Science.gov

Sample records for relational spatial politics

  1. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  2. The new spatial politics of (re)bordering and (re)ordering the state-education-citizen relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2011-08-01

    One outcome of more than three decades of social and political transformation around the world, the result of processes broadly referred to as globalisation, has been the emergence of a complex (and at first glance, contradictory) conceptual language in the social sciences that has sought to grasp hold of these developments. Throughout the 1990s, theorists began to emphasise a world in motion, deploying concepts like "liquid modernity" (Zygmunt Bauman) to signal rapid and profound changes at work in the social structures, relations, and spatialities of societies (Neil Brenner) that were reconfiguring state-citizen relations (Saskia Sassen). Recently, however, researchers have concentrated on the study of borders and containers as a corrective to the preoccupation with mobility, arguing it is not possible to imagine a world which is only borderless and de-territorialised, because the basic ordering of social groups and societies requires categories and compartments. This paper focuses attention on processes of bordering and ordering in contemporary education systems, suggesting that comparative educators - whose main intellectual project is to understand how (different) education processes are re/produced within and across time, space and societies - would get much greater purchase on transformations currently under way.

  3. The New Spatial Politics of (Re)bordering and (Re)ordering the State-Education-Citizen Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    One outcome of more than three decades of social and political transformation around the world, the result of processes broadly referred to as globalisation, has been the emergence of a complex (and at first glance, contradictory) conceptual language in the social sciences that has sought to grasp hold of these developments. Throughout the 1990s,…

  4. Political Communication: Contributions to the Study of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    Political communication has influenced greatly the study of modern public relations. The development of modern public relations can be traced back to the Ancients of Greece. The definition of "political communication" when applied to public relations is typically corporate in nature. That is, public relations defines the role of political activity…

  5. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different levels. It…

  6. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  7. Analysis of Spatial Voting Patterns: An Approach in Political Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimasewski, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Passage of the 26th Amendment gave young adults the right to vote. This study attempts to further student understanding of the electoral process by presenting a method for analyzing spatial voting patterns. The spatial emphasis adds another dimension to the temporal and behavioral-structural approaches in studying the American electoral system.…

  8. Some Spatial Politics of Queer-Feminist Research: Personal Reflections From the Field.

    PubMed

    Misgav, Chen

    2016-05-01

    This article addresses methodological issues emerging from research conducted with Trans in the Center, an LGBT activist group in Tel Aviv, Israel. It addresses some complex issues related to the politics and ethics of applying queer and feminist methodology to qualitative research in a trans, queer, and feminist community space. The focus is on two issues: the researcher's positionality vis-à-vis the participants and selecting the appropriate methodology in relation to the characteristics of the group under study. Such issues demonstrate how queer and feminist principles are articulated and interwoven in geographical-spatial research in two different dimensions: in the research practice and methodology and in the practices and the spaces created by the activity of the researched group itself. I conclude with insights arising from the attempt to apply feminist and queer paradigms in both theory and research, and I call for their integration into geographical research. PMID:26566720

  9. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context. PMID:19461232

  10. High political participation, high social capital? A relational analysis of youth social capital and political participation.

    PubMed

    Teney, Celine; Hanquinet, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    Social capital has been alleged to increase the capacity for political mobilization. Yet, until now, the empirical debate has not succeeded in rendering a detailed account of the relationships between social capital and political participation partly because of the use of a reductive conception and operationalization of both concepts. Using a multidimensional and relational technique (multiple correspondence analysis) and a detailed youth survey data from Belgium, the article demonstrates that youth draw on diverse forms of social capital and that these forms vary along socio-economic status and ethnic origin. Six classes based on the forms of social capital were identified. Two of them - the 'Committed' and 'Religious' are highly political active. The 'Committed' Class, based on a diversified social capital, consists mainly of non-immigrant youth with a high socio-economic background undertaking a large diversity of political activities. The 'Religious' Class, based on a narrow social capital built around religious activities, is mostly composed of ethnic minority youth with a low SES involved in more specific political activities. PMID:23017928

  11. Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brian K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and adolescent social and psychological functioning in Palestinian families in Israel. Found that childhood "Intifada" experience predicted increased antisocial behavior for adolescent males and females and depression for females 1 to 2 years after the end of the…

  12. Energy Relations in Russia: Administration, Politics and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarychev, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    This chapter analyses energy relations through a prism of three interlinked concepts: administration, politics and security. This triad describes the basic approaches to questions about technical, politicised and securitised energy. These three concepts are logically linked to one another and represent an elementary matrix; a prism through which…

  13. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  14. Spatial relations for tactical robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skubic, Majorie A.; Chronis, George; Matsakis, Pascal; Keller, James M.

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of our on-going work using spatial relations for mobile robot navigation. Using the histogram of forces, we show how linguistic expressions can be generated to describe a qualitative view of the robot with respect to its environment. The linguistic expressions provide a symbolic link between the robot and a human user, thus facilitating two-way, human-like communication. In this paper, we present two ways in which spatial relations can be used for robot navigation. First, egocentric spatial relations provide a robot-centered view of the environment (e.g., there is an object on the left). Navigation can be described in terms of spatial relations (e.g., move forward while there is an object on the left, then turn right), such that a complete navigation task is generated as a sequence of navigation states with corresponding behaviors. Second, spatial relations can be used to analyze maps and facilitate their use in communicating navigation tasks. For example, the user can draw an approximate map on a PDA and then draw the desired robot trajectory also on the PDA, relative to the map. Spatial relations can then be used to convert the relative trajectory to a corresponding navigation behavior sequence. Examples are included using a comparable scene from both a robot environment and a PDA-sketched trajectory showing the corresponding generated linguistic spatial expressions.

