriptures and that predicts simultaneously the presence of extraterrestrial life and the de-centering of humanity.
In this article the authors have introduced specific characteristics of the increasingly large group of elderly cancer patients. They have argued that in order to provide good care we should extend our ethical awareness from issues of decision-making to a broader perspective focusing on the care relationship as developed by ethics of care principles. Cases like Mr. Michelson’s and Mrs Johnson’s show to what extent contemporary medicine is inclined to pursue its own goals of trying to do well, however taking the care receiver’s perspective into account too little. An ethics of care approach may help to be more attentive and responsive to the patient’s perspective. In the case of elderly cancer patients, being attentive and responsive to the patient’s perspective seems to be a major precondition for delivering good quality care attuned to the need, perspective, and vulnerable position of patients. PMID:22326037
This study attempted to gain a better understanding of teachers’ perceptions about their ethical dilemmas and roles. Qualitative data were collected by interviewing 32 teachers in seven schools. Interviewees were asked to provide detailed descriptions of ethical dilemmas they had encountered. The coding process focused on critical incidents involving ethical considerations identified as conflictive. Results indicate a large number of
The issues of ethics and governance have received significant interest in recent years due to plethora of ethical scandals in organization. The recent scandals internationally and in Malaysia give us now the opportunity to ask if there is a need for a new paradigm for better governance by integrating ethical leadership and trust. The paper aims to examine the relationships
Abdul Rahim Memiyanty; Mohamed Shith Putera; Kalsom Salleh
In this paper we develop an ethicalperspective for public and environmental health practice in consideration of the "right to know" by contrasting consequential and deontological perspectives with relationalethics grounded in the concept of fostering autonomy. From the consequential perspective, disclosure of public and environmental health risks to the public depends on the expected or possible consequences. We discuss three major concerns with this perspective: respect for persons, justice, and ignorance. From a deontological perspective, the "right to know" means that there is a "duty" to communicate about all public health risks and consideration of the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. Relationalethics develops from consideration of a mutual limitation of the traditional perspectives. Relationalethics is grounded in the relationship between the public and public/environmental health providers. In this paper we develop a model for this relationship, which we call "fostering autonomy through mutually respectful relationships." Fostering autonomy is both an end in public health practice and a means to promote the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. We discuss these principles as they relate to practical issues of major disasters and contaminants in food, such as DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, and mercury.
Lambert, Timothy William; Soskolne, Colin L; Bergum, Vangie; Howell, James; Dossetor, John B
The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm. PMID:10105564
Little is known and understood about ethics management or the development of formal, systematic, and goal-directed initiatives to improve ethics in the public relations workplace. This study found little ethics training and written guidelines in the public relations workplace. Organizational ethics initiatives are poorly communicated to practitioners and rely mostly on punitive restraints with little reward for ethical behavior. For
Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302
Abstract Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295
The article’s aim is to explore human hand allograft recipients’ postoperative experience of disownership and their gradual\\u000a experience of their new hand as theirs, with the aid of the work of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Many\\u000a have used a Merleau-Pontinian perspective in the analysis of embodiment. Far fewer have used it in medico-ethical analysis.\\u000a Drew Leder’s phenomenologically based ethics
Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the ‘Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects’ in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward.
Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053
The task of a comparative approach should be to seek commonalities and principles that would be apposite to a wide range of nations and their organizations. Citizen participation is one com monality in maintaining and\\/or enhancing ethics in the public sector. In the Japanese case, the study focuses on the national police system and the ethics and values integral to
This study explores the reactions of 412 business students to a range of ethical marketing dilemmas. Reviewing some of the comparable Australian and U.S. research in the field, the study examines the ethical judgements for potential demographic differences. The findings suggest that a majority of students are prepared to act unethically in order to gain some competitive or personal advantage.
Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student. PMID:23793349
In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, “Can Suicide be a Good Death?” David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethicalperspective to critique this assertion. According to utilitarianism, the “goodness” of
In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethicalperspective to critique this assertion. According to…
This paper investigates the issue of the disappearance of mutton in the supply chain in Australia. The research question centres around a proposition that misrepresentation of mutton as lamb may lead to this disappearance. The ethical and moral perspective of this issue is examined through a review of literature and an analysis of primary data that were collected through personal
The contribution of adolescent and parent perspectives to ethical planning of survey research on youth drug use and suicide behaviors are highlighted through an empirical examination of 322 7th-12th graders' and 160 parents' opinions on questions related to 4 ethical dimensions of survey research practice: (a) evaluating research risks and benefits, (b) establishing guardian permission requirements, (c) developing confidentiality and disclosure policies, and (d) using cash incentives for recruitment. Generational and ethnic variation in response to questionnaire items developed from discussions within adolescent and parent focus groups are described. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential contributions and challenges of adolescent and parent perspectives for planning scientifically valid and ethically responsible youth risk survey research. PMID:15000093
An empirical study indicates how close advertisers from all the continents have been from the natural law and other fundamental moral principles. In their professional activities, many advertisers assumed the philosophical relativism as the framework for fundamental concepts. The ethical problems have not been equated with objectivity and the realist approach is appointed as a solution.
Maria Cecilia Coutinho de Arruda; Marcelo Leme de Arruda
RNA interference is a mechanism for controlling normal gene expression which has recently begun to be employed as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide range of disorders, including cancer, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. Clinical trials with RNA interference have begun. However, challenges such as off-target effects, toxicity and safe delivery methods have to be overcome before RNA interference can be considered as a conventional drug. So, if RNA interference is to be used therapeutically, we should perform a risk-benefit analysis. It is ethically relevant to perform a risk-benefit analysis since ethical obligations about not inflicting harm and promoting good are generally accepted. But the ethical issues in RNA interference therapeutics not only include a risk-benefit analysis, but also considerations about respecting the autonomy of the patient and considerations about justice with regard to the inclusion criteria for participation in clinical trials and health care allocation. RNA interference is considered a new and promising therapeutic approach, but the ethical issues of this method have not been greatly discussed, so this article analyses these issues using the bioethical theory of principles of the American bioethicists, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress.
Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.; Andersen, Svend; Pedersen, Finn Skou
Health Care at population level is a complex problem. Having this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the goods that are ethically relevant in the process of caring for health at this level. We briefly analyze some of the Chilean health statistics that, although they show important improvements along the years, demonstrate that certain conditions are to be deemed as inadequate by both healthcare providers and patients. Ethics is a central component to determine how to structure and organize health care systems and how they should operate. We emphasize Human Dignity as an ethical corner stone of the Health Care System, along with other important values such as Justice and Humanization, under the scope of the Ends of Medicine, and other components such as technical competence of providers and the financing of the whole process. We conclude that as far as a health care system is organized in a way that medical practice is well ordered, primarily and fundamentally according the Ends of Medicine and the good of persons, such a health care system is ethically adequate. PMID:24121582
Burrows, Jaime; Echeverría B, Carlos; Goic G, Alejandro; Herrera C, Carolina; Quintana V, Carlos; Rojas O, Alberto; Salinas R, Rodrigo; Serani M, Alejandro; Taboada R, Paulina; Vacarezza Y, Ricardo
|Proposes that educators abandon the Educational Psychology Paradigm which regards human behavior as phenomena without purpose and explore the Social Paradigm which studies people as human beings. Four basic features of the Social Paradigm are explored and, their meaning for an ethical approach to an educator's professional life are appraised.…
The ethics of international relations must not be limited to airing principles on the nature of international trade. It must engage all the multifarious manifestations of the globalization process, therein identifying innovative means to handle relations in addition to devising an overall development strategy for Third World countries (including all the aspects related to reforms, production innovations, technology transfer and
Recent position statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the emergence of legal and ethical analyses on the nature of compelled cesarean section have instigated much discussion on how the primary care physician should respond when a pregnant woman refuses to consent to surgery. This article clarifies the ethical obligations of the physician and mother and the nature of their relationships to the fetus. The formulation of an agreement, the physician-mother-fetal contract, is discussed as a teaching tool for helping to clarify the roles of all parties. Also, the function of the primary care physician as proactive educator is highlighted. PMID:8378462
Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or economic survival should never justify overservicing by the dentist. If the patients' best interests are always considered, the profession of dentistry can ethically exist within a business structure. PMID:14964050
Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethicalperspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology. PMID:22865482
This is a summary of “Toward a Global Media Ethics: Theoretical Perspectives,” which appeared in Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 29(2), 2008, 135–172. The article was written by Clifford G. Christians, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Shakuntala Rao, State University of New York-Plattsburgh; Stephen J. A. Ward, University of Wisconsin-Madison; and Herman Wasserman, University of Sheffield. It was the result
The parents of children with craniofacial deformity have expectations that cannot always be reasonably met in a world of clinical uncertainty. In order to bridge the "reality gap," the members of the cranofacial team must be open and honest in discussing the known harms and benefits of a proposed treatment, so that a relationship of trust evolves between the health care professional and the patient/parent. It is only through this trust that a truthful implementation of consent, within its moral framework, can be achieved. This, in turn, requires an analysis of the outcomes of the various options for treatment as well as evidence that the cranofacial team is able to provide high standards of care. All this leads to the ethical imperative of respecting the right of parents to make an informed choice and allowing them to see that their child is treated in a way that provides maximum benefit and minimum harm. PMID:9603554
In this article, the authors define ethics, discuss why researchers should care about ethics, and briefly review the history\\u000a of ethics and the surrounding contemporary debate as related to research, the development of research ethics codes, research\\u000a ethics legislation, and the formation of the human subjects research review boards in the West with an emphasis on the United\\u000a States’ Institutional
Maria K. E. Lahman; Monica R. Geist; Katrina L. Rodriguez; Pamela Graglia; Kathryn K. DeRoche
This article describes and accounts for variable interests in engineering ethics in France, Germany, and Japan by locating\\u000a recent initiatives in relation to the evolving identities of engineers. A key issue in ethics education for engineers concerns\\u000a the relationship between the identity of the engineer and the responsibilities of engineering work. This relationship has\\u000a varied significantly over time and from
Recent technologies and developments in neuroscience have contributed to remarkable scientific discoveries, and have also raised many new philosophical, ethical, legal, and social issues. Research in “neuroethics” has identified various ethical issues, which will be difficult for current biomedical ethics to resolve from both an experimental and a social perspective, such as criminal applications of brain scans, incidental findings during
The history of various attempts at thought control and chemical warfare is briefly reviewed. Brainwashing, thought control, industrial and national espionage, and covert activities are becoming more sophisticated. These issues have been revived and accentuated by the Vietnam war, the Middle East Crisis, Watergate, the CIA investigations and the Patty Hearst trial. Historical perspective and the ethical implications of these activities are explored. It is suggested that there is a growing level of individual and international mistrust amounting to paranoia and complicating the issues of individual freedom, civil rights and human experimentation. PMID:863610
This paper discusses ethical issues concerning Internet development, presentation and research. A brief overview of the major ethical issues related to computing is followed by a discussion of ethical issues specific to the use of the Internet. We will look at the implications of these issues for particular population groups such as children, women, disabled persons, and the low socio-economic
G. Ernest Anderson; R. Waldo Roth; Stuart A. Varden
This paper discusses ethical issues concerning Internet development, presentation and research. A brief overview of the major ethical issues related to computing is followed by a discussion of ethical issues specific to the use of the Internet. We will look at the implications of these issues for particular population groups such as children, women, disabled persons, and the low socio-economic
M. Dee Medley; Rebecca H. Rutherfoord; G. Ernest Anderson; R. Waldo Roth; Stuart A. Varden
Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethicalperspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855
Objectives CDC 2006 recommendations for new HIV testing methods in U.S. health-care settings (opt-out approach, general medical consent, and optional prevention counseling) have been the subject of a public ethical debate. Ethical concerns might limit their implementation and affect expanded HIV screening efforts. We compared clinicians' and patients' perspectives on the ethical concerns raised about, justifications provided in support of, and preferences for the 2006 CDC-recommended HIV testing methods for the U.S. health-care setting, in contrast with the 2001 CDC-recommended HIV testing methods (opt-in approach, specific written consent, and mandatory prevention counseling). Methods We conducted a non-inferiority trial and survey of 249 clinicians and random samples of 1,013 of their patients at three emergency departments and three ambulatory care clinics at university-affiliated hospitals in Rhode Island from June to December 2007. Results Clinicians found the 2006 CDC HIV testing methods to be more ethically concerning than the 2001 testing methods (i.e., ethically inferior), while patients had few ethical concerns. In regard to ethical justifications cited for the 2006 CDC HIV testing methods, clinicians were more supportive of the ethical justifications cited for using an opt-out approach and general medical consent, while patients were more supportive of the justifications for optional HIV prevention counseling. Clinicians showed a relatively greater preference for the opt-out approach and use of general medical consent, while patients had a relatively greater preference for optional HIV prevention counseling. Conclusions Clinicians and their patients hold divergent ethicalperspectives on CDC's 2006 HIV testing methods. The results indicate an opportunity to review not only these but also future HIV testing recommendations, as well as how they are presented for implementation.
Merchant, Roland C.; Waxman, Michael J.; Maher, Julie G.; Clark, Melissa A.; Celada, M. Teresa; Liu, Tao; Simmons, Emma M.; Beckwith, Curt G.; Mayer, Kenneth H.
|Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)|
The author presents her experience as the analysand of a training analyst who was investigated and expelled for ethical violations with another patient, including sexual-boundary violations, during her analytic training. While boundary violations by training analysts are not uncommon, the particular trauma experienced by 'bystanders' such as candidates and supervisees is not discussed in the literature, nor the response of institutes to the educational problems that are generated. The author illustrates the complications for candidates that arise from the dual roles of training analyst as educator and analyst when he or she faces investigation or censure, including isolation and secrecy, which promote various splits in the candidate, analytic dyad and group, as well as loyalty conflicts. The discussion covers three phases of the author's experience as a candidate-analysand, namely the period encompassing the institute's ethics investigation, the announcement of findings to her and to the institute as a group, and the ensuing individual and group dynamics generated by her analyst's expulsion from the institute and revocation of his medical license. Theoretical perspectives are utilized to understand the group regression, including contamination and contagion fears, which occurred in the wake of the training analyst's expulsion, and the impact of these processes on the candidate, including the pressure to function as a 'container' for projections of the group. Implications and recommendations for candidates and institutes are made for dealing helpfully with trainees who are affected by the process of dealing with a training analyst's ethical violations. Short-term and longer-term outcomes of the experience are considered. PMID:17908681
This study presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. It suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach.Because public relations seeks to establish a sense of community, a communitarian base to public relationsethics may enable
As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The decision to inform or not will vary depending on what moral theory is used. Utilising the utilitarian and libertarian theories produces different outcomes. The principles of justice and non?maleficence will also play an important role in the decision.
This paper discusses the ethics underlying the occupational repertoire of the post?industrial citizen, giving attention to lifestyle phenomena such as increased tempo and quantity of occupations; manipulation of time, organisms and environments; decreases in sleep, rest and play etc. In trying to understand human behavior in the 21 century, an ethicalperspective is delineated and some starting points for a
In the United States, professional ethics has become a standard part of engineering education. Such educational practice has an intellectual history that invites critical reflection. This article constitutes one such reflection, oriented not so much toward historical knowledge or the production of more engineers as toward developing a critical appreciation of engineering from a broad historico-ethicalperspective. The argument advances
Public relations students-as well as practitioners-can easily find themselves immersed in a very real experience of cognitive dissonance if they do not understand the important function that role differentiation plays in professional ethics. Unfortunately, any indepth examination of this important ethical concept seems all too often absent from the public relations literature. (An example of an exception is an article
Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-relatedethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1) providing equitable participation opportunities for students, (2) instituting ethical hiring practices
Warren A. Whisenant; Paul M. Pedersen; Galen Clavio
|The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the influences that computer-mediated communication (CMC) has and could have on the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. In doing this, ethical dilemmas and implications that arise from the technical affordances offered to CMC participants are discussed. Relational maintenance is integral to people's everyday lives. Yet, the ethical issues involve
This article investigates the attitudes of 230 finance practitioners with respect to ethical issues in their industry. The respondents' ethical ideology is first measured on the scales of idealism and relativism. Respondents are asked to react to behavior in five scenarios relating to the financial world, ranging from advice on questionable tax avoidance techniques to illegal insider trading. Overall idealism
This book examines ethical principles governing the conduct of teachers, administrators, and other education professionals. The collection of articles, some with conflicting views, provides an overview of the many issues that define the place of ethics in professional preparation and practice. Following the introduction, "Ethics in Educational…
Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance
Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country.
Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A
The debate about the appropriateness of seclusion as a nursing practice in inpatient settings in the 21st century continues, with powerful and often emotive arguments from those who view it as an anachronistic and punitive form of ward management, and from others who see it as a useful emergency measure to protect individuals from imminent harm. This is the first paper, however, to focus on legal and ethical issues in relation to the use of seclusion, with policies and practices in Australian psychiatric institutions viewed within the context of worldwide trends. The interplay of ethical principles and international mental health law has encouraged a move towards the provision of care and treatment of the disturbed psychiatric patient within the least restrictive environment, supposedly reducing the potential for the inappropriate use of control mechanisms. Nevertheless, current legislation can be seen to preserve the status quo because it legitimizes seclusion as an acceptable nursing practice, albeit within given parameters, thereby defusing the imperative to promote the reduction and abolition of psychiatric control mechanisms and seek new possibilities in mental health care. PMID:11842477
This research explores the historical perspective of business ethics from the viewpoint of the employer–employee relationship\\u000a by outlining the impact of the changing social contract between employer and employee relations from the end of World War\\u000a II to the current day; provides the basic definition of the key elements of the organizational social contract and outlines\\u000a the social contract in
These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment.
Ethical leadership is seen as important by many researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research on ethical leader behaviour is limited and to date multilevel research is hardly found in this area. This study examines the relationships of two forms of perceived ethical leader behaviour (fairness and integrity and empowering behaviour) with subordinates' trust and commitment from a levels-of-analysis perspective, using
Ethical leadership is seen as important by many researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research on ethical leader behaviour is limited and to date multilevel research is hardly found in this area. This study examines the relationships of two forms of perceived ethical leader behaviour (fairness and integrity and empowering behaviour) with subordinates' trust and commitment from a levels-of-analysis perspective, using
|This collection of essays reveals a keen awareness of the degree to which ethics and ethical systems are located in particular instructional contexts. The essays consider the implications of these contexts from a variety of perspectives, both theoretical and pedagogical. In the collection's first part, Ethics and the Composition Classroom, are…
Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-relatedethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…
Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen
|Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-relatedethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…
Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen
The aggressive manipulation of the natural resources in Kuwait and the destruction of the southern Arab marshes in Iraq, are two recent environmental disasters in the Arabian Gulf region. This paper elaborates some important principles of environmental ethics in Islam and shows some examples for which development of new Islamic thoughts in environmental ethics seems to be essential. As there
Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…
The placebo-controlled trial is widely regarded as the gold standard for testing the efficacy of new treatments; however, this research design is subject to ethical controversy, especially when standard treatments of proven efficacy exist. After examining regulatory standards and ethical codes relevant to placebo-controlled trials, I offer a critique of arguments against the use of placebo control groups in psychiatric
This paper describes research underpinning a course, developed in Australia, on ethics for engineers. The methodology used, that of identifying the principal ethical issues facing the discipline and designing the course around these issues, would be applicable to other disciplines and in other countries. The course was based on the assumption that…
|The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
|Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…
The obstetrician-gynecologist who provides expert witness testimony is recognized as an important participant in the medical liability system. He or she must define a standard of care and opine whether the standard has been breached and whether any perceived injury was caused by the breach. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) ethical guidelines insist that the testimony be objective (free from intentioned distortion) and that the witness not assume an advocacy or partisan role. The ethical and professional boundaries of appropriate expert testimony as delineated by ACOG are more restrictive than the legal boundaries. Members of ACOG should be held to more restrictive ACOG guidelines and egregious testimony condemned by ACOG. Prospective peer review, increased judicial review, and testimony banks are other examples of methods to improve the quality of expert witness testimony. Alternatives to litigation for medical liability disputes and further tort reform might also make the system fairer and more sustainable. PMID:16260525
Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144
In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethicalperspective to critique this assertion. According to utilitarianism, the "goodness" of an action is judged by its impact not only on the individual, but also upon others. As such, I review research demonstrating that suicide has harmful emotional, interpersonal, and economic effects upon individuals and society. Ultimately, the rightness or wrongness of choosing to commit suicide cannot be determined in isolation from the broader consequences of this choice. PMID:16773773
This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project\\u000a is part of a larger research initiative entitled “The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience\\u000a Together”. The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a “needs\\u000a assessment”
Holly Longstaff; Catherine A. Schuppli; Nina Preto; Darquise Lafrenière; Michael McDonald
This paper addresses the ethical and moral issues surrounding stem cell research (SCR) and development within the socio-economic and macro marketing environments. A two dimensional conceptual framework is developed towards broadening the understanding of the complexities of these issues in an international context. The conceptual model captures the two dimensions of narrow moral\\/ethical to broader imperatives and the cost-benefits realm
Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate. PMID:23443210
Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J
Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.
The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations.
NGUI, EMMANUEL M.; KHASAKHALA, LINCOLN; NDETEI, DAVID; ROBERTS, LAURA WEISS
Pharmaceutical production and distribution constitute big business. For the companies the rewards can be substantial. Rates of return on drug company investments tend to be higher than many other manufacturing enterprises. But reward is only one side of the story. There is also the issue of social risk, the focus of this article. Social risk for pharmaceutical production is especially pronounced. An ineffective or, worse, dangerous drug, can have dire consequences for the population at large. For this reason, there is elaborate government regulation and oversight of drug safety and risk. These systems, especially in the US and Europe, will be the main focus of this paper. The two systems will be described, and then compared and contrasted in terms of their framing of social risk and actions governments take to limit it. Systems elsewhere, especially in the developing world, are increasing in relative importance and these will be briefly discussed as well. Ethical issues that have arisen in these various systems will be surfaced and analysed. The paper will close with some conclusions and suggestions for further research. PMID:21406340
Critics have argued for a better understanding of power in transformational learning. This study explored the power of normative ideologies in the transformational learning of ethical vegans. The findings indicate that Mezirow's transformation theory does not adequately account for power relations in this case of transformational learning, power was central to the transformational learning of ethical vegans, relations of power
Barbara McDonald; Ronald M. Cervero; Bradley C. Courtenay
This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…
The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bioethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. PMID:19589880
This study describes nurse educators' knowledge of the ethical principles of professional codes of ethics and educators' assessment of the implementation of principles of fairness and human respect. Data for this study was collected from nurse educators in Finland. The data was analyzed by SPSS (15.0) for Windows. A total of 342 nurse educators participated. The response rate was 46%. Nurse educators knew well the ethical principles of professional codes governing their work. Older and more experienced educators knew the principles better than younger and less experienced. According to the educators the principle of fairness was implemented the best whereas fair treatment of nurse educators and respect for educators' opinions in the society were implemented the weakest. Educators who knew the principles well assessed themselves to act in a fairer way and to respect other persons' opinions in a better way than educators who knew these principles less well. They also felt themselves to be better treated than educators having less knowledge of the principles. These findings can be utilized to develop nurse educators' ethics education. Further research should focus on students', colleagues' and superiors' assessments of nurse educators' ethical knowledge base to gain comparative data on the phenomenon. PMID:22154952
Salminen, Leena; Metsämäki, Riikka; Numminen, Olivia H; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction threaten to exacerbate already dramatic disparities in the burden of drug dependence for minority and other underserved populations.
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction threaten to exacerbate already dramatic disparities in the burden of drug dependence for minority and other underserved populations. PMID:22003420
Ethics in Business organizations is a multidimensional process involving decision-making, leadership and institution building. The relatively simpler ethics of day-to-day decisions has to be reflected upon in the context of corporate desire for continuity, embedded in the values of a progressive society. At the operating level, the multivalence of decision situations is emphasized in place of the simple good —
|Teachers have a dual moral responsibility as both values educators and moral agents representing the integrity of the profession. Codes of ethics and conduct in teaching articulate shared professional values and aim to provide some guidance for action around recognised issues special to the profession but are also instruments of regulation which…
|The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…
Knowledge and technologic advancements have created a myriad of new screening, diagnostic, and treatment options for women of reproductive age. These new options often raise ethical issues as the women, their health care professionals, and society adapt to the benefits while coping with the pressures and burdens these options create. Threats to accomplishing the good that midwifery strives to contribute
Values and ethics are automatically incorporated into any teaching\\/learning environment or endeavour, whether or not they are consciously stated objectives. The focus on “quality of education” has sharpened as people have become concerned about a perceived rise in materialism as standards of living have improved; materialistic ambitions increasingly fill the ideological gap created by the move to a pluralistic society
|Values and ethics are automatically incorporated into any teaching/learning environment or endeavour, whether or not they are consciously stated objectives. The focus on "quality of education" has sharpened as people have become concerned about a perceived rise in materialism as standards of living have improved; materialistic ambitions…
In spite of a renewed interest in the relationship between spirituality and managerial thinking, the literature covering the link between Islam and \\u0009management has been sparse – especially in the area of ethics. One potential reason may be the cultural diversity of nearly 1.3 billion Muslims globally. Yet, one common element binding Muslim individuals and countries is normative Islam. Using
Values and ethics are automatically incorporated into any teaching/learning environment or endeavour, whether or not they are consciously stated objectives. The focus on "quality of education" has sharpened as people have become concerned about a perceived rise in materialism as standards of living have improved; materialistic ambitions…
Considerable controversy has surrounded the use of computerized performance monitoring (CPM) by employers. Critics of this technology contend that CPM usage raises serious ethical concerns. Beliefs that the use of computerized performance monitors results in unfair performance evaluation, stress and health problems underlie much of the current concern over this technology. A field study was undertaken to provide empirical evidence
|Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…
This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…
In recent years, the live broadcasting of medical and surgical procedures has gained worldwide popularity. While the practice has appropriately been met with concerns for patient safety and privacy, many physicians tout the merits of real time viewing as a form of investigation, accelerating the process leading to adoption or abolition of newer techniques or technologies. This view introduces a new series of ethical considerations that need to be addressed. As such, this article considers, from a research ethicsperspective, the use of live surgical procedure broadcast for investigative purposes. PMID:21292217
Williams, Judson B; Mathews, Robin; D'Amico, Thomas A
|Focusing on ethics in public relations from a multicultural point of view brings together elements which are critical to international public relations. The Public Relations-Ethics-Multicultural (PREM) model illustrates that articles can be found in the literature on ethics, public relations, and multicultural as individual concepts. The…
Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable one to control peripheral ICT and robotic devices by processing brain activity on-line.\\u000a The potential usefulness of BCI systems, initially demonstrated in rehabilitation medicine, is now being explored in education,\\u000a entertainment, intensive workflow monitoring, security, and training. Ethical issues arising in connection with these investigations\\u000a are triaged taking into account technological imminence and pervasiveness of
This article focuses on relationalethics in research with intimate others. Relationalethics requires researchers to act from our hearts and minds, acknowledge our interpersonal bonds to others, and take responsibility for actions and their consequences. Calling on her own research studies, the author examines relationalethics in ethnographies in which researchers are friends with or become friends with participants
Genetic testing is traditionally preceded by counselling to discuss its advantages and disadvantages with individuals so they can make informed decisions. The new technique of whole genome or exome sequencing, which is currently only used in research settings, can identify many gene mutations, including substantial numbers of mutations with unknown pathological effect; it may, therefore, threaten this balanced approach if it is used in a clinical setting. We discuss the ethical challenges of several approaches to pre- and postnatal DNA testing, individual privacy versus the interests of families and of scientists, and the clinician's duty to re-contact if new information or options become available. PMID:21574071
Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.
The concept of dignity is notoriously vague. In this paper it is argued that the reason for this is that there are three versions of dignity that are often confused. First we will take a short look at the history of the concept of dignity in order to demonstrate how already from Roman Antiquity two versions of dignity can be distinguished. Subsequently, the third version will be introduced and it will be argued that although the three versions of dignity hang together, they should also be clearly distinguished in order to avoid confusion. The reason for distinguishing the three versions is because all three of them are only partially effective. This will be demonstrated by taking the discussion about voluntary 'dying with dignity' as an example. Inspired by both Paul Ricoeur's concept of ethics and the ethics of care a proposition will be done as to how the three versions of dignity may sustain each other and help achieve what neither one of the versions can do on its own. PMID:22791296
In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethicalperspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.
The focus of this article is on issues related to ethics teaching and training in situations in which participants are from varying cultural backgrounds. After a review of relevant literature, we describe our personal experiences with two different ethics-related courses. Literature review Universities and corporations that address ethics training today often face new challenges due to the changing demographics in
Judith A. Kolb; Dee Frisque; Hong Lin; Allen Bonsell
...2012-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions Â§ 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...
|This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics…
Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-relatedperspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken. PMID:22352319
We make recommendations for ethics research in public policy based on the experience of public administration. In many ways, literature in public administration on ethicsrelates appropriately to public policy, albeit with specific gaps and specific peculiarities. The specific gaps apply particularly to aspects of public policy that are not especially emphasized in public administration (e.g., ethics in policy formulation
MANY ETHICAL CONCERNS REVOLVE AROUND THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH: merit and integrity, respect for human beings, weighting of risk-benefit and justice. These principles form the basis for any discussion concerning human research ethics and are applicable to all areas of research including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. World Health Organisation document, Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, states that 'consideration should be given to the different value systems that are involved in human rights such as social, cultural and historical issues' and that 'further studies should be conducted in relation to ethical issues involved in clinical research on acupuncture'. In addition to outlining the four basic principles, this paper will also examine the effect of Asian culture on Western human research ethics and how this may impact upon issues such as informed consent and weighting of risk-benefit. PMID:18955359
Complementary medicine continues to increase in popularity in the general community. As a result it is likely that requests for the administration of complementary medicine to intensive care patients will be more frequent in the future. It is therefore prudent for intensive care clinicians to address this issue and develop an approach that is consistent. Complementary medicine has not been subjected to well conducted trials to determine its efficacy and risks. Consequently decisions about its use cannot be based on risk/benefit analyses and genuine informed consent cannot be achieved. Therefore complementary medicine should not be incorporated into intensive care practice. Strict adherence to a policy of negating requests for administration of complementary medicine in intensive care patients may result in significant conflicts between intensive care clinicians, patients and families. On occasions the patient or family may insist on the use of complementary medicine and it may be seen as important to their psychological wellbeing to accede to the request. The intensive care clinician is still legally responsible for any treatment administered to the patient, even if it is against medical advice. Nevertheless if there is no demonstrable risk to the patient, complementary medicine can be administered following appropriate counselling and documentation. This review addresses the legal and ethical difficulties that may arise and an approach that may be followed when requests are made for complementary medicine in intensive care patients. PMID:11439792
Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students attending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper
Systems theory has been critiqued by a number of feminist writers who felt that it did not adequately address the issues of violence and male domination in families. This essay argues that systems theory describes the world from an "exogenic" perspective--the scientific world of nature, which is intrinsically amoral. In the exogenic world all causality is circular, as nature maintains a system that has survived for billions of years. Bateson found "mind" to be within the system of nature, implying that mind must also be amoral. However, most people view the world from an "endogenic" perspective, a personal construction of reality molded by the environment in which they live, and which inevitably incorporates morality. Humans believe that violence is wrong, not for intellectual reasons, but for moral reasons. Implications for therapy are presented. A postmodern or constructivist position is taken as a way to acknowledge the influence of relationships on problems and definitions of problems, while allowing for a moral or legal consensus to pervade the therapeutic enterprise. PMID:9589281
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics of challenging normative notions and master narratives around
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…
|Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…
|Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical…
Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical…
Truth-telling in healthcare practice can be regarded as a universal communicative virtue; however, there are different views on what consequence it has for giving or diminishing hope. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the concepts of truth-telling and hope from a relationalethics approach in the context of healthcare practice. Healthcare staff protect themselves and others to preserve hope in the care of seriously sick patients and in end-of-life care. This is done by balancing truth-telling guided by different conditions such as the cultural norms of patients, family and staff. Our main conclusion is that the balancing of truth-telling needs to be decided in a mutual understanding in the caring relationship, but hope must always be inspired. Instead of focusing on autonomy as the only guiding principle, we would like to propose that relationalethics can serve as a meaningful perspective in balancing truth-telling. PMID:22140184
Background: The growing expectation that health practitioners should be ethically attuned and responsive to the broader humanistic and moral dimensions of their practice has seen a rise in medical ethics courses in universities. Many of these courses incorporate creative expressive encounters—such as the exploration and interpretation of poetry, art, music, and literature—as a powerful vehicle for increasing understanding of the
Purpose: To discuss the current official legal position of the Greek Council and the official international statement on the subject, as well as the emerging cultural and moral aspects on the issue of informing the cancer patient. Methods: Perusal of national and international legal and ethics sources, under a multidisciplinary perspective. Results: According to the Council of State of Greece the violation of informing the patient by the physician constitutes urban liability and disciplinary offence. The Greek Code of Medical Ethics declares that the physician is obliged to inform his patient about his health and respect the desire of the patient who decides not to be informed. The UNESCO declaration does not seem to clarify the subject. In Greece, physicians have the tendency to tell the truth more often today than in the past, reflecting the global tendency, although the majority still discloses the truth to the next of kin. The difference in the tactics of informing in several nations reflects huge cultural, social, economic and religious differences in each society. Conclusion: Well informed and knowledgeable health-care and legal professionals, alongside with patients and ethical directors, should sit at the same table in order to productively discuss the most sensitive matters of the contemporary medical practice. PMID:24065501
Kousathana, L; Kousathana, F; Karamanou, M; Kousoulis, A A
|In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…
McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.
