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1

Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

Keyko, Kacey

2014-12-01

2

A global perspective on public relations ethics: The Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that geo-political region are not identical to U.S. models, nor to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the “First World.” In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences much of Middle East practice. Some contemporary public relations literature indicates that the only “ethical” public

Dean Kruckeberg

1996-01-01

3

Hippocrates and Bernays: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Ethics of Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While comparisons of public relations practitioners and attorneys remain attractive among practitioners and scholars searching for evidence of public relation's emergence as a profession, practitioners would be better served by emulating physicians in their "healing" role rather than attorneys in their "advocacy" role. Public relations's use of…

Kruckeberg, Dean

4

Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.  

PubMed

The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

Barbosa, António

2012-01-01

5

Social work ethics: Historical and contemporary perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the status of ethics within the social work profession. An historical perspective is presented as well as a consideration of the place of ethics in social work today. The philosophy of the profession, its values, codes of ethics, and ethical theory to resolve ethical conflicts experienced in practice are overviewed in this developmental context and are considered

M. Vincentia Joseph

1989-01-01

6

Music piracy: ethical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the issue of illegal downloading of music under an ethical lens. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical framework observed was one which included three independent variables: individual, situational and experimental elements. The dependent variable of the study was legal vs illegal downloading of music. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 84 respondents. The final four

Steven Bonner; Eleanor OHiggins

2010-01-01

7

Ethics as a Discipline -- Background in Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a 14-page PDF that provides an overview of ethics as a discipline. The materials are designed to introduce students to the scholarly study of ethics and some of the language and concepts used in the field. This should help students investigate the relationship between their position on issues and the various ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

8

Ethics and Action: A Relational Perspective on Consumer Choice in the European Politics of Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of consistency between people’s engagement in ethical issues and their food choices has received considerable attention.\\u000a Consumption as “choice” dominates this discourse, understood as decision-making at the point of purchase. But ideas concentrating\\u000a on individual choice are problematic when trying to understand how social and ethical issues emerge and are dealt with in\\u000a the practices of buying and

Unni Kjćrnes

9

An Ethical Perspectives Model for FCS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposeful moral deliberation is essential to the ethical practice of family and consumer sciences (FCS). This article proposes a model of ethical perspectives that is appropriate for educators, practitioners, and scholars of FCS. This model was conceptualized from the ethical decision-making framework suggested by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2005).…

Roubanis, Jody L.; Garner, Sammie G.; Purcell, Rosa S.

2006-01-01

10

Environmental Ethics: A Hindu Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Hindu religious scriptures as teachings about the human relationship with the environment and attitude toward ecology. Describes how religion has been a historical teacher of environmental ethics. Presents the Hindu view of humanity as it relates to the environment as portrayed in the Hindu theories. (10 references) (MCO)

Asopa, Sheel K.

1992-01-01

11

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

12

Doing good medical ethics: a Christian perspective.  

PubMed

Despite the rise of the secular state, religion remains a significant force in society. Within Christianity this encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. These range from simple assertions of theism in a cultural context to complex theologies; from liberal emphases on uncertainty and exploration to dogmatic views of divine revelation. How one 'does' good medical ethics depends on these perspectives. Contingently, the Christian contribution to medical ethics has been huge and constructive. Central to that contribution is a core belief in the intrinsic value of human life, respect for which we are accountable to God. Christianity continues to deserve its place 'in the public square' and, specifically, in medical ethical discourse. PMID:25516951

Saunders, John

2015-01-01

13

A public health perspective on research ethics.  

PubMed

Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re-assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. PMID:17145915

Buchanan, D R; Miller, F G

2006-12-01

14

Reflections on ethical issues in psychopharmacology: an American perspective.  

PubMed

Psychopharmacology has revolutionized psychiatric practice but raises a number of ethical issues. This review from an American perspective first describes ethics analyses and attempts to portray the ethical practitioner. Pressures that interfere with appropriate prescribing come from outside the prescriber and from within, including from insurers, other treatment staff and the prescriber's own will to act for the patient. Clinicians also face binds in which alternate choices seem to have merit and leave the prescriber feeling pulled in contradictory directions, frequently related to risk-benefit dilemmas. The ethics of psychopharmacology poses many questions that cannot yet be answered at the current state of the field. Pharmacology also seems to promote extremes of attitudes, such as "All such drugs are poisons" and the like. This review then provides some risk management principles, and concludes that such a review, though not comprehensive, may serve to open questions that are not always considered by clinicians. PMID:23063110

Gutheil, Thomas G

2012-01-01

15

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's Rhetorical and Ethical Perspective: A Novel Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to discover whether Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's rhetorical perspective has provided a unique ethical perspective of communication, a review of the literature on existing ethical perspectives of communication would be in order. Ronald C. Arnett and Richard L. Johannesen, two contemporary researchers, have provided thorough reviews of…

Bode, Robert Allen

16

What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

Kong, Wing May

2015-01-01

17

Major issues relating to end-of-life care : Ethical, legal and medical from a historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end-of-life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the progress, there are still unresolved issues concerning the scope and effectiveness of personal decision making and the proper use of last resort measures in terminal care. An analysis of the progress discloses both

Robert F. Rizzo

2005-01-01

18

Conceptualising Asian communication ethics: a Buddhist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to pursue three scholarly purposes concerning Asian communication ethics epitomised by fundamental Buddhist ethical dogmas. First, it critically reviews and reconfirms the rising essentiality of studying religious ethics in communication, especially intercultural communication, studies. Second, it attempts to religio-ethically conceptualise the four primary doctrinal ethics and precepts of traditional Buddhism: (1) the Twelve-Linked Chain of Causation; (2)

Satoshi Ishii

2009-01-01

19

Ethical Perspectives: Are Future Marketers any Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of ethics in business continues to receive considerable attention. Many universities and professional organizations have attempted to address the issue of ethics by adding ethics courses to the curriculum and by creating codes of ethics for individuals working in that field. A study of students in Australia has shown that students majoring in marketing are more prone to

Spero C. Peppas; Barry A. Diskin

2000-01-01

20

Ethics and Analysis: Philosophical Perspectives and Their Application in Therapy  

E-print Network

grateful to Carolyn Grant Fay for what she has done. The holder of the McMillan Professorship in Analytical Psychology at Texas A&M functions as the general editor of the Fay Book Series. Ethics and Analysis Ethics & Analysis Philosophical Perspectives... the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39.48-1984. Binding materials have been chosen for durability. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Zoja, Luigi. Ethics...

Zoja, Luigi

2007-01-01

21

Ethical issues in astrobiology: a Christian perspective (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that ecological community to become stronger? If after a thorough investigation we determine that no life exists and that a planet is nothing more than a lifeless body of rocks and dust, do we have an ethical obligation to attempt the creation of life through a process called planetary ecosynthesis? Or, do we have the opposite obligation to respect the rocks and dust for what they are, and refrain from any attempts to engineer life on a lifeless planet? While these two clusters of issues pose new ethical questions, I will argue that from a Christian perspective the framework for responding to these challenges would remain the Genesis Creation stories and the concept of the "imago dei". However, the new ethical challenges posed by Astrobiology require a re-framing of the "imago dei" that is closer to the intent of the original scriptures and that predicts simultaneously the presence of extraterrestrial life and the de-centering of humanity.

Randolph, R. O.

2009-12-01

22

Journal editing and ethical research practice: perspectives of journal editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing and journal editing. Topics discussed include the ethical responsibilities of

Holly Randell-Moon; Nicole Anderson; Tracey Bretag; Anthony Burke; Sue Grieshaber; Anthony Lambert; David Saltmarsh; Nicola Yelland

2011-01-01

23

Teaching Public Relations: The Role of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is an area of increasing concern in U.S. colleges and universities. A recent survey of 183 institutions with major teaching focus on public relations (with 134 returns, for a 73% return rate), indicated that only one in four institutions offers a specific ethics course, and less than half of this group require it. Nevertheless, an…

Harrison, Stanley L.

24

Ethical perspectives for public and environmental health: fostering autonomy and the right to know.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we develop an ethical perspective for public and environmental health practice in consideration of the "right to know" by contrasting consequential and deontological perspectives with relational ethics grounded in the concept of fostering autonomy. From the consequential perspective, disclosure of public and environmental health risks to the public depends on the expected or possible consequences. We discuss three major concerns with this perspective: respect for persons, justice, and ignorance. From a deontological perspective, the "right to know" means that there is a "duty" to communicate about all public health risks and consideration of the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. Relational ethics develops from consideration of a mutual limitation of the traditional perspectives. Relational ethics is grounded in the relationship between the public and public/environmental health providers. In this paper we develop a model for this relationship, which we call "fostering autonomy through mutually respectful relationships." Fostering autonomy is both an end in public health practice and a means to promote the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. We discuss these principles as they relate to practical issues of major disasters and contaminants in food, such as DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, and mercury. PMID:12573894

Lambert, Timothy William; Soskolne, Colin L; Bergum, Vangie; Howell, James; Dossetor, John B

2003-01-01

25

Science, technology and ethics: from critical perspective to dialectical perspective.  

PubMed

It has been agreed upon, according to critical perspective, to distinguish the problems raised by scientific issues on the one hand and the problems raised by moral issues on the other. This distinction, at the genesis of theoretical ideology, postulates that experimental science is mere knowledge which, since it has nothing to do with action, cannot raise a moral problem. Yet the use of experimental techniques turns out to be a necessary means, although an insufficient one, to put to the test and to confirm the theoretical hypothesis of science. Thus, those techniques produce perceptible effects which can be assimilated to genuine transformation and are consequently capable of raising moral problems. It follows that the technical imperative of science can be conditioned by a moral imperative of technique, which leads to modification of the object of the research and dubs it, a dialectical object. It is, however, advisable to effect a demarcation between that which, within the frame work of research in experimental science, can pose a moral problem and which cannot. The criterion of refusability of practical projects, by analogy with Popper's criterion of refutability of theoretical conjectures, allows for this demarcation to be implemented. It postulates that only the technical projects of science, apart from scientific theories, can pose a moral problem or can be recognized as moral, providing that the conditions of a possible ethical refusal can be expressed. From the analysis and the synthesis of heterogeneous possibilities, dialectical perspective thus outlined represents an endeavour to go beyond critical perspective, while trying to seek an intermediary channel between the "progressist dogmatism" of science and the obscurantist scepticism" of morals. PMID:16619430

Lavelle, Sylvain

2005-06-01

26

Ethical Perspectives on Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. PMID:23168302

Banja, John D.; Eisen, Arri

2013-01-01

27

Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

2011-03-01

28

Ethical conflict and job satisfaction of public relations practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to explore the linkage between ethical conflict and job satisfaction, causes of ethical conflicts, and consequences of job dissatisfaction of public relations practitioners. The findings show that many practitioners confirmed the existence of ethical conflict in their workplace and suggest that ethical challenges are largely triggered by top management's ethical standard. Although practitioners resolved conflicts by leaving

Jin-Ae Kang

2010-01-01

29

Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning  

PubMed Central

The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

2013-01-01

30

New perspectives on the theory of justice: implications for physical therapy ethics and clinical practice.  

PubMed

Recent revisions of physical therapy codes of ethics have included a new emphasis concerning health inequities and social injustice. This emphasis reflects the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. This perspective article suggests that there is a "disconnect" between the societal obligations and aspirations expressed in the revised codes and the individualist ethical frameworks that predominantly underpin them. Primary health care is an approach to health care arising from an understanding of the nexus between health and social disadvantage that considers the health needs of patients as expressive of the health needs of the communities of which they are members. It is proposed that re-thinking ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics can both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. This perspective article provides a new focus on the ethical principle of justice: the ethical principle that arguably remains the least consensually understood and developed in the ethics literature of physical therapy. A relatively recent theory of justice known as the "capability approach to justice" is discussed, along with its potential to assist physical therapy practitioners to further develop moral agency in order to address situations of health inequity and social injustice in clinical practice. PMID:21885447

Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

2011-11-01

31

Can Suicide Be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…

Feldman, David B.

2006-01-01

32

Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

2011-01-01

33

Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective  

E-print Network

for Blackwell Publishing OnlineOpen (open access) publication, or funding for writing or editor- ial assistanceBest Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective Chris Graf1 , Elizabeth, journal editors, authors, research funders, readers, and publishers. Good publication practices do

Twente, Universiteit

34

Ethical Perspectives on RNA Interference Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

RNA interference is a mechanism for controlling normal gene expression which has recently begun to be employed as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide range of disorders, including cancer, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. Clinical trials with RNA interference have begun. However, challenges such as off-target effects, toxicity and safe delivery methods have to be overcome before RNA interference can be considered as a conventional drug. So, if RNA interference is to be used therapeutically, we should perform a risk-benefit analysis. It is ethically relevant to perform a risk-benefit analysis since ethical obligations about not inflicting harm and promoting good are generally accepted. But the ethical issues in RNA interference therapeutics not only include a risk-benefit analysis, but also considerations about respecting the autonomy of the patient and considerations about justice with regard to the inclusion criteria for participation in clinical trials and health care allocation. RNA interference is considered a new and promising therapeutic approach, but the ethical issues of this method have not been greatly discussed, so this article analyses these issues using the bioethical theory of principles of the American bioethicists, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress. PMID:18612370

Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.; Andersen, Svend; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2008-01-01

35

An Ethical Perspective to Communication Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite widespread indifference or resistence to the idea, communication scientists need to discuss the ethical implications of their research. Fortunate in being able to conduct research, scientists are responsible to and for the larger population in whose names they do their work. They need to realize that such traditional research areas and…

Hochheimer, John L.

36

Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.  

PubMed

On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

Diekema, Douglas S

2009-01-01

37

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

38

Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

2013-01-01

39

Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even with the new generation of young leaders. The future outlook of African organizational ethics and leadership is to be found in the intersection of changes in technology, life style, demographics and geopolitics with new trends emerging in global polity and economy. PMID:24564917

Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

2013-01-01

40

The Ethics Pyramid: Making Ethics Unavoidable in the Public Relations Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To move from the realm of good intent to verifiable practice, ethics needs to be approached in the same way as any other desired outcome of the public relations process: that is, operationalised and evaluated at each stage of a public relations campaign. A pyramid model—the 'ethics pyramid'—is useful for incorporating ethical reflection and evaluation processes into the standard structure

Elspeth Tilley

2005-01-01

41

["Brain reading": achievements, perspectives and ethical problems].  

PubMed

The new trend in brain research designated as brain reading is considered. This research deals with decoding the informational content of the brain processing via its physiological parameters. Such studies are based on rather complicated methods of mathematical analysis. Single records rather than averaged data are used to reveal their content. Three main streams of studies are distinguished, i.e. the object classification, the emotion recognition and brainotyping. Particularly, the studies directed to recognizing the type of thinking via EEG spectra, carried out in the author's laboratory, are reviewed. The possible outcome of the brain reading technique is considered. Finally it is argued that in the future, the broad application of this technique needs to be controlled with some ethical rules. PMID:22690543

Ivanitski?, A M

2012-01-01

42

Engineering Ethics and Identity: Emerging Initiatives in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and accounts for variable interests in engineering ethics in France, Germany, and Japan by locating\\u000a recent initiatives in relation to the evolving identities of engineers. A key issue in ethics education for engineers concerns\\u000a the relationship between the identity of the engineer and the responsibilities of engineering work. This relationship has\\u000a varied significantly over time and from

Gary Lee Downey; Juan C. Lucena; Carl Mitcham

2007-01-01

43

The nexus between ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility : An internal organisational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The commentary aims to consider the nexus between corporate marketing, ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility. It seeks to take an explicit internal organisational perspective. It also aims to identify future research avenues. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The commentary explains the relevance of the previous interlinking concepts with a discussion based on a review of past

Shaun M. Powell

2011-01-01

44

A Midsummer Night's Dream: Relating Ethics to Mutuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream shows ethical conflicts to be resolved relationally. Quarreling lovers divide Duke Theseus's Athenian court in advance of his own nuptial celebration, forcing the Duke to decide moral questions based on their ethical consequences. King Oberon's conflicted fairy world meddles in human affairs, adding to the ethical confusion. Athenian workmen vie for roles in a court

William M. Hawley

2010-01-01

45

Rapport and respect: negotiating ethical relations between researcher and participant.  

PubMed

Qualitative research is largely dependent on building good interpersonal relations between researcher and participant. This is necessary for generating rich data, while at the same time ensuring respect is maintained between researcher and participant. We argue for a better understanding of researcher-participant relations in research practice. Codes of ethics, although important, do not address these kinds of ethical challenges. Negotiating the ethical relations between researcher and participant is paramount in maintaining ethical rigour in qualitative research. In this paper we propose concepts that can assist in understanding how the ethics of research relations are negotiated in practice; the 'zone of the untouchable' from the Danish philosopher, Lřgstrup, is combined with the notion of 'ethical mindfulness'. We argue how and why these concepts in tandem can heighten awareness and offer ways to address the ethically important moments in research. PMID:18853283

Guillemin, Marilys; Heggen, Kristin

2009-08-01

46

Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naďve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

2013-08-01

47

A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science.  

PubMed

The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the individual scientist's ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norms that transcend team heterogeneity and hierarchy. To this end, our expository analysis provides a survey of ethical issues in team settings to inform science ethics education and science policy. PMID:24919946

Petersen, Alexander M; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Semendeferi, Ioanna

2014-12-01

48

A Systems Model for Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates using systems theory and systems models for ethical decision making in public relations. Demonstrates how to apply systems theory (with its ability to delineate a complex process and wed it to a model of organizational decision making) to analyzing the ethical dimensions inherent in the public relations process. (SR)

Bivins, Thomas H.

1992-01-01

49

Philosophical and ethical perspectives on cardiovascular disease risk in low-wage workers.  

PubMed

One of the overriding goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities observed among Americans. Because workers in small businesses tend to have little or no access to health screening or preventive health education programs, they may be unaware of their unique risk factors and are thus more at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, occupational health nurses are more likely to be available in health programs to employees in large rather than small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how nursing values and philosophy might influence public health nurses' thinking about nursing science and ethical issues relating to the risk of CVD among low-wage workers. The following questions will guide the exploration of health disparities among low-wage workers: (a) What are the health disparities observed among low-wage workers with CVD risk? (b) What are the philosophical and ethical perspectives on the issues presented? (c) Based on these findings, how should limited resources be allocated? and (d) How does this affect nursing? These approaches will provide the foundation for developing a culturally sensitive ethical and philosophical perspective to prevent CVD and promote cardiovascular health among low-wage workers. PMID:21732971

Hwang, Won Ju

2011-01-01

50

Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

Schmidt, Patrick

2012-01-01

51

Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.  

PubMed

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible. PMID:19692673

Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

2009-10-01

52

The ethics of cost containment from the anesthesiologist’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost containment, as an essential part of current efforts to manage health care, has been examined thoroughly from the perspectives of finance and patient care. In this article, the ethics of cost containment are discussed from the vantage point of the health care provider. Cost-cutting initiatives, however necessary and sound, nevertheless may place anesthesiologists in situations of ethical conflict and

Wolf A Vogel; Gerard R Manecke; Paul J Poppers

1999-01-01

53

UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory: database on ethics related legislation and guidelines.  

PubMed

The Database on Ethics Related Legislation and Guidelines was launched in March 2007 as the fourth database of the UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory system of databases in ethics of science and technology. The database offers a collection of legal instruments searchable by region, country, bioethical themes, legal categories and applicability to specific articles of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. This paper discusses the background and rationale for the database and its role as a consultative and comparative resource hub for the study of ethics related legal instruments across the world, with the purpose of informing and inspiring relevant stakeholders on the implementation of the principles contained within the UNESCO declarations on bioethics. PMID:18827106

Ang, T W; ten Have, H; Solbakk, J H; Nys, H

2008-10-01

54

Ethics in scientific publication: historical and international perspectives  

E-print Network

Ethical issues in scientific communication have existed in the scientific community since before the 17[th] century publication of the first scientific journal. To understand the historical development of scientific publication ethics as its own...

Henry, Melissa June

2013-02-22

55

Consensus statements on occupational therapy ethics related to driving.  

PubMed

As part of an expert panel convened to examine evidence and practice related to diverse aspects of driving evaluation and rehabilitation, consensus statements were developed on ethics. This paper provides context for the ethical obligation of practitioners to assess and make recommendations about the ability of clients to safely perform the activity of driving. It highlights key articles from the literature as well as principles from the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Ethics Standards (2010). The statements support the importance of identifying impairments affecting driving, which could result in harm to the client as well as to the public. The ethical and professional obligation of practitioners to evaluate, make recommendations, and possibly report and/or refer to a driver rehabilitation specialist for further services is reinforced. PMID:24754765

Slater, Deborah Yarett

2014-04-01

56

Lessons in Machine Ethics from the Perspective of Two Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two computational models of ethical reasoning, one that compares pairs of truth-telling cases and one that retrieves relevant past cases and principles when presented with an ethical dilemma, are described and discussed. Lessons learned from developing and experimenting with the two systems, as well as challenges of building programs that reason about ethics, are discussed. Finally, plans

Bruce M. McLaren

57

Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the “price condition”) or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the “production method condition”), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

2015-01-01

58

Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.  

PubMed

For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

2015-01-01

59

Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

2010-01-01

60

Ethics and the nurse's commitment to political involvement: an educator's perspective on ethics and nursing.  

PubMed

Perioperative nurses concomitantly practice in the legal, moral, ethical, and political domains. Although the domains are often thought of as separate entities they are interwoven in practice. This report uses values as the basis of their interconnectiveness. Ethics and politics are presented as problem solving processes. Specifically, ethics is used to justify moral behavior/conduct and politics to resolve conflicts with perioperative and other health care settings. PMID:8718397

Kennedy, P H

1996-04-01

61

Ethical issues in clinical neuroscience research: a patient's perspective.  

PubMed

A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public confidence in medical research. Parkinson advocates' views on clinical trial participation, perceived risks and benefits, placebo controls, and sham surgery are presented. These views reflect the sense of urgency and the unique perspective that comes from living with this progressive, debilitating condition full time. A patient-centered paradigm that includes authentic voices of patients as collaborators at every stage of development will help to resolve conflicts, build trust, recruit trial participants, and accelerate new therapies. Key elements are adaptive clinical trial methods and the development of information technology for the assessment of outcomes and surveillance of safety over the life cycle of a medical product. Supported by the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, the Parkinson Pipeline Project is a grassroots group of Parkinson's patients whose goal is to represent an authentic voice for patients in the treatment development process. This group promotes education and communication between members of the Parkinson's community and active stakeholders in medical research, industry, and regulatory agencies. Its members are an example of a new breed of knowledgeable consumers, armed with first-hand access to research findings and reinforced by on-line connections to like-minded peers throughout the world. PMID:17599719

Cohen, Perry D; Herman, Linda; Jedlinski, Sheryl; Willocks, Peggy; Wittekind, Paula

2007-07-01

62

Ethical Perspectives in Open and Distance Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death…

Anitha, C.; Harsha, T. S.