  15. An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Brett L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

  16. Mismatch removal via coherent spatial relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ma, Jiayi; Yang, Changcai; Tian, Jinwen

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for removing mismatches from the given putative point correspondences in image pairs based on "coherent spatial relations." Under the Bayesian framework, we formulate our approach as a maximum likelihood problem and solve a coherent spatial relation between the putative point correspondences using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Our approach associates each point correspondence with a latent variable indicating it as being either an inlier or an outlier, and alternatively estimates the inlier set and recovers the coherent spatial relation. It can handle not only the case of image pairs with rigid motions but also the case of image pairs with nonrigid motions. To parameterize the coherent spatial relation, we choose two-view geometry and thin-plate spline as models for rigid and nonrigid cases, respectively. The mismatches could be successfully removed via the coherent spatial relations after the EM algorithm converges. The quantitative results on various experimental data demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art methods, it is not affected by low initial correct match percentages, and is robust to most geometric transformations including a large viewing angle, image rotation, and affine transformation.

  17. Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Nastasa, Viorel; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The dispersion relation is fundamental to a physical phenomenon that develops in both space and time. This equation connects the spatial and temporal frequencies involved in the dynamic process through the material constants. Electromagnetic plane waves propagating in homogeneous media are bound by simple dispersion relation, which sets the magnitude of the spatial frequency, k, as being proportional to the temporal frequency, ω, with the proportionality constant dependent on the refractive index, n, and the speed of light in vacuum, c. Here we show that, for spatially broadband fields, an analog dispersion relation can be derived, except in this case the k-vector variance is connected with the temporal frequency through the statistics of the refractive index fluctuations in the medium. We discuss how this relationship can be used to retrieve information about refractive index distributions in biological tissues. This result is particularly significant in measurements of angular light scattering and quantitative phase imaging of biological structures. PMID:27244396

  18. Spatial Relational Memory Requires Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, Muriel; Ichas, François; De Giorgi, Francesca; Costet, Pierre; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning. PMID:18509506

  19. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  20. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  1. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL... Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  2. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  3. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  4. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  5. Mapping Relational Structure in Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Merideth

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the similarity of relational structures influences the interpretation of spatial representations. Adults were shown diagrams of hand gestures paired with simple statements and asked to judge the meaning of new gestures. In Experiment 1 the gestures were paired with active declarative statements. In Experiment…

  6. Visual perception of spatial relations in depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumen, M. J. A.

    2006-09-01

    The visual perception of spatial relations of two objects was investigated in a series of experiments. We examined spatial and contextual parameters. The effect of spatial parameters was investigated with various two-dimensional tasks: an exocentric pointing task, a parallelity task and a collinearity task. Whereas spatial parameters like relative distance and visual angle influenced the settings of all observers in a similar way, there were differences between tasks in their dependence on different parameters. For example, whereas the settings of the other tasks were dependent on the relative distance the settings of the parallelity task were not. This can be explained by different task-demands that are specific for each of these tasks. In the exocentric pointing task an observer has to direct a pointer, with a remote control, towards a target. We expanded the exocentric pointing task to a three dimensional version in which the height was also varied. Therefore, we had two dependent variables: the deviations in the horizontal plane (slant) and in the vertical plane (tilt). With this extension of the task, we could conclude that visual space is anisotropic since in contrast to the slant the tilt was not dependent on the relative distance. Another three-dimensional task that has been used is the ball-in-plane task, a task in which the observer has to hang a ball in a plane defined by three other balls by adjusting it in height. We found settings that were best described as concave settings, which is in agreement with most conclusions of the work described above. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of context on the 3D exocentric pointing task. We tested whether the settings of the observer were dependent on an egocentric reference like frontoparallelity or an allocentric reference like parallelity to a wall. It turns out that people differ in the references they use to do the task. However, in another experiment, we concluded that a reference like one's own

  7. The Effects of Politeness-Related Instruction on Medical Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…

  8. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. PMID:25547207

  9. Does Family Experience Influence Political Beliefs? Relation between Interparental Conflict Perceptions and Political Efficacy in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serek, Jan; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relation between adolescents' interparental conflict perceptions and their political efficacy regarding local issues. Longitudinal data (age 15 and 17) from 444 adolescents were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that young people experiencing frequent interparental conflict reported an increase in…

  10. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  11. Obama cares about visuo-spatial attention: perception of political figures moves attention and determines gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Processing an abstract concept such as political ideology by itself is difficult but becomes easier when a background situation contextualizes it. Political ideology within American politics, for example, is commonly processed using space metaphorically, i.e., the political "left" and "right" (referring to Democrat and Republican views, respectively), presumably to provide a common metric to which abstract features of ideology can be grounded and understood. Commonplace use of space as metaphor raises the question of whether an inherently non-spatial stimulus (e.g., picture of the political "left" leader, Barack Obama) can trigger a spatially-specific response (e.g., attentional bias toward "left" regions of the visual field). Accordingly, pictures of well-known Democrats and Republicans were presented as central cues in peripheral target detection (Experiment 1) and saccadic free-choice (Experiment 2) tasks to determine whether perception of stimuli lacking a direct association with physical space nonetheless induce attentional and oculomotor biases in the direction compatible with the ideological category of the cue (i.e., Democrat/left and Republican/right). In Experiment 1, target detection following presentation of a Democrat (Republican) was facilitated for targets appearing to the left (right). In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to look left (right) following presentation of a Democrat (Republican). Thus, activating an internal representation of political ideology induced a shift of attention and biased choice of gaze direction in a spatially-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that the link between conceptual processing and spatial attention can be totally arbitrary, with no reference to physical or symbolic spatial information. PMID:25300469

  12. Political and Organizational Dynamics in Urban-State Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; Wagstaff, Lonnie H.