In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…
McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.
Ryan and Martinson (1983) and other scholars argued that the corporate conscience role should belong in the public relations function. But, how common is the use of ethics counsel among public relations professionals? This qualitative research found that many public relations practitioners indeed perform the role of ethics counsel or corporate conscience in their organizations. However, a state of neglect
This article explores cynicism as an ethical issue associated with the blurring of content and advertising in mass media. From a communitarian perspective and adapting Hardin's (1968) metaphorical use of “commons” to the domain of broadcasting, we surveyed the attitudes of individuals toward two phenomena of media saturation (product placement and video news releases) and three constructs (cynicism directed toward
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. 19.735-102 Section...General Provisions Â§ 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations. In addition to...
The increasing number and influence of women in society brings up several issues related to values and ethics. Looking at business ethics from the gender perspective made us ponder if it would be fruitful to analyse the feminine and masculine dimensions of decision-making style. The article follows the research tradition using the multidimensional ethics scale, and it aims at developing
In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…
There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to
|In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…
This study examines the effects of demographic characteristics on ethical perceptions. While earlier research has produced conflicting results regarding the predictive power of these variables, significant and definite insights were obtained with proper controls. The following predictors of ethical attitudes are examined: age, gender, marital status, education, dependent children status, region of the country and years in business, while controlling
The AIDS epidemic has presented many new ethical dilemmas regarding psychologists’ obligations to their clients and third parties. Both ethical and legal norms remain unsettled in regard to most of these dilemmas. In general, psychologists should strive to protect the privacy of their clients and to promote the welfare of individuals affected by AIDS. When compelling interests of third parties
Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…
Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan
|Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…
Sixty-five computer science and computer information systems students were surveyed to ascertain their ethical beliefs on seven scenarios and nineteen ethical problems. All seven scenarios incorporated computer-related problems facing programmers and managers in the high tech world. Hypotheses were tested for significant differences between the students' beliefs and the beliefs of experts in the field who responded to the same
BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. METHODS: A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews
This paper examines ethical issues involved in the mass marketing of securities to individuals. The marketing of products\\u000a deemed “socially questionable” or “sinful” (like tobacco and alcohol) has long been recognized as posing special ethical challenges\\u000a (Kotler, P. and S. Levy: 1971, Harvard Business Review\\u000a 49, 74–80; Davidson, D. K: 1996, Selling Sin: The Marketing of Socially Unacceptable Products (Quorum
Western philosophical approaches, such as utilitarianism, have informed journalism and public relations practices in the West with little regard for non-Western frameworks. To rectify the ethnocentrism of ethical reasoning prevalent in Western public relations practices, we discuss two non-Western philosophical foundations: the palaver-tree concept from Africa and Confucianism from Asia. By focusing on the philosophical base as the first step
The purpose of this study is to indicate the significance of a leader's ability to reflect his or her vision, power and values to the employees and enable each of them to consider him or herself as an ethical leader. In order to attain such an objective, the issues, including what kind of communication vision the employees should develop, their
When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052
This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and EthicalPerspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.
|With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…
Leaders should be a key source of ethical guidance for employees. Yet, little empirical research focuses on an ethical dimension of leadership. We propose social learning theory as a theoretical basis for understanding ethical leadership and offer a constitutive definition of the ethical leadership construct. In seven interlocking studies, we investigate the viability and importance of this construct. We develop
Michael E. Brown; Linda K. Treviño; David A. Harrison
Will we find life on other planets? Will we reproduce the origins of life in a laboratory? A growing number of researchers in a relatively young but exploding field of science believe that we will accomplish one or both of these goals, and possibly not that long from now. The field is astrobiology -- the NASA funded basic research program that is searching for life, the conditions for life's origins, and the essential ingredients of life both on and off (indeed, sometimes unimaginably far from) Earth, the planet we've come to take for granted as life's home in the universe. The goals of NASA's astrobiology program; to explore the origin, extent, and future of life, raise fundamental philosophical, ethical and theological questions. A serious and responsible consideration of the societal implications of the goals and discoveries of astrobiology will require the scientific community to engage with a broader academic and pubic community.As a first step in this outreach and engagement effort, the AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion (DoSER), with support from NASA and the John Templeton Foundation, organized a series of three workshops that began to identify and address the philosophical, ethical, and theological (PET) issues associated with astrobiology. The group assembled for the series included astrobiologists, theologians, ethicists, philosophers and historians. The workshops are listed below, all were held in Washington, DC.
Few studies have examined the theoretical underpinning of contextual theory. Using structural equation modeling, the relationship\\u000a among relationalethics (recognized as the most important aspect of contextual theory), marital satisfaction, depression,\\u000a and illness was examined. Data came from a national sample of 632 mid-life, married individuals. Results supported Nagy’s\\u000a contextual theory. The total score of the RelationalEthics Scale was
Heath A. Grames; Richard B. Miller; W. David Robinson; Derrel J. Higgins; W. Jeff Hinton
An ethical code of conduct is developed to guide behaviors of members in or of organizations. Accountants, in this context, are not an exception. The availability of such ethical code of conduct is extremely important for both accountants and users of accounting information. However, currently in Yemen, there is no ethical code of conduct for Yemeni professional accountants. Hence, a
The belief that educational leaders need to be ethical decision-makers is recent. Thomas and Bainbridge suggest that an educational leader needs to develop technical competency in ethical leadership. Yet few leaders in schools have been trained in conflict resolution of an ethical nature and little importance has been given to this within existing…
|Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…
Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…
This paper critically reviews the literature relating to the management of ethics within organizations and identifies, in line with other authors, a gap between theory and practice in the area. It highlights the role of management (both as an academic discipline and from a practitioner perspective) in bridging this gap and views managers, with their sense of individual ethical agency,
An international perspective on the ethics of AIDS focuses on the dichotomy between the liberal view of the right to privacy and the communitarian view of traditional public health practices. Although most liberal societies espouse the right to privacy, Western countries differ widely in how they handle such issues as closing of gay baths, reporting HIV/AIDS, performing seroprevalence surveys, contact tracing, use of isolation and quarantine, prosecuting those who spread HIV sexually, and informing patients that clinicians have HIV. Common questions confront all societies, despite their different traditions and legal systems. Conventional approaches to public health stemming from epidemics of the 19th century included mandatory screening, isolation, quarantine, contact tracing, and breaking patient confidentiality. There are indications that the new approach for HIV, termed "HIV exceptionalism" is changing: in the US contact tracing is appearing; and better management of the disease is prompting early identification. The political choices for the West involve ensuring that the interests of the weak and powerless will be protected in a way that is compatible with the liberal tradition as well as the scientific tenets of public health. The most profound political challenge, however, is how to deal with the massive suffering of people with AIDS in the Third World, who are enduring an epidemiologic catastrophe willfully ignored by the wealthy nations. PMID:1388872
With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.
The way in which midwives relate to expectant parents during the process of childbirth greatly influences the parents' childbirth experiences for a long time. We believe that examining and describing ways of relating in naturally occurring interactions during childbirth should be considered as an ethical responsibility. This has been highlighted in relation to parents' experiences and in the light of the relationalethics of Løgstrup. Four couples' and nine midwives' ways of relating were documented by 27 hours of observation, including 14.5 hours of video-recorded sessions. A qualitative content analysis was conducted. The midwives strongly influenced the different ways of relating and three aspects of professional competence were disclosed. The results can contribute to reflections about current praxis as an ethical demand for midwives. PMID:16312089
This study examined the links among ego development and the ethics of care and justice in 144 Norwegian men and women, 15 to 48 years old, taking into consideration age, sex, education, and verbal intelligence. As expected, the relationship between Loevinger's model of ego development and care-based moral reasoning as measured with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI) was significantly stronger than the one between ego development and justice as measured with Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT). Both ethics correlated significantly with verbal ability. Analyses showed that beyond its overlap with verbal intelligence, the variance shared between the ECI and ego development was substantial. By contrast, when verbal intelligence was controlled, the DIT was not significantly related to ego development or to the care ethic. PMID:12095188
The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982
Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B
Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.
While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some of these considerations including religious-cultural-ethical values, access to care and cost of services, developmental capacity and consent, and posthumous reproduction. PMID:24088162
Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Essig, Ellen; Breech, Lesley L; Lindheim, Steven
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing\\u000a research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and\\u000a ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based\\u000a on
Using the framework of the Professional Bond, issued by The Commission on Public Relations Education (2006), this study explores global public relations curriculum and how educators from other countries discuss ethics education. This study employed a content analysis of curricula descriptions on college and university Web sites and interviews with public relations professors globally. Web sites of over 218 schools
Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethicalperspectives (see Figure 1).
This research study represents an attempt to examine ethical inclination, similarities and differences between public relations students in Russia and the United States. Scholars recognize that perception of an ethical issue is an important prerequisite for the ethical decision process, and this survey explored perceptions of 377 American and Russian public relations students regarding professional ethics and leadership styles. Results
Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethicsperspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'. PMID:22065242
|Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…
Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.
This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in
Journalistic practice and professionalism across the globe are characterized by certain universals as well as unique particularities. In most post-colonial societies, the ethical philosophies and professional ethos of journalists reflect the tension between the commitment to integrity and social responsibility, shared by journalists worldwide, and the contextual interpretation and application of these principles. This article examines the ethics and ethos
Three dimensions of how Buddhism is received in the West as a psychological and ethical system are outlined, based on the connection between mental balance and ethical behaviour in the Buddhist system: Buddhism as an indigenous psychology; parts of the system of Buddhism integrated in Western psychotherapy; and new movements in Western Buddhism, which are in critical dialogue with scientific
Three dimensions of how Buddhism is received in the West as a psychological and ethical system are outlined, based on the connection between mental balance and ethical behaviour in the Buddhist system: Buddhism as an indigenous psychology; parts of the system of Buddhism integrated in Western psychotherapy; and new movements in Western Buddhism, which are in critical dialogue with scientific
The last decade has witnessed the emergence of international ethics guidelines discussing the importance of disclosing global and also, in certain circumstances, individual genetic research results to participants. This discussion is all the more important considering the advent of pharmacogenomics and the increasing incidence of ‘translational’ genetic research in the post-genomic era. We surveyed both the literature and the ethical
Bartha Maria Knoppers; Yann Joly; Jacques Simard; Francine Durocher
In this paper we illustrate how ways of thinking about ethics are tied up with sport and physical education practice and introduce an alternative approach that can help to develop ethical pedagogies. We begin by locating socio-moral education in physical education within historical and contemporary pedagogical scholarship. Our argument is that the work of today's physical educators is still shaped
|This book describes in five chapters how the Harvard Business School has redeveloped its curriculum to place leadership, ethics, and corporate responsibility at the center of its mission. Chapter 1, "Rediscovery of Purpose: The Genesis of the Leadership, Ethics, and Corporate Responsibility Initiative," (Thomas R. Piper) describes the context for…
Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-relatedethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),
Based on a survey of recent alumni from two different institutions, this study indicates that media ethics instruction corresponds with ethical awareness and ethical leadership. Graduates who took media ethics courses were significantly more likely than those who did not to consider ethical issues in their profession important. They were more likely to value ethics highly, to be able to
Abstract Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450
The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research.
THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed.
This study gathered baseline data on the moral development of 118 public relations professionals. The respondents scored 7th highest among all professionals tested. They performed significantly better when the ethical dilemmas were about public relations issues than when they were not, indicating domain expertise on ethical issues. No significant differences were found between men and women, or managers and nonmanagers.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the ethical concept of organizational due process in relation to contemporary issues in the utilization of company grievance procedures in the rapidly growing nonunion arena. Another objective of this paper is to appraise the current practices that employers have evolved for resolving issues generated by grievances, particularly those
Aberrant consumer behaviour costs firms millions of pounds a year, and the Internet has provided young techno-literate consumers with a new medium to exploit businesses. This paper addresses Internet relatedethics and describes the ways in which young consumers misdemean on the Internet and their attitudes towards these. Using a sample of 219 generation Y consumers, the study identified 24
Pregnancy registries should be devised so that the interests of science, society, and the individual are all considered. For example, there may be ethical issues that relate to how women are chosen to participate in the registry and how informed consent is obtained. In most cases, consent is required for both the mother and the infant. Some institutional review boards
Jacqueline A. French; Kimford Meador; Avital Cnaan; Frank Gilliam; Jill Conway; Richardae Araojo; Karen Feibus
The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient. PMID:24034000
Panocchia, N; Bossola, M; Silvestri, P; Midolo, E; Teleman, A A; Tazza, L; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Di Pietro, M L; Spagnolo, A G
The common view is that insider trading is always unethical and illegal. But such is not the case. Some forms of insider trading\\u000a are legal. Furthermore, applying ethical principles to insider trading causes one to conclude that it is also sometimes ethical.\\u000a This paper attempts to get past the hype, the press reports, and the political grandstanding to get to
Is a child's assent to participate in research that does not have the potential to directly benefit the child ethically mandated? Analysis of this particular dilemma of health care research in children using two competing theories results in different answers. Deontology (principle-based ethics) will be contrasted with utilitarianism (consequentialism). Historical cases of research with children will be used as exemplars of these two theoretical positions. PMID:18814566
Despite the increasingly multinational nature of the workplace, there have been few studies of the convergence and divergence\\u000a in beliefs about ethics-based leadership across cultures. This study examines the meaning of ethical and unethical leadership\\u000a held by managers in six societies with the goal of identifying areas of convergence and divergence across cultures. More specifically,\\u000a qualitative research methods were used
Christian J. Resick; Gillian S. Martin; Mary A. Keating; Marcus W. Dickson; Ho Kwong Kwan; Chunyan Peng
Capacity1 is at the heart of ethical decision making in healthcare. For those who subscribe to a principled approach to moral reasoning\\u000a (Gillon, 1985; Gillon and Lloyd, 1993; Beauchamp and Childress, 1994), autonomy is often said to be pre-eminent amongst the four principles of medical ethics2, or at least “first amongst equals” (Gillon, 2003). For those who prefer methods of
Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.
A lecture-only course that uses current references to explore views on the human/nature relationship. Topics include definitions of environmental ethics, sustainability, "centrisms," "Green Politics," "Deep Ecology," "The Land Ethic," and conflict analysis, with additional highlights on American-Indian perspectives and value systems. Emphasis is placed on analysis of scientific evidence in the context of environmental ethics.
The Article explores Rwanda's ongoing social experiment in people's courts (gacaca) from the perspectives of international fair trial standards and normative ethics and seeks to challenge some of the major intuitive and counter-intuitive assumptions regarding the necessity and utility of the experiment that tend to shield it from objective analysis. These assumptions consist in: First, contemporary gacaca is based on
This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…
BackgroundMoral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex,
Ricardo Cáceda; G. Andrew James; Timothy D. Ely; John Snarey; Clinton D. Kilts
Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes.
Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarvari, Ali; Milanifar, Alireza; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi
Physicians often are asked for advice about medical matters by relatives and friends. These range from requests for simple\\u000a information to requests for medical opinion and judgment and more substantial involvement by the physician. I comment on the\\u000a motivations and expectations of the requester and the physician, and the legal, ethical, and practical considerations related\\u000a to such requests. I recommend:
The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce 'ethical problems' for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two 'grey areas' raised by staff are discussed in terms of how far staff are, or in the future may be, able to support autonomous choices of women/couples: accepting 'carrier' embryos within the goal of creating a 'healthy' child; and sex selection of embryos for social reasons. These grey areas challenged the staff's resolve to offer individual informed choice, in the face of their awareness of possible collective social effects that might ensue from individual choices. We therefore argue that these new forms of choice pose a challenge to conventional models of individual autonomy used in UK genetic and reproductive counselling, and that 'relational autonomy' may be a more suitable ethical model to describe the ethical principles being drawn on by staff working in this area. PMID:18092985
Introduction Critical care doctors are frequently faced with clinical problems that have important ethical and moral dimensions. While\\u000a Western attitudes and practice are well documented, little is known of the attitudes or practice of Chinese critical care\\u000a doctors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods An anonymous, written, structured questionnaire survey was translated from previously reported ethical surveys used in Europe\\u000a and Hong Kong. A snowball method was
Li Weng; Gavin M. Joynt; Anna Lee; Bin Du; Patricia Leung; Jinming Peng; Charles D. Gomersall; Xiaoyun Hu; Hui Y. Yap
Summary Adolescents globally are at high risk for HIV acquisition and are the targets of HIV prevention interventions such as HIV vaccines. In order to understand stakeholders’ attitudes towards the ethical issues of adolescent involvement in HIV vaccine trials, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of a semi-urban, informal Cape Town community with high HIV prevalence in which HIV vaccine trials are taking place. Themes were identified from focus group transcripts by four researchers, and included necessity of guardian consent, age of independent consent, and confidentiality of in-trial medical results. In general, ethical adolescent HIV vaccine trials will be feasible in this community.