2013-01-01

63

Gender Mobility and the Work Ethic: an International Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the previous analyses on the work ethic posit that it occurs within the context of the job. It is suggested in this article that the work ethic is, in part, a function of different socioeconomic environments. The variance between highly developed and less developed countries creates a variance in the corporate mobility of the female gender. Specifically, it

Katherine Ann Stucky

64

A Model of Ethical Decision Making from a Multicultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because shifts in the world's ethnic and racial demographics mean that the majority of the world's population is non-White (M. D'Andrea & P Arredondo, 1997), it is imperative that counselors develop a means for working ethically with a diverse clientele. In this article, the authors argue that the current Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice…

Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Williams, Carmen Braun

2005-01-01

65

Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

Haverkamp, Beth E.

2005-01-01

66

Characteristics of ethical leaders and the relationship of those characteristics to the ethical decision-making of successful student leaders: a communitarian perspective  

E-print Network

~CZERISTICS OF EIHICAL LEADERS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE CHARACTERISTICS 'IO THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING OF SUCCESSFUL STUDENT LEADERS: A COMMUNITARIAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis PRICILLA KAREN MURPHY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Agricultural Education CHAP'ACIKRISTICS OF ETHICAL ~ERS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THOSE CHARACTERISTICS TO THE ETHICAL...

Murphy, Pricilla Karen

1993-01-01

67

Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.  

PubMed

Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

2015-04-01

68

Theory and practice of clinical ethics support services: narrative and hermeneutical perspectives.  

PubMed

In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of 'theory' and show how it is interwoven with 'practice' as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case 'narrative ethics' and 'philosophical hermeneutics' provide a theoretical base for clinical ethics by focusing on human identities entangled in stories and on moral understanding as a dialogical process. Second, we consider the role of theoretical notions in helping practitioners to understand their situation in clinical ethics practice, by using notions like 'story', 'responsibility', or 'vulnerability' to make explicit and explain their practical experience. Such theoretical notions help us to interpret clinical situations from an ethical perspective and to foster moral awareness of practitioners. And, thirdly, we examine how new theoretical concepts are developed by interpreting practice, using practice to form and improve our ethical theory. In this paper, we discuss this threefold use of theory in clinical ethics support services by reflecting on our own theoretical assumptions, methodological steps and practical experiences as ethicists, and by providing examples from our daily work. In doing so, we illustrate that theory and practice are interwoven, as theoretical understanding is dependent upon practical experience, and vice-versa. PMID:21790689

Porz, Rouven; Landeweer, Elleke; Widdershoven, Guy

2011-09-01

69

Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East europe in graduate medical education.  

PubMed

Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

Mijaljica, Goran

2014-03-01

70

[A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].  

PubMed

Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients. PMID:25271028

Wang, Wen-Sheng

2014-10-01

71

Scientists’ Perspectives on the Ethical Issues of Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project\\u000a is part of a larger research initiative entitled “The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience\\u000a Together”. The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a “needs\\u000a assessment”

Holly Longstaff; Catherine A. Schuppli; Nina Preto; Darquise Lafreničre; Michael McDonald

2009-01-01

72

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

73

I. ASCRC General Education Form Group VIII Ethics and Human Values / and Group X Global Perspectives  

E-print Network

as gender and racial discrimination, civil and political rights, economic and social rights, and the use Perspectives Dept/Program History Course # 335 Course Title International Human Rights Prerequisite None, irrespective of their gender, race, class, nationality, or any other form of difference. Their ethical values

Vonessen, Nikolaus

74

The Ethics of Public Consultation in Health Care: An Orthodox Jewish Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand and United Kingdom governments have set new directives for increased consultation with the public about health care. Set against a legacy of modest success with past engagement with public consultations, this paper considers potentially adverse ethical implications of the new directives. Drawing on experiences from New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and on an Orthodox Jewish perspective, the

Stephen Buetow

2003-01-01

75

Relations and membership: Foundations for ethical thinking in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this concept paper is to reframe the nature of obligation in social work from one externally derived from situational and societal expectations to one which is intrinsic to human sociality and to the helping relationship. The implications of concepts of relations and membership, as foundations for ethical thinking in social work are explored. Implicit in these concepts

Robert T. Constable

1989-01-01

76

The Terri Schiavo case: legal, ethical, and medical perspectives.  

PubMed

Although tragic, the plight of Terri Schiavo provides a valuable case study. The conflicts and misunderstandings surrounding her situation offer important lessons in medicine, law, and ethics. Despite media saturation and intense public interest, widespread confusion lingers regarding the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state, the judicial processes involved, and the appropriateness of the ethical framework used by those entrusted with Terri Schiavo's care. First, the authors review the current medical understanding of persistent vegetative state, including the requirements for patient examination, the differential diagnosis, and the practice guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology regarding artificial nutrition and hydration for patients with this diagnosis. Second, they examine the legal history, including the 2000 trial, the 2002 evidentiary hearing, and the subsequent appeals. The authors argue that the law did not fail Terri Schiavo, but produced the highest-quality evidence and provided the most judicial review of any end-of-life guardianship case in U.S. history. Third, they review alternative ethical frameworks for understanding the Terri Schiavo case and contend that the principle of respect for autonomy is paramount in this case and in similar cases. Far from being unusual, the manner in which Terri Schiavo's case was reviewed and the basis for the decision reflect a broad medical, legal, and ethical consensus. Greater clarity regarding the persistent vegetative state, less apprehension of the presumed mysteries of legal proceedings, and greater appreciation of the ethical principles at work are the chief benefits obtained from studying this provocative case. PMID:16287796

Perry, Joshua E; Churchill, Larry R; Kirshner, Howard S

2005-11-15

77

Protecting children from smoking in the home: an ethics of care perspective.  

PubMed

Community nurses are uniquely placed to help protect child health by facilitating the creation of smoke-free homes. However, there are a number of perceived barriers that may concern community nurses in their role of supporting parents in the creation of smoke-free homes, particularly those faced by disadvantaged parents. Arguments against intervening within the private domain of the home focus on concerns about protecting parents' autonomy to smoke within their own home and the potential for stigmatising parents who smoke, particularly mothers. Drawing on an ethics of care perspective, the authors propose an alternative perspective to the intervention in private settings. An ethics of care perspective may help to justify and encourage parents and community nurses to work in partnership to create a healthy environment for children and decrease the likelihood of children becoming smokers in the future. PMID:24784555

Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Ritchie, Deborah

2014-05-01

78

Exploring ethical perspectives of nurses and nurse managers.  

PubMed

With nursing shortages reaching crisis proportions, staff nurses need to believe that nurse managers are supportive. However, evidence exists that staff nurses view nurse managers as moving away from basic nursing values. Using an exploratory philosophical approach, the authors examine this issue as a function of differing ethical frameworks used by nurses and nurse managers. The main question is whether nurse managers are expected to subscribe to a corporate ethic versus a nursing ethic in making decisions, and whether these approaches are fundamentally different. The authors' supposition was that exposing differences might account for some dissatisfaction that nurses express with regard to nursing leadership. They conclude that there are differences of emphasis in ethical principles that may cause tension. Incongruencies between corporate and individual values emerge under fiscal constraints and with differing perceptions, expectations and decision-making criteria. This paper offers suggestions to help staff nurses and nurse managers reduce tensions experienced when difficult choices, particularly those of resource allocation, are required. PMID:15503919

Kellen, Joyce C; Oberle, Kathleen; Girard, Francine; Falkenberg, Loren

2004-03-01

79

Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

English, Raymond, Ed.

80

Values, Ethics and Teacher Education: A Perspective from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Values and ethics are automatically incorporated into any teaching/learning environment or endeavour, whether or not they are consciously stated objectives. The focus on "quality of education" has sharpened as people have become concerned about a perceived rise in materialism as standards of living have improved; materialistic ambitions…

Zia, Rukhsana

2007-01-01

81

Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

Stephenson, James H.

2010-01-01

82

The effects of computerized performance monitoring: An ethical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy has surrounded the use of computerized performance monitoring (CPM) by employers. Critics of this technology contend that CPM usage raises serious ethical concerns. Beliefs that the use of computerized performance monitors results in unfair performance evaluation, stress and health problems underlie much of the current concern over this technology. A field study was undertaken to provide empirical evidence

Stephen R.. Hawk

1994-01-01

83

Institutional Responses to Medical Mistakes: Ethical and Legal Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care institutions must decide whether to inform the patient of a medical error. The barriers to disclosure are an aversion to admitting errors, a concern about implicating other practitioners, and a fear of lawsuits and liabil- ity. However, admission of medical errors is the ethical thing to do and may be required by law. When examined, the barriers to

Andrew E. Thurman

2001-01-01

84

Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics  

PubMed Central

The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards. PMID:24465233

Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

2013-01-01

85

Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making ethical decision rarely involves a simple yes or no answer. Matters of confidentiality are no different. This article examines how school counselors must draw the line between protecting a student's privacy and providing information to parents and administrators. (GCP)

Dansby-Giles, Gloria

2002-01-01

86

Analyzing dignity: a perspective from the ethics of care.  

PubMed

The concept of dignity is notoriously vague. In this paper it is argued that the reason for this is that there are three versions of dignity that are often confused. First we will take a short look at the history of the concept of dignity in order to demonstrate how already from Roman Antiquity two versions of dignity can be distinguished. Subsequently, the third version will be introduced and it will be argued that although the three versions of dignity hang together, they should also be clearly distinguished in order to avoid confusion. The reason for distinguishing the three versions is because all three of them are only partially effective. This will be demonstrated by taking the discussion about voluntary 'dying with dignity' as an example. Inspired by both Paul Ricoeur's concept of ethics and the ethics of care a proposition will be done as to how the three versions of dignity may sustain each other and help achieve what neither one of the versions can do on its own. PMID:22791296

Leget, Carlo

2013-11-01

87

Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

Atweh, Bill

2011-03-01

88

[Medical confidentiality and HIV/AIDS. Ethical-legal perspective].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the cross-fire between the crimes, respectively, of violation of the professional confidentiality and of transmission of infection disease, by omission, under the Portuguese legal framework, in the case of HIV/AIDS. The conflict of interests and duties for the practitioner, and the difficulty of solving it. Shall the practitioner speak, or shall he/she keep silence when the HIV/AIDS patient refuses to say the truth to his/her sexual partner, with the consequent risk of transmission of infection disease? The point of view of the Human rights. The position of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and of the European Union (EU) in the fight against the discrimination of people affected by HIV/AIDS. The statements of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) concerning the right to privacy and to non-discrimination (even for illness). Possibility of confrontation with the positions represented by: a) the opinion of the National Council of Ethics for the Sciences of Life (CNECV), of 23rd October 2000, required by the Order of the Practitioners; b) the opinion of the Portuguese legal experts; c) the Criminal Law and the Procedural Criminal Law; d) the cases of the English jurisprudence (High Courts). The ethics of responsibility, the crossing of the traditional principles of medicine, bioethics and law, as well as the reinforcing of the medical deontology and the implementing of a deontology of the patient as possible ways to be considered in order to find answers for the problems. PMID:16197857

Rueff, Maria do Céu

2004-01-01

89

Ethics  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

90

Evolving Ethical Perspectives in an Eighth-Grade Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Matthew Ronfeldt's dissertation as a doctoral candidate in Curriculum and Teacher Education at Stanford University is a crossprofessional study of how professional education supports novice teachers and clinical psychologists in adapting to their new professional roles. He wrote this chapter while teaching eighth-grade math and science at a school in the San Francisco Bay area, where he developed and coordinated a teacher research group within the school. He received his MA in education from Mills College, where he also participated as a teacher researcher for three years. Matt used videotapes of class discussions, interviews, student work, and his own reflections to study, over the course of the school year, the developing ideas of his students as they explored the ethical issues facing those who conduct scientific experiments. As his students debated whether and when it is acceptable to do experiments on animals or humans, they stated their opinions, they challenged each other, and they changed their minds. Matt provided opportunities for scientific discussion and debate, nurtured a classroom climate where students shared responsibility for learning, and modeled inquiry in his own practice as he encouraged his students to ask their own questions.

Matthew Ronfeldt

2007-01-01

91

New Perspectives on Jewish-Christian Relations  

E-print Network

New Perspectives on Jewish-Christian Relations Yom Iyun sponsored by Yeshiva University's Bernard Graduate School of Jewish Studies Celebrating the publication of New Perspectives on Jewish-Christian Studies, Yeshiva University 10 a.m. A Surprising View of Christianity in the Eighteenth Century

Emmons, Scott

92

The ethics of public consultation in health care: an Orthodox Jewish perspective.  

PubMed

New Zealand and United Kingdom governments have set new directives for increased consultation with the public about health care. Set against a legacy of modest success with past engagement with public consultations, this paper considers potentially adverse ethical implications of the new directives. Drawing on experiences from New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and on an Orthodox Jewish perspective, the paper seeks to answer two questions: What conditions can compromise the ethics of public consultation? How can the public respond ethically to consultation? In answering these questions, the paper considers how Orthodox Judaism, as a specific positive morality, can aid the development of public policy. It is suggested that an Orthodox Jewish perspective does not require limiting the content of public consultations and helps to define a common procedural morality binding Jews and non-Jews. This procedural morality requires avoiding two conditions that, as shown from Jewish texts, make public consultation unethical. These are "overpreparation" and "underpreparation." Members of the public who deem a consultation unethical should give feedback not on the proposal but on the conditions they perceive to prevent the consulting party from considering their viewpoints on the proposal. PMID:14567478

Buetow, Stephen

2003-06-01

93

Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics

Sikes, Pat

2010-01-01

94

Ethics.  

PubMed

This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

Pellegrino, E D

1989-05-19

95

Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical discussions about the development and use of chimeras and hybrids (hereafter: “chimbrids”) are faced with a series\\u000a of weighty problems. 1) First, not enough is known about either the research aims or the technical, political and social implications\\u000a of this kind of research to evaluate the benefits, risks and moral implications of the research in the short- or long-term.

Autumn Fiester; Marcus Düwell

96

Varicella-zoster virus vaccination under the exogenous boosting hypothesis: two ethical perspectives.  

PubMed

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two diseases: varicella ('chickenpox') and herpes zoster ('shingles'). VZV vaccination of children reduces exposure to chickenpox in the population and it has been hypothesized that this could increase the prevalence of shingles. This 'exogenous boosting' effect of VZV raises an important equity concern: introducing a vaccination program could advance the health of one population group (children) at the expense of another (adults and elderly). We discuss the program's justifiability from two ethical perspectives, classic utilitarianism and contractualism. Whereas the former framework might offer a foundation for the case against introducing this vaccination, the latter offers a basis to justify it. PMID:25454883

Luyten, Jeroen; Ogunjimi, Benson; Beutels, Philippe

2014-12-12

97

Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

2007-01-01

98

Metaphysical and Ethical Perspectives on Creating Animal-Human Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and

Jason T. Eberl; R. A. Ballard

2009-01-01

99

A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

100

Differentiating the Related Concepts of Ethics, Morality, Law, and Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four terms central to the dialog about ethics are defined and differentiated: ethics; morality; justice; and law. Several problems in understanding the terms are identified, including differences between the classical and current meanings, common but inappropriate usages, confusion of one term for another, and merging of terms in common usage.…

Ray, Terry T.

1996-01-01

101

Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

2014-01-01

102

Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

2015-02-01

103

The Positive Role of Professionalism and Ethics Training in Medical Education: A Comparison of Medical Student and Resident Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the perspectives and preferences of medical students and residents regarding professionalism and ethics education. Methods: A new written survey with 124 items (scale: "strongly disagree" = 1, "strongly agree" = 9) was sent to all medical students (n = 308) and PGY 1-3 residents (n = 233) at one academic center. Results: Of…

Roberts, Laura Weiss; Hammond, Katherine A. Green; Geppert, Cynthia M. A.; Warner, Teddy D.

2004-01-01

104

Tragedies of the Broadcast Commons: Consumer Perspectives on the Ethics of Product Placement and Video News Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores cynicism as an ethical issue associated with the blurring of content and advertising in mass media. From a communitarian perspective and adapting Hardin's (1968) metaphorical use of “commons” to the domain of broadcasting, we surveyed the attitudes of individuals toward two phenomena of media saturation (product placement and video news releases) and three constructs (cynicism directed toward

Jay Newell; Jeffrey Layne Blevins; Michael Bugeja

2009-01-01

105

Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

2009-01-01

106

Expanding the Philosophical Base for Ethical Public Relations Practice: Cross-Cultural Case Application of Non-Western Ethical Philosophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western philosophical approaches, such as utilitarianism, have informed journalism and public relations practices in the West with little regard for non-Western frameworks. To rectify the ethnocentrism of ethical reasoning prevalent in Western public relations practices, we discuss two non-Western philosophical foundations: the palaver-tree concept from Africa and Confucianism from Asia. By focusing on the philosophical base as the first step

Koji Fuse; Mitchell Land; Jacqueline J. Lambiase

2010-01-01

107

Throwing Out the Relativity Bath Water without Losing the Diversity Baby: Teaching Diversity versus Relativity in a Communication Ethics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper holds that despite, or perhaps because of, the development of recent ideas about diversity and cultural relativity, universities are obligated to teach communication ethics. Further, it holds that the implications of giving bachelor's degrees to students who do not have a solid grasp of universal ethical guidelines are potentially…

Martinson, Jay; Haughey, Paul

108

The ethics of forensic psychiatry: moving beyond principles to a relational ethics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychiatry has been described as a ‘moral minefield’. The competing obligations at the interface of the justice and healthcare systems raise questions about the very viability of an ethical framework for guiding practice. The explicit need for security and detention, and the implicit ‘untrustworthiness’ of forensic patients shape practitioners' everyday reality. Suspicion colors client–practitioner relationship and fundamental care concepts,

Wendy Austin; Erika Goble; Julija Kelecevic

2009-01-01

109

[Medical ethics as professional ethics].  

PubMed

Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533

Kwon, Ivo

2012-09-25

110

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

111

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…

Weinstein, Matthew

2008-01-01

112

Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaders should be a key source of ethical guidance for employees. Yet, little empirical research focuses on an ethical dimension of leadership. We propose social learning theory as a theoretical basis for understanding ethical leadership and offer a constitutive definition of the ethical leadership construct. In seven interlocking studies, we investigate the viability and importance of this construct. We develop

Michael E. Brown; Linda K. Trevińo; David A. Harrison

2005-01-01

113

Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

Sloan, P.R.

1996-09-25

114

A Test of Contextual Theory: The Relationship Among Relational Ethics, Marital Satisfaction, Health Problems, and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the theoretical underpinning of contextual theory. Using structural equation modeling, the relationship\\u000a among relational ethics (recognized as the most important aspect of contextual theory), marital satisfaction, depression,\\u000a and illness was examined. Data came from a national sample of 632 mid-life, married individuals. Results supported Nagy’s\\u000a contextual theory. The total score of the Relational Ethics Scale was

Heath A. Grames; Richard B. Miller; W. David Robinson; Derrel J. Higgins; W. Jeff Hinton

2008-01-01

115

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the\\u000a ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the\\u000a U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes\\u000a ethics in three principles to guide research

Matthew Weinstein

2008-01-01

116

Health equity for internal migrant labourers in India: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

In the developing countries, internal migration is a survival strategy for many labourers in search of a better livelihood and opportunities. It is inevitable that many of them will leave their home towns and villages in the coming years, and that the future will see an increase in the number of migrant labourers in developing countries such as India. Migrant workers face unique health problems and it is important for the health system to prepare itself to face these. In this context, the system will need to address certain key ethical issues. There is plenty of published literature on international migration and its ethical aspects.However, there is a scarcity of information on ethical issues relating to internal migration. This article examines these issues in the context of India. It addresses the issues of equity, non-discrimination,the provision of culturally competent care to migrants, allocation of scarce resources, and achieving a balance between benefits and risks for migrants. Our analysis should be considered while planning any healthcare intervention for internal migrant workers in all developing countries. PMID:25377036

Akinola, Ajoke Basirat; Krishna, Anil Kumar Indira; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

117

Are g.p.a. and ethics related?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results of a study of some 200 college-aged students at California State University. Ethical values are measured using a subset of the well-known and frequently used Rokeach Value Survey. Using nonparametric statistical analysis, four value measures, and four different consistent tests of significance and probability, the research data, perhaps disappointedly for many observers including the authors, reveal

Andrew Sikula; Adelmiro D. Costa

1995-01-01

118

Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In considering mounting screening for Syphilis and cervical cancer as a public heal intervention, the community interests and perspectives should be inculcated into the program. Population lack of information on procedures may influence adversely the demand for screening services by the individuals at risk or the community as a collective agent. PMID:24678613

2014-01-01

119

Towards an empirical ethics in care: relations with technologies in health care.  

PubMed

This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945

Pols, Jeannette

2015-02-01

120

Surgical experimentation and clinical trials: differences and related ethical problems.  

PubMed

Surgical techniques are not introduced into clinical practice as the result of randomised clinical trials (RCT), but usually through the gradual evolution of existing techniques or, more rarely, through audacious departures from the norm that are decided by a surgical team on the basis of experience. Sham surgery is held by some to be not only an ethically acceptable procedure but also a perfectly fit and proper one, as it could endow surgical experiments with the strict methodological and statistical precision typically associated with RCTs. This article first briefly examines some of the methodological aspects of both RCTs and surgical experiments and then offers a few considerations regarding the ethical issues raised by sham surgery. PMID:23771267

Petrini, Carlo

2013-01-01

121

[Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].  