    This chapter notes organizational and political constraints that have prevented productive urban-State relationships and suggests policies and strategies for eliminating these constraints. The report posits an emerging role for State education agencies in establishing collaboration relationships with cities. The authors suggest that those…

  13. Group Threat and Policy Change: The Spatial Dynamics of Prohibition Politics, 1890-1919.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kenneth T; Seguin, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The authors argue that group threat is a key driver of the adoption of new and controversial policies. Conceptualizing threat in spatial terms, they argue that group threat is activated through the joint occurrence of (1) proximity to threatening groups and (2) the population density of threatened groups. By analyzing the adoption of county and state "dry laws" banning alcohol from 1890 to 1919, they first show that prohibition victories were driven by the relative strength of supportive constituencies such as native whites and rural residents, vis-à-vis opponents such as Irish, Italian, or German immigrants or Catholics. Second, they show that threat contributed to prohibition victories: counties bordering large immigrant or urban populations, which did not themselves contain similar populations, were more likely to adopt dry laws. Threat arises primarily from interactions between spatially proximate units at the local level, and therefore higher-level policy change is not reducible to the variables driving local policy. PMID:26594715

  14. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  15. The Cognitive Basis of Trust. The Relation between Education, Cognitive Ability, and Generalized and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Marien, Sofie; de Vroome, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established convincingly that there is a strong positive relation between educational attainment and trust. There is less agreement however, about the precise determinants of this relation. In this article, we assess how education is related to generalized and political trust, controlling for cognitive ability and…

  16. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  17. Newborns' Perception of Left-Right Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments examined 79 newborns' ability to discriminate and categorize a spatial relation, defined by the left-right spatial position of a blinking object-target with respect to a vertical landmark-bar. Three-day-old infants discriminated the up versus low position of an object located on the same side of the landmark-bar (Experiment 1) and…

  18. Relating Spatial Patterns in Image Data to Scene Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    In remote sensing, the primary goal is accurate scene inference, in which characteristics of the scene are inferred from the image data. More effective inference of scene characteristics can be accomplished through the use of techniques that use explicit models of spatial pattern. Spatial patterns in image data are functionally related to the size and spacing of elements in the scene and to the spatial resolution of the image data. At resolutions where variance is high, scene inference techniques should rely heavily on data from the spatial domain. As variance decreases, effective scene inference will increasingly rely on spectral data.

  19. Language, perception, and the schematic representation of spatial relations

    PubMed Central

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual representations on the other. In patients with either left hemisphere damage or right hemisphere damage, a battery of matching tasks depicting categorical spatial relations was used to probe for the comprehension of basic spatial concepts across distinct representational formats (words, pictures, and schemas). Left hemisphere patients underperformed right hemisphere patients across all tasks. However, focused residual analyses using VLSM (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping) suggest that (1) left hemisphere deficits in the representation of categorical spatial relations are difficult to distinguish from deficits in naming these relations and (2) the right hemisphere plays a special role in extracting schematic representations from richly textured pictures. PMID:22070948

  20. Language, perception, and the schematic representation of spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J; Kimberg, Daniel Y; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-03-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual representations on the other. In patients with either left hemisphere damage or right hemisphere damage, a battery of matching tasks depicting categorical spatial relations was used to probe for the comprehension of basic spatial concepts across distinct representational formats (words, pictures, and schemas). Left hemisphere patients underperformed right hemisphere patients across all tasks. However, focused residual analyses using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) suggest that (1) left hemisphere deficits in the representation of categorical spatial relations are difficult to distinguish from deficits in naming these relations and (2) the right hemisphere plays a special role in extracting schematic representations from richly textured pictures. PMID:22070948

  1. Nonprofit environmental organizations in world politics: Domestic structure and transnational relations

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Nonprofit environmental organizations often have global policy goals. Consequently, they pursue transnational objectives by pressuring influential governments and international institutions. The effectiveness of this strategy as applied to nation-states varies by domestic political structure. First, transnational actors are more likely to achieve their goals in society-dominated rather than they are in state-dominated countries because the former are more open to external inputs to the policy process and provide a greater number of access points. Second, ironically, transnational actors are more likely to achieve success in relatively centralized states if political access is attained. Decentralization invites a cacophony of voices in what may turn into a maelstrom of domestic politics. Relatively centralized corporatist states may prove accessible without the disadvantage of domestic turbulence.

  2. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  3. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates' issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information--a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought. PMID:23202775

  4. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  5. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  6. The Development of Categorical and Coordinate Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Jessue; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of spatial relations can be distinguished in between and within object representations. Kosslyn [Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). "Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach." "Psychological Review," 94, 148-175] suggested that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for processing coordinate (metric) spatial…

  7. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  8. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  9. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  10. Facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues: generality across spatial configurations.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kelly, Debbie M; Brown, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    Spatial pattern learning permits the learning of the location of objects in space relative to each other without reference to discrete visual landmarks or environmental geometry. In the present experiment, we investigated conditions that facilitate spatial pattern learning. Specifically, human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D computer-generated virtual environment open-field search task for four hidden goal locations arranged in a diamond configuration located in a 5 x 5 matrix of raised bins. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Pattern Only, Landmark + Pattern, or Cues + Pattern. All participants experienced a Training phase followed by a Testing phase. Visual cues were coincident with the goal locations during Training only in the Cues + Pattern group whereas a single visual cue at a non-goal location maintained a consistent spatial relationship with the goal locations during Training only in the Landmark + Pattern group. All groups were then tested in the absence of visual cues. Results in both environments indicated that participants in all three groups learned the spatial configuration of goal locations. The presence of the visual cues during Training facilitated acquisition of the task for the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups compared to the Pattern Only group. During Testing the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups did not differ when their respective visual cues were removed. Furthermore, during Testing the performance of these two groups was superior to the Pattern Only group. Results generalize prior research to a different configuration of spatial locations, isolate spatial pattern learning as the process facilitated by visual cues, and indicate that the facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues does not require coincident visual cues. PMID:19777275

  11. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  12. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  13. A step into the anarchist's mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N=12) and anarchists (N=11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  14. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  15. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  16. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations.