Jaspan, Heather B; Soka, Nosiphiwo F; Strode, Ann E; Mathews, Catherine; Mark, Daniella; Flisher, Alan J; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail
|Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…
A new perspective of the ethics of scholarly writing is described that may overcome some of the problems associated with more familiar approaches to solving the ethical dilemmas that writers face. Instead of relying on an external standard, such as a code of ethics, authors are encouraged to internalize the ethics of scholarly writing as a part of developing their
:A new perspective of the ethics of scholarly writing is described that may overcome some of the problems associated with more familiar approaches to solving the ethical dilemmas that writers face. Instead of relying on an external standard, such as a code of ethics, authors are encouraged to internalize the ethics of scholarly writing as a part of developing their
...of administering its ethics program to require its...non-Federal employment or business relationship involving...The Designated Agency Ethics Official (DAEO) and...Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official (Alternate...non-Federal employment or business relationship...
The ability to communicate with patients is part of health care practice and contributes to the humanization of such care and to the objectives. With basic coaching tools and personalized attention, the life of the patient can be transformed from the first moments of intervention. Beyond words, patient, in all their multidimensionality, need to be comforted and fell that they are being taken care of. The health care professionals transmits information verbally and non-verbally. ?Positive? consultations are described as warm, friendly, firm and reassuring, and there exists an emphatic response to the cognitive and emotional concerns of the patient. The opposite approach involves the assumption of roles and a lack of empathy (paternalism, servility, authoritarianism, laissez-faire, etc.). The ability to communicate is an ethical need in health care training. A personalized perspective, open to transcendence, is especially suitable in the health field, where communication must take into account the complex reality that the patient is living. PMID:23320637
Montaner Abasolo, M Carmen; Soler Company, Enrique
Many business schools have become heavily dependent on microcomputers for educational purposes. That exposes them to a new type of ethical issue---the ramifications involved with unauthorized software copying by faculty, staff, and students. This article presents the results of a field survey on software piracy and software security in 241 member schools of the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of
Educational researchers working with young children face ethical issues when researching the talk and interactions of young children. Issues around the competence of children to participate in research pose challenges to educational researchers and to the young participants and their families, within what are seen as increasingly risky and regulated research environments. This paper examines some of these issues in
It is argued in this paper that the practice of psychological testing in South Africa needs to be understood in terms of the impact that past apartheid political policies have had on test development and use. I first reflect on the past and then present and discuss current issues that threaten the fair and ethical use of tests. Finally, I
|In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, "social justice," "race," "ethnicity" and "identity." This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal…
The human resources profession emphasizes the personal and interpersonal aspects of work, that make it conscious of complex ethical issues in relationships in the workplace, while finance specialists are conversant with routine compliance with regulations. Marketing professionals are under pressure to produce revenue results. Thus, this research hypothesized that human resources managers would be more disapproving of unethical conduct than
In spite of a renewed interest in the relationship between spirituality and managerial thinking, the literature covering the link between Islam and management has been sparse - especially in the area of ethics. One potential reason may be the cultural diversity of nearly 1.3 billion Muslims globally. Yet, one common element binding Muslim individuals and countries is normative Islam. Using
|Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…
This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20, 000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples
George R. Franke; Deborah F. Crown; Deborah F. Spake
Human performance technologies include among others the use of psycho-active pharmaceuticals. In trying to answer the question if the use of psycho-active pharmaceuticals in the military is ethically acceptable, a psycho-medical model with four guiding qu...
|This pre- and post-test study examined value system changes resulting from a media ethics course. Over three semesters, 74 students participated in the study. They were given M. Rokeach's lists of terminal and instrumental values on the first day and again on the last day of class and asked to rank each value on the lists in terms of its…
Adverse drug events are common, especially in risk groups such as elderly persons. Many of the adverse drug events are preventable. The age-related changes in the different body functions have an impact on drug therapy: adjustments are required for the selection of drugs and dosages in elderly patients. Kidney function declines with age; as a consequence, drug excretion via the kidneys declines with increasing age. Also, the metabolic clearance of drugs that display a high hepatic extraction is reduced in elderly persons and the dosage of these drugs should be adapted. The present review summarizes the main findings related to the topic. Human beings make errors. Ensuring patient safety is a key issue. For elderly patients more information is required to establish a solid knowledge base. It is therefore necessary to include elderly patients in appropriate clinical trials in order to ensure that the necessary information can be accumulated. PMID:18600011
Human biomonitoring is a promising tool for assessing environmental exposure and its potential relation with biomarkers, diseases and\\/or disorders in humans including children. Research with children is essential; however, if the research questions can be resolved by recruitment of adults it is not justified to include children. In general, considerations of using the less-invasive techniques and cost-efficiency have to be
Marie Pedersen; Domenico Franco Merlo; Lisbeth E. Knudsen
The paper begins with a brief statement about the centrality of autonomy or self governance as a core ethical value in the interaction between health care worker and patient. Then there are three stories describing everyday interactions in an acute psychiatric unit. These are used to help unravel ethical issues relating to patient autonomy. Each story is analysed for its ethical components by describing the protagonists' different perspectives, and their reactions to the events. Attention is also paid to institutional policy. Suggestions are made for small changes in both staff behaviour and institutional procedures. Such changes could enhance rather than diminish patient autonomy.
This article portrays the unique aspects of ethics education in a multicultural, multireligious and conflict-based atmosphere among Jewish and Arab nursing students in Jerusalem, Israel. It discusses the principles and the methods used for rising above this tension and dealing with this complicated situation, based on Yoder's ;bridging' method. An example is used of Jewish and Arab students together implementing two projects in 2008, when the faculty decided to co-operate with communities in East Jerusalem, the Arab side of the city. The students took it upon themselves to chaperon the teachers who came to watch them at work, translate, and facilitate interaction with a guarded and suspicious community. This approach could also be relevant to less extreme conditions in any inter-religious environment when trying to produce graduates with a strong ethical awareness. PMID:19528100
Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381
Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A
Autonomous robots that are capable of learning are being developed to make it easier for human actors to achieve their goals.\\u000a As such, robots are primarily a means to an end and replace human actions (or parts of them). An interdisciplinary technology\\u000a assessment was carried out to determine the extent to which a replacement of this kind makes ethical sense
Summary A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining\\u000a innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values\\u000a and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for\\u000a analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public
Perry D. Cohen; Linda Herman; Sheryl Jedlinski; Peggy Willocks; Paula Wittekind
The role of observers has been generally ignored in prior theories and research on social-sexual behavior at work. This study proposed and tested an ethical decision making model of individuals’ reactions to social-sexual behavior that they witness at work. Full-time employees responded to vignettes regarding an incident of social-sexual behavior. The findings revealed the influence of both the moral intensity
The role of observers has been generally ignored in prior theories and research on social-sexual behavior at work. This study proposed and tested an ethical decision making model of individuals’ reactions to social-sexual behavior that they witness at work. Full-time employees responded to vignettes regarding an incident of social-sexual behavior. The findings revealed the influence of both the moral intensity
The provision of life-sustaining ventilation, such as tracheostomy to critically ill patients, is commonly performed. However, the utilization of tracheostomy or extubation after a withdrawal of treatment decision is debated. There is a dearth of practical information available to aid clinical decision making because withdrawal of treatment is a challenging scenario for all concerned. This is further complicated by medicolegal and ethical considerations. Care of the "hopelessly ill" patient should be based on daily evaluation and comfort making it impossible to fit into general algorithms. Although respect for autonomy is important in healthcare, it is limited for patients in an unconscious state. Beneficence remains the basis for withdrawing treatment in futile cases and underpins the "doctrine of double effect." This article presents a relevant clinical case of hypoxic brain injury where a question of withdrawal of treatment arose and examines the ethical, clinical, and medicolegal considerations inherent in such cases, including beneficence, nonmaleficence, and the "sanctity of life doctrine." In addition, the considerations of prognosis for recovery, patient autonomy, patient quality of life, and patient family involvement, which are central to decision making, are addressed. The varying legal frameworks that exist internationally regarding treatment withdrawal are also described. Good ethics needs sound facts, and despite the lack of legal foundation in several countries, withdrawal of treatment remains practiced, and the principles described within this article aim to aid clinician decision making during such complex and multifaceted end-of-life decisions. PMID:19850443
This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.
This article explores the implications of contemporary relationalperspectives for transforming our understanding and use of the concept of parallel process in supervisory relationships in social work field instruction. We review the history of the concept of parallel process, summarize current relational views in psychodynamic supervision, and critique the social work literature in light of the paradigmatic shift to a
|In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…
This column is designed to provide perspectives on language arts education from beyond the traditional boundaries of the field; that is, from non-educational yet related fields such as linguistics, anthropology, electronic media, literature, psychology, fine arts. In short, it provides perspectives from persons who are scholars in the study of communication or experts whose profession is communicating effectively. Whenever one
To incorporate medical ethics into clinical practice, it must first be understood and valued by health care professionals. The recognition of this principle led to an expanding and continuing educational effort by the ethics committee of the Vancouver General Hospital. This paper reviews this venture, including some pitfalls and failures, as well as successes. Although we began with consultants, it
Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as "The Doctors' Trial". This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them. PMID:17223241
López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Dudley, Michael; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Okasha, Ahmed
\\u000a This chapter discusses the ethical aspects of end-of-life decisions in dementia. It is written against the background of societal\\u000a opinions, moral values and practices regarding dementia care in the Netherlands. The range of medical decisions concerning\\u000a the end-of-life in dementia varies from refraining from treatment (non-treatment decision) to decisions to actively terminate\\u000a the life of the patient (i.e. physician assisted
PURPOSE The increasing attention paid to community-based research highlights the question of whether human research protections focused on the individual are adequate to safeguard communities. We conducted a study to explore how community members perceive low-risk health research, the adequacy of human research protection processes, and the ethical conduct of community-based research. METHODS Eighteen focus groups were conducted among rural and urban Hispanic and Native American communities in New Mexico using a semistructured guide. Group transcriptions were analyzed using iterative readings and coding, with review of the analytic summary by group members. RESULTS Although participants recognized the value of health research, many also identified several adverse effects of research in their communities, including social (community and individual labeling, stigmatization, and discrimination) and economic (community job losses, increased insurance rates, and loss of community income). A lack of community beneficence was emphasized by participants who spoke of researchers who fail to communicate results adequately or assist with follow-through. Many group members did not believe current human research and data privacy processes were adequate to protect or assist communities. CONCLUSIONS Ethical review of community-based health research should apply the Belmont principles to communities. Researchers should adopt additional approaches to community-based research by engaging communities as active partners throughout the research process, focusing on community priorities, and taking extra precautions to assure individual and community privacy. Plans for meaningful dissemination of results to communities should be part of the research design.
Williams, Robert L.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert; Kalishman, Summers; Sussman, Andrew L.; Freeman, William L.
Toys represent children's chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children.
|This paper arises from a PhD research project originally designed to search for innovative ways to stimulate environmental education (EE) in Kuwaiti middle schools. The research has shown that Islam shares similar fundamental principles to those underpinning "ecocentric" perspectives emerging in the West and increasingly thought necessary for…
Supervision is an activity filled with ethical dilemmas related to the power held by the supervisor, a power that should be exercised with care. This article explores some of these dilemmas through the analysis of supervision vignettes viewed from the perspective of social constructionism, in particular, from the insights of French philosopher Michel Foucault. It concludes with suggestions to exercise
Phillipe Copeland; Ruth G. Dean; Stephanie P. Wladkowski
|This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)|
This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)
|This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…
This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…
Having been largely unknown as a clinical entity, the narcissistic personality has recently come into the limelight. It is argued that one critical component in the orientation of leaders is the quality and intensity of their narcissistic development. In this paper, the relationship between narcissism and leadership is explored. Using concepts taken from psychoanalytic object relations theory, three narcissistic configurations
Executives in 94 large UK companies engaging in cause related marketing (CRM) completed a questionnaire concerning (i) their firms' approaches to the management and evaluation of CRM, (ii) the benefits perceived to accrue to the practice, and (iii) whether these businesses applied commercial rather than philanthropic principles when selecting CRM partners. It emerged that, in general, the sample firms employed
Adverse events occur in a significant, but undetermined, number of hospitalized patients. These types of patient injuries are more often the result of faulty systems than human maleficence. A culture exists among health care providers that discourages the reporting of such events and resists the implementation of formal efforts to eliminate them. This resistance serves to perpetuate the problem. Both business and clinical ethics argue that sound reasons exist for hospitals to reduce, if not eliminate, adverse events. To do so is cost effective, particularly in a managed care environment. It is also at the heart of responsible professional behavior. Physicians are afforded an opportunity to be at the forefront in this quality improvement effort. PMID:9401346
This article uses a historical perspective for reviewing the evolution of Business & Society\\/Business Ethics courses at business schools and programs in the United States. The study carefully reviews the findings of 11 major studies relating to the role and number of Business & Society\\/Business Ethics courses in business school\\/program curricula. Included in these 11 studies are the results of
Euthanasia decision making is a complex process for physicians and nurses that involves clinical, legal, ethical, and personal–emotional aspects. In this respect, attention has been given to hospitals’ written ethics policies on euthanasia. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of a written ethics policy on euthanasia, as experienced by physicians and nurses involved in euthanasia care
Joke Lemiengre; Chris Gastmans; Paul Schotsmans; Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé
In many professional and services industries, firms try to scale up their operations by reproducing practices in new locations\\u000a through franchising arrangements, especially business format franchising. The classic but still prevailing explanations for\\u000a franchising related phenomena, especially the initiative of franchising, the propensity to franchise, and the franchise performance,\\u000a are mostly based on two orders of reasons (or a combination
Arguing that there is still no single, noncontroversial foundation on which the world's present multi-structure of ethics can be built, this paper examines a scientific ethics approach. It is postulated that in North American culture, the approach to instruction in ethics for youth is haphazard at best. Society does not provide an adequate means…
In the years after Operation Desert Storm and Operation Granby, some 4-8% of veterans of the conflict began to report symptoms of illness. Common complaints included fatigue, impaired cognition, joint pain, sleep disturbances, and chest pains. Between 1992 and 1994 in the USA, and later in the UK, governments set up medical assessment programmes to define the scope of the problem in qualitative and quantitative terms. Initial efforts moved to extensive epidemiological assessment and a search for causative mechanisms of what became termed "Gulf War Syndrome". Eventually significant sums of money were invested in medical and investigative research in an attempt to relate symptoms to causes. This paper presents the historical background and context to the problem of Gulf and war related illnesses, summarises the findings of relevant epidemiological studies and discusses some of the hypotheses that have been generated to explain the clusters of symptoms reported by veterans. Finally, the current UK research programme and its underlying rationale is presented. The aim is to provide an overview of the current position and assist in the interpretation of a diagnostically difficult area. PMID:15241978
Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethicalperspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethicalperspectives.
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.
|In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)|
Over the last decade, successive New Zealand governments have instituted social, political and economic changes that have fundamentally challenged nurses' sense of themselves and their position in society. Major upheavals in the health service have occurred as a result of reforms promoting competition and contestability. This paper deals with the impact of one aspect of the reforms, that of the deregulation of the labour market through the Employment Contracts Act 1991. More specifically, the way in which discussions and decisions regarding the withdrawal of nursing labour are shaped by the language available to those involved are considered. The intersection of ethics and union discourses may exacerbate feelings of ambiguity and confusion in nurses facing strike action. The result can be unnecessary and unproductive division and conflict: among nurses, between employers and employees, between unions, between nurses and the public, and between nursing organizations and the Government. An examination of some of the discourses of strike action may serve as a tool to elucidate the way nurses see themselves and their clients in the context of social change and social action. PMID:9305126
The completion of the human genome project and the accompanying biotechnological revolution hold great promise for the creation of pharmaceutical agents to combat not only previously incurable diseases, but also those for which therapeutics exist, yet they either cause severe adverse effects or exhibit no benefit in subsets of the population. In many instances variation in therapy response can be attributed to genetic differences, more particularly single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Detection of the genetic differences which affect drug response, commonly referred to as pharmacogenomics, may result in further classification of diseases, and consequently, the development of 'personalized' therapies. While of potential great benefit, the widespread use of pharmacogenomic data poses social, ethical, and economic risks that need to be addressed by regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This paper explores some of the common problems associated with the use of pharmacogenomic data including validation of the data, patient confidentiality, social stratification, economic risks faced by pharmaceutical and insurance companies, and offers suggestions for regulatory procedures to ensure the appropriate use of the data in drug development and clinical trials. PMID:16459425
Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.