PubMed

The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

Friedel, Marie

2014-01-01

122

Rethinking 'business is business': a criticalist perspective on teaching business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study into student perceptions of a Socratic approach to teaching business ethics. The paper lays out a criticalist proposition that there is a discourse of 'ethics-in-business' in which ethics are, pragmatically, subsumed by a more strategic economics focus to business management practice. This discourse of ethics-in-business is claimed to be so pervading that the education

Wayne Fallon

123

The Effect of Gender on the Importance of Business Ethics and Managerial Decisions: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examined male and female business college students' perceptions regarding the need for a match between personal and corporate ethics, whether success in business depends on ethical behavior, and the types of ethical misconduct that warrant the most severe managerial disciplinary actions. Background: The literature contains…

Keith, Nancy K.; Perreault, Heidi R.; Chin, Mary; Keith, Megan

2009-01-01

124

FINDING THE FOUNDATION OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN JAPAN: A SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the urgent need to develop professional ethics regarding information behaviour, several obstacles exist in Japan. The greatest is the lack of individuals' ethics of responsibility. To overcome this difficulty, we must examine and reflect on the historical circumstances that led to the formation of Japanese core ethics and on the sociocultural context that compensates for the lack of individuals'

Teruya Nagao; Kiyoshi Murata

125

A phenomenological-contextual, existential, and ethical perspective on emotional trauma.  

PubMed

After a brief overview of the author's phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective, the paper traces the evolution of the author's conception of emotional trauma over the course of three decades, as it developed in concert with his efforts to grasp his own traumatized states and his studies of existential philosophy. The author illuminates two of trauma's essential features: (1) its context-embeddedness-painful or frightening affect becomes traumatic when it cannot find a context of emotional understanding in which it can be held and integrated, and (2) its existential significance-emotional trauma shatters our illusions of safety and plunges us into an authentic Being-toward-death, wherein we must face up to our finitude and the finitude of all those we love. The paper also describes the impact of trauma on the phenomenology of time and the sense of alienation from others that accompanies traumatic temporality. The author contends that the proper therapeutic comportment toward trauma is a form of emotional dwelling. He concludes with a discussion of the implications of all these formulations for the development of an ethics of finitude. PMID:25688682

Stolorow, Robert D

2015-02-01

126

Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

Weinstein, Matthew

2008-09-01

127

Medical Ethics  

MedlinePLUS

... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

128

Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.  

PubMed

The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

2013-06-25

129

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL RELATIONS  

E-print Network

The John M. Rezendes Ethics Essay Competition THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL RELATIONS AND EXPLORING TRUTH THEREIN Anne Mathieson (Philosophy) 2006 #12;The Language of Social Relations and Exploring Truth Therein is incomparably more important than what they are. --Nietzsche Confidence in the capacity for human reason

Thomas, Andrew

130

Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor  

PubMed Central

Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine. PMID:24935278

2014-01-01

131

How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).

Jeanne Ting Chowning

2005-12-01

132

[Exactly what is ethical nursing care? the perspective of the clinical humanities].  

PubMed

As Taiwan enters the post-modern era of professional medical care, a host of issues relating to nursing care are becoming increasingly pressing. On the one hand, the wide range of ailments of body and mind requiring treatment is placing a major financial burden on the national health care system. On the other hand, few hospitals are able to provide "comprehensive care of body and mind." In addition to primary prevention, the most effective way to reduce the overall cost of medical care is to effectively bring volunteer caregivers (those who have an "ethical connection" with the patient, i.e., family, friends, neighbors, volunteers, etc.) into all levels of the caregiving process. Moreover, as medical ethics becomes increasingly focused on the well-being of the patient, more attention is being given to the healing relationship itself. Due to its ability to swiftly relieve a wide variety of ailments, the Western medical model has become widely accepted in Asia. Yet, a patient may feel a greater sense of healing when treatment is based on the principles of ethical caregiving. For example, in the way it quickly relieves the prevailing symptoms, psychiatric medication is like a freeway. By contrast, volunteer caregiving is more like a local road, which may be slower, but eventually takes one all the way home. Thus, making nursing care more person-centered and indigenized gives the patient a sense of not only being cured, but also being "cared for." However, for a long time the theory and practice of nursing education in Taiwan has been based on the Western model of nursing. In this model nursing is treated as a branch of the biological sciences, an overall approach quite different from the traditional view of caregiving in Asian societies. Nonetheless, recent research and clinical practice indicates that an indigenized form of nursing care may be a more suitable approach to comprehensive care, and that such an approach has much potential for widespread application in Taiwan and other Chinese societies. PMID:25271029

Yu, An-Bang

2014-10-01

133

Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.  

PubMed

Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. PMID:22373629

Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

2012-03-01

134

Who Is a Development Journalist? Perspectives on Media Ethics and Professionalism in Post-Colonial Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalistic practice and professionalism across the globe are characterized by certain universals as well as unique particularities. In most post-colonial societies, the ethical philosophies and professional ethos of journalists reflect the tension between the commitment to integrity and social responsibility, shared by journalists worldwide, and the contextual interpretation and application of these principles. This article examines the ethics and ethos

Bala A. Musa; Jerry Komia Domatob

2007-01-01

135

Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

136

Constructive Readings of Interactive Episodes: Examining Ethics in Physical Education from a Social Constructionist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we illustrate how ways of thinking about ethics are tied up with sport and physical education practice and introduce an alternative approach that can help to develop ethical pedagogies. We begin by locating socio-moral education in physical education within historical and contemporary pedagogical scholarship. Our argument is that the…

Barker, Dean M.; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Puhse, Uwe

2013-01-01

137

Ethics Education Adherence by Teacher Trainees during Teaching Practice: A Botswana Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to find out the extent to which teacher trainees understand and observe professional ethics. It also sought the contribution of the Faculty of Education and secondary schools make in promoting teacher ethics among trainees on teaching practice. Data were gathered from randomly chosen 90…

Moswela, Bernard; Gobagoba, Marina

2014-01-01

138

Germ-Line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of

Nelson A. Wivel; Leroy Walters

1993-01-01

139

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.  

PubMed

Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450

Birkhäuser, Martin

2013-11-01

140

Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

Fangerau, H

2005-01-01

141

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

142

Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations: Cross-cultural Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intergroup relations, focusing on three issues: the social psychology of intergroup relations; the value of a cross-cultural perspective; and the contributions of this issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development." (SED)

Hewstone, M.

1985-01-01

143

Sham Surgery Trial Controls: Perspectives of Patients and Their Relatives  

PubMed Central

THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

Swift, Teresa L.

2012-01-01

144

Information, consent and treatment of patients with Morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.  

PubMed

Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

2014-04-01

145

Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.  

PubMed

Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented. PMID:25470266

Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

2015-01-01

146

Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of

H Fangerau

2005-01-01

147

Ethical issues in genetic counseling: A comparison of M.S. counselor and medical geneticist perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies available in the field of medical genetics have increased the importance of responsible ethical decision-making among genetic counselors. A 1985 national survey of M.D. and Ph.D. genetic counselors assessed ethical attitudes using case scenarios designed to simulate dilemmas faced in genetic counseling (Wertz and Fletcher, 1988b). The current study focuses on attitudes of M.S. genetic counselors using similar

Deborah F. Pencarinha; Nora K. Bell; Janice G. Edwards; Robert G. Best

1992-01-01

148

Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.  

PubMed Central

Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake. PMID:11953789

Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

2002-01-01

149

How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research  

PubMed Central

We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse. PMID:23150079

Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ramalho-Santos, Joăo

2013-01-01

150

Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?  

PubMed

The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

2013-09-01

151

ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical

Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

2009-01-01

152

75 FR 79261 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of administering its ethics program to require its...charitable, religious, professional, social, fraternal...The Designated Agency Ethics Official (DAEO) and...Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official (Alternate...services as a consultant or professional, including...

2010-12-20

153

Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

Huiying, Xu

2004-01-01

154

Research ethics committees: Need for harmonization at the national level, the global and Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

Ethics committee (EC) organization and standardization is an important aspect of clinical research. There is a healthy trend worldwide to register and/or accredit research ECs reviewing clinical research. This article tries to focus on the existing model of ECs worldwide, as against the Indian backdrop. The article reviews literature, journals, websites, and studies conducted in 10 different countries and outlines the working model of ECs in these countries. The challenges faced during the ethical review, especially in case of multicenter trials, have been identified. A solution has been suggested to overcome these challenges, and to ensure the overall smooth functioning of clinical trials. The article proposes the development of national and regional central ECs to counter the current drawbacks in the ethical review mechanisms in India. PMID:24741482

Walanj, Aparna Sanjiv

2014-01-01

155

Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329600

Graf, C; Deakin, L; Docking, M; Jones, J; Joshua, S; McKerahan, T; Ottmar, M; Stevens, A; Wates, E; Wyatt, D

2014-12-01

156

Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

2014-12-01

157

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

158

Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

2008-01-01

159

Accounting for Young Children's Competence in Educational Research: New Perspectives on Research Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational researchers working with young children face ethical issues when researching the talk and interactions of young children. Issues around the competence of children to participate in research pose challenges to educational researchers and to the young participants and their families, within what are seen as increasingly risky and…

Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann

2004-01-01

160

Reflections on "Social Justice,", "Race," "Ethnicity" and "Identity" from an Ethical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, "social justice," "race," "ethnicity" and "identity." This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with…

Atweh, Bill

2011-01-01

161

Ethics and the Unintended Consequences of Social Research: A Perspective from the Sociology of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that "successful" social science requires development of a social ethic or sense of research responsibility, and suggests that an individualistic orientation is ineffective in coping with the unintended consequences of social research. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies…

Studer, Kenneth E.; Chubin, Daryl E.

1977-01-01

162

The Relationship between Ethical Positions and Methodological Approaches: A Scandinavian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of…

Beach, Dennis; Eriksson, Anita

2010-01-01

163

Accounting for Young Children's Competence in Educational Research: New Perspectives on Research Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational researchers working with young children face ethical issues when researching the talk and interactions of young children. Issues around the competence of children to participate in research pose challenges to educational researchers and to the young participants and their families, within what are seen as increasingly risky and regulated research environments. This paper examines some of these issues in

Susan Danby; Ann Farrell

2004-01-01

164

Ethics and Decision Making in Green Product Design: Business, Science, and Policy Perspectives  

E-print Network

(Berkeley Center for Green Chemistry) SYLLABUS I. Introduction and Learning Objectives This 1 credit seminar to transition to a green chemistry economy, as seen through an ethics lens. Our focus is on the different are personal in nature. As the green chemistry economy emerges, scientists, engineers, business leaders

Iglesia, Enrique

165

Everyday ethics in an acute psychiatric unit  

PubMed Central

The paper begins with a brief statement about the centrality of autonomy or self governance as a core ethical value in the interaction between health care worker and patient. Then there are three stories describing everyday interactions in an acute psychiatric unit. These are used to help unravel ethical issues relating to patient autonomy. Each story is analysed for its ethical components by describing the protagonists' different perspectives, and their reactions to the events. Attention is also paid to institutional policy. Suggestions are made for small changes in both staff behaviour and institutional procedures. Such changes could enhance rather than diminish patient autonomy. PMID:12042403

Grant, V; Briscoe, J

2002-01-01

166

I. ASCRC General Education Form Group VIII: Ethics and Human Values X: Indigenous and Global Perspectives  

E-print Network

Perspectives Dept/Program NAS Course # 303 Course Title Ecological Persepectives of Native Americans in NAS that focuses exclusively on Native American environmental views and, even though they are taken Indigenous and Global Perspectives in that the focus is on the many indigenous peoples of North America

Vonessen, Nikolaus

167

Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

168

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

169

Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.  

PubMed

Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25327898

Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

2014-01-01

170

Reproductive cloning and human health: an ethical, international, and nursing perspective.  

PubMed

Human reproductive cloning came to the public's attention when Dolly, a sheep, was cloned in Scotland in 1997. This news quickly spread around the world causing both excitement at the possibilities that cloning techniques could offer, as well as apprehension about the ethical, social and legal implications should human reproductive cloning become possible. Many international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Council of Nurses, and governments were concerned about the impact of human reproductive cloning on human health, dignity and human rights. To this end, many institutions have drafted resolutions, protocols and position statements outlining their concerns. This paper will outline some of the major ethical issues surrounding human reproductive cloning, the position of various international organizations and governments, and specifically the position of the International Council of Nurses. PMID:10765496

Sanchez-Sweatman, L R

2000-03-01

171

Is in-vitro fertilization for older women ethical? A personal perspective.  

PubMed

Fertility treatments raise a range of social and ethical issues regarding self-identity for family, sexual intimacy, and the interests and welfare of potential children. Eggs and sperm are combined to produce fertilized eggs. These eggs are then implanted as embryos and grow into viable fetuses, which are carried by the original mother or a surrogate mother. This artificial form of conception can challenge religious values and family structures. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) can be considered either as a medical miracle or playing with divinity. What obligation do medical professionals have to infertile women and to what extent? The bioethical dilemma of IVF use encompasses different moral issues for all involved in the process. Ethical issues address respect for personal autonomy, access and care, and the duty of the health care provider to be compassionate to persons whose actions and moral values may be different from their own. Health care providers need to impart empathy, understanding and sensitivity towards this unique type of patient population. The conflict for those treating patients who are trying to conceive by IVF includes respect for personal autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, utility and the ethics of care. As a registered nurse in a postpartum hospital unit, I have seen antepartum and postpartum women involved with this new technology. I have worked with mothers and their partners as they experience different levels of anxiety and hope for the future. There is an underlying psychosocial connection with patients who undergo IVF treatments. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical use of IVF on older women. Is this type of biotechnolgy being applied for the right reasons and for the best patient population? PMID:16010890

Perla, L

2001-03-01

172

Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective  

PubMed Central

For more than 20 years the off-label use of drugs has been an essential part of the ethical and legal considerations regarding the international regulation of drug licensing. Despite a number of regulatory initiatives in the European Union, there seems to remain a largely unsatisfactory situation following a number of critical descriptions and statements from actors in the field. The present article gives an overview of the ethical and legal framework and developments in European countries and identifies existing problems and possible pathways for solutions in this important regulatory area. In addition to the presentation of the ethical and legal foundations, some attention is given to criticisms from medical practitioners to the current handling of off-label drug use. The review also focuses on the situation confronted by patients and physicians when off-label prescriptions are necessary. Through legal descriptions from a number of countries, possible solutions for future discussion of European health care policy are selected and explained. PMID:25050064

Lenk, Christian; Duttge, Gunnar

2014-01-01

173

A critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics.  

PubMed

The centenary of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology was recognised in 2013 with the publication of a volume of essays dedicated to his work (edited by Stanghellini and Fuchs). Leading phenomenological-psychopathologists and philosophers of psychiatry examined Jaspers notion of empathic understanding and his declaration that certain schizophrenic phenomena are 'un-understandable'. The consensus reached by the authors was that Jaspers operated with a narrow conception of phenomenology and empathy and that schizophrenic phenomena can be understood through what they variously called second-order and radical empathy. This article offers a critical examination of the second-order empathic stance along phenomenological and ethical lines. It asks: (1) Is second-order empathy (phenomenologically) possible? (2) Is the second-order empathic stance an ethically acceptable attitude towards persons diagnosed with schizophrenia? I argue that second-order empathy is an incoherent method that cannot be realised. Further, the attitude promoted by this method is ethically problematic insofar as the emphasis placed on radical otherness disinvests persons diagnosed with schizophrenia from a fair chance to participate in the public construction of their identity and, hence, to redress traditional symbolic injustices. PMID:25820144

Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

2015-04-01

174

Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.  

PubMed

Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning. PMID:24447658

Buckeridge, John

2014-01-01

175

Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary.  

PubMed

Sixty years ago at the Nuremberg Trials, 23 Nazi leaders were tried as war criminals, in what was known as "The Doctors' Trial". This trial exposed a perverse system of the criminal use of medicine in the fields of public health and human research. These practices, in which racial hygiene constituted one of the fundamental principles and euthanasia programmes were the most obvious consequence, violated the majority of known bioethical principles. Psychiatry played a central role in these programmes, and the mentally ill were the principal victims. The aim of the present work is to review, from the historical perspective, the antecedents of the shameful euthanasia programmes for the mentally ill, the procedures involved in their implementation and the use of mentally ill people as research material. The Nuremberg Code, a direct consequence of the Doctors' Trial, is considered to be the first international code of ethics for research with human beings, and represented an attempt to prevent any repeat of the tragedy that occurred under Nazism. Nevertheless, the last 60 years have seen continued government-endorsed psychiatric abuse and illegitimate use of psychoactive drugs in countries such as the Soviet Union or China, and even in some with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States. Even today, the improper use of psychiatry on behalf of governments is seen to be occurring in numerous parts of the globe: religious repression in China, enforced hospitalization in Russia, administration of psychoactive drugs in immigrant detention centres in Australia, and the application of the death penalty by lethal injection and psychiatric participation in coercive interrogation at military prisons, in relation to the USA. The Declaration of Madrid in 1996 constituted the most recent attempt to eradicate, from the ethical point of view, these horrendous practices. Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them. PMID:17223241

López-Muńoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Dudley, Michael; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Okasha, Ahmed

2007-05-01

176

Ethics CORE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.

177

Experiencing everyday ethics in context: frontline data collectors perspectives and practices of bioethics.  

PubMed

Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to 'the what' and 'the why' in bioethics - what action is taken place and why - these should be considered along 'the who' - who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the circumstances they experienced. Their practice of bioethics demonstrates their contribution to the conduct of research and the shortcomings of an over-emphasis on autonomy. PMID:24210881

Kingori, Patricia

2013-12-01

178

Experiencing everyday ethics in context: Frontline data collectors perspectives and practices of bioethics?  

PubMed Central

Data collectors play a vital role in producing scientific knowledge. They are also an important component in understanding the practice of bioethics. Yet, very little attention has been given to their everyday experiences or the context in which they are expected to undertake these tasks. This paper argues that while there has been extensive philosophical attention given to ‘the what’ and ‘the why’ in bioethics – what action is taken place and why – these should be considered along ‘the who’ – who are the individuals tasked with bioethics and what can their insights bring to macro-level and abstract discussions of bioethics. This paper will draw on the philosophical theories of Paul Ricoeur which compliments a sociological examination of data collectors experiences and use of their agency coupled with a concern for contextual and institutional factors in which they worked. In emphasising everyday experiences and contexts, I will argue that data collectors' practice of bioethics was shaped by their position at the frontline of face-to-face interactions with medical research participants and community members, alongside their own personal ethical values and motivations. Institutional interpretations of bioethics also imposed certain parameters on their bioethical practice but these were generally peripheral to their sense of obligation and the expectations conferred in witnessing the needs and suffering of those they encountered during their quotidian research duties. This paper will demonstrate that although the principle of autonomy has dominated discussions of bioethics and gaining informed consent seen as a central facet of ethical research by many research institutions, for data collectors this principle was seldom the most important marker of their ethical practice. Instead, data collectors were concerned with remedying the dilemmas they encountered through enacting their own interpretations of justice and beneficence and imposing their own agency on the circumstances they experienced. Their practice of bioethics demonstrates their contribution to the conduct of research and the shortcomings of an over-emphasis on autonomy. PMID:24210881

Kingori, Patricia

2013-01-01

179

Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspective  

PubMed Central

Heidegger’s two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada’s universal health care system. PMID:25381149

2014-01-01

180

Discourse on medicine: meditative and calculative approaches to ethics from an international perspective.  

PubMed

Heidegger's two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada's universal health care system. PMID:25381149

Malloy, David Cruise; Martin, Ronald; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Liu, Peilai; McCarthy, Elizabeth Fahey; Park, Ilhyeok; Shalani, N; Murakami, Masaaki; Paholpak, Suchat

2014-01-01

181

Asian public concern over the ethics of scientists: predictors and implications for research ethics.  

PubMed

The following two research questions were examined in this study: 1) What is the public's level of concern with ethics in science; and 2) Are religious affiliation, religious involvement, and education predictors of that concern in Asia? The sample includes 7,963 men and women between the ages of 20 and 59 from ten Asian countries. An overall low level of relative concern toward ethics in science was reported. Lower educational attainment was associated with lower odds of concern. Christian religious affiliation and moderate religious involvement were also associated with lower odds of concern. This article highlights the importance of more active research into social perspectives on ethics in science. PMID:23074993

Smolak, Alex; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Janjua, Nazli

2012-01-01

182

Changing Approaches to Teaching: A Relational Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the conceptions of teaching and learning of a group of 24 lecturers in first-year college physics and chemistry in Australia, and how those conceptions related to their approaches to teaching. Strong relations were found between conceptions of teaching and approaches to teaching, though relations between conceptions of teaching and…

Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

1996-01-01

183

9th Chapter of Surgeons' Lecture: the orthopaedic surgeon: historical perspective, ethical considerations and the future.  

PubMed

From a fishing village with colonial surgeons from the East India Company, Singapore is now a medical and business hub servicing the region and beyond in trade and medical education. Orthopaedic Surgery is a young specialty and is the fastest growing sub-specialty in Surgery. Orthopaedic education in Singapore has a structured syllabus and training is coordinated with the Royal Colleges and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Part of the training as Fellows is in the United Kingdom and USA on an HMDP Fellowship. Ethics and Continuing Medical Education need further emphasis. Sub-specialisation in Orthopaedic Surgery is now well-established in Trauma, Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Sports Medicine, Spinal Surgery, Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine. Ageing in the next millennium with osteoporosis and hip fracture problems of gait and balance need more orthopaedic surgeons to be committed to rehabilitation medicine and voluntary service in the community. There is a need for good role models and knowledge on Quality Assurance, Clinical Pathways and Administration. Appropriate use of high technology and care for the aged in the community with dignity is fundamental to good ethical practice. Selfish, pecuniary interests will destroy the very soul and fabric of medicine. PMID:10575516

Balachandran, N

1999-05-01

184

A Pragmatic Approach to Applied Ethics in Sport and Related Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that there is still no single, noncontroversial foundation on which the world's present multi-structure of ethics can be built, this paper examines a scientific ethics approach. It is postulated that in North American culture, the approach to instruction in ethics for youth is haphazard at best. Society does not provide an adequate means…

Zeigler, Earle F.