    PubMed

    Wako, Ryo; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  17. An Exploration of Upper-Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners' Perception of Politeness Strategies and Power Relation in Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. The study was an attempt to find out whether different power status of people influences the the choice of appropriate politeness strategies and speech act of disagreement by Iranian EFL learners, in a university setting. A Discourse…

  18. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  19. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  20. The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life. PMID:25705050

  1. Males outperform females in translating social relations into spatial positions.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F

    2010-12-01

    Research indicates that human males interact in groups, whereas females form one-on-one relationships. Whereas females excel in understanding intimate verbally-mediated social information, we hypothesized that males would be more sensitive to the spatial positions of friends within a group. In Study 1, we demonstrate that after a very brief exposure, compared to females, males more accurately recalled the spatial positions of individuals who were friendly with one another when their relative positions mirrored their friendship structures. In Study 2, we demonstrate that females were as accurate as males in reconstituting the positions of individuals who were not friends with one another. In Study 3, we demonstrate that the male advantage remains when indirect cues to positive group relations are used. These results support the idea that the group-based social structure of males renders them more sensitive than females to the use of relational information in reconstituting the short-term spatial locations of group members. PMID:20965501

  2. Spatially Locating Time-Lapsed Relative Velocity Changes in Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examine temporal subsurface relative velocity variations in Yellowstone. This project region has a much larger spatial scaling, as well as a much longer, less abrupt, temporal change than most of the other active settings in which ambient noise temporal velocity variations are measured. By examining the time lag of the ambient Noise Correlation Function (NCF) for a given station pair, we can extract relative velocity variations. These changes represent either subsurface velocity changes (in active settings) or changes due to the seasonal variation in the ambient seismic field. We improve the temporal and spectral stability of the NCFs through a new filter (the adaptive covariance filter - ACF), which allows us to evaluate the main Rayleigh wave arrival rather than coda. By making use of the main arrival the spatial location of these changes can be better understood. We examine all of the available data near the Yellowstone National Park area, including the USArray and the NOISY networks. Using the ACF, we calculate robust NCFs for all station pairs (overlapping in time). We then obtain time-lag estimates of the main arrival for various calendar times throughout the data availability. These lags are then compared to the lags observed at all other spatial station pairs. Using these many combinations of station pairs and lags, we build and perform an inversion, where these relative velocities are compared to a background velocity at subsequently different times. The spatial location of the velocity changes can be observed over time, and it can be ascertained as to whether these observed velocity variations are due to subsurface changes (such as the inflationary uplift from 2004-2010 in Yellowstone), or whether the observed changes are more indicative of the regional changes in the ambient seismic field.

  3. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  4. "After Hours" Schools as Core to the Spatial Politics of "In-Betweenness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Kostogriz, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In this article the authors draw on a larger study in which their overall concern is to illustrate how diasporic identifications develop through a range of scales related to self, family, community, nation and beyond. They consider the Melbourne Greek community as an exemplar of diasporic experience and use it as a case study for their…

  5. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  6. [Gender related strategies of visual-spatial task performance].

    PubMed

    Slavutskaia, A V; Gerasimenko, N Iu; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2012-11-01

    In 31 subjects (16 men and 15 women) in model of the gender differences the brain mechanisms of two different strategies of visual-spatial tasks performance were studied. Although we did not find gender differences in the performing of visual-construction task the pattern of evoked activity was unequal in men and women. In men the early answer of the parietal cortex was related with spatial transformation of figure: the more was rotation of figures details, the more was amplitude of P1 wave. Moreover the amplitude of P1 wave in parietal area decreased with incorrect answers. In opposite, in women we did not find any ERP changes reflecting the details rotation. At the same time, in women we observed the increase of N150 negativity in occipital and infero-temporal cortex area when figure ungrouped into separate details. Our results shed light on some additional information concerning the basis of gender differences in performing of visuo-spatial tasks. Our data show that different strategies are not only defined by the later, but also the early stages of visual processing. PMID:23431764

  7. Spatial distribution of Serengeti wildebeest in relation to resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmshurst, J.F.; Fryxell, J.M.; Farm, Brian P.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Henschel, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of radio-marked wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) in the Serengeti ecosystem in relation to the distribution of their food resources, comparing patterns in the wet and dry seasons and at local and landscape spatial scales. A mechanistic model of ruminant energy optimization predicted that wildebeest should maximize energy intake on swards 3 cm high and maintain energy balance on swards between 3 and 10 cm high. At the ecosystem scale, wildebeest preferred short and intermediate-height grass of moderate greenness during both the wet and dry seasons. This was consistent with the model prediction which suggests that large-scale movements by wildebeest are motivated, at least partially, by an energy-maximizing strategy. At the local scale, however, wildebeest showed spatial selectivity only on the basis of grass greenness, not on grass height. This differed from model expectations and may have resulted from wildebeest exploiting ephemeral green flushes of grass caused by localized rainfall in their movement radius. According to these results, the influence of other nutritional or behavioural factors on wildebeest distributions is not rejected, yet they suggest the potentially important role of an energy intake maximizing strategy on movement patterns. Our findings show that wildebeest movements are broadly similar to those of other large herbivores that migrate in response to resource gradients.

  8. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  9. Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation for Systems with Spatially Varying Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2014-09-01

    When a particle diffuses in a medium with spatially dependent friction coefficient at constant temperature , it drifts toward the low friction end of the system even in the absence of any real physical force . This phenomenon, which has been previously studied in the context of non-inertial Brownian dynamics, is termed "spurious drift", although the drift is real and stems from an inertial effect taking place at the short temporal scales. Here, we study the diffusion of particles in inhomogeneous media within the framework of the inertial Langevin equation. We demonstrate that the quantity which characterizes the dynamics with non-uniform is not the displacement of the particle (where is the initial position), but rather , where is the primitive function of . We derive expressions relating the mean and variance of to , , and the duration of the dynamics . For a constant friction coefficient , these expressions reduce to the well known forms of the force-drift and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We introduce a very accurate method for Langevin dynamics simulations in systems with spatially varying , and use the method to validate the newly derived expressions.