Sauer, P.J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen University Medical Centre, PO Box 90.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study is to present our preliminary experience in treating BPH-related urine retention, resistant to other medical treatment, with transurethral brachytherapy. We also deal with dosimetric analysis so as to eliminate ethical concerns about the exposure of patients not suffering from cancer to a certain level of body irradiation. Patients suffering from BPH-related urethral obstruction were treated with two transurethral applications (three weeks apart) of Cs137 MDR, which delivered a total of 16 Gy, at 0.5 cm from the urethral walls (dose rate 5-7 Gy/h). The application was done under ultrasonographic observation. Dosimetric calculation of the radiation exposure of the human body during transurethral radiotherapy (TURT) was performed for patients suffering from prostate cancer and treated with external beam radiotherapy and a boost dose through transurethral brachytherapy. For this purpose we used TLDs on skin surface and dosimetric analysis of X-ray films. Five patients treated for BPH urethral obstruction presented no sign of acute toxicity. All of them were weaned of their indwelling catheter immediately after the end of the first application. Obstruction did not recur within 12-18 months of follow-up. The dose delivered outside the prostate ranges from 1-7 cG, depending upon location. Proximal rectal and bladder walls received 1-2 Gy, a dose that is far from inducing acute or late toxicity. The estimated risk for carcinogenesis is negligible, and the expected benefit for the quality of life transcends the risks. No ethical concern is justified for testing transurethral radiotherapy for BPH-related urethral obstruction. TURT seems to be effective and provides durable results. Further investigation is required. PMID:7522461
Koukourakis, M; Zambatis, H; Skarlatos, J; Stamatelatos, I; Georgolopoulou, V; Rebelakos, A; Yannakakis, D
Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethicalperspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.
This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-relatedethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.
Why should PR professionals bind themselves to a code of ethics when even membership of a professional industry association is not mandatory? Is it not easier to be ethics-free? The Public Relations Institute of New Zealand (PRINZ) is one of a number of public relations associations around the world that has recently reviewed its code of ethics. The new codes
|During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…
During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…
To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.
To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504
Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis
Shared (Induced) Delusional Disorder commonly occurs in close relationships and involves a varying number of participants who may be nonconsanguineous. The disorder has been associated with forensic and fatal conse- quences. Its occurrence in three nonrelated, incarcerated individuals is described in this article. This case of folie atrois has forensic implications and raises several questions of ethics that relate to
In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…
Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.
|In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…
Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.
When designing a research study it is imperative to consider the ethical implications of the project. This paper discusses the nature, definition and development of ethical practice within the field of health research and the evolving role of ethical codes and committees. The development of international standards is examined but the focus is principally on practice in Great Britain. The
Psychotherapists must deal with practical business matters such as advertising, billing, collecting fees, and other practice management topics. We review the enforceable standards of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethics Code that deal with advertising, fees, billing, and related business matters in psychotherapy. Using a principle-based perspective, we link each of the standards to overarching ethical values and illustrate the concerns with case vignettes. We argue that understanding the moral foundations of ethical standards helps psychotherapists to implement with greater integrity the spirit and the letter of the standards with regard to advertising and business practices. PMID:18386792
Issues related to the doctrine of informed consent for research on human subjects are discussed as they concern the conduct of nursing research. They include the subject's capacity to consent, disclosure of information, and freedom to decide. (MSE)
|This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…
|Through relational dialogue, learners shape their identities by sharing information about the world and how they see themselves in it. As learners interact, they receive feedback from both the environment and other learners which, in turn, helps them assess and adjust their self-presentations. Although learners retain choice and personal agency,…
Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training. PMID:20860879
Since the 1990s, numerous studies on the relationship between parents and their children have been reported on in the literature and implemented as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units. The purpose of this article is to understand the process of nurses' care for children in a paediatric setting by using Noddings's caring ethics theory. Noddings's theory is in part described from a theoretical perspective outlining the basic idea of the theory followed by a critique of her work. Important conceptions in her theory are natural caring (reception, relation, engrossment, motivational displacement, reciprocity) and ethical caring (physical self, ethical self, and ethical ideal). As a nurse one holds a duty of care to patients and, in exercising this duty, the nurse must be able to develop a relationship with the patient including giving the patient total authenticity in a 'feeling with' the patient. Noddings's theory is analysed and described in three examples from the paediatrics. In the first example, the nurse cared for the patient in natural caring while in the second situation, the nurse strived for the ethical caring of the patient. In the third example, the nurse rejected the impulse to care and deliberately turned her back to ethics and abandoned her ethical caring. According to the Noddings's theory, caring for the patient enables the nurse to obtain ethical insights from the specific type of nursing care which forms an important contribution to an overall increase of an ethical consciousness in the nurse. PMID:19291199
A family of empirically based ecological 'rules', collectively known as temperature-size rules, predicts larger body size in colder environments. This prediction is based on studies demonstrating that a wide range of ectotherms show increased body size, cell size or genome size in low-temperature habitats, or that individuals raised at low temperature become larger than conspecifics raised at higher temperature. There is thus a potential for reduction in size with global warming, affecting all levels from cell volume to body size, community composition and food webs. Increased body size may be obtained either by increasing the size or number of cells. Processes leading to changed cell size are of great interest from an ecological, physiological and evolutionary perspective. Cell size scales with fundamental properties such as genome size, growth rate, protein synthesis rates and metabolic activity, although the causal directions of these correlations are not clear. Changes in genome size will thus, in many cases, not only affect cell or body size, but also life-cycle strategies. Symmetrically, evolutionary drivers of life-history strategies may impact growth rate and thus cell size, genome size and metabolic rates. Although this goes to the core of many ecological processes, it is hard to move from correlations to causations. To the extent that temperature-driven changes in genome size result in significant differences among populations in body size, allometry or life-cycle events such as mating season, it could serve as a fast route to speciation. We offer here a novel perspective on the temperature-size rules from a 'bottom-up' perspective: how temperature may induce changes in genome size, and thus implicitly in cell size and body size of metazoans. Alternatively: how temperature-driven enlargement of cells also dictates genome-size expansion to maintain the genome-size to cell-volume ratio. We then discuss the different evolutionary drivers in aquatic versus terrestrial systems, and whether it is possible to arrive at a unifying theory that also may serve as a predictive tool related to temperature changes. This, we believe, will offer an updated review of a basic concept in ecology, and novel perspectives on the basic biological responses to temperature changes from a genomic perspective. PMID:23551915
\\u000a Over the past few years, research on animal and human stem cells has experienced tremendous advances which are almost daily\\u000a loudly revealed to the public on the front-page of newspapers. The reason for such an enthusiasm over stem cells is that they\\u000a could be used to cure patients suffering from spontaneous or injuries-related diseases that are due to particular types
The birth of the first transgenic primate to have inherited a transgene from its parents opens the possibility to set up transgenic\\u000a marmoset colonies, as these monkeys are small and relatively easy to keep and breed in research facilities. The prospect of\\u000a transgenic marmoset models of human disease, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts
Being raised in the genomic era may not only increase knowledge of available genetic testing but may also have an impact on how genetic information is perceived. However, little is known about how current adolescents react to the language commonly used by health care professionals providing prenatal counseling. In addition, as risk communication is related to numbers and figures, having different educational backgrounds may be associated with variability in risk perceptions. In order to investigate these issues, a previously developed questionnaire studying different ways of being told about hypothetical anomalies in a baby and corresponding risks (Abramsky and Fletcher Prenatal Diagnosis 22(13):1188-1194, 2002) was administered to high-school students in Sweden. A total of 344 questionnaires were completed by students belonging to a natural science or a social science program. The data show that teenage participants found technical jargon and words such as rare and abnormal more worrying than the presented comparison terms. Negative framing effects and perception differences related to numeric risk formats were also present. Additionally, participants' gender and educational program did not seem to have an effect on risk assessment. In addition to reporting the questionnaire results, we discuss the ethical implications of the data based on the norm of non-directiveness and make some recommendations for practice. In general, genetic counselors should be aware that the language used within clinical services can be influential on this group of upcoming counselees. PMID:22037899
Melas, Philippe A; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Juth, Niklas; Bui, The-Hung
Purpose – Leader empathy, ethical values, and relations-oriented behavior all appear to be relevant for effective leadership, but nobody has examined how all three variables are jointly related to leader-member exchange quality (LMX). The purpose of this study is to examine these relationships and test a proposed model describing them. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected with a questionnaire from subordinates
AbstractBusiness ethics and corporate social responsibility have gained more attention in recent years. However, the consumers’ perspective on ethics is still a little researched area. This study reports a survey (n?=?713) on the views of Finnish consumers about ethics in trade. Consumers’ willingness to promote business ethics as well as the obstacles to ethical consumption are investigated. The results of
This article analyzes the contribution Christian ethics might be able to make to the ethical debate on policy and caregiving in health and social care in the United Kingdom. The article deals particularly with the concepts of solidarity and subsidiarity which are essential in Christian social ethics and health care ethics, and which may be relevant for the ethical debate
Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethicalperspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives.
Self-management of chronic illness is a high priority health care need of community dwelling elderly. Effective patient provider health communication related to health promotion, disease prevention, and disease management is a key intervention necessary to achieve optimal health outcomes. Little is known about the methods elderly patients actually use to help understand health related teaching by their health care providers. Focus groups were held to describe these ways from a patient's perspective. Facilitators of understanding were identified as persevere in getting questions answered, come prepared to office visit, and work to develop a good relationship with health care providers. Barriers were identified as not having questions answered lack of time with provider, hearing difficulty, and fragmented care. PMID:21051100
Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health. PMID:23887005
A body of police psychologists was surveyed with regard to the ethical dilemmas that they experienced in providing psychological services to law enforcement organizations. A majority (55%) of the respondents reported that they had encountered an ethical conflict. The most common ethical dilemmas were related to issues of confidentiality, conflicts between the ethical standards of the psychologist and the needs
Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)
This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.
Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.
|The philosopher and educator, John Dewey, explores the emergence of the terms "ethics" and "education" from a pragmatist's perspective, i.e., within the linguistic and social components' framework, and society's existing cognitive and cultural level. In the current article, we examine the development, logical control and the relation between…
|A model of work-related learning based on intentionality and developmental relatedness is proposed here. A shift is called for from an educational perspective on work-related learning to a noneducational perspective in which learning is construed as largely implicit and spontaneous. That is, work-related learning can happen both deliberately and…
Doornbos, Anja J.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Simons, P. Robert-Jan
Research ethics is predominantly taught and practiced in Anglophone countries, particularly those in North America and Western Europe. Initiatives to build research ethics capacity in developing countries must attempt to avoid imposing foreign frameworks and engage with ethical issues in research that are locally relevant. This article describes the process and outcomes of a capacity-building workshop that took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo in the summer of 2011. Although the workshop focused on a specific ethical theme – the responsibilities of researchers to provide health-related care to their research participants – we argue that the structure of the workshop offers a useful method for engaging with research ethics in general, and the theme of ancillary care encourages a broad perspective on research ethics that is highly pertinent in low-income countries. The workshop follows an interactive, locally driven model that could be fruitfully replicated in similar settings.
This paper explores social relations within the 'trial community' (staff and volunteers) of a Malaria Vaccine Trial (MVT), implemented by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in The Gambia between 2001 and 2004. It situates ethical concerns with medical research within the everyday life of scientific fieldwork. Based upon discussions with volunteers and staff, we explore processes of mediation between scientific project and study population, and between formal ethics, local ethical debates and everyday practice. We observe that material contact and substantial transactions, notably of blood and medicine, are central to the construction of the MVT. These transactions are guided by a concrete and relational form of ethics, which contrasts with the abstract and vertical formal ethical principles underwriting the scientific study protocol. The success of the MVT owed much to these kinship-like ethics. One possible conclusion from these observations is that research ethics should be understood, not just as a quasi-legal frame but also as an open, searching movement, much in the same way that kinship is not merely a juridical institution and a prescriptive frame of rules, but a network made through relational work. However, this conclusion raises new problems: by contrasting formal, abstract principles to intimate, immediate relations, and economic justice to personal morality, we accept that the order of medical research is moved further out of the public and political, and into the domains of either quasi-legal claims or of private morality. Irrespective of the undeniable importance of clear-cut rules and of good face-to-face relations, a third essential foundation of medical research ethics is the democratically constituted public sphere, including equitable health services, and transparent institutions to facilitate open debate and regulate particular interests. Ultimately, the ethics of global science can rely neither on principles nor trust but requires citizenship and democratic government. PMID:18455854
Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann; Imoukhuede, Babatunde; Pool, Robert
GLASDAM S, HENRIKSEN N, KJaeR L and PRAESTEGAARD J. Nursing Inquiry 2012 [Epub ahead of print] Client involvement in home care practice: a relational sociological perspective 'Client involvement' has been a mantra within health policies, education curricula and healthcare institutions over many years, yet very little is known about how 'client involvement' is practised in home-care services. The aim of this article is to analyse 'client involvement' in practise seen from the positions of healthcare professionals, an elderly person and his relative in a home-care setting. A sociologically inspired single case study was conducted, consisting of three?weeks of observations and interviews. The study has a focus on the relational aspects of home care and the structural, political and administrative frames that rule home- care practice. Client involvement is shown within four constructed analytical categories: 'Structural conditions of providing and receiving home care'; 'Client involvement inside the home: performing a professional task and living an everyday life'; 'Client involvement outside the home: liberal business and mutual goal setting'; and 'Converting a home to a working place: refurnishing a life'. The meaning of involvement is depending on which position it is viewed from. On the basis of this analysis, we raise the question of the extent to which involvement of the client in public home-care practice remains limited. PMID:23217061
Is it ethical to patent human genes and gene sequences? Like many questions about what is ethically permissible or impermissible,\\u000a this query has layers of complexity. These include fundamental questions about what should and should not be patentable from\\u000a an ethicalperspective, as well as what is or is not patentable under existing patent laws. A second layer of legal
In 1992, a study was conducted of the codes of ethics and relevant policy and procedural statements of the largest two-year colleges in each state. By analyzing these documents, the study sought to determine whether a common body of ethics is surfacing among the colleges surveyed; compare academic codes of ethics with business codes of ethics, and…
|In 1992, a study was conducted of the codes of ethics and relevant policy and procedural statements of the largest two-year colleges in each state. By analyzing these documents, the study sought to determine whether a common body of ethics is surfacing among the colleges surveyed; compare academic codes of ethics with business codes of ethics,…
As a result of corporate scandals, the interest of ethics has been improved and the importance of ethics for accounting profession has been understood more clearly. In order to improve the confidence of accounting profession, accounting professionals should have an understanding of ethics. For his purpose, ethics education for the students who are the candidates for accounting professionals, should start
Can we envision what the laws of politics and the laws of ethics will be in extraterrestrial civilizations? The laws of physics and chemistry will be the same. Presumably, if there are biospheres in other solar systems, the nature of biology will be the same. Over time evolution may produce the same forms of consciousness and intelligence as we see
|Assistive technologies (AT) can provide significant assistance in accomplishing the tasks of daily living for persons who have disabilities. Five types of ethical principles underlie the distribution and use of AT: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, autonomy and fidelity. Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, most directly affect the…
Social utility theory suggests that labeling video news release (VNR) source material is the ethical decision (Wulfemeyer & Frazier, 1992), yet the persuasion knowledge model predicts that the effectiveness of VNRs will decrease as people become aware of this PR tactic (Friestad & Wright, 1994). Our study found that positive and negative effects were heightened when subjects read about VNRs
Michelle L. M. Wood; Michelle R. Nelson; Lucy Atkinson
Different types of clinical research are associated with different degrees of risk and with varying utility. Usually classified as therapeutic or non-therapeutic, clinical research involving children necessitates a balance between the conflicts of intrusion into a group of vulnerable subjects, and the obvious advantages which such intrusion engenders. To understand better the potential ethical dilemmas of paediatric research the author
|Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)|
Information is lacking on what con- sumers want to know about food production, processing, transporta- tion and retailing. Focus groups and a random-sample mail survey of con- sumers in the Central Coast region in- dicate that food safety and nutrition generate the most interest. However, ethical concerns such as the humane treatment of animals, the environ- mental impacts of food
|College students were tested on Hogan's Survey of Ethical Attitudes, Rest's Defining Issues Test, Collins' revision of Rotter's Internal-External Scale, and Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale. Subjects who endorsed personal conscience showed greater maturity in moral reasoning. The subjects who advocated social responsibility tended to show more…
Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise
V Moises Serrano-Delgado; Barbara Novello-Garza; Edith Valdez-Martinez
As global business operations expand, managers need more knowledge of foreign cultures, in particular, information on the ethics of doing business across borders. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to share the Islamic perspective on business ethics, little known in the west, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the relationships between ethics and business, and (2)
The purpose of this article is to provide guidance and perspective on the treatment of values and ethics in the classroom in a nondirective, nonauthoritarian way. Discussed are biological advances that have societal consequences, values systems and moral dilemmas, ethical principles, major moral dilemmas, and ethical analysis. (CW)
Man's mind is improved only by learning unknown things from scientists and from books, and mankind is exalted through self-developing of its nature. This is essence of Risael achlak (learning about behaviour), that modern humanism consisting of rational science and ethicalperspective of Qur'an and its directions (important in the respect of limitation of man's behaviour towards religion and religious ethics in general) is based on. Ethical dimension of Qur'an is a consisting part of Qur'an's metaphysical and anthropological dimension. Basically, in its purpose, ethics appears as practical theology. In Its announcing of the God, Qur'an does not make division of spiritual and ethical; mind and will. Ethics just implements The Message at the field of the world of human acts. Thus, the relations between society and a single human being, as well as the relations among all people, are determined. Through developing its attitudes, ethics has concretized elements, tenets and values of human's real life. Qur'anic ethics is a programme of ethical revolution of mankind and society (whose the most exalted goal is confirmation of personality). That personality has got a task to, according to Qur'an, people have to change the world through enhancing it. These general tenets and attitudes produce specific direction and attitudes in certain fields, including tenets and attitudes in the field of medical ethics. These tenets had been defined in pre-islamic period. Even today, the tenets from Hypocrate's Wote are quoted and implemented. But, Arabian physicians have implemented a modified version of the Wote, that has been based upon Qur'anic tenets. The text and tenets of that Wote was described in this paper. PMID:9324570
Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1) an opt-out approach, (2) removal of separate signed consent, and (3) optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed.