185

Repositioning Ethical Commitments: Participatory Action Research as a Relational Praxis of Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of participatory action research (PAR) reflects an ethical commitment to creating conditions for social change to be used by the community for their own purposes. But what are the ethical issues and responsibilities involved in participatory research? And how do these differ from the ethical guidelines mandated by our Institutional Review Boards (IRB)? Here I illustrate how participatory

Caitlin Cahill

2007-01-01

186

Money ethic, moral conduct and work related attitudes : Field study from the public sector in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations,

Gbolahan Gbadamosi; Patricia Joubert

2005-01-01

187

Mahayana Buddhism and Environmental Ethics: From the Perspective of the Consciousness-Only Doctrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

I N this article, I describe Buddhist views of nature and environment, and the contribution of the Consciousness-Only doctrine of Buddhist psychology to solving environmental problems. In particular, I empha- size an important role of the alaya consciousness in the deeper layer of our minds from the perspective of the Consciousness-Only doctrine. The alaya consciousness is the root entity that

Shuichi Yamamoto

188

How Do We Communicate Environmental Ethics? Reflections on Environmental Education from a Kuwaiti Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper arises from a PhD research project originally designed to search for innovative ways to stimulate environmental education (EE) in Kuwaiti middle schools. The research has shown that Islam shares similar fundamental principles to those underpinning "ecocentric" perspectives emerging in the West and increasingly thought necessary for…

al-Naki, Khadija

2004-01-01

189

Toward a systemic ethics of public-private partnerships related to food and health.  

PubMed

Public-private partnerships have become widespread in the pursuit of both health-related research and public health interventions--most notably, in recent measures intended to address obesity. Participants emphasize synergies between the missions or goals of the public and private partners. However, the missions usually diverge in significant ways. Consequently, these partnerships can have serious implications for the integrity of, as well as trust and confidence in, the public partners. In this article, I highlight systemic concerns presented by public-private partnerships related to food and health. These include research agenda distortion and framing effects--not least, the characterization of obesity primarily as a question of individual behavior, and the minimization or neglect of the role of food systems and other social and environmental factors on health. Prevailing analytical approaches to public-private partnerships tend to downplay or ignore these systemic effects and their ethical implications. In this article, I offer guidance intended to help actors in the public sector fulfill their mission while thinking more critically and systemically about the ethical implications of public-private partnerships. PMID:25423851

Marks, Jonathan H

2014-09-01

190

Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

Chandrasekhar, S.

1979-01-01

191

The Family Ethic and the Female Pauper: A New Perspective on Public Aid and Social Security Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that the relationship between women and the welfare state is shaped by a "family ethic" that in many ways parallels the work ethic known to shape the relationship between the welfare state and men. The family ethic is defined and applied to major income maintenance programs. (Author/MH)

Abramowitz, Mimi

1985-01-01

192

The Effects of Prior Impressions of a Firm's Ethics on the Success of a Cause-Related Marketing Campaign: Do the Good Look Better While the Bad Look Worse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the effect of the initial perception of the ethical nature of a firm on the effects of that firm participating in a cause-related marketing campaign. In two studies, the effects of a cause-related marketing campaign are examined for companies perceived as ethical, unethical and ethically neutral. It is found that firms initially perceived as ethical are least

Michal Strahilevitz

2003-01-01

193

An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

194

International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

2005-01-01

195

Assessing Perspective Taking in Schizophrenia Using Relational Frame Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study assessed deictic relational responding in people with schizophrenia. A perspective-taking task and a mental states attribution task were employed with a sample of 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 age-matched controls. Results revealed poorer performance of participants with schizophrenia in responding in accordance…

Villatte, Matthieu; Monestes, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baque, Esteve; Loas, Gwenole

2010-01-01

196

Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

2001-01-01

197

Ethical Leadership: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Criterion-Related and Incremental Validity.  

PubMed

This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25420055

Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

2014-11-24

198

US perspective on gluten-related diseases  

PubMed Central

The incidence of allergy and autoimmune disease in the US and other industrialized nations is increasing, and gluten-related disorders are no exception. The US has documented a profound rise in celiac disease that cannot be fully explained by improved serological techniques or better recognition by physicians. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition only recently recognized by the medical community, has become a commonly diagnosed entity. Proteins, including gluten are increasingly being identified as a source of wheat allergy. Although the gluten free diet represents a safe and effective treatment for these conditions, there is still much to be learned about the development of gluten-related disorders and the apparent increase in incidence within the US. In this article, we present a review of current knowledge on the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders within a global context, with a focus on diagnostic trends and the evaluation of potential risk factors. PMID:24493932

Leonard, Maureen M; Vasagar, Brintha

2014-01-01

199

Medical Ethics, Boundaries and  

E-print Network

Discussions Jessica Berg, JD, MPH 2:00-3:00 pm Perspective of the State Medical Board William schmidt, JD 3Medical Ethics, Boundaries and Professionalism I N T E N S I V E C O U R S E I N February 2-3, 2012 Medical education Program sponsored by: #12;IntenSIve CourSe In Medical Ethics, Boundaries

Rollins, Andrew M.

200

Ethics in Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

1990-01-01

201

Scientists and international relations: a European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an overview of discussions at two international conferences on the role of scientists in international conflict resolution, this article examines changes in the concept of the nation-state, especially in relation to European unification, and differences between the self-image of science and its achievements in practice. It explores the question of how lessons drawn from scientific cooperation in Europe after

J.-J Salomon

2001-01-01

202

Narcissism and Leadership: An Object Relations Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having been largely unknown as a clinical entity, the narcissistic personality has recently come into the limelight. It is argued that one critical component in the orientation of leaders is the quality and intensity of their narcissistic development. In this paper, the relationship between narcissism and leadership is explored. Using concepts taken from psychoanalytic object relations theory, three narcissistic configurations

Danny Miller

1985-01-01

203

General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective  

E-print Network

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of general relativity, the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG) commissioned a Centennial Volume, edited by the authors of this article. We jointly wrote introductions to the four Parts of the Volume which are collected here. Our goal is to provide a bird's eye view of the advances that have been made especially during the last 35 years, i.e., since the publication of volumes commemorating Einstein's 100th birthday. The article also serves as a brief preview of the 12 invited chapters that contain in-depth reviews of these advances. The volume will be published by Cambridge University Press and released in June 2015 at a Centennial conference sponsored by ISGRG and the Topical Group of Gravitation of the American Physical Society.

Abhay Ashtekar; Beverly K. Berger; James Isenberg; Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

2014-09-19

204

Mixtures with relatives: a pedigree perspective.  

PubMed

DNA mixture evidence pertains to cases where several individuals may have contributed to a biological stain. Statistical methods and software for such problems are available and a large number of cases can be handled adequately. However, one class of mixture problems remains untreated in full generality in the literature, namely when the contributors may be related. Disregarding a plausible close relative of the perpetrator as an alternative contributor (identical twin is the most extreme case) may lead to overestimating the evidence against a suspect. Existing methods only accommodate pairwise relationships such as the case where the suspect and the victim are siblings, for example. In this paper we consider relationships in full generality, conveniently represented by pedigrees. In particular, these pedigrees may involve inbreeding, for instance when the parents of an individual of interest are first cousins. Furthermore our framework handles situations where the opposing parties in a court case (prosecution and defence) propose different family relationships. Consequently, our approach combines classical mixture and kinship problems. The basic idea of this paper is to formulate the problem in a way that allows for the exploitation of currently available methods and software designed originally for linkage applications. We have developed a freely available R package, euroMix based on another package, paramlink, and we illustrate the ideas and methods on real and simulated data. PMID:24572837

Egeland, Thore; Dřrum, Guro; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Sheehan, Nuala A

2014-05-01

205

Reuse Of Pacemakers In Ghana And Nigeria: Medical, Legal, Cultural And Ethical Perspectives.  

PubMed

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369

Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter

2014-04-11

206

Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective  

SciTech Connect

Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group.

Sauer, P.J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen University Medical Centre, PO Box 90.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.j.j.sauer@bkk.umcg.nl

2005-09-01

207

General Relativity from a Thermodynamic Perspective  

E-print Network

I show that the gravitational dynamics in a bulk region of space can be connected to a thermodynamic description in the boundary of that region, thereby providing clear physical interpretations of several mathematical features of classical general relativity: (1) The Noether charge contained in a bulk region, associated with a specific time evolution vector field, has a direct thermodynamic interpretation as the gravitational heat content of the boundary surface. (2) This result, in turn, shows that all static spacetimes maintain holographic equipartition; in these spacetimes, the number of degrees of freedom in the boundary is equal to the number of degrees of freedom in the bulk. (3) In a general, evolving spacetime, the rate of change of gravitational momentum is related to the difference between the number of bulk and boundary degrees of freedom. It is this departure from the holographic equipartition which drives the time evolution of the spacetime. (4) When the equations of motion hold, the (naturally defined) total energy of the gravity plus matter within a bulk region, will be equal to the boundary heat content. (5) After motivating the need for an alternate description of gravity (if we have to solve the cosmological constant problem), I describe a thermodynamic variational principle based on null surfaces to achieve this goal. The concept of gravitational heat density of the null surfaces arises naturally from the Noether charge associated with the null congruence. The null surface variational principle, in fact, extremises the total heat content of the matter plus gravity system. Several variations on this theme and implications are described. [Abridged

T. Padmanabhan

2014-10-30

208

General relativity from a thermodynamic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I show that the gravitational dynamics in a bulk region of space can be connected to a thermodynamic description in the boundary of that region, thereby providing clear physical interpretations of several mathematical features of classical general relativity: (1) The Noether charge contained in a bulk region, associated with a specific time evolution vector field, has a direct thermodynamic interpretation as the gravitational heat content of the boundary surface. (2) This result, in turn, shows that all static spacetimes maintain holographic equipartition in the following sense: In these spacetimes, the number of degrees of freedom in the boundary is equal to the number of degrees of freedom in the bulk. (3) In a general, evolving spacetime, the rate of change of gravitational momentum is related to the difference between the number of bulk and boundary degrees of freedom. It is this departure from the holographic equipartition which drives the time evolution of the spacetime. (4) When the equations of motion hold, the (naturally defined) total energy of the gravity plus matter within a bulk region, will be equal to the boundary heat content. (5) After motivating the need for an alternate description of gravity (if we have to solve the cosmological constant problem), I describe a thermodynamic variational principle based on null surfaces to achieve this goal. The concept of gravitational heat density of the null surfaces arises naturally from the Noether charge associated with the null congruence. The variational principle, in fact, extremises the total heat content of the matter plus gravity system. Several variations on this theme and implications are described.

Padmanabhan, T.

2014-03-01

209

Ethics and Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

210

HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient’s daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. PMID:24049460

Schütz, Sonja G; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2013-01-01

211

Approach of Polish medical students to ethical problems related to transplantation and the application of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Success of transplantation depends not only on technological progress, but also on the availability of organs, which depends in turn on acceptance of transplantation by society. Medical education of society seems to be an important approach to solving this problem. We studied the opinions of Polish medical students about ethical aspects related to transplantation and the use of stem

EWA BAUM

212

"With Human Health It's a Global Thing": Canadian Perspectives on Ethics in the Global Governance of an Influenza Pandemic.  

PubMed

We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed. PMID:25672615

Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

2015-03-01

213

Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

2009-01-01

214

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

215

Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

Williams, Richard S., Jr.

2002-01-01

216

The ethics of advertising, billing, and finances in psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Psychotherapists must deal with practical business matters such as advertising, billing, collecting fees, and other practice management topics. We review the enforceable standards of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethics Code that deal with advertising, fees, billing, and related business matters in psychotherapy. Using a principle-based perspective, we link each of the standards to overarching ethical values and illustrate the concerns with case vignettes. We argue that understanding the moral foundations of ethical standards helps psychotherapists to implement with greater integrity the spirit and the letter of the standards with regard to advertising and business practices. PMID:18386792

Knapp, Samuel; Vandecreek, Leon

2008-05-01

217

The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective  

PubMed Central

To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

2011-01-01

218

The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.  

PubMed

To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

2011-01-01

219

The American Work Ethic and the Changing Work Force: An Historical Perspective. Contributions in Labor Studies, Number 52.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the colonial period, the ideology of work--the American work ethic--took root. Americans valued work and considered it an obligation to society, to oneself, and to one's family. The key to the agrarian culture was an ethic that recognized the importance of hard, physical labor within a framework of yearly cycles of tasks. The world of the…

Applebaum, Herbert

220

The Convoy Model: Explaining Social Relations From a Multidisciplinary Perspective  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: Social relations are a key aspect of aging and the life course. In this paper, we trace the scientific origins of the study of social relations, focusing in particular on research grounded in the convoy model. Design and Methods: We first briefly review and critique influential historical studies to illustrate how the scientific study of social relations developed. Next, we highlight early and current findings grounded in the convoy model that have provided key insights into theory, method, policy, and practice in the study of aging. Results: Early social relations research, while influential, lacked the combined approach of theoretical grounding and methodological rigor. Nevertheless, previous research findings, especially from anthropology, suggested the importance of social relations in the achievement of positive outcomes. Considering both life span and life course perspectives and grounded in a multidisciplinary perspective, the convoy model was developed to unify and consolidate scattered evidence while at the same time directing future empirical and applied research. Early findings are summarized, current evidence presented, and future directions projected. Implications: The convoy model has provided a useful framework in the study of aging, especially for understanding predictors and consequences of social relations across the life course. PMID:24142914

Antonucci, Toni C.

2014-01-01

221

Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.  

PubMed

Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

2013-09-01

222

Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing  

PubMed Central

The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

2013-01-01

223

Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

2009-01-01

224

Ethical considerations in clinical training, care and research in psychopharmacology.  

PubMed

Psychopharmacology is a powerful tool in psychiatry; however, it is one that demands responsibility in order to deal with the ethical complexities that accompany advances in the field. It is important that questions are asked and that ethical mindfulness and sensitivity are developed along with clinical skills. In order to cultivate and deepen ethical awareness and subsequently solve issues in optimal fashion, investment should be made in the development of an ethical decision-making process as well as in education in the ethics of psychopharmacology to trainees in the field at all stages of their educational development. A clear approach to identifying ethical problems, engaging various ethical concepts in considering solutions and then applying these principles in problem resolution is demanded. An openness in identifying and exploring issues has become crucial to the future development and maturation of psychopharmacologists, both research and clinical. Consideration must be given to the social implications of psychopharmacological practice, with the best interests of patients always paramount. From both a research and clinical perspective, psychopharmacology has to be practised with fairness, sensitivity and ethical relevance to all. While ethical issues related to psychopharmacological practice are varied and plentiful, this review focuses on advances in technology and biological sciences, personal integrity, special populations, and education and training. PMID:20860879

Strous, Rael D

2011-04-01

225

Noddings's caring ethics theory applied in a paediatric setting.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, numerous studies on the relationship between parents and their children have been reported on in the literature and implemented as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units. The purpose of this article is to understand the process of nurses' care for children in a paediatric setting by using Noddings's caring ethics theory. Noddings's theory is in part described from a theoretical perspective outlining the basic idea of the theory followed by a critique of her work. Important conceptions in her theory are natural caring (reception, relation, engrossment, motivational displacement, reciprocity) and ethical caring (physical self, ethical self, and ethical ideal). As a nurse one holds a duty of care to patients and, in exercising this duty, the nurse must be able to develop a relationship with the patient including giving the patient total authenticity in a 'feeling with' the patient. Noddings's theory is analysed and described in three examples from the paediatrics. In the first example, the nurse cared for the patient in natural caring while in the second situation, the nurse strived for the ethical caring of the patient. In the third example, the nurse rejected the impulse to care and deliberately turned her back to ethics and abandoned her ethical caring. According to the Noddings's theory, caring for the patient enables the nurse to obtain ethical insights from the specific type of nursing care which forms an important contribution to an overall increase of an ethical consciousness in the nurse. PMID:19291199

Lundqvist, Anita; Nilstun, Tore

2009-04-01

226

Quality in ethics consultations.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for quality in ethics consultations, though there have been significant achievements in the United States and Europe. However, fundamental concerns that place the profession in jeopardy are discussed from the perspective of the U.S. in a manner that will be helpful for other countries. The descriptive component of the essay (the first two points) explains the achievements in ethics quality (illustrated by the IntegratedEthics program of the Veterans Health Administration) and the progress on standards and competencies for ethics consultations (represented by the Core Competencies of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities). Based on these achievements, the analytical component of the essay (the final three points) identifies and seeks to resolve three fundamental concerns (with increasing levels of importance) that compromise quality in ethics consultations: standards of quality; professionalism; and credentialing. The analysis argues for clearer standards of quality in ethics consultation and urges further professionalism by explaining the need for the following: interpreting the ASBH core competencies in a normative manner, developing a Code of Ethics, and clarifying the meaning of best practices. However, the most serious concern that threatens quality in ethics consultations is the lack of a credentialing process. This concern can be resolved effectively by developing an independent Ethics Consultation Accreditation Council to accredit and standardize graduate degree programs, fellowship experiences, and qualifying examinations. This credentialing process is indispensable if we are to strategically enhance quality in ethics consultations. PMID:23709338

Magill, Gerard

2013-11-01

227

The Ethical and Practical Implications of Systems Architecture on Identity in Networked Learning: A Constructionist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through relational dialogue, learners shape their identities by sharing information about the world and how they see themselves in it. As learners interact, they receive feedback from both the environment and other learners which, in turn, helps them assess and adjust their self-presentations. Although learners retain choice and personal agency,…

Koole, Marguerite L.; Parchoma, Gale

2012-01-01

228

Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

Gökçe, Asiye Toker

2013-01-01

229

Attempting to standardise ethical review within the complexity of health-related research.  

PubMed

Researchers in medicine, allied disciplines and elsewhere submit research proposals to an ethical review board before research commences. This paper argues that the effectiveness of review relies on reviewers using discernment and judgement when applying standardised review criteria so that they accommodate the full range of research projects. With reference to ethics literature, the paper identifies five imperatives in the development of review guidelines and processes. It examines case composition and analysis, and explores interactions between professional developers, researchers and reviewers to illustrate problems in the review process. It refers to the ethical review system in New Zealand and the report to parliament: Inquiry into Improving New Zealand's Environment to Support Innovation through Clinical Trials (Health Committee 2011). Seeking to gain for New Zealand a competitive edge in clinical research, this report made 19 recommendations to improve the climate for clinical trials, ethical review included, in this country. The connection between these two case studies is the common endeavour to standardise the ethical review exercise, review systems and review processes. Cases with commentary are a recommended addition to guidelines documents to present research within its context and to demonstrate the complexity that a standardised ethical review does not always address. PMID:24575680

De Luca, Rosemary

2012-01-01

230

[Consent vs. Assent: Ethical Considerations Related to Bone Marrow Transplantation in Adolescents].  

PubMed

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a frequently considered treatment option for terminal childhood cancer. However, the side effects of BMT frequently cause short- and long-term physical discomfort and spiritual suffering, which significantly impact patient quality of life. In Taiwan, parental consent is typically given priority over the assent of children in medical decisions. This article uses a case of an adolescent patient with neuroblastoma undergoing BMT to discuss the best interest standard and contradictions between the consent of parents and the assent of their children. This article argues that medical staffs are responsible to protect the right of children to fully consider and influence the decisions related to their treatment options. Medical staffs should communicate to parents the importance of their children's assent and promote better communication between parents and their children in order to achieve the best outcome for the family as a whole. When mutual communication is unable to resolve conflicts between parents and their children, we recommend seeking assistance from the ethics committee in the hospital. PMID:25116318

Hung, Hsiao-Ying; Huang, Mei-Chih

2014-08-01

231

Ethical consumerism: a view from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractBusiness ethics and corporate social responsibility have gained more attention in recent years. However, the consumers’ perspective on ethics is still a little researched area. This study reports a survey (n?=?713) on the views of Finnish consumers about ethics in trade. Consumers’ willingness to promote business ethics as well as the obstacles to ethical consumption are investigated. The results of

Outi Uusitalo; Reetta Oksanen

2004-01-01

232

Environmental Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.

233

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

234

Tax Practitioners' Ethical Sensitivity: A Model and Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical sensitivity triggers the entire ethical decision-making process (i.e., recognition of ethical content in work situations). In this article, five factors are examined that affect tax practitioners' professional ethical sensitivity. The five factors that were examined include role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, professional commitment, and ethical orientation. Ethical content in work situations is examined in relation to professional ethics

Scott A. Yetmar; Kenneth K. Eastman

2000-01-01

235

Deciding about life-support: a perspective on the ethical and legal framework in the United Kingdom and Australia.  

PubMed

This article is concerned with the legal right of health service providers to decide whether to provide life-prolonging treatment to patients. In particular, an examination of recent decisions by the English Court of Appeal in R (Burke) v General Medical Council (Official Solicitor and Others Intervening) [2005] EWCA Civ 1003 and the European Court of Human Rights in Burke v United Kingdom (unreported, ECHR, No 19807/06, 11 July 2006) is provided. An analysis of Australian case law is undertaken together with a consideration of the limits of a patient's legal right of autonomy in relation to choosing life-prolonging medical treatment; the basis upon which such treatment can be legally withdrawn or withheld from an incompetent patient against the patient's earlier expressed wishes that it should be continued or initiated; the concept in ethics and law of a patient's best interests; and the role of courts in adjudicating disputes about the continuation of treatment in light of the recent decisions. PMID:17571788

Thiagarajan, Malar; Savulescu, Julian; Skene, Loane

2007-05-01

236

Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences  

PubMed Central

Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers. PMID:25216254

Pereira, Dolores

2014-01-01

237

Improving female participation in professional engineering geology to bring new perspectives to ethics in the geosciences.  

PubMed

Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students "leak out" at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students' preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man's world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students' education and future careers. PMID:25216254

Pereira, Dolores

2014-09-01

238

Relational Interventions for Child Maltreatment: Past, Present, & Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858

Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

2014-01-01

239

What is health promotion capacity? A relational perspective.  

PubMed

Purpose - In organizational health promotion research, health promotion capacity is a central concept that is used to describe the abilities of individuals, organizations, and communities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical underpinnings of the literature on health promotion capacity building and, further, to suggest an alternative theoretical perspective which draws on recent developments in organizational theory. Design/methodology/approach - The paper begins by a critical discussion of the capacity building literature, which is juxtaposed with the relational perspective of contemporary organizational theory. The theoretical argument is developed in reference to the case of Danish municipal health promotion agencies, drawing on secondary sources as well as ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers. Findings - The capacity building literature tends to reify the concept of capacity. In contrast, this paper argues that health promotion capacity is constantly defined and redefined through processes of organizing. The case study suggests that, faced with limited resources and limited knowledge, health promotion officials attain a sense of capacity through an ongoing reworking of organizational forms. Research limitations/implications - Organizational health promotion research should look for the organizational forms that are conducive to health promotion practices under shifting social circumstances. Originality/value - This paper makes explicit an inherent theoretical tension in the capacity building literature and suggests a novel theoretical framework for understanding organizational capacity. PMID:25800331

Rod, Morten Hulvej

2015-01-01

240

Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review  

E-print Network

.Ethics, Medical. 3.Ethical review - standards. 4.Ethics committees. 5.Patient selection. 6.Guidelines. IStandards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-Related Research with Human expedited call separation ideas #12;Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health

Rosen, Jay

241

Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

Kuzu, Abdullah

2009-01-01

242

Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

1997-01-01

243

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-01-01

244

Testimony and Narrative as a Political Relation: The Question of Ethical Judgment in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film "12 Angry Men" to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a…

Adami, Rebecca; Hĺllander, Marie

2015-01-01

245

Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise

V Moises Serrano-Delgado; Barbara Novello-Garza; Edith Valdez-Martinez

2009-01-01

246

Science and Ethics: Some Issues for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-01-01

247

Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

2009-01-01

248

Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

2015-01-01

249

This chapter appears in Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Melissa J. Dark.  