  10. Spatial relative risk patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for ASD, or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities (URADD). Each ASD case was gender-matched to 20 birth cohort controls. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children born inside versus outside ASD hotspots were compared. ASD hotspots were found in the surveillance area for all but one birth cohort and age group sample; maximum relative risk in these hotspots ranged from 1.8 to 3.0. Associations were found between higher socioeconomic status (SES) and birth residence in an ASD hotspot in five out of six birth cohort and age group samples. PMID:25241009

  11. [Veterinary medicine of the GDR in strained relations between technical instructions and political guidelines].

    PubMed

    Prange, H; Azar, J

    2003-01-01

    The development of Veterinary Medicine in the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is sketched in highlights. After the collectivization of agriculture (1960) a centralistically controlled national veterinary system was established. It was suited to the requirements of the industrially organized animal production. The successive classification of socialistic veterinary administration was associated with the following matters: the extension of veterinary subject matters, a vertical division of work with the aid of newly created technical veterinary professions, and a penetration of the profession with political guidelines. As the professional level of the veterinary system in the GDR was relatively high the reflection in retrospective needs to be evaluated in a differentiated way considering the textual and social conditions. In spite of centralism and indoctrination the veterinary system remained professionally autonomous with islands of political independence, which sustained the identity of this profession. The latter formed the base for self renewal of the East German veterinary system at the end of the socialistic area 1989/1990. PMID:12583345

  12. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control. PMID:26003448

  13. Spatially dependent relative diffusion of nanoparticles in polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Umi; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2013-08-01

    We formulate and apply a microscopic statistical-mechanical theory for the non-hydrodynamic relative diffusion coefficient of a pair of spherical nanoparticles in entangled polymer melts based on a combination of Brownian motion, mode-coupling, and polymer physics ideas. The focus is on the mesoscopic regime where particles are larger than the entanglement spacing. The dependence of the non-hydrodynamic friction on interparticle separation, degree of entanglement, and tube diameter is systematically studied. The overall magnitude of the relative diffusivity is controlled by the ratio of the particle to tube diameter and the number of entanglements in a manner reminiscent of single-particle self-diffusion and Stokes-Einstein violations. A rich spatial separation dependence of mobility enhancement relative to the hydrodynamic behavior is predicted even for very large particles, and the asymptotic dependence is derived analytically in the small and large separation limits. Particle separations in excess of 100 nm are sometimes required to recover the hydrodynamic limit. The effects of local polymer-particle packing correlations are found to be weak, and the non-hydrodynamic effects are also small for unentangled melts.

  14. Design and implementation of relational and spatial databases for petroleum-related information

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Wang, M.

    1987-01-01

    A relational database has been defined and implemented which describes the attributes and entities of engineering, geological, regulatory, economic, and historical data associated with the petroleum industry. This relational model allows the user to view this database of information from many different perspectives. An entity-relationship model was used to design the various relations of the database, and a data dictionary was developed to define the attributes of the database. Using the data model and data dictionary developed for the relational database, a spatial database was implemented which allows the user to graphically view the spatial relationships between various attributes of the database as well as additional information which may be computed from those attributes.

  15. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  16. Communicating Climate Uncertainties: Challenges and Opportunities Related to Spatial Scales, Extreme Events, and the Warming 'Hiatus'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casola, J. H.; Huber, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many media, academic, government, and advocacy organizations have achieved sophistication in developing effective messages based on scientific information, and can quickly translate salient aspects of emerging climate research and evolving observations. However, there are several ways in which valid messages can be misconstrued by decision makers, leading them to inaccurate conclusions about the risks associated with climate impacts. Three cases will be discussed: 1) Issues of spatial scale in interpreting climate observations: Local climate observations may contradict summary statements about the effects of climate change on larger regional or global spatial scales. Effectively addressing these differences often requires communicators to understand local and regional climate drivers, and the distinction between a 'signal' associated with climate change and local climate 'noise.' Hydrological statistics in Missouri and California are shown to illustrate this case. 2) Issues of complexity related to extreme events: Climate change is typically invoked following a wide range of damaging meteorological events (e.g., heat waves, landfalling hurricanes, tornadoes), regardless of the strength of the relationship between anthropogenic climate change and the frequency or severity of that type of event. Examples are drawn from media coverage of several recent events, contrasting useful and potentially confusing word choices and frames. 3) Issues revolving around climate sensitivity: The so-called 'pause' or 'hiatus' in global warming has reverberated strongly through political and business discussions of climate change. Addressing the recent slowdown in warming yields an important opportunity to raise climate literacy in these communities. Attempts to use recent observations as a wedge between climate 'believers' and 'deniers' is likely to be counterproductive. Examples are drawn from Congressional testimony and media stories. All three cases illustrate ways that decision

  17. Relating mesocarnivore relative abundance to anthropogenic land-use with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; Walleser, Liza R.; Hertel, Dan R.; McKann, Patrick C.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing need to develop models of spatial patterns in animal abundance, yet comparatively few examples of such models exist. This is especially true in situations where the abundance of one species may inhibit that of another, such as the intensively-farmed landscape of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the central United States, where waterfowl production is largely constrained by mesocarnivore nest predation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to relate the distribution of various land-cover types to the relative abundances of four mesocarnivores in the PPR: coyote Canis latrans, raccoon Procyon lotor, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. We developed models for each species at multiple spatial resolutions (41.4 km2, 10.4 km2, and 2.6 km2) to address different ecological and management-related questions. Model results for each species were similar irrespective of resolution. We found that the amount of row-crop agriculture was nearly ubiquitous in our best models, exhibiting a positive relationship with relative abundance for each species. The amount of native grassland land-cover was positively associated with coyote and raccoon relative abundance, but generally absent from models for red fox and skunk. Red fox and skunk were positively associated with each other, suggesting potential niche overlap. We found no evidence that coyote abundance limited that of other mesocarnivore species, as might be expected under a hypothesis of mesopredator release. The relationships between relative abundance and land-cover types were similar across spatial resolutions. Our results indicated that mesocarnivores in the PPR are most likely to occur in portions of the landscape with large amounts of agricultural land-cover. Further, our results indicated that track-survey data can be used in a hierarchical framework to gain inferences regarding spatial patterns in animal relative abundance.