Prenatal diagnosis (PND) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for later onset and\\/or reduced penetrance inherited cancer\\u000a predispositions, e.g. familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer\\/Lynch syndrome and hereditary\\u000a breast and ovarian cancer, raise a number of ethical issues. Some of these are the same as for conditions which present early\\u000a in childhood, are fully penetrant and for which no\\/limited treatment
To date the teaching of business ethics has been examined from the descriptive, prescriptive, and analytical perspectives. The descriptive perspective has reviewed the existence of ethics courses (e.g., Schoenfeldtet al., 1991; Bassiry, 1990; Mahoney, 1990; Singh, 1989), their historical development (e.g., Sims and Sims, 1991), and the format and syllabi of ethics courses (e.g., Hoffman and Moore, 1982). Alternatively, the
Three samples of college students were tested on Hogan's Survey of Ethical Attitudes (SEA) and Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT), a test of moral reasoning ability in the Kohlbergian tradition. In addition, one of the samples took Collins's revision of Rotter's Internal-External Scale (I-E) while another sample took Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale. There was a small but reliable tendency for subjects
Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)
Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.
Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethicsperspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethicsperspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethicsperspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach.
In the given article we consider the conditions and perspectives of development of ethical types of «know-how» (and first of all, ethic-project works), basing on the many years' working experience of LLC SDH, the «Training Hall» project (Krasnoyarsk). Ethical education innovations are analyzed with a due consideration of global change of the education paradigm, of today's moral peculiarities of «high
A two-day consensus conference was held in order to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of mood and behavioral disorders such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to 1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of DBS for disorders of mood, behavior and thought and 2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field.
Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S.; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Dunn, Laura B.; Gabriels, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Haber, Suzanne N.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S.; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Vawter, Dorothy E.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J. H.
|The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is accepted in nearly all countries in the world although the idea of children's rights is still much discussed. The author distinguishes two perspectives for interpreting the children's rights' convention correlated with different child images. On the one hand there is the "caretaker…
In the aftermath of recent corporate scandals, managers and researchers have turned their attention to questions of ethics management. We identify five common myths about business ethics and provide responses that are grounded in theory, research, and business examples. Although the scientific study of business ethics is relatively new, theory and research exist that can guide executives who are trying
|Employs a market perspective to explain why financial returns to college teaching and research are necessarily unequal. Research will receive greater rewards so long as its market reach is longer, research talent is in shorter supply, and the benefits of research can be partially appropriated by individual scholars. (Contains 13 references.)…
History has demonstrated the necessity of protecting research participants. Research ethics are based on a concept of asymmetry of power, viewing the researcher as powerful and potentially dangerous and establishing ethics committees as external agencies in the field of research. We argue in favour of expanding this perspective on relationships of power to encompass the ethics committees as one among several actors that exert power and that act in a relational interplay with researchers and participants. We employ Michel Foucault's ideas of power as an omnipresent force which is dynamic and unstable, as well as the notion that knowledge and power are inextricably intertwined. The article discusses how research ethics committees may affect academic freedom. In addition it is pointed out that research participants could be harmed - not only by unfortunate research practices, but also by being subjected to the protective efforts of ethics monitoring bodies. PMID:21646327
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general\\u000a framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethicalperspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems,\\u000a policies and technology in this area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons\\u000a for
Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)
|A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…
|The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…
Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009
|Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)|
Death at home has become increasingly common. End of life care at home creates ethical challenges that are very different from those encountered in the hospital or nursing home. Geographic disparities in rates of death at home raise ethical issues related to access to care. Home health agencies and communities make decisions, possibly ethically based, regarding investments in home-based end
Should patients with Parkinson's disease participate in research involving stem cell treatments? Are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) the ethical solution to the moral issues regarding embryonic stem cells? How can we adapt trial designs to best assess small numbers of patients in receipt of invasive experimental therapies? Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in our ability to make stem cells from different sources and use them for therapeutic gain in disorders of the brain. These cells, which are defined by their capacity to proliferate indefinitely as well as differentiate into selective phenotypic cell types, are viewed as being especially attractive for studying disease processes and for grafting in patients with chronic incurable neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review we briefly discuss and summarise where our understanding of stem cell biology has taken us relative to the clinic and patients, before dealing with some of the major ethical issues that work of this nature generates. This includes issues to do with the source of the cells, their ownership and exploitation along with questions about patient recruitment, consent and trial design when they translate to the clinic for therapeutic use. PMID:23665410
|Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-relatedethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…
Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-relatedethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…
Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students’ ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-relatedethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism, contractualism, egoism, and utilitarianism. The findings reveal that except for egoism, four moral dimensions affect
In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209
Ethical conduct is the hallmark of excellence in engineering and scientific research, design, and practice. While undergraduate and graduate programs in these areas routinely emphasize ethical conduct, few receive formal ethics training as part of their curricula. The first purpose of this research study was to assess the relative effectiveness of ethics education in enhancing individuals' general knowledge of the responsible conduct of research practices and their level of moral reasoning. Secondly, we examined the effects of ethics education on the positive psychological outcomes of perspective-taking, moral efficacy, moral courage, and moral meaningfulness. To examine our research hypotheses, we utilized a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design consisting of three ethics education groups (control, embedded modules, and stand-alone courses). Findings revealed that both embedded and stand alone courses were effective in enhancing participants' perspective-taking, moral efficacy, and moral courage. Moral meaningfulness was marginally enhanced for the embedded module condition. Moral judgment and knowledge of responsible conduct of research practices were not influenced by either ethics education condition. Contrary to expectations, stand alone courses were not superior to embedded modules in influencing the positive psychological outcomes investigated. Implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22212360
|According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…
|Based on a definition of public relations that recognizes the field as a purposeful management function, this paper provides a perspective on public relations to help practitioners develop strategies for the use of new media forms in public relations programs. The paper begins with a historical review of mass media effects research and proceeds…
This research was conducted to study the ethical issues involved in managing change-related issues and assess whether people in organizations perceive them to be ethical. Besides assessing people's perceptions of ethicality, it also explored the reasons people give for judging a situation as ethical or unethical. Research was conducted using scenarios involving ethical dilemmas related to lay offs, skills obsolescence,
A. Uday Bhaskar; Kanika T. Bhal; C. S. Venkata Ratnam
Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature.
Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethicalperspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion concerning these alternative ways of designing the system should be encouraged.
The consideration of ethical and social issues related to current uses of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as well as investigational uses should now be an integral part of contemporary DBS practice. Scholarship, interdisciplinary work groups, and peer processes have helped articulate standards that need to be respected and implemented in current DBS practice. Integrating new knowledge and interdisciplinary ethicalperspectives could be considered a sign of the maturity and rigor of a DBS program. Still, investigational uses of DBS carry tremendous hope but also touch on sensitive and thorny ethical questions. These questions can benefit from the ethical wisdom generated for standard uses of DBS but also challenge current practices and professional conduct. Realizing this, interdisciplinary expert groups have been convened to identify and flesh out ethical guideposts for cutting-edge research in DBS. By implementing these ethical frameworks, DBS is an opportunity to develop promising treatments for a set of vulnerable and sometimes underserved patients while keeping their best interests in sight. PMID:24112905
Saucier examines marketing ethics, focusing on the nature of new ethical breaches made possible by the increasing capabilities of technology. Chapter topics include the use of fear appeals, intrusive advertising in daily lives, the American materialistic culture, body image advertising, and puffery and deceptive advertising practice. Appendices include the American Marketing Association Code of Ethics, the Parents' Bill of Rights,
Nursing ethics in the 21st century will continue to be concerned with describing and communicating the characteristics of the “good” nurse, and describing nurses’ ethical practices. However, there is a growing concern that what constitutes nurses’ ethical practices is changing as patients are experiencing, by virtue of reduced reimbursements for health care services, limited time to be in a nurse-patient
Journalism ethics, the norms of responsible journalism, can be traced back to the beginning of modern journalism in Europe during the seventeenth century. This chapter provides an overview of contemporary journalism ethics by following its evolution, by reviewing and critiquing major approaches, and by suggesting future work. The chapter begins with a view of ethics as practi- cal normative activity
This article analyzes the impact of the neo-pragmatist turn in social sciences from the point of view of the method of ethical intervention. It focuses specifically on the idea of building a "learning community" as the horizon for strengthening participative 'capacitation'. It finally points at the limits of such a perspective, from the point of view of institutional building of new subjectivities through and beyond the practices proposed by ethical interventions. PMID:23230632
Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.
The recent development of embryonic stem (ES) cells from human blastocysts has the potential to revolutionize many of our approaches to human biology and medicine. Continued objection to the use of human ES cells on ethical grounds may inhibit progress or defer this opportunity indefinitely. It is essential that the ethical discussion proceed on a sound scientific basis. The ethical controversy surrounding human ES cells concerns their origin from human blastocysts and the perception of their developmental potential. It is likely that the worldwide requirement for human ES cells will be met by the development of a small number of cell lines, as has been the case in the mouse; current rates of success for human ES cell establishment suggest that only a modest number of embryos will be required to achieve this goal. It is in the public interest that human ES cell lines be derived under circumstances that will enable their widespread distribution with minimum encumbrances to academic researchers throughout the world. In considering the developmental potential of ES cells, an important distinction exists between pluripotentiality, or the ability to develop into a wide range of somatic and extraembryonic tissues, and totipotentiality, the ability of a cell or collection of cells to give rise to a new individual given adequate maternal support. There is no evidence that ES cells from any species can give rise to a new individual except when combined with cells which are the immediate progeny of a zygote. These developmental limitations of ES cells appear to relate to their inability to undergo axis formation and to generate the body plan. Alternatives to blastocyst-derived ES cells include embryonic germ cells, adult tissue stem cells, transdetermination of committed somatic cells, and therapeutic cloning. These research areas are complimentary and synergistic to ES cell research and it is premature and counterproductive to suggest that one avenue should be pursued in preference to another. The combination of cloning and ES cell technology has the potential to address many important issues in transplantation medicine and research, but a better understanding of the reprogramming of somatic cells is required before we can regard ES cells derived from normal and nuclear transfer blastocysts as equivalent. PMID:11545161
Many ethical assessments of contemporary moral dilemmas have failed to appreciate the uncertainty and ambiguity that practitioners confront, especially when new and emerging technologies are involved. In an attempt to provide a more realistic and compelling approach to these problems, the seventh CAP Foundation Conference adopted an interprofessional perspective. Interprofessional ethics borrows from the American pragmatist tradition of John Dewey and Jeffrey Stout and the neothomistic perspective of Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. Professions are public institutions that have made promises to preserve and enhance social goods, eg, health, justice, and tolerance. Yet, in a pluralistic democracy, each institution inevitably finds its moral presuppositions legitimately challenged by the presuppositions of others. The uncertainty and ambiguity that good physicians, lawyers, journalists, and regulators regularly confront arise from the partiality of each of their ethicalperspectives. Hence, the more seriously we take our obligations to maintain public trust, the more clearly we should recognize our dependence on other professions. PMID:7979891
Human enhancement, in which nanotechnology is expected to play a major role, continues to be a highly contentious ethical\\u000a debate, with experts on both sides calling it the single most important issue facing science and society in this brave, new\\u000a century. This paper is a broad introduction to the symposium herein that explores a range of perspectivesrelated to that
The authors review the literature that calls for the incorporation of relational theory into social work practice. Two strands of relational theory are important to developing a relational social work perspective: the psychoanalytic and the feminist. Based on a feminist understanding of relationality, Dorothy Smith has provided an alternative sociological perspective that can inform social work practice on the macro
Ethical issues and values play an integral role in decisions made by both rehabilitation staff and patients. While patient refusal of treatment draws significant attention, staff decisions on admission and termination of rehabilitation treatment are equally fraught with ethical issues. An evolving set of ethical models are presented to illuminate key issues and provide guidance in approaching these decisions. A
|This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…
A number of mathematical concepts and computational procedures are linked to the inverse relation of addition and subtraction on an abstract mathematical level. In this discussion article for the special issue on subtraction-related principles, we suggest that the mainstream of research on inversion is conducted from a Knowledge Dissociation Perspective in which researchers show that children often fail to see
The present article discusses Ethics concept as dwell and way of dwelling, aiming to articulate it with some elements of participative research from an ethnographic matrix. Mainly, it focuses the idea of the ethical subject's autonomy, associating it with self-reflection and alterity in ethnography. Yet, it approaches the participative research in an ethnographic perspective as a praxis that induces to health researcher's ethical formation. PMID:18813555
‘Good’ governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and ‘noble ethical claims’. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethicalperspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is
The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center. PMID:2228587
While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000–December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of
While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000–December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of
The discipline must address a variety of issues concerning the relationship of communication and ethics. The traditional perspective puts major responsibility for the ethical quality of the communication effort upon the source. However, receivers who may act upon the materials presented should wish to exercise a full responsibility. Unfortunately, people generally, as well as our discipline, have ignored the importance
|An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…
Policing is a moral endeavor. This paper discusses policing as a complex mission linked to its moral dimension and how individual values may impact how daily work is accomplished. It highlights the ethical dimension of decision-making from different ethicalperspectives and the importance of developing practical ethical awareness in routine tasks and everyday activities. A routine episode, as depicted by
|This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…
This article identifies and analyzes excellent resource materials that educators can use to integrate ethics content into the curricula. It includes a discussion of specific pedagogical approaches for using these resources to help students understand business and professional ethics. Advantages associated with Internet-based pedagogical approaches include improved timeliness of information, enhanced realism, and simultaneous integration of ethical and technological perspectives
Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…
Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.
This study examined whether mothers’ and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother–child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335 mother/female-caregiver and child dyads (182 girls, 153 boys; 9?16 years old). Children's depressive symptoms were consistently related to each of the three domains of mother–child discrepancies. Mothers’ depressive symptoms were related to perceived discrepancies in two domains (Child Disclosure and Parental Knowledge). Furthermore, these relations could not be accounted for by other informant characteristics (maternal stress, child age, child gender, child ethnicity). Findings provide important empirical support for theory suggesting that both informants’ perspectives meaningfully contribute to their discrepancies in perceived behavior. Consideration of both informants’ perspectives leads to valuable information as to whether any particular characteristic is an important correlate of discrepancies.
Reyes, Andres De Los; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…
Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the
Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science relatedethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068
Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethical dilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethical dilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes. PMID:2712021
While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000-December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of broadly defined work-relatedness. Inclusion criteria for work-related suicide were at least one of: suicide means was work related, work stressors were identified in police reports to the Coroners or the Coroner's finding, the suicide method involved another person's work (e.g. rail suicide, heavy vehicle) or the suicide location was a workplace. Cases still open for investigation were excluded. Of 642 work-related suicides, 55% had an association with work stressors; 32% jumped or lay in front of a train or heavy vehicle; 7% involved a work location and 6% involved work agents. Work stressor cases identified included business difficulties, recent or previous work injury, unemployment/redundancy or conflict with supervisors/colleagues (including workplace bullying). Work-related suicide is a substantial problem, for which few detailed population wide studies are available. Further research is required to understand the contribution of work stressors and effective interventions. PMID:22132703
Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over
The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders . Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.