E-print Network

, and censorship resilience. On the other hand, peer-to-peer networks pose considerable ethical and legal benefit, peer-to-peer systems offer increased censorship-resilience thanks to their decentralized notably the music and movie industries, have been aggressively investigating legal and technological means

Sadeh, Norman M.

250

Ethical issues related to BRCA gene testing in orthodox Jewish women.  

PubMed

Persons exhibiting mutations in two tumor suppressor genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have a greatly increased risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. The incidence of BRCA gene mutation is very high in Ashkenazi Jewish women of European descent, and many issues can arise, particularly for observant Orthodox women, because of their genetic status. Their obligations under the Jewish code of ethics, referred to as Jewish law, with respect to the acceptability of various risk-reducing strategies, may be poorly understood. In this article the moral direction that Jewish law gives to women regarding testing, confidentiality, and other issues is explored. The intent is to broaden nurses' knowledge of how a particular religious tradition could impact on decision making around genetics testing, with the aim of enhancing their understanding of culturally sensitive ethical care. PMID:18515440

Mor, Pnina; Oberle, Kathleen

2008-07-01

251

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students’ Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult\\u000a for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated\\u000a and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results.\\u000a This study

Mats Gunnar Lindahl

2009-01-01

252

[Ethics, science and utilitarianism].  

PubMed

We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future. PMID:9549112

Ribeiro, T

1997-11-01

253

New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Relativity is almost 100 years old. Classically, Einstein's theory, is a geometric theory with a metric equating gravity and acceleration. This Principle of Equivalence determines the kinematics. Padmanabhan uses accelerated Rindler frames to derive general relativistic actions, including the Einstein-Hilbert action, and the Einstein equations. This determines the dynamics. There is another formulation of General Relativity due to Göckeler and Schücker, a gauge theory in terms of differential forms, which reduces to the Einstein-Hilbert action and implies the Einstein equations including torsion. My thesis, “New Developments and Perspectives in General Relativity and Cosmology”, contains, in part: • Padmanabhan discovered a differential relation between the volume and surface terms for generalized Lagrangians in Einstein-Hilbert type actions. I found a generalization of this using the Göckeler and Schücker form from which Padmanabhan's relations can be deduced under contraction. The new formulation constrains the curvature and torsion and allows other generalizations. • Padmanabhan has recently derived Einstein's Equations from thermodynamical assumptions on the surface term in the Action. Horizons which block information are a relatively new feature in Physics. Padmanabhan has done alot in advancing the goal of elucidating the relation between General Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory. • Hawking found that black holes radiate in a thermal spectrum and calculated the temperature. This (nonquantum) temperature is novel in General Relativity. • Unruh and others found vacuum states which exhibit thermal properties dependent on the motion of the observer. Vacuums are nonunique in noninertial frames and curved spacetimes. • Recent observations indicate the presence of an unclustered material acting like a fluid with negative pressure causing the acceleration of the Universe and amounting to about 70% of its energy density. The simplest explanation for this Dark Energy is the Cosmological Constant. Padmanabhan has derived the correct value for this vacuum energy by gauging away the bulk value and evaluating the vacuum fluctuations in terms of surface dimensions. • There has been considerable progress recently in understanding the History on the Universe, although there remains much is unknown. This is the Standard Model of Cosmology. The Standard Model of Particle Physics and the gauge theory of General Theory of Relativity are not only the current fundamental theories of physics but also the way the Universe has evolved. • Despite the progress of the Ashtekar formulation, the development of spin foams, and String theory with its spin-2 graviton, there does not exist a complete theory of Quantum Gravity. The search continues for the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom and the gravitational notions of energy and entropy.

Smoot, Dennis G.

254

Perspective on Electrospray Ionization and Its Relation to Electrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of electrospraying of liquids is presented from the perspective of the electrochemistry involved. Basics of current and liquid flow in the capillary and spray tip are discussed, followed by specifics of charging and discharging of the sprayed liquid surface. Fundamental theories and numerical modeling relating electrospray current to solution and spray parameters are described and then compared with our own experimentally obtained data. The method of mapping potentials and currents inside the electrospray capillary by using an inserted electrically-isolated small wire probe electrode is discussed in detail with illustrations from new and published data. Based on these experimentally obtained results, a new mathematical model is derived. The introduced "nonlinear resistor electrospray capillary model" divides the electrospray capillary into small sections, adds their contributions, and then, by transition to infinitely small section thickness, produces analytical formulas that relate current and potential maps to other properties of the electrospraying liquid: primarily conductivity and current density. The presentation of the model is undertaken from an elementary standpoint, and it offers the possibility to obtain quantitative information regarding operating parameters from typical analytical systems subjected to electrospray. The model stresses simplicity and ease of use; examples applying experimental data are shown and some predictions of the model are also presented. The developed nonlinear resistor electrospray capillary model is intended to provide a new quantitative basis for improving the understanding of electrochemical transformations occurring in the electrospray emitter. A supplemental material section gives full derivation of the model and discusses other consequences.

Pozniak, Boguslaw P.; Cole, Richard B.

2015-03-01

255

Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

2014-01-01

256

Perspective on Electrospray Ionization and Its Relation to Electrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of electrospraying of liquids is presented from the perspective of the electrochemistry involved. Basics of current and liquid flow in the capillary and spray tip are discussed, followed by specifics of charging and discharging of the sprayed liquid surface. Fundamental theories and numerical modeling relating electrospray current to solution and spray parameters are described and then compared with our own experimentally obtained data. The method of mapping potentials and currents inside the electrospray capillary by using an inserted electrically-isolated small wire probe electrode is discussed in detail with illustrations from new and published data. Based on these experimentally obtained results, a new mathematical model is derived. The introduced "nonlinear resistor electrospray capillary model" divides the electrospray capillary into small sections, adds their contributions, and then, by transition to infinitely small section thickness, produces analytical formulas that relate current and potential maps to other properties of the electrospraying liquid: primarily conductivity and current density. The presentation of the model is undertaken from an elementary standpoint, and it offers the possibility to obtain quantitative information regarding operating parameters from typical analytical systems subjected to electrospray. The model stresses simplicity and ease of use; examples applying experimental data are shown and some predictions of the model are also presented. The developed nonlinear resistor electrospray capillary model is intended to provide a new quantitative basis for improving the understanding of electrochemical transformations occurring in the electrospray emitter. A supplemental material section gives full derivation of the model and discusses other consequences.

Pozniak, Boguslaw P.; Cole, Richard B.

2015-01-01

257

Comments on Mohammed Abouelleil Rashed's "a critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics".  

PubMed

Understanding the mental life of persons with psychosis/schizophrenia has been the crucial challenge of psychiatry since its origins, both for scientific models as well as for every therapeutic encounter between persons with and without psychosis/schizophrenia. Nonetheless, a preliminary understanding is always the first step of phenomenological as well as other qualitative research methods addressing persons with psychotic experiences in their life-world. In contrast to Rashed's assertions, in order to achieve such understanding, phenomenological psychopathologists need not necessarily adopt the transcendental-phenomenological attitude, which, however, is often required if performing phenomenological philosophy. Additionally, in the course of these (non-philosophical) scientific endeavors, differences between persons with psychosis/schizophrenia and so-called normal people seem to have a methodological function and value driving the scientist in her enterprise. Yet, these differences do not extend to ethical dimensions, and therefore, do not by any means touch ethical equality. PMID:25820145

Schlimme, Jann E; Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael A

2015-04-01

258

Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research.  

PubMed

The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:17190696

Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco

2006-01-01

259

Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

2011-01-01

260

The Ethical Employee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

261

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

262

New-World Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)

Hatcher, Tim

2003-01-01

263

Call for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

increased awareness of factory farming a shift in public concern with environmental ethicsCall for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics Clemson University Undergraduate this conference is particularly concerned. Notably, the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals has gained

Duchowski, Andrew T.

264

Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

Avci, Suleyman

2013-01-01

265

Scientific and ethical issues related to stem cell research and interventions in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain.  

PubMed

Should patients with Parkinson's disease participate in research involving stem cell treatments? Are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) the ethical solution to the moral issues regarding embryonic stem cells? How can we adapt trial designs to best assess small numbers of patients in receipt of invasive experimental therapies? Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in our ability to make stem cells from different sources and use them for therapeutic gain in disorders of the brain. These cells, which are defined by their capacity to proliferate indefinitely as well as differentiate into selective phenotypic cell types, are viewed as being especially attractive for studying disease processes and for grafting in patients with chronic incurable neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review we briefly discuss and summarise where our understanding of stem cell biology has taken us relative to the clinic and patients, before dealing with some of the major ethical issues that work of this nature generates. This includes issues to do with the source of the cells, their ownership and exploitation along with questions about patient recruitment, consent and trial design when they translate to the clinic for therapeutic use. PMID:23665410

Barker, Roger A; de Beaufort, Inez

2013-11-01

266

Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

Fajen, Ava Lee

267

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

268

Causal Relation Analysis Tool of the Case Study in the Engineer Ethics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In engineering ethics education, the virtual experiencing of dilemmas is essential. Learning through the case study method is a particularly effective means. Many case studies are, however, difficult to deal with because they often include many complex causal relationships and social factors. It would thus be convenient if there were a tool that could analyze the factors of a case example and organize them into a hierarchical structure to get a better understanding of the whole picture. The tool that was developed applies a cause-and-effect matrix and simple graph theory. It analyzes the causal relationship between facts in a hierarchical structure and organizes complex phenomena. The effectiveness of this tool is shown by presenting an actual example.

Suzuki, Yoshio; Morita, Keisuke; Yasui, Mitsukuni; Tanada, Ichirou; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu

269

Ethical considerations in the collection of genetic data from critically ill patients: What do published studies reveal about potential directions for empirical ethics research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical illness trials involving genetic data collection are increasingly commonplace and pose challenges not encountered in less acute settings, related in part to the precipitous, severe and incapacitating nature of the diseases involved. We performed a systematic literature review to understand the nature of such studies conducted to date, and to consider, from an ethical perspective, potential barriers to future

B D Freeman; C R Kennedy; H L Frankel; B Clarridge; D Bolcic-Jankovic; E Iverson; E Shehane; A Celious; B A Zehnbauer; T G Buchman

2010-01-01

270

Ethical Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measuring ICT Ethics of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…

Jung, Insung

2009-01-01

271

The ethics of gene therapy.  

PubMed

Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice. PMID:17078379

Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

2006-10-01

272

Ethical Academic Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measure the Ethical Academic Behavior of Graduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Reidenbach and Robin's Multidimensional Ethics Scale, this study investigated the relationships between background variables and students' ethical evaluations, judgments, and behavioral intentions using three scenarios involving dilemmas related to academic dishonesty. The sample included 436 master's students and 142 doctoral students. The study found that the participants used a combination of ethical philosophies to make ethical decisions. The respondents

Shu Ching Yang

2012-01-01

273

Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in norway in 2011.  

PubMed

News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utřya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. PMID:25864505

Backholm, Klas; Idĺs, Trond

2015-04-01

274

Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.  

PubMed

Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muńoz, F

2014-11-01

275

The Relevance and Value of Confucianism in Contemporary Business Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relevance and value of Confucian Ethics to contemporary Business Ethics by comparing their respective\\u000a perspectives and approaches towards business activities within the modern capitalist framework, the principle of reciprocity\\u000a and the concept of human virtues. Confucian Ethics provides interesting parallels with contemporary Western-oriented Business\\u000a Ethics. At the same, it diverges from contemporary Business Ethics in some

Gary Kok Yew chan; Yew Chan

2008-01-01

276

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Patient Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this second of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

277

Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care  

PubMed Central

In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

2013-01-01

278

UNESCO's activities in ethics.  

PubMed

UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project. PMID:19697158

ten Have, Henk A M J

2010-03-01

279

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

280

Nursing Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing ethics in the 21st century will continue to be concerned with describing and communicating the characteristics of the “good” nurse, and describing nurses’ ethical practices. However, there is a growing concern that what constitutes nurses’ ethical practices is changing as patients are experiencing, by virtue of reduced reimbursements for health care services, limited time to be in a nurse-patient

Sara Fry

281

Ethics Education Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

2012-05-11

282

Saving lives in road traffic—ethical aspects  

PubMed Central

Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion concerning these alternative ways of designing the system should be encouraged. PMID:21088693

2009-01-01

283

Biomedical Ethics Policy in Korea: Characteristics and Historical Development  

PubMed Central

Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature. PMID:22661876

Hahm, Ki-Hyun

2012-01-01

284

Monocular vision using inverse perspective projection geometry: analytic relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author derives a variety of relationships, all in the reference frame of the camera, between 3-D points; 3-D lines; collections of 3-D lines; the angles between lines lying in common planes; the planes in which lines may lie; and the corresponding perspective projection of the 3-D points, lines and angles. These relationships are useful in many aspects of model-based

R. M. Haralick

1989-01-01

285

A Comparison of a Graph Database and a Relational A Data Provenance Perspective  

E-print Network

A Comparison of a Graph Database and a Relational Database A Data Provenance Perspective Chad is a comparison of the relative usefulness of the relational database MySQL and the graph database Neo4j to store system like MySQL, or a graph database, such as Neo4j, would be more effective as the underlying

Chen, Yixin

286

Health and Wellness Policy Ethics  

PubMed Central

This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

2013-01-01

287

Health and wellness policy ethics.  

PubMed

This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of "wellness" policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a "healthy" lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect "non-healthy" employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

Cavico, Frank J; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G

2013-08-01

288

Relation of functional physical impairment and goal perspectives of wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation of functional classification in wheelchair basketball and its relation to the theory of psychological goal perspectives for 59 adult male competitive players. Participants completed the 13-item Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire designed for wheelchair basketball players. Analyses indicated that Flemish wheelchair basketball players were similar in their goal perspectives to able-bodied athletes. The present sample was predominantly task-oriented. No significant differences were found between high-point and low-point players in their goal perspectives, indicating that players can be severely or minimally disabled and still share the same goal perspective and the same motivational profile. These findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that severity of disability is associated with the motivation profile of disabled athletes. PMID:12831249

Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

2003-06-01

289

Ebola: what it tells us about medical ethics.  

PubMed

Good medical ethics needs to look more to the resources of public health ethics and use more societal, population or community values and perspectives, rather than defaulting to the individualistic values that currently dominate discussion. In this paper I argue that we can use the recent response to Ebola as an example of a major failure of the global community in three ways. First, the focus has been on the treatment of individuals rather than seeing that the priority ought to be public health measures. Second, the advisory committee on experimental interventions set up by the WHO has focused on ethical issues related to individuals and their guidance has been unclear. Third, the Ebola issue can be seen as a symptom of a massive failure of the global community to take sufficient notice of global injustice. PMID:25516949

Dawson, Angus J

2015-01-01

290

Insights and perspectives in the clinical and operational management of cancer-related anemia.  

PubMed

Management of anemia in patients with cancer presents challenges from clinical, operational, and economic perspectives. Clinically, anemia in these patients may result from treatment (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgical interventions) or from the malignancy itself. Anemia not only contributes to cancer-related fatigue and other quality of life issues, but also affects prognosis. From the operational perspective, a patient with cancer who is also anemic may consume more laboratory, pharmacy, and clinical resources than other patients with cancer. PMID:20947722

Hinkel, Jennifer M; Li, Edward C; Sherman, Stephen L

2010-09-01

291

Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: “Translating“ the Translational  

PubMed Central

Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

2013-01-01

292

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the New Driver for an Ethical Public Relations Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coombs and Holladay note that “Effective public relations can be a valuable part of strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). However, superficial CSR practice will result in a superficial CSR communication.” (Coombs and Holladay, 2010, 275) These authors further believe that “Public relations can help corporations to identify and promote partnerships with committed publics (typically activist groups).” This study explored the

Lilia Cecconi

2011-01-01

293

The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

Phuma, Ellemes

2010-01-01

294

Towards developing an ethical institutional brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a perspective that ethical practices in higher education institutions can be a powerful tool for branding and attaining competitive advantage. The paper proposes that an ethical institutional brand can be built on the basis of just and fair practices at the institution, and quality admission and assessment processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Puja Khatri; Yukti Ahuja Sharma

2011-01-01

295

Dharma and medical ethics.  

PubMed

Despite the numerous policies, regulations and laws aimed at promoting and ensuring ethical practice in healthcare, ethical misconduct remains rampant. Perhaps something more is needed to encourage a genuine and sustained moral attitude and behaviour. To a casual reader, the regulations on ethics read merely as a list of do's and don'ts and their philosophical foundation is not clear. In actuality, morality is often grounded in philosophy. Traditionally, religious and theistic philosophies drove moral behaviour. However, this is changing due to the current trend of secularism. Hindu philosophies are among the oldest philosophies that are still thriving, and this article explores these philosophies and compares and contrasts them with some of the contemporary ethical theories to assess if they can add value to the field of medical ethics. The main theme of the article is dharma or righteous conduct, the concepts related to it and how these can have a bearing on the development of an ethical attitude and the practice of medical ethics. PMID:24152344

Seetharam, Sridevi

2013-01-01

296

A Disciplinary Perspective: The Internationalization of Australian Public Relations Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the internationalization of public relations education, by examining public relations education in Australia, its relation with the public relations industry, and its growth in response to international student- and market-led demand. The discussion highlights the tensions within what is essentially an education project…

Fitch, Kate

2013-01-01

297

Ethical Aspects of Patient Information in Radiation Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While legal aspects of patient information in radiotherapy are often discussed in clinical literature, ethical aspects are mainly a topic of debate only in bioethical literature. Nevertheless, patient information about radiation oncology has many ethical implications which must be considered in order to provide an optimal patient care. Therefore, this publication describes these ethical aspects from a clinical perspective.

Christof Schäfer; Manfred Herbst

2003-01-01

298

Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

2010-01-01

299

Consumer Ethics Research: Reframing the Debate about Consumption for Good  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer ethics is an underdevel- oped specialism of business and marketing ethics, within which most publications have focused on bad rather than on good ethics, and on consumer dishonesty rather than on consumer idealism or consumer responsibility. This conceptual paper explores the latter perspective, and examines how we can seek to understand \\

Johannes Brinkmann; Ken Peattie

2008-01-01

300

Teaching Ethics in International Business Courses: The Impacts of Religions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit in most comparative ethical studies is the assumption that cultural and religious differences between countries are the major reasons behind the variations in ethical beliefs and business practice across nations. This article examines research on the international ethical issues and the common moral concerns that permeate differing religious and philosophical perspectives—not only Judaism and Christianity, but also Islam, Hinduism,

John Ruhe; Monle Lee

2008-01-01

301

The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.  

PubMed

Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

Brody, Howard

2012-11-01

302

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

303

Ethics beyond the model: How social dynamics can interfere with ethical practice in operational research\\/management science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to a call for more attention to be given to ethics within operational research, Marc Le Menestrel and Luk Van Wassenhove have recently outlined a perspective on the relationship between OR models and ethics that squarely ties ethical engagement to daily practice and, more specifically, to the manner in which a practitioner uses a model or other technique in

John Brocklesby

2009-01-01

304

Preaching What We Practice: Teaching Ethical Decision-Making to Computer Security Professionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders [1]. Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.

Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

305

Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

Burger, Kimberly R.

2009-01-01

306

Ethical Issues Relating to the Health Effects of Long Working Hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research evidence has accumulated indicating that there is an increased likelihood for illness and injury among\\u000a employees working in long-hour schedules and schedules involving unconventional shift work (e.g., night and evening shifts).\\u000a In addition, studies show that fatigue-related errors made by employees working in these kind of demanding schedules can have\\u000a serious and adverse repercussions for public safety. As

Allard E. Dembe

2009-01-01

307

Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

Dr. Ron Vetter

308

Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

Morris, Michael

2004-01-01

309

Ethically Speaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making ethical decisions is of the utmost importance, because peoples' lives depend on those decisions. As illustrated in the case studies, it is the individual engineering manager who ultimately decides if he or she is going to ethically make the complex decisions created by a competitive environment.

K. L. B. Cook

2008-01-01

310

Political-Administrative Relations in State Government: A Legislative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to contribute to knowledge about political-administration relations in state government, this article presents the results of the author's participant-observation as a state legislator. Academics or public administration practitioners have written much of the literature on political-administrative relations. Little has been presented by politicians. The author reviews how the politicians with whom he served related to state administrators.

Mordecai Lee

2006-01-01

311

The Relationships Between Ethical Climates, Ethical Ideologies and Organisational Commitment Within Indonesian Higher Education Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to assess the potential of alternatives to extrinsic pecuniary rewards for cultivating employees’ commitment\\u000a in denominational higher education institutions in Indonesia. Two ethics-related variables, namely ethical climates and ethical\\u000a ideologies, were chosen as possible predictors. A model delineating the nexus between ethical climates types, ethical ideologies,\\u000a and various forms of organisational commitment was developed and tested. A

Martinus Parnawa Putranta; Russel Philip John Kingshott

2011-01-01

312

Ethical considerations related to participation and partnership: an investigation of stakeholders’ perceptions of an action-research project on user fee removal for the poorest in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive ethical terrain of a participatory public health action-research project. In carrying out such projects, careful attention and effort is needed to establish and maintain respectful relationships amongst those involved, acknowledge and address differences of power and position, and evaluate burdens and risks for individuals and groups. PMID:24555854

2014-01-01

313

Work-related suicide in Victoria, Australia: a broad perspective.  