  18. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  19. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  20. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa. PMID:27001141

  1. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  2. Neuroelectrical Correlates of Trustworthiness and Dominance Judgments Related to the Observation of Political Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Astolfi, Laura; Mattia, Donatella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces. PMID:25214884

  3. An Investigation of Iranian EFL Learners' Use of Politeness Strategies and Power Relations in Disagreement across Different Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnam, Biook; Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The speech act of disagreement has been one of the speech acts that receives the least attention in the field of pragmatics. This study investigates the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. In order to determine whether and to what extent the realization of the speech act of disagreeing and the of appropriate…

  4. 18 CFR 367.4264 - Account 426.4, Expenditures for certain civic, political and related activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Expenditures for certain civic, political and related activities. 367.4264 Section 367.4264 Conservation of... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  5. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  6. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  7. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  8. 78 FR 71535 - Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations on Candidate-Related Political Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... further provide that `` he promotion of social welfare does not include direct or indirect participation... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL81 Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations... to tax-exempt social welfare organizations on political activities related to candidates that...

  9. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  10. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  11. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  12. Haptic object perception: spatial dimensionality and relation to vision

    PubMed Central

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Lederman, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Enabled by the remarkable dexterity of the human hand, specialized haptic exploration is a hallmark of object perception by touch. Haptic exploration normally takes place in a spatial world that is three-dimensional; nevertheless, stimuli of reduced spatial dimensionality are also used to display spatial information. This paper examines the consequences of full (three-dimensional) versus reduced (two-dimensional) spatial dimensionality for object processing by touch, particularly in comparison with vision. We begin with perceptual recognition of common human-made artefacts, then extend our discussion of spatial dimensionality in touch and vision to include faces, drawing from research on haptic recognition of facial identity and emotional expressions. Faces have often been characterized as constituting a specialized input for human perception. We find that contrary to vision, haptic processing of common objects is impaired by reduced spatial dimensionality, whereas haptic face processing is not. We interpret these results in terms of fundamental differences in object perception across the modalities, particularly the special role of manual exploration in extracting a three-dimensional structure. PMID:21969691

  13. Exploring the Effects of Similarity on Mapping Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Bowers, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Solving a map task requires transferring information acquired in one spatial context to another context, an ability that marks an important step in cognitive development. This study investigated how preschoolers' mapping performance was affected by the extent of similarity between spaces. Whereas prior work examined effects of similarity in tasks…

  14. Power Versus Affiliation in Political Ideology: Robust Linguistic Evidence for Distinct Motivation-Related Signatures.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Posited motivational differences between liberals and conservatives have historically been controversial. This motivational interface has recently been bridged, but the vast majority of studies have used self-reports of values or motivation. Instead, the present four studies investigated whether two classic social motive themes--power and affiliation--vary by political ideology in objective linguistic analysis terms. Study 1 found that posts to liberal chat rooms scored higher in standardized affiliation than power, whereas the reverse was true of posts to conservative chat rooms. Study 2 replicated this pattern in the context of materials posted to liberal versus conservative political news websites. Studies 3 and 4, finally, replicated a similar interactive (ideology by motive type) pattern in State of the State and State of the Union addresses. Differences in political ideology, these results suggest, are marked by, and likely reflective of, mind-sets favoring affiliation (liberal) or power (conservative). PMID:26101445

  15. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…

  16. Spatial variation in gender-biased parasitism: host-related, parasite-related and environment-related effects.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Matthee, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    The gender-biased pattern of parasite infestation has been shown to be a complicated phenomenon that cannot be explained by a single mechanism but rather involves several different mechanisms. We asked what are the factors that affect the manifestation and extent of gender-biased parasitism and studied the relationship between parasite-related (mean abundance, mean species richness and total species richness of all parasites), host-related (rodent density and proportion of reproductive males and females both separately and together) and environment-related (mean daily maximal and minimal temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity) factors and the magnitude of gender-biased infestation of a South African rodent Rhabdomys pumilio by ixodid ticks, gamasid mites, lice and fleas. We found that spatial variation in gender differences in parasite infestation was affected by parasite-, host- and environment-related factors, although the set of factors affecting gender differences in infestation differed among higher taxa of ectoparasites. Gender differences in infestation by fleas and lice were affected mainly by parasite-related factors, whereas gender differences in infestation by ticks and, in part, by mites were affected mainly by host-related and environmental factors. In addition, spatial variation in most measures of gender difference in mite infestation remained unexplained. PMID:20550754

  17. Does Changing the Reference Frame Affect Infant Categorization of the Spatial Relation BETWEEN?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that variation in the target objects depicting a given spatial relation disrupts the formation of a category representation for that relation. In the current research, we asked whether changing the orientation of the referent frame depicting the spatial relation would also disrupt the formation of a category representation…

  18. Age-related effects on spatial memory across viewpoint changes relative to different reference frames.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Sulpizio, Valentina; Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia

    2015-07-01

    Remembering object positions across different views is a fundamental competence for acting and moving appropriately in a large-scale space. Behavioural and neurological changes in elderly subjects suggest that the spatial representations of the environment might decline compared to young participants. However, no data are available on the use of different reference frames within topographical space in aging. Here we investigated the use of allocentric and egocentric frames in aging, by asking young and older participants to encode the location of a target in a virtual room relative either to stable features of the room (allocentric environment-based frame), or to an unstable objects set (allocentric objects-based frame), or to the viewer's viewpoint (egocentric frame). After a viewpoint change of 0° (absent), 45° (small) or 135° (large), participants judged whether the target was in the same spatial position as before relative to one of the three frames. Results revealed a different susceptibility to viewpoint changes in older than young participants. Importantly, we detected a worst performance, in terms of reaction times, for older than young participants in the allocentric frames. The deficit was more marked for the environment-based frame, for which a lower sensitivity was revealed as well as a worst performance even when no viewpoint change occurred. Our data provide new evidence of a greater vulnerability of the allocentric, in particular environment-based, spatial coding with aging, in line with the retrogenesis theory according to which cognitive changes in aging reverse the sequence of acquisition in mental development. PMID:25037856

  19. Mestiza Consciousness in Relation to Sustained Political Solidarity: A Chicana Feminist Interpretation of the Farmworker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barvosa, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most significant themes in Chicana feminist thought are the character of mestiza consciousness and the view that political solidarity--that is, the uniting of diverse people in common cause--should build upon diversity among peoples rather than on a single shared identity. Numerous Chicana and Latina feminists have connected these two…

  20. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  1. Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers' spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills.