Coombs and Holladay note that “Effective public relations can be a valuable part of strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). However, superficial CSR practice will result in a superficial CSR communication.” (Coombs and Holladay, 2010, 275) These authors further believe that “Public relations can help corporations to identify and promote partnerships with committed publics (typically activist groups).” This study explored the
Allthough small business accounts for over 90% of businesses in U.K. and indeed elsewhere, they remain the largely uncharted area of ethics. There has not been any research based on the perspective of small business owners, to define what echical delemmas they face and how, if at all, they resolve them. This paper explores ethics from the perspective of small
Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.
|Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…
He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart
A relational psychoanalytic model for conceptualizing the dynamics and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is presented, integrating trauma\\/dissociation theories with postclassical psychoanalytic perspectives. MPD is conceptualized as a chronic trauma syndrome and as a particular variation of narcissistic personality organization involving an overreliance on omnipotent defenses, the collapse of intersubjective experiencing and significant derailments of the developmental lines of
This essay analyzes Einstein's relativity revolution as part of a long-term development of knowledge in which the knowledge system of classical physics was reorganized in a process of reflection, described here as a "Copernican process." This process led in 1905 to the introduction of fundamentally new concepts of space, time, matter, and radiation. On the basis of an extensive historical reconstruction, the heuristics of Einstein's creation of the general theory of relativity, completing the relativity revolution, is interpreted as a further transformation of the knowledge of classical physics, starting from conceiving gravitation as a borderline problem between field theory and mechanics. The essay thus provides an answer to the puzzle of how Einstein was able to create a theory capable of accounting for a wide range of phenomena that were discovered only much later. PMID:16011299
This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…
This paper looks at employer expectations of advertising and public relations graduates seeking an entry level position. For employers in both disciplines, the top three priorities are the same generic skills - communications skills, personality traits and strategic or analytical thinking. However, some significant differences were observed, with PR practitioners assigning more importance to practical aspects such as experience in
|Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…
This paper describes the clinical and research evidence for the importance of the relational context of posttraumatic stress disorder in young children. We review 17 studies that simultaneously assessed parental and child functioning following trauma. In many studies, despite limitations, an association between undesirable parental\\/family variables and maladaptive child outcomes has been consistently found. We present a model of the
Purpose – The paper aims to understand what kinds of internal messages concerning a company's environment-related corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities would be most effective in engaging employees in implementing an organization's environmental strategy. Furthermore, the paper explores how environmentally active employees could be utilized as internal communicators to spread environmental activity internally. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports on findings
Many researchers and educators use constructivist theory to analyse what works well in online classrooms. Past research suggests successful online teaching strategies involve community learning, shared interactions, and meaningful learning experiences. In this study, educators who taught public relations online, in either graduate or undergraduate settings, were interviewed using in-depth key informant surveys. Most interviewees reported successful integration of community
Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is an algorithm that predicts all surface multiples by a convolutional process applied to seismic field data. Only minimal preprocessing is required. Once predicted, the multiples are removed from the data by adaptive subtraction. Unlike other methods of multiple attenuation, SRME does not rely on assumptions or knowledge about the subsurface, nor does it use event
Bill Dragoset; Eric Verschuur; Ian Moore; Richard Bisley
|This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…
Starting off from deliberations on the ‘nature’ and significance of gender differences and gender relations, I first of all present in this contribution my theoretical framework: a constructivist approach to gender. If gender is understood as a social construction, gender differences are not ‘natural’ but acquired and enacted, and also vary according to the particular social and gender order. Currently
Judging from advertisements for professional books, continuing education workshops, and speakers, social workers appear to believe that codependency is a problem about which they should be knowledgeable. This article traces the evolution of the codependency construct and its burgeoning popularity in the 1980s. It critically examines codependency from the perspective of researchers who have found little empirical support for the constellation of characteristics used to define the term and from the perspective of feminist analysis. In addition, the article analyzes the assumptions about health and relationships that are embedded in the concept of the codependency and contends, from the perspective of self-in-relation theory, that the concept does not provide a useful framework for social work conceptualization and intervention with women. PMID:8362280
The field of business ethics has been active for several decades, but it has yet to develop a generally agreed upon applied\\u000a ethicalperspective for the discipline. Academics in business disciplines have developed useful science-based models explaining\\u000a why business people behave ethically but without a generally accepted definition of ethical behavior. Academics in moral philosophy\\u000a have attempted to formulate what
Public relations, issues management, and most marketing communication cam paigns are instances of the broad category of strategic communication, although by no means the only instances. Such campaigns can be conducted from several models, but these can be broadly grouped into monological and dialogical approaches. In an information society such campaigns increasingly provide the point of contact between an organization
This study analyzes the relative influences of Machiavellianism and gender on the two basic dimensions of marketing students' moral philosophies, idealism and relativism. Results from a mail survey of student members of the American Marketing Association show a negative relationship between Machiavellianism and idealism and a positive relationship between Machiavellianism and relativism. The results also indicate male students tend to
In this paper, we investigate ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of\\u000aInternet voting technology. From a phenomenological perspective, we describe how voting via the\\u000aInternet mediates the relation between people and democracy. In this relation, trust plays a major\\u000arole. The dynamics of trust in the relation between people and their world forms the basis for our
M. J. Becker; P. A. E. Brey; F. S. Grodzinsky; L. D. Introna
Obesity-related diseases now threaten to reach epidemic proportions in the United States. Here we review in a rodent model of genetic obesity, the fa\\/fa Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, the mechanisms in- volved in the most common complications of diet- induced human obesity, i.e., noninsulin-dependent di- abetes mellitus, and myocardial dysfunction. In ZDF rats, hyperphagia leads to hyperinsulinemia, which up-
This research aimed to assess the potential of alternatives to extrinsic pecuniary rewards for cultivating employees’ commitment\\u000a in denominational higher education institutions in Indonesia. Two ethics-related variables, namely ethical climates and ethical\\u000a ideologies, were chosen as possible predictors. A model delineating the nexus between ethical climates types, ethical ideologies,\\u000a and various forms of organisational commitment was developed and tested. A
Martinus Parnawa Putranta; Russel Philip John Kingshott
|From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…
There are different objects and motives between scientists and engineers. Science is to create new knowledge (episteme), while technology (techne) is to create new utility. Both types of social responsibility are required for engineer, because modern technology is tightly connected with science. The relationship between ethics for scientists and engineers is discussed as an evolution of ethical objects. A short history of engineering societies in U.S.A. and Japan are introduced with their ethicalperspectives. As a conclusion, respect for fundamental rights for existence of those who stand in, with, and around engineers and their societies is needed for better engineering ethics.
... advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? Genetic and prenatal testing: What happens if you are a ... your family? Below you'll find some links about ethics in medicine.
The role of librarian has been changing especially in regard to teaching. Little has been written about the ethical issues librarians face in the role of teacher and in relation to other faculty members and students. With the current increase in attempted censorship of academics it is clear that librarians need to take an active role in protecting academic freedoms
We address the general perspective of the World Health Organization towards the classification process of the 11(th) revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11); give a short description of the ICD-11 proposals related to "disorders specifically associated with stress" and the differentiation between posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and prolonged grief disorder; and comment on the most important aim of classifying mental disorders-to provide the best treatments available. PMID:24151003
Terrorism using conventional weapons and explosive devices is a likely scenario and occurs almost daily somewhere in the world. Caring for those injured from explosive devices is a major concern for acute injury care providers. Learning from nations that have experienced conventional weapon attacks on their civilian population is critical to improving preparedness worldwide. In September 2005, a multidisciplinary meeting of blast-related injury experts was convened including representatives from eight countries with experience responding to terrorist bombings (Australia, Colombia, Iraq, Israel, United Kingdom, Spain, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey). This article describes these experiences and provides a summary of common findings that can be used by others in preparing for and responding to civilian casualties resulting from the detonation of explosive devices. PMID:17454800
Lerner, E Brooke; O'Connor, Robert E; Schwartz, Richard; Brinsfield, Kathryn; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Degutis, Linda C; Dionne, Jean-Philippe; Hines, Stephen; Hunter, Simon; O'Reilly, Gerard; Sattin, Richard W
Psycho-oncology -- as the diction suggests -- is a multidisciplinary sub-specialty of oncology concerned with the emotional responses of patients at all stages of the disease, their families and staff. Psycho-oncology does not assume the responsibility of cancer cure but attends to the psychological, social and behavioural variables that influence cancer prevention, risk and survival. The psycho-social research domains today contain the screening and management of psycho-social distress as well as experiences with specific psycho-oncological symptoms. Cancer-related fatigue, for example, disturbs patients' quality of life more often than pain. However, all too often doctors fail to pay enough attention to this unknown symptom. PMID:16425009
We all long for relationships with others, because only in connecting with others can we develop our intrapsychic structure and become functional adults. We are psychologically predisposed to have a constant connection with others and are driven toward relationships with others. Our deepest yearnings are therefore devoted to building solid dialogue as the means of becoming fully human. We, therefore, consciously or unconsciously, long for a relationship where we can experience happiness, satisfaction and, above all, redemption or salvation from our dreads, miseries and unhappiness. In this article we presuppose that a therapeutic relationship, demonstrated in a psychoanalytic setting, namely in relational family therapy, can contain redemptive dimensions in which the inextinguishable longing for salvation is always present. PMID:19105027
Gostecnik, Christian; Repic, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert
In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…
Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability. PMID:23312301
As with other widely used antibacterials, the abundant use of macrolides for management of ambulant infections has promoted emergence of resistance against them. Ketolides are structurally related to macrolides and were developed to overcome macrolide resistance, while sharing pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, until now, there have been no comprehensive reviews of the comparative pharmacokinetics of macrolides and ketolides. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic parameters in plasma and relevant tissues of telithromycin, the only approved ketolide, and cethromycin, which is currently in phase III of clinical development. For comparison, the 14-membered macrolides clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered azalide azithromycin were chosen as representatives of their class. While telithromycin achieves higher plasma concentrations than cethromycin, both antimicrobials display comparable elimination half-lives and clearance. Repeated dosing rarely influences the pharmacokinetic parameters of ketolides. Despite substantially higher maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values of telithromycin, the higher antimicrobial activity of cethromycin leads to similar ratios between the AUC from 0 to 24 hours (AUC(24)) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for relevant pathogens, suggesting comparable antimicrobial activity of both antimicrobials in plasma. Although telithromycin and cethromycin show plasma-protein binding of 90%, they have excellent tissue penetration, as indicated by volumes of distribution of about 500 L and high intracellular concentrations. Besides enhancing killing of intracellular pathogens, the high concentrations of macrolides, azalides and ketolides in leukocytes have been associated with increased delivery of the antimicrobial agent to the site of infection. Although telithromycin has been shown to accumulate in alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid by 380- and 15-fold, respectively (relative to plasma concentrations), its concentration in the interstitium of soft tissues is comparable to the free fraction in plasma. Thus the pharmacokinetics of ketolides may help to explain their good activity against a wide range of respiratory tract infections, although pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic calculations based on plasma pharmacokinetics would indicate only minor activity against pathogens except streptococci. In contrast, AUC(24)/MIC ratios achieved in soft tissue may be considered insufficient to kill extracellular pathogens causing soft tissue infections, except for Streptococcus pyogenes. Although ketolides and macrolides share relevant pharmacokinetic properties, the pharmacokinetics of both antimicrobial classes are not considered interchangeable. With a volume of distribution similar to that of azithromycin but plasma concentrations and an elimination half-life reflecting those of clarithromycin, the pharmacokinetics of ketolides may be considered 'intermediate' between those of macrolides and azalides. Thus the pharmacokinetics of ketolides can be considered similar but not identical to those of macrolides. PMID:19071882
In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be aware of moral problems and by contributing to the training of research teams. Key Words: Medical ethics education • ethics committees in Turkey • good clinical practice • informed consent • respiratory distress syndrome
Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and several other cancers. The relative risks for the most common epithelial cancers in the general population--lung, breast, colon/rectum, stomach, liver, and prostate--are not increased substantially in people with AIDS, however. Accumulating data suggest that HIV-infected patients also are at increased risk for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical carcinoma in situ (CIS), other anogenital neoplasms (invasive cancer and CIS), leiomyosarcoma, and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. There is inconclusive evidence, however, with regard to HIV infection being associated with invasive cervical cancer, testicular seminoma, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, other viral infections have been implicated in the etiology of many of these conditions. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased the incidence of AIDS-associated cancers in Western countries, but less than 1% of AIDS patients are receiving HAART in the HIV epicenter of sub-Saharan Africa. Further therapeutic advances that extend survival with HIV infection with varying reconstitution of immune competence may lead to additional alterations in cancer risk. PMID:12852650
Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Parkin, D Maxwell; Rabkin, Charles S
A literature review of 98 articles concerning clinical pain research in newborn infants was conducted to evaluate how researchers report the ethical issues related to their studies and how journals guide this reporting. The articles were published in 49 different scientific journals. The ethical issues most often mentioned were parental informed consent (94%) and ethical review approval (87%). In 75% of the studies the infants suffered pain during the research when placebo, no treatment or otherwise inadequate pain management was applied. Discussion about benefits versus harm to research participants was lacking. A quarter of the journals did not have any ethical guidelines for submitted manuscripts. We conclude that ethical considerations did not play a significant role in the articles studied. Missing and superficial guidelines enable authors to offer studies with fragile research ethics. PMID:18515438
The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. PMID:21068015
Dr. Edward F. Gehringer, Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science, NC State University has posted this website on Ethics in Computing. An interactive image of a map guides visitors through different topics covered on this website, so you can start with the Basics or jump right into one of the issue areas. The areas covered include: Social Justice Issues, Commerce, Computer Abuse, Speech Issues, Risks, Privacy, and Intellectual Property. Under each area are links to other resources on the Web, providing definitions, relevant data, case examples, and offering various perspectives on the issues. Some of the links are out of date, but there is still plenty of information to be gleaned from this website on ethics.
Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses.
In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice.
Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia,
Matthieu Villatte; Jean-Louis Monestès; Louise McHugh; Esteve Freixa i Baqué; Gwenolé Loas
The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States. PMID:11333082
Research on racial prejudice is currently characterized by the existence of diverse concepts (e.g., implicit prejudice, old-fashioned racism, modern racism, aversive racism) that are not well integrated from a general perspective. The present article proposes an integrative framework for these concepts employing a cognitive consistency perspective. Specifically, it is argued that the reliance on immediate affective reactions toward racial minority groups in evaluative judgments about these groups depends on the consistency of this evaluation with other relevant beliefs pertaining to central components of old-fashioned, modern, and aversive forms of prejudice. A central prediction of the proposed framework is that the relation between "implicit" and "explicit" prejudice should be moderated by the interaction of egalitarianism-related, nonprejudicial goals and perceptions of discrimination. This prediction was confirmed in a series of three studies. Implications for research on prejudice are discussed. PMID:18299634
Gawronski, Bertram; Peters, Kurt R; Brochu, Paula M; Strack, Fritz
The value of the social sciences is increasingly recognised in health services and clinical research, contributing to an increasing number of multi-disciplinary, multi-method studies. Such studies offer numerous advantages, but also pose particular challenges, including different approaches to or foci in research ethics across disciplines. Drawing on two similar studies conducted in coastal Kenya and in rural South Africa, we
Catherine Molyneux; Jane Goudge; Steve Russell; Jane Chuma; Tebogo Gumede; Lucy Gilson
The growing emphasis on teachers as "reflective" and "expert practitioners" has led to a noticeable increase in action research involving a wide range of educational practitioners as well as professionals from the academic community. In the light of the complex demands frequently faced by action researchers, this article examines the ethical…
When we address the topic of ethical issues on the Internet we are generally referring at two different matters: privacy and intellectual property. Each has been examined extensively in the last five years, since the Internet explosive intrusion in everyday life activities, each has an important number of sub fields that require special attention from managers and other business professionals.