PubMed

While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000-December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of broadly defined work-relatedness. Inclusion criteria for work-related suicide were at least one of: suicide means was work related, work stressors were identified in police reports to the Coroners or the Coroner's finding, the suicide method involved another person's work (e.g. rail suicide, heavy vehicle) or the suicide location was a workplace. Cases still open for investigation were excluded. Of 642 work-related suicides, 55% had an association with work stressors; 32% jumped or lay in front of a train or heavy vehicle; 7% involved a work location and 6% involved work agents. Work stressor cases identified included business difficulties, recent or previous work injury, unemployment/redundancy or conflict with supervisors/colleagues (including workplace bullying). Work-related suicide is a substantial problem, for which few detailed population wide studies are available. Further research is required to understand the contribution of work stressors and effective interventions. PMID:22132703

Routley, Virginia Hazel; Ozanne-Smith, Joan E

2012-01-01

314

An explication of the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) code of ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the work carried out by the NSGC ad hoc Committee on Ethical Codes and Principles between 1986 and 1991 and serves as a guide for interpreting the NSGC Code of Ethics. The NSGC Code of Ethics is written from the “ethic of care” perspective. It is based on the responsibilities that arise from the four primary relationships

Judith L. Benkendorf; Nancy P. Callanan; Rose Grobstein; Susan Schmerler; Kevin T. FitzGerald

1992-01-01

315

[Analysis of the ethical principles in medical oaths used by medical schools of Argentina in relation to the Hippocratic Oath].  

PubMed

Medical oaths have consulted the source of all Medical Ethics through centuries. Since the 60s a new consensus on ethics was sought to apply to the new medical problems. The consensus was on the basic principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and respect for the patient's autonomy with its two rules of confidentiality and veracity. The Hippocratic Oath specifies the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and the rule of confidentiality. They are included in the texts used in different Medical Schools of the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The purpose of this analysis is to determine which of those ethical principles are included in the Argentinian Medical Oaths. At present, out of the ten Faculties of Medicine that use a formula, six choose the Declaration of Geneva and the rest use their own texts. No schools use the Hippocratic Oath. Neither of the five different Oaths include the four principles. The rule of confidentiality is the one most frequently mentioned followed by the principles of beneficence and justice. The principles of non-maleficence and of respect for the patient's autonomy, in general, and the rule of veracity, in particular, are not indicated. Revision of the Medical Oaths used in Argentina, is basically for the ethical revision suggested, in order to include all the ethical principles strongly agreed upon. PMID:9706247

Rancich, A M; Gelpi, R J

1998-01-01

316

[Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: specificity of young onset patients, including ethical aspects].  

PubMed

The number of patients with young onset dementia (YOD) (that is before age 65) is estimated at 32,000 in France, and 5000 with onset dementia before 60 years. These patients differ from older ones by the greater number of rares causes (29%), heterogeneity of the presentation among the usual diseases, such as non-amnestic phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease, high frequency of frontal symptoms, and possible genetic origin. These aspects must be taken into account for the diagnosis, often more difficult than in older ones because patients have a little knowledge of the YOD, excepted in the genetics forms. YOD patients can still work or drive a car, and we should choose between the respect for autonomy and the security for the patient and their carers. YOD patients can be more often included in pharmacological trials because they have lower associated disorders. Individual non-pharmacological treatment should be priviledged because they don't easily accept collective activities with other patients over 60 years of age. Excepted for the very young patients (onset before 45), the survival is longer than in late onset dementia, with sometimes severe behavioral problems related to frontal syndrome. In France, the caregiving at home has been improved since the possibility for the YOD patients to receive a financial assistance reserved for the disabled patients, but admission to a nursing home before 60 is very difficult and increases the caregiver burden and perception of unfairness. There is a discrimination between young or older demented patients related to the great difficulty to meet the needs of younger patients, due to the rigidity of the medical and social systems. The presentation of a limited offer for the YOD patients must initiate reflections on our capacities to respect the autonomy and the dignity of the Alzheimer's patients regardless of age. PMID:22414401

Lebert, Florence; Boitte, Pierre; de Bouvet, Armelle; Pasquier, Florence

2012-03-01

317

Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

2008-01-01

318

The Historical Basis of Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are different objects and motives between scientists and engineers. Science is to create new knowledge (episteme), while technology (techne) is to create new utility. Both types of social responsibility are required for engineer, because modern technology is tightly connected with science. The relationship between ethics for scientists and engineers is discussed as an evolution of ethical objects. A short history of engineering societies in U.S.A. and Japan are introduced with their ethical perspectives. As a conclusion, respect for fundamental rights for existence of those who stand in, with, and around engineers and their societies is needed for better engineering ethics.

Furuya, Keiichi

319

Feminism and public health ethics.  

PubMed

This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

Rogers, W A

2006-06-01

320

Feminism and public health ethics  

PubMed Central

This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

Rogers, W A

2006-01-01

321

Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI.

Kim, Jeongmin

2015-01-01

322

Centric relation definition: a historical and contemporary prosthodontic perspective.  

PubMed

Centric relation (CR) is a core topic of dentistry in general and prosthodontics in particular. The term CR has become thoroughly confusing because of many conflicting definitions. Unfortunately definition of CR changed repeatedly over past ten decades. All the existing definitions in the dental literature, for the past 81 years, are segregated into definitions from 1929 to 1970, 1970-1980, and 1980-2010 and are critically analyzed. Both PubMed (key words: centric relation/centric jaw relation) and hand searches were employed, from citation in other publications, to identify relevant articles in English language peer reviewed PubMed journals from 1956 to 2010; although the review is from 1929. Numerous definitions for CR have been given, however, no consensus exists and the definition given by a current glossary of prosthodontic terms is confusing. It relates CR to many clinically invisible parts and cannot guide a dental surgeon to record the CR following its description. The purpose of this article is not only to review all the definitions critically but to propose a self explanatory definition to minimize the confusion in the minds of dental practitioners and students for better understanding of the concept of CR. Centric relation is clinically significant since it is the only clinically repeatable jaw relation and the logical position to fabricate prosthesis. PMID:24431728

Palaskar, Jayant N; Murali, R; Bansal, Sanjay

2013-09-01

323

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives. Marc Aubry1,*  

E-print Network

1 TITLE PAGE TITLE Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives,version1-18Jul2008 #12;3 ABSTRACT PAGE ABSTRACT The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of duodenal enterocytes. The challenge from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1 *  

E-print Network

Iron-related transcriptomic variations in Caco-2 cells: in silico perspectives Aubry Marc 1> Abstract The iron absorption by duodenal enterocytes is a key step of its homeostasis. But the control approach, we identified 60 genes over-expressed in hemin (iron) overload in Caco-2 cells, an model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Relationships among Teachers' Perspectives, Self-Reported Practices, and Concerns Related to an Alternate Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide survey was completed by 234 special education teachers with experience in developing assessment portfolios within the Illinois Alternate Assessment (IAA) system. Relationships between these teachers' demographics and their perspectives, concerns, and self-reported practices related to the IAA system was identified and described. These…

Kim, Young-Gyoung; Angell, Maureen E.; O'Brian, Mary; Strand, Kenneth B.; Fulk, Barbara M.; Watts, Emily H.

2006-01-01

326

Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

2011-01-01

327

Sympathy Through Affective Perspective Taking and Its Relation to Prosocial Behavior in Toddlers  

E-print Network

Sympathy Through Affective Perspective Taking and Its Relation to Prosocial Behavior in Toddlers as compared with the neutral condition, children showed more concern and subsequent prosocial behavior toward with their subsequent prosocial behavior. Very young children can sympathize with a victim even in the absence of overt

Carpenter, M.alinda

328

From Dissociation to Negotiation: A Relational Psychoanalytic Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relational psychoanalytic model for conceptualizing the dynamics and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is presented, integrating trauma\\/dissociation theories with postclassical psychoanalytic perspectives. MPD is conceptualized as a chronic trauma syndrome and as a particular variation of narcissistic personality organization involving an overreliance on omnipotent defenses, the collapse of intersubjective experiencing and significant derailments of the developmental lines of

Harvey L. Schwartz

1994-01-01

329

Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

2012-01-01

330

Further Contributions from the Ethical Turn in Composition/Rhetoric: Analyzing Ethics in Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I propose that the field of composition/rhetoric can make important contributions to the understanding of ethics based on our critical perspective on language as interactional and rhetorical. The actual language of decision making with ethical dimensions has rarely been studied directly in the literature, a crucial gap our field can…

Barton, Ellen

2008-01-01

331

Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…

White, Judith; Taft, Susan

2004-01-01

332

A Relational Perspective on PTSD in Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the clinical and research evidence for the importance of the relational context of posttraumatic stress disorder in young children. We review 17 studies that simultaneously assessed parental and child functioning following trauma. In many studies, despite limitations, an association between undesirable parental\\/family variables and maladaptive child outcomes has been consistently found. We present a model of the

Michael S. Scheeringa; Charles H. Zeanah

2001-01-01

333

Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

334

Relations between Money and Love in Postdivorce Families: Children's Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and theorizes complex relations and trade-offs concerning money and love, arguing that children's viewpoint can illuminate the question of money in postdivorce families in new and insightful ways. The analysis is inspired by ideas about economic sociology put forward by Marcia Millman and Viviana Zelizer. The article argues…

Haugen, Gry Mette D.

2005-01-01

335

Problems related to alcohol use: a cross-cultural perspective.  

PubMed

The assessment, diagnosis, and classification of mental disorders are embedded in social and cultural norms. In view of their Anglo-Saxon origins, the prevailing diagnostic criteria and instruments for their assessment have a strong Western influence. Yet they are used internationally with the implied assumption of their cross-cultural applicability. The WHO Cross-Cultural Applicability Research (CAR) study was designed to test this assumption as it applies to disorders relating to the use of alcohol and drugs. This multi-disciplinary research project was conducted in nine countries having different patterns of alcohol and drug use. The results suggest that, even though some similarities exist with respect to the definition of problematic use of alcohol in these ethnically diverse societies, very substantial differences also exist. A number of core concepts underpinning diagnosis of disorders relating to the use of alcohol have no equivalence in the local languages of the various cultures, while some others lacked cultural applicability because of their relative 'distance' from cultural and ethnic norms of drinking. This distance often relates to the difficulties of adapting descriptors of drinking norms in a 'wet' culture to one that is decidedly 'dry'. PMID:9248678

Gureje, O; Mavreas, V; Vazquez-Barquero, J L; Janca, A

1997-06-01

336

Women in sport – gender relations and future perspectives1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting off from deliberations on the ‘nature’ and significance of gender differences and gender relations, I first of all present in this contribution my theoretical framework: a constructivist approach to gender. If gender is understood as a social construction, gender differences are not ‘natural’ but acquired and enacted, and also vary according to the particular social and gender order. Currently

Gertrud Pfister

2010-01-01

337

Effective internal environment-related communication : An employee perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to understand what kinds of internal messages concerning a company's environment-related corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities would be most effective in engaging employees in implementing an organization's environmental strategy. Furthermore, the paper explores how environmentally active employees could be utilized as internal communicators to spread environmental activity internally. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports on findings

Christa Uusi-Rauva; Johanna Nurkka

2010-01-01

338

MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

339

Hiring Graduates: Perspectives From Advertising And Public Relations Employers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at employer expectations of advertising and public relations graduates seeking an entry level position. For employers in both disciplines, the top three priorities are the same generic skills - communications skills, personality traits and strategic or analytical thinking. However, some significant differences were observed, with PR practitioners assigning more importance to practical aspects such as experience in

Gayle Frances Kerr

2005-01-01

340

Perspectives on Public Relations Training in International Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…

Bunnell, Tristan

2005-01-01

341

Ethics in Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Edward F. Gehringer, Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science, NC State University has posted this website on Ethics in Computing. An interactive image of a map guides visitors through different topics covered on this website, so you can start with the Basics or jump right into one of the issue areas. The areas covered include: Social Justice Issues, Commerce, Computer Abuse, Speech Issues, Risks, Privacy, and Intellectual Property. Under each area are links to other resources on the Web, providing definitions, relevant data, case examples, and offering various perspectives on the issues. Some of the links are out of date, but there is still plenty of information to be gleaned from this website on ethics.

342

Ethics and Intercultural Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the use of "proteksia," a system of securing personal influence in Israel, is discussed in this article and is related to concepts of intercultural ethics. The information on the study is taken from an article "On Proteksia," by B. Danet and H. Hartman, focusing on "proteksia" as it relates to bureaucratic norms and nonbureaucratic…

Rohrlich, Beulah F.

343

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society. PMID:6234396

Young, I D

1984-01-01

344

Incorporating global components into ethics education.  

PubMed

Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

2013-03-01

345

Ethics (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

346

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

347

Ethical reasoning differences between accountants and managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test whether significant differences in ethical reasoning exist between Chinese accountants and managers when facing an ethical dilemma. Further tests are conducted to identify what professional contextual factors and personal value preferences can be introduced to explain the ethical reasoning differences observed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Three research questions are raised and related

Guangyou Liu

2011-01-01

348

Five ethical doctrines for medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a relative barrage of journal articles has surfaced concerning the formal instruction of medical ethics in our medical schools. Philosophical debates usually ensue over either the conspicuous absence (or, in some cases, the questionable need (I) (2) of a formal ethics course, or the manner and method by which ethics is to be taught (3). There is,

W T Tweel

1982-01-01

349

Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical

N. Khanlou; E. Peter

2005-01-01

350

Syllabus for Technology, Ethics, and Society Textbooks  

E-print Network

's categorical imperative. 18 Social contract theory 19 Virtue ethics, Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics Introduction to the technology topic of the course. Research paper assigned. 3 Social issues relating 2021 Review for midterm, midterm exam. Essay 2 due. 2224 Applying ethical concepts and theories

Vonessen, Nikolaus

351

The ethics of cultural competence.  

PubMed

Cultural competence curricula have proliferated throughout medical education. Awareness of the moral underpinnings of this movement can clarify the purpose of such curricula for educators and trainees and serve as a way to evaluate the relationship between the ethics of cultural competence and normative Western medical ethics. Though rarely stated explicitly, the essential principles of cultural competence are (1) acknowledgement of the importance of culture in people's lives, (2) respect for cultural differences, and (3) minimization of any negative consequences of cultural differences. Culturally competent clinicians promote these principles by learning about culture, embracing pluralism, and proactive accommodation. Generally, culturally competent care will advance patient autonomy and justice. In this sense, cultural competence and Western medical ethics are mutually supportive movements. However, Western bioethics and the personal ethical commitments of many medical trainees will place limits on the extent to which they will endorse pluralism and accommodation. Specifically, if the values of cultural competence are thought to embrace ethical relativity, inexorable conflicts will be created. The author presents his view of the ethics of cultural competence and places the concepts of cultural competence in the context of Western moral theory. Clarity about the ethics of cultural competence can help educators promote and evaluate trainees' integration of their own moral intuitions, Western medical ethics, and the ethics of cultural competence. PMID:15044168

Paasche-Orlow, Michael

2004-04-01

352

Work-related sickness absence negotiations: GPs' qualitative perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background GPs can find their role as issuers of sickness certification problematic, particularly in trying to maintain a balance between certifying absence and preserving the doctor–patient relationship. Little research has been published on consultations in which sickness absence has been certified. Aim To explore negotiations between GPs and patients in sickness absence certification, including how occupational health training may affect this process. Method A qualitative study was undertaken with GPs trained in occupational health who also participate in a UKwide surveillance scheme studying work-related ill-health. Telephone interviews were conducted with 31 GPs who had reported cases with associated sickness absence. Results Work-related sickness absence and patients' requests for a ‘sick note’ vary by diagnosis. Some GPs felt their role as patient advocate was of utmost importance, and issue certificates on a patient’s request, whereas others offer more resistance through a greater understanding of issues surrounding work and health aquired through occupational health training. GPs felt that their training helped them to challenge beliefs about absence from work being beneficial to patients experiencing ill-health; they felt better equipped to consider patients’ fitness for work, and issued fewer certificates as a result of this. Conclusion Complex issues surround GPs' role in the sickness-certification process, particularly when determining the patient's ability to work while maintaining a healthy doctor–patient relationship. This study demonstrates the potential impact of occupational health training for GPs, particularly in light of changes to the medical statement introduced in 2010. PMID:20883621

Money, Annemarie; Hussey, Louise; Thorley, Kevan; Turner, Susan; Agius, Raymond

2010-01-01

353

Ethics at Israeli universities: unlearned lessons from professional ethics.  

PubMed

At the practical level, sustained attention to ethical issues in academia in Israel is inadequate. This paper suggests that professional models of ethics education and training present constructive alternatives. The author views this topic from the dual perspective of a professional clinical psychologist and a committed faculty member. After a brief introduction, the paper opens with a case vignette of ethical violations of trust in academia, its handling, and how a similar case 25 years later illustrates the lack of progress in preparing the academic community for such things. A discussion of normative actions and behavioral norms in academia follows. Three lessons from the professions are offered: 1) the importance of involving members in the process of identifying ethical violations; 2) the value of adopting for academia current practices preparing persons for work in research, (for example the standardization of online modules for training in ethics); and c) the significance of addressing self-interest and its limits. If silence around a code of ethics is being practiced, that silence should be broken. PMID:21528798

Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2011-03-01

354

A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.  

PubMed

The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. PMID:24291070

de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

2014-02-01

355

The Terri Schiavo saga: ethical and legal aspects and implications for clinicians.  

PubMed

On March 31, 2005, Terri Schiavo (born December 3, 1963) died -- the final complication of a cardiac arrest on February 25, 1990. Her death was preceded by the withdrawal of artificially administered hydration and nutrition through a feeding tube. Prior to her death, Terri's saga was the focus of intense medical, ethical, and legal debates in the United States (US) and elsewhere. These debates were characterized by confusion about the facts, ethical principles, and laws relevant to the case. Much of the confusion revolved around a number of ethical and legal questions including: Is it ethically and legally permissible to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments from patients who do not want the treatments? Is withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments the same as physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia? Is artificially administered hydration and nutrition a medical treatment or mandatory care akin to bathing? What were Terri's values, preferences, and goals regarding life-sustaining treatments? In this article, the medical, ethical, and legal data related to the case and the aforementioned ethical and legal questions raised by it are reviewed. Finally, the clinical implications of the saga, such as the need for clinicians to be more proactive in educating patients about their rights related to making health care decisions, end-of-life care options, and advance care planning (e.g., completing an advance directive) are discussed. Notably, given that the Schiavo saga occurred in the US, this article is written from a US perspective. PMID:19776703

Mueller, Paul S

2009-09-01

356

Euthanasia: An Islamic Ethical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia which is defined generally as the deliberate killing of a person for his\\/her benefit, raises moral and religious questions such as: is it ever right for another person to end the life of a terminally ill patient who is in severe pain or enduring other suffering? Under what circumstances euthanasia is right? In this article we are going to

Kiarash Aramesh; Heydar Shadi

357

Current ethical issues in IVF.  

PubMed

This article has briefly reviewed the range of public policy issues and ethical questions raised with respect to IVF. It then discussed selected issues that are now under policy debate and decision. Given the wide acceptance of IVF as a medical procedure for married couples, what variants might also be ethically defensible? IVF for unmarried couples appears defensible under specific conditions that are equally applicable to married couples. Involvement of third parties (gamete donation and gestational surrogacy) is more complex and needs case by case examination. Sperm donation appears to generate little that is ethically new when coupled with IVF but requires the same care and concern as AID. Egg or embryo donation, however, does raise new ethical questions that need close attention and continuing analysis. Freezing of human embryos also breaks new ethical ground, particularly in the options it generates beyond a narrowly defined medical domain. Certain of these options are better not undertaken without further public policy decision. Improvement of current procedures and techniques through effective clinical trials can be ethically carried out in terms of scientific and medical perspectives. However, efforts in this direction will be more effective if undertaken within a public policy framework that clearly defines acceptability during a transitional period of confidence-building. PMID:3833444

Grobstein, C; Flower, M

1985-12-01

358

GIS and Ethics Undergraduate  

E-print Network

GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

359

Syphilis and human experimentation from the first appearance of the disease to World War II: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.  

PubMed

Physicians have conducted research on syphilis for centuries, seeking to understand its etiology and the means of transmission as well as find ways to prevent and cure the disease. Their research practices often strayed from today's ethical standards. In this paper we review ethical aspects of the long history of research on syphilis with emphasis on the experiments performed in the 20th century. The description of research around the time of World War II covers medical experiments carried out in US prisons and in the experimentation centers established by Japanese doctors in occupied territory, as well as experiments in Nazi Germany and the treatment of syphilitics there. PMID:24268559

Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valentí, X; González-López, E; López-Muńoz, F

2014-10-01

360

011 pp: food-related interventions in dementia: a qualitative study of caregivers' perspectives.  

PubMed

As dementia progresses, caregivers increasingly have to manage the decline of food-related abilities with little intervention. The provision of food coping skills and knowledge can lessen the burden on caregivers. However, there is little research on caregivers' perspectives on food-related interventions. This paper reports on a qualitative study to investigate informal caregivers' experiences of, and views on, food -related interventions in dementia. Twenty informal caregivers were interviewed and the transcripts from these interviews were analysed using both inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Three categories emerged. 'Direct food-related interventions', covers written material, training and lunch clubs 'Indirect non-food related interventions' covers respite services and domestic help at home. Finally 'No interventions' covers those who did not feel they needed any form of intervention due to confidence in managing food-related processes or having no change in dementia progression and food responsibility. Most caregivers will need different levels of education and support at different stages of dementia. It is necessary therefore to undertake ongoing individual assessment of food education and support needs. This study is the first to explore dementia and food-related social support and education needs and availability from the perspective of caregivers. A further, longitudinal study could investigate further the extent to which food-related interventional needs change over time. As dementia increases, caregivers seek more education and social support, therefore the timing of receiving this intervention is important to prepare caregivers in advance and to prevent negative outcomes occurring later. PMID:25869707

Papachristou, I; Hickey, G; Illife, S

2015-01-01

361

An Exploration of forest service partnerships from an interorganizational relations perspective  

E-print Network

AN EXPLORATION OF FOREST SERVICE PARTNERSHIPS FROM AN INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS PERSPECTIVE A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Erik D. Peterson Submitted to the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Professional Paper by Erik D. Peterson Approved as to style and content by: Chair, Advisory Committee Co tee Member Commi e Member Committee Member May 1992 ABSTRACT Public-private partnerships are one approach utilized by the public sector...

Peterson, Erik D.