    PubMed

    Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S; Filipowicz, Andrew T; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematical performance. Finally, the relation between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower SES children were already lagging behind higher SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  2. One Hidden Object, Two Spatial Codes: Young Children's Use of Relational and Vector Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Sandstrom, Lisa B.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2006-01-01

    An important characteristic of mature spatial cognition is the ability to encode spatial locations in terms of relations among landmarks as well as in terms of vectors that include distance and direction. In this study, we examined children's use of the relation "middle" to code the location of a hidden toy, using a procedure adapted from prior…

  3. On the identification and establishment of topological spatial relations by autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel-Tomé, Sergio; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Human beings use spatial relations to describe many daily tasks in their language. For a mobile robot to be useful in daily life, it is necessary to have navigation algorithms capable of identifying and establishing spatial relations. To date in robotics, the navigation problem has been thoroughly researched as a task of guiding a robot from one spatial coordinate to another. Therefore, there is a difference in degree of abstraction between the language of human beings and the algorithms used in robot navigation. This article introduces a piece of research performed on the use of topological relations for the formalisation of spatial relations and navigation. So far, topological relations have been applied widely in geographical information systems and also in spatial logics. There are some proposals in robot navigation which use them for planning but there is no research about making decision in robot navigation. Our research focuses on decision-making methods to establish spatial relations. The main result is a new heuristic, called the Heuristic of Topological Qualitative Semantics (HTQS), which allows the identification and establishment of spatial relations decision-making from a set of actions. To demonstrate its effectiveness, HTQS has been implemented in the form of agents that can move in a two-dimensional virtual environment. HTQS opens a new door to designing algorithms for navigation based on the identification and establishment of spatial relations.

  4. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  5. Six-Month-Old Infants' Categorization of Containment Spatial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasola, Marianella; Cohen, Leslie B.; Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined six-month-olds' ability to form an abstract containment category. Results indicated that, after habituation to object pairs in a containment relation, infants looked reliably longer at an example of an unfamiliar versus familiar containment relation, indicating that they could form a categorical representation of…

  6. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  7. Mark Correlations: Relating Physical Properties to Spatial Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisbart, Claus; Kerscher, Martin; Mecke, Klaus

    Mark correlations provide a systematic approach to look at objects both distributed in space and bearing intrinsic information, for instance on physical properties. The interplay of the objects' properties (marks) with the spatial clustering is of vivid interest for many applications; are, e.g., galaxies with high luminosities more strongly clustered than dim ones? Do neighbored pores in a sandstone have similar sizes? How does the shape of impact craters on a planet dependon the geological surface properties? In this article, we give an introduction into the appropriate mathematical framework to deal with such questions, i.e. the theory of marked point processes. After having clarified the notion of segregation effects, we define universal test quantities applicable to realizations of a marked point processes. We show their power using concrete data sets in analyzing the luminosity-dependence of the galaxy clustering, the alignment of dark matter halos in gravitational N-body simulations, the morphology- and diameter-dependence of the Martian crater distribution and the size correlations of pores in sandstone. In order to understand our data in more detail, we discuss the Boolean depletion model, the random field model and the Cox random field model. The first model describes depletion effects in the distribution of Martian craters and pores in sandstone, whereas the last one accounts at least qualitatively for the observed luminosity-dependence of the galaxy clustering.

  8. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  9. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  10. Naming and gesturing spatial relations: Evidence from focal brain-injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Spatial language helps us encode relations between objects and organize our thinking. Little is known about the neural instantiations of spatial language. Using voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain injured patients who had damage to left frontal-parietal peri-Sylvian regions would have difficulty in naming spatial relations between objects. We also investigated the relationship between impaired verbalization of spatial relations and spontaneous gesture production. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage and elderly control participants were asked to name static (e.g., an apple on a book) and dynamic (e.g., a pen moves over a box) locative relations depicted in brief video clips. The correct use of prepositions in each task and gestures that represent the spatial relations were coded. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left anterior superior temporal gyrus were related to impairment in naming spatial relations. Production of spatial gestures negatively correlated with naming accuracy, suggesting that gestures might help or compensate for difficulty with lexical access. Additional analyses suggested that left hemisphere patients who had damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gestured less than expected, if gestures are used to compensate for impairments in retrieving prepositions. PMID:23685196

  11. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children's Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children's motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds' spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children's understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children's balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  12. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  13. What Space Makes of Us: Thirdspace, Identity Politics, and Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rick

    Space is related to power in that it is critical to the social production and reproduction of difference. This paper re-imagines a critical multiculturalism that embraces critical spatial theory and postmodern identity politics. In an overview of postmodern spatial theory, the works of Lefebvre (1974), E. Soja (1989, 1996), and M. Foucault (1986)…

  14. The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

    2012-09-01

    Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PMID:22390659

  15. Exploration as a mediator of the relation between the attainment of motor milestones and the development of spatial cognition and spatial language.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P M; Volman, M Chiel J M