The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of course offerings on social issues and business ethics in American business schools. Specifically, a random sample of the curricula of 119 American business schools were analyzed in order to gauge the importance given to coursework on ethics and social issues. The findings indicated that the incidence of such
The management process affects the level of ethical performance in organizational life. As one part of this process, managers establish priorities which give direction to an organization. In business firms, management typically stresses the attainment of profits and other related economic and technical factors. Since little explicit recognition is given to ethics, the resulting climate makes it easy to ignore
Information assurance focus is on one of the three major tenants: confidentiality, integrity, and avai lability. Undertakings in each have indeed improved the overall security of current information systems. This r esearch seeks to promote Information Assurance ethical awareness. A brief discussion on ethics and moral development along with related works of Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Mi ll will follow
This paper deals with the conflict between the desire of an employer to test employees for honesty and chemical dependency, and the right of the employee to privacy. Not only is the physical privacy of the employee infringed upon, but the psychic privacy of the individual as well. It is the conclusion of the paper that such an invasion of
|A study examined the role of ethics in advertising and public relations courses. A questionnaire was sent to 183 colleges and universities that offer major fields of studies in advertising or public relations, and 134 institutions responded for a return rate of 73%. Results indicated that: (1) nearly all (97%) of the respondents affirm that the…
Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the inter-organisational processes used to control international master franchise agreements from operational, relational and evolutionary perspectives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is undertaken through a qualitative, in-depth case study in the international hotel industry. The case comprises an international master franchise agreement between a large US-based hotel franchisor and its European master franchisee. Findings
This paper adopts a global perspective to investigate external relations of German cities, both transnationally and on the\\u000a national scale. At the centre of the analysis are the locational strategies of major advanced producer service firms that\\u000a link the cities in which they operate through a multitude of flows. Using an interlocking network model and data on the organizational\\u000a structure
This article considers different perspectives on the treatment of substance use-related dependency, focusing on the importance of a therapeutic relationship, working alliance, counseling, and the use of narrative methods. The article also discusses some unresolved critical issues concerning the possibilities and limitations of acquiring necessary knowledge about substance use-related dependency when using narrative research methods. The main conclusion is that the therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the client is of crucial importance for a positive outcome of treatment and that narrative methods provide a detailed empirical database for analyses of substance use-related dependency. PMID:24087872
The paper presents some well-known ethical questions regarding priority setting of safety work. Some traffic examples are applied to illustrate the dilemmas. Basic ethical principles are considered, i.e. approaches based on utility, fairness and discourse. We also discuss the various “dimensions” of utility and risk that could be taken into account. Ethical challenges related to the use of “willingness to
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Confucian ethics as applied to the study of business ethics often relate to the micro consideration of personal ethics and the character of a virtuous person. Actually, Confucius and his school have much to say about the morals of the public administration and the market institutions in a more macro level. While Weber emphasizes the role of culture on the
Tissue and cell transplantation are regarded as a popular procedure in clinical sciences, prospecting a new horizon for several incurable diseases. Along with its usefulness, many ethical concerns accompany this development. The ethical issue of organ transplant is unique to the source used which includes: living related, living unrelated, cadaveric, and xenotransplant. Obtaining organs has a separate set of ethical
|Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295
A previous analysis showed that mental health service users experienced profound loneliness, struggled to relate to other people, and were careful in considering what to share with health-care professionals. Being recognized by professionals in relationships may contribute to recovery processes characterized by 'connectedness', 'hope and optimism', 'identity', 'meaning', and 'empowerment'. This paper regards people as mainly seeking contact and meaning (relationalperspective) and aims to describe service users' understanding of being in relationships with professionals, and how these relationships may limit or enhance recovery. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze data from in-depth interviews. Participants described three levels of connectedness with professionals: (i) being detached; (ii) being cautious; and (iii) being open and trusting. Level of connectedness seemed to be associated with opportunities for promoted recovery. Trusting relationships may strengthen identity, provide opportunities for meaning and hope, and contribute to opening new perspectives, and lessen significance of internal voices. Adopting a relationalperspective may assist professionals in recognizing the service user as a person involved in making sense of life experiences and in the process of connecting to other people. PMID:23718821
Many issues in ethics arise in relation to the contexts in which psychologists work. However, most ethical decision-making models reproduce the way in which psychologists tend to approach ethics by focusing on ethical dilemmas and proposing a step-by-step response to deal with them. Although these models might be useful, their emphasis on reactive approaches and their lack of contextualization constitute
|Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)|
This discussion examines the emergence of professional codes of ethics, influences that shape contemporary midwifery ethics, and the adequacy of codes to actualize values embedded in the midwifery ethics discourse. It considers the traditions of professional practice, the impact of institutionalization on health care, the application of a code of practice as a recent addition to those traditions, and the strengths and weaknesses of codes of ethics as models for ethical responses. That is, it sets out to articulate and deconstruct existing frames of ethical response. The ethics of strangers (normative theory and abstract principles) are rejected as inadequate, and the ethics of intimates (feminist-relationalethics) are proposed as a more adequate guide for well-woman centred midwifery practice. PMID:12238748
A multinational study of marketing professionals was conducted in the US, England, Spain and Turkey. Respondents from these countries were compared on various ethics-related constructs such as idealism, relativism, moral intensity and corporate ethical values. Analyses of variance indicated that moral intensity had a signi ?cant impact on both ethical judgments and behavioral intentions. However, corporate ethical values, an idealistic
Scott J. Vitell; Aysen Bakir; Joseph G. P. Paolillo; Encarnacion Ramos Hidalgo; Jamal Al-Khatib; Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas
As publicity related to computer abuse becomes commonplace, Information Systems (IS) managers are becoming aware of the vulnerability of computer systems. Much can be learned from established corporate-wide programs which have attempted to integrate ethics into decision-making. By establishing ethics codes, providing mechanisms for reporting problems, and using ethics training, corporations are attempting to alter the ethical climate of their
There have been rapid advances in biomaterials research in the past few decades, which have influenced almost all areas of medicine and dentistry. Many ethical concerns related to the use of biomaterials fabricated from artificial substances including metals, polymers, and ceramics have been raised in the past. Most of these include safety and potential harmful effects on the human body. The development of biomaterials that incorporate biological materials such as cells with more traditional, non-biological materials will likely mean that new ethical questions will arise. With significant advances in molecular and cell biology and nanotechnology, the need for safe and effective therapies will also create unique ethical situations in the future. The use of animals in biomedical research has generated opposition from animal rights groups, which has created new challenges to scientists and researchers that warrant further actions. Responsible research by biomaterial scientists in the future will necessitate the incorporation of many new rules and regulations to the existing code of ethics. These will be necessary if new-age materials from emerging areas of science and technology are going to be morally and ethically acceptable to the scientific community and to society. PMID:20402627
In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education (JPE) discusses the decision to devote an issue of JPE to the ethics of childbirth and maternity care. The current crisis in maternity care mandates a careful look at the ethical principles that provide the foundation for practice. The contents of this special issue include: a broad overview of ethics of childbearing, historical perspectives and contemporary understanding of informed decision making, the ethical issues faced by childbirth educators, and the challenges and moral distress experienced by childbirth educators and other maternity care providers when their values, beliefs, and ethical standards are in conflict with standard maternity care practices. PMID:19415107
Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…
Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective. PMID:23724571
|Relates a narrative of a boy's life from his elementary school years through his early adult years. Reports on how his early empathy for the economic and social status of migrant workers changed as a result of parental pressure. Concludes that parents often send children conflicting messages about ethics and values. (CFR)|
ABSTRACT ,This article provides an introduction to some contemporary issues in medical ethics and the literature which addresses them from a Buddhist perspective. The first part of the article discusses Buddhism,and medicine,and outlines some of the main issues in contemporary,medical ethics. In the rest of the paper three subjects are considered: i) moral personhood, ii) abortion, and iii) death, dying
Investigators who conduct nutrition research in the community setting, particularly among underserved populations, face the ethical question of whether and how to respond to participants’ unmet health needs. The research ethics literature conceptualizes this question as one of ancillary care (AC): what is the nature and extent of researchers’ ethical responsibilities, if any, to provide or facilitate health care that research participants need but that is not necessary to ensure the safety or scientific validity of the research? In this paper, we highlight 3 ethical challenges involved in the planning of AC responses for nutrition research conducted in the community setting: influence of provision of AC on primary study outcomes as an issue of trial design; whether to extend the provision of AC beyond research participants to nonparticipants with the same health needs; and how best to train field workers who may be the most likely members of the study team to encounter the health needs anticipated among participants. Although the global ethical discussion of AC is gaining in depth, breadth, and practical influence, it remains relatively uninformed by perspectives specific to nutrition research. Our objective is to encourage nutrition researchers to engage proactively in the emerging ethical discussion of AC, so that their relevant experiences and concerns can be taken into account in the eventual formation of ethical guidelines and policies.
|Discusses three of the more significant ethical problems related to the advertising operation of student and commercial publications: (1) explaining circulation to potential advertisers; (2) negotiating special deals; and (3) following through with quality and distribution. (MS)|
Through the stories told by these students it is evident that beginning students do think critically and act ethically during their first clinical nursing course. Ethical dilemmas involving students and staff, patients, faculty, and peers depict beginning students' development of values as they evolve into professionals. The conscientiousness and caring displayed by beginning students is apparent from students' shared perspectives. It is particularly encouraging that they seemed to focus more on values and cognitive aspects of patient care than on primarily technical psychomotor skills such as taking blood pressures and giving injections. Teaching beginning students is a challenge because the educator's role is twofold: Help students build a foundation for developing ongoing critical thinking abilities and help students develop an ethical view of patient care. Further exploration of critical thinking and ethical decision making should emphasize the mutual student-educator roles in facilitating self-awareness, through conscious awareness of their beliefs, values, feelings, and multiple perspectives. Because nursing emphasizes the human element and student nurses deal with human lives, educators play a vital role in facilitating the development of beginning students as critical thinkers and as ethical nurses. The most knowledgeable and most psychologically mature faculty are needed to teach beginning nursing students. Through ongoing reflection and critical thinking, nurse educators can help beginning students to identify and develop multiple perspectives on the ethics of nursing practice. PMID:9883178
There are many ways in which scientists can lend their expertise to the educational process, through various interactions with teachers and students. This article will discuss why it is important for children to learn about neuroscience and neuroscience-related issues, and will consider the challenges of teaching neuroscience to children and how these challenges might be addressed. We will define the
|Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…
Researchers have used attribution theory as a basis for exploring the relationship between consumers' inferences of advertiser motivation (attributions) and advertising response. This study postulated the existence of two new types of attributions which relate to the perceived ethics of the advertiser (advertiser ethical attributions) and the advertising message (message ethical attributions). Research conducted among a nationally representative sample of
|The author used a corporate code of ethics as a roadmap to create 18 scenarios for assessing business students' ethicality as measured by their behavioral intention. Using a logistic regression analysis, the author also examined 8 factors that could potentially influence students' ethicality. Results indicate 6 scenarios related to 5 areas of the…
Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs
Scholars and practitioners of ethical leadership need to give attention to both leaders and followers in the leadership process. This paper conceptualizes followers as active participants in the leadership process with central roles in ethical leadership. The author uses a four-component process of ethical decision-making to provide insights into the capabilities required for in order for followers to act ethically.
Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.
The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from\\u000a a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: Mission- and Values-Driven, Stakeholder\\u000a Balance, Leadership Effectiveness, Process Integrity, and Long-term Perspective. We propose that these characteristics be\\u000a used as a foundation of a comprehensive model that can be engaged to
Alexandre Ardichvili; James A. Mitchell; Douglas Jondle
Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved.Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks
Qualities of nursing leadership may be reflected in the patterns of relating illuminated through communications between interdependent members of a discipline and interdisciplinary professional healthcare relationships. Authority and responsibility in leading-following reside with the designated leader. However, there is power with person in situation with the ever-present possibility of conflict. The author in this column will begin a discussion of conflict in nurse-nurse relationships and offer questions for straight thinking regarding the ethics of leading-following situations with nurse-nurse relationships from a humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective. PMID:19342708
The purpose of this article is to introduce relational and cross-cultural perspectives on non-violent externalizing, personality disordered women. From these perspectives a 45-item checklist was created to be applied in three different cultures, English- Italian- and Spanish-speaking ones. This article focuses on a review of the relevant literature on non-violent, externalizing, personality disordered women, including possible family of origin background
Luciano LAbate; Arthur van Eigen; Serena Rigamonti
Early identification of and intervention for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has been shown to optimize outcomes for affected individuals. Detecting biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in neonates may assist in the identification of children at risk of FASD enabling targeted early interventions. Despite these potential benefits, complicated ethical issues arise in screening for biomarkers of PAE and these must be addressed prior to the implementation of screening programs. Here, we identify and comment, based on a North American perspective, on concerns raised in the current ethical, social, and legal literature related to meconium screening for PAE. Major ethical concerns revolve around the targeting of populations for PAE screening, consent and respect for persons, stigma and participation rates, the cost-benefit analysis of a screening program, consequences of false-positive and false-negative test results, confidentiality and appropriate follow-up to positive screen results, and the use of screen results for criminal prosecution. We identify gaps in the literature on screening for PAE, most notably related to a lack of stakeholder perspectives (e.g., parents, healthcare providers) about screening and the ethical challenges it presents. PMID:23550996
Zizzo, Natalie; Di Pietro, Nina; Green, Courtney; Reynolds, James; Bell, Emily; Racine, Eric
Purpose: To assess psychological, visual and functional aspects associated with subretinal hemorrhages secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Method: In this prospective, comparative, longitudinal study, 90 eyes of 90 patients with a subretinal hemorrhage, secondary to AMD, of at least 1 disk diameter were treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) and gas, and compared to 25 eyes of 25
Maneli Mozaffarieh; Stefan Sacu; Thomas Benesch; Andreas Wedrich
To define ethics as a mode of inquiry, it is first important to consider how ethicsrelates to critical thinking. Put simply, ethical inquiry is one type of inquiry required to think critically. A connection between critical thinking and ethics is only possible, however, when ethics is defined not as a static list of rules but as a "mode of…
|Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…
The recent foundation of a ‘Young Children's Perspectives’ special interest group in the European Early Childhood Education Research Association (EECERA) reflects a general move in social research towards the respectful and inclusive involvement of children in the research process. However, established education research guidelines often provide no more than a loose ethical framework, appearing to focus on avoiding poor ethical
There are few resources available for business ethics education from a religious perspective. This is due to the specialization of careers, the mobility of workers, and clergy discomfort with the topic—all of which have led to a decline of ecclesiastical influence in this area. The author discusses why business ethics education is important in the local congregation and outlines one
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss business ethics from an Islamic perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Descriptive, analytical, and comparative analyses are used. Findings – The study reveals several factors that affect Muslims' ethical behavior, including legal, organizational, and individual factors. However, there are factors that affect manager's unethical behavior; for example, stage of moral development,
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework of Supply Chain Management Ethics (SCM-ethics). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is based upon a qualitative approach using a series of semi-structured interviews. Multiple perspectives and respondents have been applied in the data collection process. The study is limited to the Swedish vehicle industry. Findings – The empirical
Established in 1995 under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the Ethics center is designed to provide "engineers, scientists, science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life" or for including ethical problems in their courses. To that end, this site offers an array of resources. In the Research Ethics section, users will find activities, scenarios, case studies, and guides, as well as related links. The Cases section offers an even larger selection of proposed and actual cases along with annotated links. Among the many other offerings at the site are essays on science and engineering ethics, sample ethical codes, corporate setting ethical scenarios, and studies on diversity. Additional resources include conference listings (a bit outdated), a bibliography, a glossary, and an internal search engine.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) provides this Website offering "resources on the scientific content of evolutionary theory and its place in education; historical, philosophical, legal and religious perspectives on evolution; and commentary on current issues" (including the AAAS Board Statement on the Kansas State Board of Education decision). The site is organized into seven main sections: Current Issues, Educational Resources, Scientific Resources, Perspectives, Court Cases (including the "Balanced Treatment" Law), Historical Documents (by Darwin), and Epic of Evolution (essays from a forthcoming volume). Documents at the site reflect current thinking by the leading scholars in the field of evolution and provide historical context for evaluating current thinking. A careful collection of related links augments each section. For further information, see the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) homepage.
Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans.
A scholar on legal ethics responds to criticism that his views on legal advocacy are morally neutral, arguing that his approach is client centered, emphasizing the lawyer's role in enhancing the client's autonomy as a free person in a free society. He argues that the lawyer's autonomy must be respected. (MSE)
Conduct of research involving humans in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is complex and challenging. The vulnerable nature of critically ill patients raises issues of patient safety, and informed consent is difficult. With an increasing global interest in human research ethics, broadened government mandates have targeted improvements in research participant protection and research governance. A parallel rise in health consumerism and advocacy for privacy and protection of personal health information requires a clear understanding of the research participant role and importance of risk disclosure. In addition, the potential for conflicts of interest in a climate of increasingly competitive research funding, requires caution and transparency in related financial and contractual arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) fosters collaborative ICU research activity. We have developed An Ethics Handbook for Researchers (EH) for the ANZICS CTG for intended use by researchers in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. The purpose of the EH is to act as a practical advisory guide/supplement; to add clarification regarding ethical issues specific to intensive care research, to assist in the expedition of ethics committee research submission and to summarise available useful resources. This article introduces a précis of key issues from the EH including specific ethical difficulties pertaining to ICU research, a summary of the process by which ethics committee decisions in Australia and New Zealand are informed, and the use of ethical checklists to assist researchers. PMID:16539587
Many have used the Bible to inform ethics, but I am not aware of a book in the Bible being studied and applied to military ethics. Christians in the military are more bound to Christian ethics than to military ethics, or any other ethical system. This pap...
|This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…