1992-01-01

362

Institute for Global Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of organizations and think-tanks have taken on the most pressing questions of our day, but relatively few have addressed such quandaries as basic as â??Are there a core of shared, moral values?â?ť In 1990, the Institute for Global Ethics started with this crucial inquiry and expanded their scope to work towards understanding these values. From the homepage, visitors can read through their online resources, which include the Ethics Newsline (a weekly electronic newsletter), letters from their president, and a number of topical white papers. Some of these papers have rather compelling titles, such as â??Ethics and the Learned Professionsâ?ť and â??Corporate Social Responsibility and Peacebuilding: A Case for Action in Israel and the Palestinian Territoriesâ?ť. Finally, users of the site may also wish to take a look at their calendar of upcoming seminars and lectures.

363

“Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined  

PubMed Central

This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

2009-01-01

364

Everyday Ethics: Ethical Issues and Stress in Nursing Practice  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a study of the type, frequency, and level of stress of ethical issues encountered by nurses in their everyday practice. Background Everyday ethical issues in nursing practice attract little attention but can create stress for nurses. Nurses often feel uncomfortable in addressing the ethical issues they encounter in patient care. Methods A self-administered survey was sent in 2004 to 1000 nurses in four states in four different census regions of the United States of America. The adjusted response rate was 52%. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson correlations. Results A total of 422 questionnaires were used in the analysis. The five most frequently-occurring and most stressful ethical and patient care issues were protecting patients' rights; autonomy and informed consent to treatment; staffing patterns; advanced care planning; and surrogate decision-making. Other common occurrences were unethical practices of healthcare professionals; breaches of patient confidentiality or right to privacy; and end-of-life decision-making. Younger nurses and those with fewer years of experience encountered ethical issues more frequently and reported higher levels of stress. Nurses from different regions also experienced specific types of ethical problems more commonly. Conclusion Nurses face daily ethical challenges in the provision of quality care. To retain nurses, targeted ethics-related interventions that address caring for an increasingly complex patient population are needed. PMID:20735502

Ulrich, Connie M.; Taylor, Carol; Soeken, Karen; O'Donnell, Patricia; Farrar, Adrienne; Danis, Marion; Grady, Christine

2010-01-01

365

Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.  

PubMed

Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective. PMID:23724571

Etzrodt, Christine M

2013-04-01

366

Research ethics and private harms.  

PubMed

This commentary addresses the emotionally powerful account of Nicole Taus Kluemper from the perspective of a psychologist familiar with the administrative operation of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the ethics of the profession. The application of the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct to the case is discussed, and alternative methods of response that researchers who have concerns about case studies might use are offered. The author concludes that existing ethical principles-the aspirational standards in particular-do bear upon the matter in question. However, the enforceable code of conduct is not sufficiently clear about obligations to those whom psychologists publicly discuss when the psychologist does not have a specific duty of care to an individual. PMID:24870964

Koocher, Gerald P

2014-12-01

367

Buddhism and Medical Ethics: A Bibliographic Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ,This article provides an introduction to some contemporary issues in medical ethics and the literature which addresses them from a Buddhist perspective. The first part of the article discusses Buddhism,and medicine,and outlines some of the main issues in contemporary,medical ethics. In the rest of the paper three subjects are considered: i) moral personhood, ii) abortion, and iii) death, dying

James J. Hughes

1995-01-01

368

Using a Corporate Code of Ethics to Assess Students' Ethicality: Implications for Business Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author used a corporate code of ethics as a roadmap to create 18 scenarios for assessing business students' ethicality as measured by their behavioral intention. Using a logistic regression analysis, the author also examined 8 factors that could potentially influence students' ethicality. Results indicate 6 scenarios related to 5 areas of the…

Persons, Obeua

2009-01-01

369

The Role of Intent in Ethical Decision Making: The Ethical Choice Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the major theories, studies and models concerning ethical decision making in organizations. The authors drew upon Jones' Model (1991) as the foundation for their Ethical Choice Model, which is designed to further clarify the ethical decision making process as it relates to the construct of intentionality. The model, illustrated…

King, Christine; Powell, Toni

2007-01-01

370

Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus  

PubMed Central

Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

2014-01-01

371

Transplantation ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ donation and transplantation, in all forms and phases, engage clinically with anaesthesia and critical care. Although undoubtedly a major medical achievement, and of significant benefit to the recipient and some consolation to bereaved families, cadaveric donation poses a series of ethical challenges that warrant addressing by the profession if public confidence is to be maintained. The original bedrock of

Dominic Bell

2009-01-01

372

Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to know if ethical theories could be connected to some leadership approaches. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the paper eight leadership approaches are selected: directive leadership, self-leadership, authentic leadership, transactional leadership, shared leadership, charismatic leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership. Five western ethical theories (philosophical egoism, utilitarianism, Kantianism, ethics of virtue, ethics of responsibility) are

Michel Dion

2012-01-01

373

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS.  

E-print Network

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. EPE S399/PHIL S331/PLSC S335 Summer 2012 Environmental Ethics 2 the thesis. I will ask you what you think of those reasons, and so forth. The course before then. REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS (on sale at Yale Bookstore) [1] Environmental Ethics: An Anthology, ed

374

Lived religion: implications for nursing ethics.  

PubMed

This article explores how ethics and religion interface in everyday life by drawing on a study examining the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Employing methods of critical ethnography, namely, interviews and participant observation, data were collected from patients, health care providers, administrators and spiritual care providers. The findings revealed the degree to which 'lived religion' was intertwined with 'lived ethics' for many participants; particularly for people from the Sikh faith. For these participants, religion was woven into everyday life, making distinctions between public and private, secular and sacred spaces improbable. Individual interactions, institutional resource allocation, and social discourses are all embedded in social relationships of power that prevent religion from being a solely personal or private matter. Strategies for the reintegration of religion into nursing ethics are: adjusting professional codes and theories of ethics to reflect the influence of religion; and the contribution of critical perspectives, such as postcolonial feminism, to the understanding of lived ethics. PMID:19528098

Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl

2009-07-01

375

Science and ethics: Some issues for education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-11-01

376

Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1995 under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the Ethics center is designed to provide "engineers, scientists, science and engineering students with resources useful for understanding and addressing ethically significant problems that arise in their work life" or for including ethical problems in their courses. To that end, this site offers an array of resources. In the Research Ethics section, users will find activities, scenarios, case studies, and guides, as well as related links. The Cases section offers an even larger selection of proposed and actual cases along with annotated links. Among the many other offerings at the site are essays on science and engineering ethics, sample ethical codes, corporate setting ethical scenarios, and studies on diversity. Additional resources include conference listings (a bit outdated), a bibliography, a glossary, and an internal search engine.

377

Ethics as a Form of Critical and Rhetorical Inquiry in the Writing Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To define ethics as a mode of inquiry, it is first important to consider how ethics relates to critical thinking. Put simply, ethical inquiry is one type of inquiry required to think critically. A connection between critical thinking and ethics is only possible, however, when ethics is defined not as a static list of rules but as a "mode of…

Henning, Teresa

2011-01-01

378

Physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges for patients in the vegetative state: comparing Canadian and German perspectives in a vignette survey  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians treating patients in the vegetative state (VS) must deal with uncertainty in diagnosis and prognosis, as well as ethical issues. We examined whether physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges vary across two national medical practice settings. Methods A comparative survey was conducted among German and Canadian specialty physicians, based on a case vignette about the VS. Similarities and differences of participants’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges between the two samples were analyzed with non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney-U-Test). Results The overall response rate was 13.4%. Eighty percent of all participants correctly applied the diagnostic category of VS with no significant differences between countries. Many of the participants who chose the correct diagnosis of VS attributed capabilities to the patient, particularly the ability to feel pain (70%), touch (51%) and to experience hunger and thirst (35%). A large majority of participants (94%) considered the limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST) under certain circumstances, but more Canadian participants were in favor of always limiting LST (32% vs. 12%; Chi-square: p?

2014-01-01

379

Ethical intensive care research: development of an ethics handbook.  

PubMed

Conduct of research involving humans in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is complex and challenging. The vulnerable nature of critically ill patients raises issues of patient safety, and informed consent is difficult. With an increasing global interest in human research ethics, broadened government mandates have targeted improvements in research participant protection and research governance. A parallel rise in health consumerism and advocacy for privacy and protection of personal health information requires a clear understanding of the research participant role and importance of risk disclosure. In addition, the potential for conflicts of interest in a climate of increasingly competitive research funding, requires caution and transparency in related financial and contractual arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) fosters collaborative ICU research activity. We have developed An Ethics Handbook for Researchers (EH) for the ANZICS CTG for intended use by researchers in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. The purpose of the EH is to act as a practical advisory guide/supplement; to add clarification regarding ethical issues specific to intensive care research, to assist in the expedition of ethics committee research submission and to summarise available useful resources. This article introduces a précis of key issues from the EH including specific ethical difficulties pertaining to ICU research, a summary of the process by which ethics committee decisions in Australia and New Zealand are informed, and the use of ethical checklists to assist researchers. PMID:16539587

Rischbieth, A; Blythe, D

2005-12-01

380

Eer ethics  

SciTech Connect

Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

Orwant, C.J.

1994-12-31

381

American Association for the Advancement of Science Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion: Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) provides this Website offering "resources on the scientific content of evolutionary theory and its place in education; historical, philosophical, legal and religious perspectives on evolution; and commentary on current issues" (including the AAAS Board Statement on the Kansas State Board of Education decision). The site is organized into seven main sections: Current Issues, Educational Resources, Scientific Resources, Perspectives, Court Cases (including the "Balanced Treatment" Law), Historical Documents (by Darwin), and Epic of Evolution (essays from a forthcoming volume). Documents at the site reflect current thinking by the leading scholars in the field of evolution and provide historical context for evaluating current thinking. A careful collection of related links augments each section. For further information, see the Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) homepage.

382

Embracing Excellence: A Positive Approach to Ethical Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics courses may provoke fear and uncertainty in art therapy students and practitioners if taught from a risk management perspective, which focuses on reducing therapist exposure to risk and avoiding harm to clients. In contrast, a positive ethical approach fosters empowerment, embraces limits, and enhances trust between art therapists and their…

Hinz, Lisa D.

2011-01-01

383

Examining the Crossroads of Law, Ethics, and Education Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leaders are bound by legal and ethical imperatives to make certain that all children have access to an education and the opportunity to learn. To better understand how law and ethics intersect, this article adopted the cultural study perspective to analyze U.S. Supreme Court opinions for language revealing the intersection of law and…

Bon, Susan C.

2012-01-01

384

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

385

Ethics, Law and Policy Group  

Cancer.gov

The Ethics, Law and Policy Group was created to identify and address critical ethical, legal and social questions faced by researchers and patients participating in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The guidelines established will help policy makers develop and apply effective and fair policies related to cancer genome research. These policies will have implications for cancer genome research and could support the translation of discoveries in cancer genomics to the clinic.

386

The discourse of ethics in nursing education: experience and reflections of Brazilian teachers - case study.  

PubMed

From a scenario of political and technological changes in work and health education, the purpose of this study was to understand the ethics discourse in nurses' education process in Brazilian nursing schools. A research was performed with a qualitative approach, characterized as a case study, involving six schools of a region in the south of Brazil. The data were collected by focal groups involving 50 teachers. The results were organized in three categories: (1) experience and motivation to teach ethics and bioethics, (2) indicators of change identified in global and local contexts and (3) challenges in the education of ethics, values and related themes. The teachers have highlighted complex elements related to scientific, educational and professional contexts, and pointed out the need for a critical perspective on the professional scenario and on their own situations as nurses and educators. The analyzed discourse brings to light the topic of ethics, seen as peculiar to the present day and in intimate connection with the daily routine of clinical, pedagogical and political professional practices. The findings suggest that the reflections on nurses' ethics education should not be limited to discussing content and pedagogical strategies but should be extended to include a commitment to the adoption of values in professional practice and to the process of the construction of a professional identity. PMID:23317508

Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Brehmer, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Schmoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Lorenzetti, Jorge

2013-10-01

387

Business Ethics in Theory and Practice: Diagnostic Notes A. A Prescription for Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

A business ethics practitioner and a moral theologian discuss business ethics. Drawing from value-added accounting principles, and extending them to include the company's stake-holders, especially its employees, Welch explains their significance for the origin, formation, and direction of his company's new ethics program. Primeaux responds to Welch from a perspective rooted in the economic theory of profit maximization and its

Edward J. Welch

1997-01-01

388

The Ethics Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.

389

The relative age effect in soccer: a match-related perspective.  

PubMed

Asymmetries in the distributions of birth dates in senior professional and youth soccer players have been interpreted as evidence for systematic discrimination against individuals born shortly before the cut-off date in assigning youth to specific age groups. This concept is known as the "relative age effect". The results of a longitudinal study of birth date distritubions of 2757 semi-professional and amateur senior soccer players in Belgium are presented. Records for competitive games were available in official statistics provided by the Royal Belgian Football Association. The chi-square statistic was used to examine differences between observed and expected birth date distributions. Regression analyses indicated a shift of bias when two different start dates were compared. Players born in the early part of the new age band (January to March) were over-represented compared with players born late in the new selection period (October to December). However, players with birthdays at the start of the old selection year (August) were still represented. In a retrospective analysis of 2138 players, variables indicative of match involvement, number of selections for matches, and time played were examined in relation to the relative age effect. The group of semi-professional and amateur senior soccer players born in the first quarter of the selected age band received more playing opportunities. Comparisons of birth date distributions (traditional approach to relative age effect) with match-related variables gave similar, though not entirely consistent, results. However, there were no differences for the mean number of selections and for playing minutes between players born at the start or the end of the selection year. Our findings suggest that match-based variables may provide a more reliable indication of the relative age effect in soccer. PMID:16195025

Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Malina, Robert M

2005-07-01

390

The relative age effect in soccer: A match-related perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetries in the distributions of birth dates in senior professional and youth soccer players have been interpreted as evidence for systematic discrimination against individuals born shortly before the cut-off date in assigning youth to specific age groups. This concept is known as the “relative age effect”. The results of a longitudinal study of birth date distritubions of 2757 semi-professional and

Roel Vaeyens; Renaat M Philippaerts; Robert M Malina

2005-01-01

391

Ethical issues in psychopharmacology  

PubMed Central

The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

McHenry, L

2006-01-01

392

Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

Baum, Seth D.

2010-02-01

393

The Evolving Face of Ethics in Technical and Professional Communication: Challenger to Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our view of ethics in professional and technical communication has evolved, paralleling developments throughout society. Earlier views on ethics and values have grown into a broad perspective of complex gradations with people at many levels affecting eventual practical outcomes. This newer perspective includes not only persons but social forces and organizations. The organizational culture of NASA, for example, was specifically

Paul M. Dombrowski

2007-01-01

394

Ethics and mental illness research.  

PubMed

There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and ethical issues are recognized as inextricably linked: science as a human activity carries complex ethical meanings and responsibilities, and ethics itself is subject to scrutiny and amenable to scientific inquiry. Building a broader, more versatile, and more effective repertoire of safeguards will be increasingly important, and safeguards, in this view, represent a modest price for the privilege of studying serious illnesses--diseases that cause grave suffering and yet are a source of both vulnerability and strength. In this paradigm, attention to ethics safeguards is no longer understood as a barrier to scientific advancement, but rather as the means by which psychiatric research may be conducted with broad societal support, honorably and, ultimately, with the expectation of bringing benefit to millions of people with mental illness. PMID:12232968

Roberts, Laura Weiss

2002-09-01

395

Work ethic in the USA and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the issues of work ethics and work-related attitudes in the USA and Canada. Two-hundred-and-ten individuals from various organizations participated. The results indicated that US participants were found to be more committed to the Protestant and contemporary work ethic than Canadians. Both women and workers (male and female) scored high on Protestant work ethic (PWE). No differences in PWE were

Abbas J. Ali; Thomas Falcone; Ahmed A. Azim

1995-01-01

396

Ethical Aspects of Information Security and Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches\\u000a to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance\\u000a of computer security, the relation between computer security and national security, the morality of hacking and computer crime,\\u000a the nature of cyberterrorism and information

Philip Brey

397

Mock trials and role-playing in computer ethics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mock trials are an effective and fun way of eliciting thoughtful dialogue from students, and encouraging them to produce incisive analyses of current ethical dilemmas related to computers and society. This paper describes our experience using mock trials in two computer ethics courses. Each trial was centered on a specific controversial and ethically or legally ambiguous topic related to current

Roxanne L. Canosa; Joan M. Lucas

2008-01-01

398

Relations between the Development of Future Time Perspective in Three Life Domains, Investment in Learning, and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between the development of future time perspectives in three life domains (i.e., school and professional career, social relations, and leisure time) and changes in students' investment in learning and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lower…

Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

2011-01-01

399

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

400

Impact of dementia progression on food-related processes: a qualitative study of caregivers' perspectives.  

PubMed

As dementia progresses, one area that can help maintain connection and memories with others is within the food domain. There is little research in this area particularly from the informal caregivers' perspectives. Therefore, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of dementia progression on food-related processes from the perspectives of informal caregivers. The aim of the study was to document the methodology used and to disseminate the findings to researchers, care providers, and policy makers. A total of 10 men and 10 women caregivers of those with dementia underwent a semistructured interview. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. The caregivers' narratives indicated a set pattern of decline, with food shopping being the first ability to decline, followed by food preparation and the ability to eat. Caregivers adapted to their food roles, for example, by becoming responsible for financial issues. These adaptations were described as stressful yet satisfying as food care was seen as an important social time. Educating caregivers' about the likely adaptations to food processes may increase food satisfaction in both the parties. PMID:23813792

Papachristou, Ilia; Giatras, Nikolette; Ussher, Michael

2013-09-01

401

Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics in the College  

E-print Network

on several national and international education, health, and sports related committees. He is book series and Physical Education #12;Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics

Hickman, Mark

402

American Legal Ethics Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute site (LII), the American Legal Ethics Library contains rules or codes, ethics opinions, judicial conduct codes, legal commentaries, and other materials relating to the law governing lawyers. Codes or rules are available for most of the nation's 50 states. Currently, the site also offers eleven commentaries on the "law of lawyering" for eleven different jurisdictions, written by legal scholars and major law firms in each jurisdiction's area. Another twelve narratives are in progress, including one for the European community. Accessible by topic or jurisdiction, the information is also available on CD-ROM. The hypertext format makes it easy to link from commentaries to relevant codes and rules. Roger C. Cramton, the Robert S. Stevens Professor of Law at Cornell, directs the project.

403

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, Religion & Ethics Newsweekly has been a PBS fixture since September 1997. The program takes on the important subjects of religion and ethics in a manner that is rather engaging, and the same can be said of their very fine website. Users can listen to the entire weekly show in its entirety, or download it and take it with them on their personal audio device. Educators will want to take a look at the "For Educators" area, which features a number of lesson plans and teaching tips designed to be used in conjunction with segments from the program and related websites. Finally, visitors can also search the contents of the site via a handy search engine that sits at the right-hand corner of every page.

404

[The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation].  

PubMed

Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half century of its use. The aim of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication), precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health issues. PMID:18259663

Mendoza V, Carolina

2007-11-01

405

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues Poynter Center Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues http

Redmiles, David F.

406

Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards. PMID:15748680

Khanlou, N; Peter, E

2005-05-01

407

Hide / Show Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

the Ethics Secretariat for information on Animal Ethics Courses available at UNSW. All new added personnelHide / Show Animal Ethics Modification for Approved Application New personnel or updated role since last approval New person nominated since last approval You are here: Animal Ethics Application

New South Wales, University of

408

Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

409

An Ethics Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

2008-01-01

410

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

411

Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

2013-01-01

412

Ethical challenges of practicing in rural areas.  

PubMed

Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121

Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth

2010-05-01

413

Family suffering related to war experiences: an interpretative synopsis review of the literature from a caring science perspective.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a synopsis review of findings from families' experiences related to combat and war events and to interpret these findings from the perspective of theories of suffering. The method used in the study was a synopsis review of 12 articles dealing with family suffering related to war or combat experiences and an interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective. Findings from the synopsis review were that the dominant part of the articles viewed suffering in general and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in particular from a medical, psychiatric or psychologically behaviouristic perspective. PTSD and other distress-related conditions were mainly described in terms of their symptoms and dealt with in terms of pathology. The interpretation of the articles from a caring science perspective generated three significant themes: first, interdependence as a spiritual dimension of dependence, secondly, familial communion as sharing moral and spiritual values and thirdly, familial suffering visualized by compassion. The study's conclusion is that, from a caring science perspective, the appearance of family suffering should be comprehended in terms of expressed compassion and that any disturbance within familial communion is likely to have an emotional impact on all of the family members, as a result of their interdependence. PMID:16922977

Isovaara, Sten; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

2006-09-01

414

Safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in developing countries: the case of Uganda.  

PubMed

The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women's participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries. PMID:23178827

Baguma, David; Hashim, Jamal H; Aljunid, Syed M; Loiskandl, Willibald

2013-01-01

415

Understanding the Complexity of Catch-and-Release in Recreational Fishing: An Integrative Synthesis of Global Knowledge from Historical, Ethical, Social, and Biological Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on catch-and-release (C&R) in recreational fishing has been conducted from a disciplinary angle focusing on the biological sciences and the study of hooking mortality after release. This hampers understanding of the complex and multifaceted nature of C&R. In the present synopsis, we develop an integrative perspective on C&R by drawing on historical, philosophical, socio-psychological, biological, and managerial insights

Robert Arlinghaus; Steven J. Cooke; Jon Lyman; David Policansky; Alexander Schwab; Cory Suski; Stephen G. Sutton; Eva B. Thorstad

2007-01-01

416

Virtue and the scientist: using virtue ethics to examine science's ethical and moral challenges.  

PubMed

As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronęsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronęsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronęsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronęsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses. PMID:24497005

Chen, Jiin-Yu

2015-02-01

417

The ethics of cultivated gratitude.  

PubMed

Given narrow operating margins, health care organizations are increasingly relying on philanthropy to fund operations. Since individuals provide the majority of philanthropic support, many organizations have expanded their "grateful patient fundraising" programs to include current inpatients, both established donors as well as persons of wealth. While this is legally permissible under HIPAA, it raises substantial ethical concerns for potential coercion of vulnerable patients, as well as unequal care stemming from preferential treatment and provided "amenities." While some have drawn the analogy to the additional comforts provided to first-class airline passengers, this analogy is flawed because of the potential clinical impact of the opportunities and services provided, especially to merely potential donors. From an ethical perspective, such programs should only provide non-clinical amenities to established donors, and at the same time strive for maximal transparency whereby all patients are assured of equal care and are fully informed of the specific benefits associated with any potential donation. PMID:24362591

Macauley, Robert

2014-12-01

418

The Scope of pharmacy ethics—an evaluation of the international research literature, 1990–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to provide a critical overview of international published discourse relating to ethical issues in pharmacy practice from 1990 to 2002. We found that there is little research literature specifically addressing ethics in pharmacy practice and almost none addressing fundamental philosophical issues or values for pharmacy ethics. There is no dedicated journal for pharmacy ethics. Most material relating

Joy Wingfield; Paul Bissell; Claire Anderson

2004-01-01

419

Ethics in Prion Disease  

PubMed Central

This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

2013-01-01

420

Methodological and ethical issues in clinical trials of acupuncture.  

PubMed

In this review, controlled clinical trials of acupuncture are placed into five categories on the basis of the treatment with which acupuncture is compared. Methodological and ethical issues relevant to each category are discussed. Wait list (or no treatment) controls, which are ethically acceptable for stable, chronic conditions, assess the efficacy of acupuncture relative to the natural history of the condition but do not control for nonspecific treatment effects. Placebo controls, defined here as noninvasive procedures such as inactive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or mock needling, assess whether acupuncture has an effect beyond that of the therapeutic milieu. Sham controls, defined as invasive but inappropriate procedures such as shallow needling at nonacupoint sites, assess whether acupuncture efficacy depends on the style and location of needling. Standard care comparisons assess whether acupuncture performs at least as well as a medication, medical device, or physiotherapy. Adjunctive care comparisons assess the efficacy of acupuncture plus standard care relative to standard care alone. From an ethical perspective, active debate surrounds placebo and sham controls. Those who argue against these procedures consider withholding treatment to be improper. They favor the wait list and both standard care designs in which all patients receive treatment. Others argue that testing a treatment prior to demonstrating its efficacy against a placebo is equally improper. From a methodological perspective, it should also be considered that most clinical trials of acupuncture have assessed its efficacy by administering a fixed course of treatment based on biomedical diagnosis. The challenge for future trials is to design conditions that more closely mimic the delivery of acupuncture in clinical practice, as individualized treatment informed by its own diagnostic traditions. PMID:9628206

Hammerschlag, R

1998-01-01

421

Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

Goodyear, Leslie

2012-01-01

422

Ethical School Leadership: Defining the Best Interests of Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the alternate ways ethical school leadership in the best interests of students is conceptualized in the educational leadership literature from several foundational perspectives including philosophy, psychology, critical theory and case law. Perspectives which are grounded solely in theory are differentiated from those…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline; Begley, Paul T.

2007-01-01

423

The ethics of human reproductive cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable

Carson Strong

2005-01-01

424

The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

Bridger, James A.

1977-01-01

425

Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

2000-01-01

426

Ethical Aspects of Spirituality in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the professional literature related to spirituality and ethics in counseling. The American Counseling Association's (1995, 2005) code of ethics was used as a basis for exploring the possibilities and limits/ boundaries appropriate for discussion of spirituality in counseling. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

Steen, Rheta LeAnne; Engels, Dennis; Thweatt, W. Tom, III

2006-01-01

427

Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

2011-01-01

428

An Introduction to Skills for Ethical Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of the "Skills for Ethical Action" (SEA) instructional materials relative to other instructional approaches in the field of moral/values/ethical education, and information about anticipated learner outcomes is offered. The program is intended for junior high school students. Several major existing theoretical positions on…

Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

429

Teaching Business IT Ethics: A Professional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In UK higher education a primary aim of business IT-related qualifications is the preparation of students for a relevant career. In this article we discuss an approach to teaching business IT ethics in a university context that prepares students for the ethical problems that they may meet in their future IT careers, and we demonstrate how this…

Taylor, Mark; Moynihan, Eddie; McWilliam, Jennie; Gresty, David

2004-01-01

430

Examining Teacher Ethical Dilemmas in Classroom Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts…

Pope, Nakia; Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Mitchell, Mark

2009-01-01

431

Concerns of college students regarding business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some attention has been devoted to assessing the attitudes and concerns of businesspeople toward ethics, relatively little attention has focused on the attitudes and concerns of tomorrow's business leaders, today's college students. In this investigation a national sample was utilized to study college students' attitudes toward business ethics, with the results being analyzed by academic classification, academic major, and

Richard F. Beltramini; Robert A. Peterson; George Kozmetsky

1984-01-01

432

Primitive mechanisms of trauma response: an evolutionary perspective on trauma-related disorders.  

PubMed

The symptoms we identify and the behaviors we recognize as defenses define which symptoms we see as trauma-related. Early conceptions of trauma-related disorders focused on physical signs of distress while current ones emphasize mental symptoms, but traumatizing experiences evoke psychobiological reactions. An evolutionary perspective presumes that psychophysical reactions to traumatizing events evolved to ensure survival. This theoretical review examines several primitive mechanisms (e.g., sensitization and dissolution) associated with responses to diverse stressors, from danger to life-threat. Some rapidly acquired symptoms form without conscious awareness because severe stresses can dysregulate mental and physical components within systems ensuring survival. Varied defensive options engage specialized and enduring psychophysical reactions; this allows for more adaptive responses to diverse threats. Thus, parasympathetically mediated defense states such as freeze or collapse increase trauma-related symptom variability. Comorbidity and symptom variability confuse those expecting mental rather than psychophysical responses to trauma, and active (sympathetically mediated flight and fight) rather than immobility defenses. Healthcare implications for stress research, clinical practice and diagnostic nosology stem from the broader evolutionary view. PMID:23792048

Baldwin, David V

2013-09-01

433

Data and knowledge gaps in glacier, snow and related runoff research - A climate change adaptation perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier and snow cover changes with related impacts on melt runoff can seriously affect human societies which are depending on fresh water from cryospheric sources. Observed trends and projected future evolutions of climatic and cryospheric variables clearly show the need to adapt to these changes. Accordingly, the topics addressed herein have been put on the agendas of many larger funding agencies. This article provides a brief overview on major ongoing activities on glacier, snow and related runoff research in order to then analyze data gaps and research needs from a climate change adaptation perspective. Major data needs are identified with respect to the spatial and temporal coverage of local-scale data and related needs for (data) services that distribute and maintain these data sets. Moreover, clear research needs are also recognized at the local scale where process knowledge needs to be improved (e.g., the influence of albedo on snow and ice or debris cover on glaciers) in order to derive plausible climate change impacts assessments. The paper then discusses directions on how to move forward to better serve the practical needs for climate change adaptation planning. In the future, substantial support by large funding agencies might be key for capacity building in target regions of climate change adaptation programs, for longer-term and more sustainable commitments, and for the development of approaches, which aim at assessing the transferability of data, techniques, and tools.

Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Stoffel, Markus

2014-10-01

434

Psychosocial Assessment of Living Organ Donors: Clinical and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines psychosocial and ethical issues to be considered when evaluating potential living organ donors. Six types of living donors are described: genetically related, emotionally related, \\

Mary Ellen Olbrisch; Sharon M. Benedict

2001-01-01

435

Ethics in Classroom Assessment Practices: Issues and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from a web-based survey…

Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.

2007-01-01

436

Learning Ethics From Museum Exhibitions: Possible or Impossible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to explore audience members learning ethics from two national museum exhibitions: The Return of Sherlock Holmes (RSH) and Human Body Exploration (HBE) in Taiwan. Based on literature review of ethics for museums, there are four dimensions related to exhibition ethics: environment, marketing, education, and services. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the relationships

Ching-Yuan Huang; Lichun Chiang

2007-01-01

437

Ethical issues in cardiovascular risk management: Patients need nurses' support.  

PubMed

Involving patients in decisions on primary prevention can be questioned from an ethical perspective, due to a tension between health promotion activities and patient autonomy. A nurse-led intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including counselling (risk communication, and elements of shared decision-making and motivational interviewing) and supportive tools such as a decision aid, was implemented in primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurse-led intervention from an ethical perspective by exploring in detail the experiences of patients with the intervention, and their views on the role of both the nurse and patient. The study had a qualitative design. 18 patients who had received the intervention participated. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews. The interviews were analysed using directed content analysis. The findings revealed that patients perceived the consultations not as an infringement on their autonomy, but as supportive to risk reduction efforts they tried but found hard to realise. They specifically emphasised the role of the nurse, and appreciated the nurse's realistic advice, encouragement, and help in understanding. Patients' views on and experiences with risk management are in line with notions of relational autonomy, caring cooperation and communicative action found in the literature. We conclude that patients define the relationship with the nurse as shared work in the process of developing a healthier lifestyle. PMID:24258253

Loon, Marije S Koelewijn-van; van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Elwyn, Glyn; Widdershoven, Guy Am

2013-11-19

438

The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study. PMID:23388345

2013-01-01

439

Clinical ethics, information, and communication: review of 31 cases from a clinical ethics committee  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To summarise the types of case brought to the Clinical Ethics Committee of the National Hospital of Norway from 1996 to 2002 and to describe and discuss to what extent issues of information/communication have been involved in the ethical problems. Design: Systematic review of case reports. Findings: Of the 31 case discussions, (20 prospective, 11 retrospective), 19 cases concerned treatment of children. Twenty cases concerned ethical problems related to withholding/withdrawing of treatment. In 25 cases aspects of information/communication were involved in the ethical problem, either explicitly (n = 3) or implicitly (n = 22). Conclusion: Problems related to information/communication may underlie a classic ethical problem. Identification of these "hidden" problems may be important for the analysis, and hence, the solution to the ethical dilemma. PMID:15681669

Forde, R; Vandvik, I

2005-01-01

440

Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics.  

PubMed

The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care. PMID:24609755

Barina, Rachelle

2014-12-01

441

The Relation between School Leadership from a Distributed Perspective and Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Source of the Leadership Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study the relationship between school leadership and teachers' organizational commitment is examined by taking into account a distributed leadership perspective. The relation between teachers' organizational commitment and contextual variables of teachers' perceptions of the quality and the source of the supportive and supervisory…

Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

2011-01-01

442

Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

443

Experiences of gout-related disability from the patients' perspective: a mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Disability is a common problem in patients with gout. Recently, the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) was recommended for assessing patient reported activity limitations in gout. However, few studies have explored experiences and issues of disability from the perspective of gout patients themselves. The objectives of this study were to explore disability issues in patients with gout and to examine the content validity of the HAQ-DI in this patient group. Two studies were performed: a semi-structured interview study with seven male gout patients and a cross-sectional survey study among 34 other patients with gout. In both studies, specific examples of activity limitations were elicited using open-ended methods. The survey study additionally aimed to quantify the relevance of the activities listed in the HAQ-DI. Most patients experienced several gout attacks in the previous year. Limitations were reported to occur during a flare, but patients were generally not limited between attacks. During an attack, patients mainly experienced limitations related to mobility, especially walking and climbing stairs. Patients also mentioned limitations in activities related to domestic life, such as gardening and doing housework. Limitations related to self-care or activities requiring the use of the upper extremities were rarely mentioned. Corresponding HAQ-DI items were skewed towards very low disability scores over the past week. Assessments of gout-related disability should particularly focus on mobility and lower extremity functioning and should consider the intermittent nature of the disease. The HAQ-DI may not adequately meet these requirements, suggesting the need to explore other measures of gout-related disability PMID:24077900

ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Voshaar, Martijn A H Oude; Bode, Christina; van de Laar, Mart A F J

2014-08-01

444

Towards an ethics of authentic practice.  

PubMed

This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities. PMID:19018894

Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Genevičve

2008-10-01

445

A metric learning perspective of SVM: on the relation of SVM and LMNN  

E-print Network

Support Vector Machines, SVMs, and the Large Margin Nearest Neighbor algorithm, LMNN, are two very popular learning algorithms with quite different learning biases. In this paper we bring them into a unified view and show that they have a much stronger relation than what is commonly thought. We analyze SVMs from a metric learning perspective and cast them as a metric learning problem, a view which helps us uncover the relations of the two algorithms. We show that LMNN can be seen as learning a set of local SVM-like models in a quadratic space. Along the way and inspired by the metric-based interpretation of SVM s we derive a novel variant of SVMs, epsilon-SVM, to which LMNN is even more similar. We give a unified view of LMNN and the different SVM variants. Finally we provide some preliminary experiments on a number of benchmark datasets in which show that epsilon-SVM compares favorably both with respect to LMNN and SVM.

Do, Huyen; Wang, Jun; Woznica, Adam

2012-01-01

446

The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

Kruckeberg, Dean

447

Ethical principles and standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research.  

PubMed

Most research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The Journal, its editors and the publication committee endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. Chronobiology International requires that submitted manuscripts reporting the findings of human and animal research conform to the respective policy and mandates of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The peer review of manuscripts will thus include judgment of whether or not the involved research methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article outlines the basic expectations for the methods of human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the fundamental criteria necessary for quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:15129830

Touitou, Yvan; Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Rensing, Ludger

2004-01-01

448

Engineering Ethical Decisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage showcases a series of engineering ethical decision classes. Manufacturing students and instructors would find the following class and assignment of particular interest: The final class in the breadth sequence, Manufacturing Ergonomics, Safety, and Health (MESH) is different from the courses discussed to this point, in that it has a smaller audience and does not use case studies in the same manner as the other courses. MESH is a course for Manufacturing Engineering Technology majors, although it is sometimes taken by other students as an elective; it is both smaller and more focused toward a specific field. Ethics, starting with both the NSPE and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) codes of ethics, represent one of the justifications for implementing ergonomic and safety programs in manufacturing facilities. As such, the course starts with a discussion of the basis for implementing ergonomic and safety programs, including ethics, and then these ideas remain underlying concepts throughout the course. Case studies with direct ethical implications are not used consistently in the course as examples, but students are required to complete an accident summary and analysis as one of their assignments. As part of the analysis in this assignment, students are asked to assess behavior relative to both Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) codes and acceptable professional behavior, if engineers were involved in or responsible for the accident. Based on their comments, this assignment makes a strong impression on many students, especially concerning the disregard that some people have for the safety of themselves or their co-workers. Although this topic has been addressed before, the case study approach is interesting, and includes very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. It is highly adoptable for many different courses at many different levels. Case studies can be isolated and adopted. There is also plenty of pedagogical supporting information that faculty may find interesting and useful. Reviewer Comments: This resource is of high quality and current. The case study approach is interesting, and has very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. Case Studies can be isolated and adopted. Faculty may find the pedagogical supporting information interesting and useful. There are some dead links on the website.

Newcomer, Jeff

449

An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educational reform programs, including No Child Left Behind, operate from the perspective that gaps in academic achievement can be reduced by improvements in the educational process directed by school administrators and teachers. This perspective ignores the ecological context in which underachieving schools are typically embedded. Using a…

Whipple, Sara Sepanski; Evans, Gary W.; Barry, Rachel L.; Maxwell, Lorraine E.

2010-01-01

450

Ethical issues and ethical therapy associated with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

The prevalence of anxietyAnxiety disorders is among the highest of all psychiatric diagnoses, with a lifetime morbidity rate of nearly 30 %. Given this prevalence, it is important to identify effective and ethicalEthical treatments. Empirically based treatments considered efficacious for anxiety disorders largely include cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT)Cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) , and among these, exposureExposure therapy stands out as both useful and potentially concerning. Ethical concerns regarding exposureExposure treatment for anxietyAnxiety include fears of symptom exacerbation, high treatment dropout rates, client safety concerns, and the blurring of boundary lines between therapists and clients. Although concerns have been raised regarding exposureExposure treatment generally, specific concerns have been raised related to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) given the vulnerable nature of the population. Despite these concerns, research largely supports both the efficacy and safety of exposureExposure therapy. The present chapter provides a review of extant literature highlighting potential ethicalEthical concerns, research regarding the raised concerns, and suggestions for minimizing risk in treatment. PMID:25151292

Altis, Kaylan L; Elwood, Lisa S; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2015-01-01

451

[Cloning--ethical aspects].  

PubMed

Ethical problems related to cloning are discussed on three model situations: cloning of human beings (for example by utilizing the techniques of embryo splitting or nuclear transfer), use of embryonic cells in cloning techniques and cloning of nonembryonic cells. The first situation is strictly condemned, the second has been examined up present (it should be condemned as well) and the third is--under certain conditions--fully acceptable. The issue is discussed from the point of view of relevant Council of Europe documents as well. PMID:15305763

Munzarová, M

2004-01-01

452

Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.  

PubMed

I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2008-10-01

453

Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy  

PubMed Central

I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

2008-01-01

454

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

455

Legal and Ethical Values in the Resolution of Research-Related Disputes: How Can IRBs Respond to Participant Complaints?  

PubMed Central

Under U.S. federal regulations, participants providing informed consent must receive information regarding whom to contact in case of a research-related injury or complaint. Although informed consent processes routinely direct participants to contact institutional review boards (IRBs) with questions or concerns, there has been little empirical study of the ways in which IRBs act to resolve participants' research-related complaints. This article explores available literature on participant complaints, considers the responsibilities of IRBs in dispute resolution, and outlines a research agenda. As a case study, this review considers disputes arising from HIV/AIDS research, focusing on novel issues arising from biomedical HIV prevention trials. PMID:24572085

Underhill, Kristen

2014-01-01

456

The growth of clinical ethics in a multilingual country: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swiss experience with clinical ethics committees and consultation services is a relatively recent development. When ethics committees offering clinical case consultation were first identified in a 2002 survey, only 18 % of Swiss hos- pitals reported a clinical ethics committee. However, 84 % of these reported offering case consultation. The oldest known clinical ethics committee was founded in 1988,

Samia A. Hurst; Stella Reiter-Theil; Ruth Baumann-Hölzle; Carlo Foppa; Roberto Malacrida; Georg Bosshard; Michelle Salathé; Alex Mauron

457

The Ethics of Abstinence-Only and Abstinence-Plus Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights some of the ethical dilemmas present in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…

Wiley, David C.

2002-01-01

458

CODE FOR UCT RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE MEMBERS [Last updated March 2012  

E-print Network

to ethics-related continuing education. Consultants or ad hoc reviewers might from time to time be calledCODE FOR UCT RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE MEMBERS [Last updated March 2012] NOTE: this Code applies to all Ethics committees at UCT i.e. including Animal Ethics Committees All committee members at UCT have

Jarrett, Thomas H.

459

Ethics and the Marketing of Technology for Training and Performance Improvement: A Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary is intended to start a conversation on ethical behavior in the marketing of our work, with a special focus on the issues that arise when marketing technology and related services. The general literature on marketing ethics suggests that marketers have more relaxed ethical values than the general public. Therefore, ethics should be…

Carliner, Saul

2003-01-01

460

Ethics for Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

Jaques, Elliott

2003-01-01

461

Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Hemifacial Microsomia: Parent and Child Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with and without hemifacial microsomia (HFM) as assessed by parents and the children themselves during the elementary school years. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with HFM (49 females, mean age = 6 years, 11.9 months, SD = 1.004) were compared with 568 matched controls (285 females, mean age = 6 years, 10.2 months, SD = 0.998) for parent and child responses on the PedsQL Version 4.0. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, parent-reported summary scores were worse for affected children than control group children for physical (effect sizes [ES] = 0.26, p = .004), social (ES = 0.34, p = .001), and school (ES = 0.32, p = .001) functioning. There were no significant mean differences in summary scores based on children’s self-reported functioning. Conclusions Case-control mean differences in HRQOL were more apparent based on parent report, but not child self-report. Summary score findings suggest that case parents have concerns about their child’s HRQOL, particularly with respect to their child’s physical, social, and school functioning. Additionally, our findings highlight the potential differences between child and parent perspectives and the importance of collecting data from multiple reporters. PMID:24213374

Khetani, Mary A.; Collett, Brent R.; Speltz, Matthew L.; Werler, Martha M.

2014-01-01

462

Becoming the Denigrated Other: Group Relations Perspectives on Initial Reactions to a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one) and alcoholism (one). All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.” PMID:23049521

Goldberg, Susan G.

2012-01-01

463

Parents’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures  

PubMed Central

When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents’ own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon—supporting children during an NRMP—is characterized as “keeping the child under the protection of one’s wings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child’s way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child’s understanding, focusing the child’s attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents’ ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child’s protector and to be able to keep the child “under the protection of one’s wings,” parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

2014-01-01

464

Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

2012-01-01

465

Ethics in E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning environments require policies balancing different expectations of participants and considering how the users perceive ethics during online learning. As in the case of face-to-face classes; learners must show respect and tolerance among each other, and conduct civil relations and interaction based on pre-determined rules. Starting with a…

Toprak, Elif; Ozkanal, Berrin; Aydin, Sinan; Kaya, Secil

2010-01-01

466

Giftedness and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2012-01-01

467

Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

2000-01-01

468

Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.  

PubMed

Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

2013-05-01

469

[Considering body ethics in the healthcare profession].  

PubMed

This article uses the theory of body phenomenology and Watson's caring theory to develop and apply body ethics to the clinical healthcare profession. This attempt is meant to facilitate deep, humanistic experiences for healthcare personnel. The analysis of body phenomenology reveals that the soul is banished from her familiar and comfortable "at-home" status when illness and pain invade the body. In such situations, the body becomes an external object that is self-alienated. This experience induces experiences such as solitude and violence. However, it also holds the potential to expose the original morality of the body. Additionally, this article discusses popular tools used in clinical ethics such as principalism and virtual-based ethics, which are based on moral reasoning and moral feeling. In contrast to these, body ethics seek a more profound and humble level of sensibility that is able to implant authenticity into the ethics. Finally, we offer some suggestions related to Watson's caring theory. PMID:25271027

Wang, Shin-Yun

2014-10-01

470

"Not" Teaching Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.

Wiggins, Alexis

2011-01-01

471

Designing an Ethics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

472

Information Ethics: An Environmental  

E-print Network

Information Ethics: An Environmental Approach to the Digital Divide LUCIANO FLORIDI Faculty equally enormous. They go hand in hand with ontic #12;2 Informational Ethics: An Environmental Approach fundamental ethical problems, whose complexity and global dimensions are rapidly evolving.1 What is the best

Floridi, Luciano

473

Environmental Ethics Professor Harrell  

E-print Network

Environmental Ethics 80-244 Fall 2012 Professor Harrell Baker Hall 161G mharrell@cmu.edu Course Schedule Revised* Texts: Armstrong, Susan J. & Botzler, Richard G. 2004. Environmental Ethics: Divergence. Case Studies in Environmental Ethics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. (Denoted by CS below) Paul

Spirtes, Peter

474

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California; )

2003-02-01

475

Making Ethics Come Alive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

McQueeney, Edward

2006-01-01