    2015-09-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and language at later ages. However, evidence linking these milestones with the development of spatial language and evidence regarding factors that might mediate this relation are scarce. The current study examined whether exploration of spatial-relational object properties (e.g., the possibility of containing or stacking) and exploration of the space through self-locomotion mediate the effect of, respectively, age of sitting and age of walking on spatial cognition and spatial language. Thus, we hypothesized that an earlier age of sitting and walking predicts, respectively, higher levels of spatial-relational object exploration and exploration through self-locomotion, which in turn, predict better spatial cognition and spatial language at later ages. Fifty-nine Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. A combination of tests, observations, and parental reports was used to measure motor development, exploratory behavior (age 20 months), spatial memory (age 24 months), spatial processing (age 32 months), and spatial language (age 36 months). Results show that attainment of sitting predicted spatial memory and spatial language, but spatial-relational object exploration did not mediate these effects. Attainment of independent walking predicted spatial processing and spatial language, and exploration through self-locomotion (partially) mediated these relations. These findings extend previous work and provide partial support for the hypotheses about the mediating role of exploration. PMID:26192037

  16. Spatial working memory deficits in schizophrenia patients and their first degree relatives from Palau, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Myles-Worsley, Marina; Park, Sohee

    2002-08-01

    Spatial working memory deficits associated with dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction have been found in Caucasian samples of schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. This study evaluated spatial working memory function in affected and unaffected members of multiplex schizophrenia families from the Republic of Palau to determine whether the spatial working memory deficits associated with schizophrenia extend to this non-Caucasian population. Palau is an isolated island nation in Micronesia with an elevated prevalence of schizophrenia and an aggregation of cases in large multigenerational families. Our objective was to evaluate the potential for spatial working memory function to serve as one of multiple endophenotypes in a genetic linkage study of these Palauan schizophrenia families. A spatial delayed response task requiring resistance to distraction and a sensorimotor control task were used to assess spatial working memory in 32 schizophrenia patients, 28 of their healthy first-degree relatives, and 19 normal control subjects. Schizophrenia patients and their relatives were significantly less accurate than normal control subjects on the spatial delayed response task but not on the sensorimotor control task. On both tasks, patients and relatives were slower to respond than the normal controls. There were no age or gender effects on accuracy, and working memory performance in schizophrenia patients was not significantly correlated with medication dosage. In summary, spatial working memory deficits that have been found in Caucasian schizophrenia patients and relatives were confirmed in this isolated Pacific Island family sample. These results suggest that spatial working memory deficits may be a potentially useful addition to the endophenotypic characterization of family members to be used in a comprehensive genome wide linkage analysis of these Palauan families. PMID:12210274

  17. Automatic Extraction and Post-coordination of Spatial Relations in Consumer Language

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate ontological concepts in natural language processing (NLP) it is often necessary to combine simple concepts into complex concepts (post-coordination). This is especially true in consumer language, where a more limited vocabulary forces consumers to utilize highly productive language that is almost impossible to pre-coordinate in an ontology. Our work focuses on recognizing an important case for post-coordination in natural language: spatial relations between disorders and anatomical structures. Consumers typically utilize such spatial relations when describing symptoms. We describe an annotated corpus of 2,000 sentences with 1,300 spatial relations, and a second corpus of 500 of these relations manually normalized to UMLS concepts. We use machine learning techniques to recognize these relations, obtaining good performance. Further, we experiment with methods to normalize the relations to an existing ontology. This two-step process is analogous to the combination of concept recognition and normalization, and achieves comparable results. PMID:26958247

  18. Spatial Variances of Wind Fields and Their Relation to Second-Order Structure Functions and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. P.; Vogelzang, J.; Stoffelen, A.; Portabella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic energy variance as a function of spatial scale for wind fields is commonly estimated either using second-order structure functions (in the spatial domain) or by spectral analysis (in the frequency domain). It will be demonstrated that neither spectra nor second-order structure functions offer a good representation of the variance as a function of scale. These difficulties can be circumvented by using a statistical quantity called spatial variance. It combines the advantages of spectral analysis and spatial statistics. In particular, when applied to observations, spatial variances have a clear interpretation and are tolerant for missing data. They can be related to second-order structure functions, both for discrete and continuous data. For data sets without missing points the relation is statistically exact. Spatial variances can also be Fourier transformed to yield a relation with spectra. The flexibility of spatial variances is used to study various sampling strategies, and to compare them with second-order structure functions and spectral variances. It is shown that the spectral sampling strategy is not seriously biased to calm conditions for scatterometer ocean surface vector winds, and that one-fifth of the second-order structure function value is a good proxy for the cumulative variance.

  19. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  20. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  1. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  2. Spatial ability, motivation, and attitude of students as related to science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Judy Ann

    Understanding student achievement in science is important as there is an increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on math-, science-, and technology-related fields despite the declining number of youth seeking college degrees and careers in math and science. A series of structural equation models were tested using the scores from a statewide science exam for 276 students from a suburban north Texas public school district at the end of their 5th grade year and the latent variables of spatial ability, motivation to learn science and science-related attitude. Spatial ability was tested as a mediating variable on motivation and attitude; however, while spatial ability had statistically significant regression coefficients with motivation and attitude, spatial ability was found to be the sole statistically significant predictor of science achievement for these students explaining 23.1% of the variance in science scores.

  3. Children's Reasoning about Spatial Relational Similarity: The Effect of Alignment and Relational Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…

  4. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  5. Asymmetric Coding of Categorical Spatial Relations in Both Language and Vision

    PubMed Central

    Roth, J. C.; Franconeri, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Describing certain types of spatial relationships between a pair of objects requires that the objects are assigned different “roles” in the relation, e.g., “A is above B” is different than “B is above A.” This asymmetric representation places one object in the “target” or “figure” role and the other in the “reference” or “ground” role. Here we provide evidence that this asymmetry may be present not just in spatial language, but also in perceptual representations. More specifically, we describe a model of visual spatial relationship judgment where the designation of the target object within such a spatial relationship is guided by the location of the “spotlight” of attention. To demonstrate the existence of this perceptual asymmetry, we cued attention to one object within a pair by briefly previewing it, and showed that participants were faster to verify the depicted relation when that object was the linguistic target. Experiment 1 demonstrated this effect for left-right relations, and Experiment 2 for above-below relations. These results join several other types of demonstrations in suggesting that perceptual representations of some spatial relations may be asymmetrically coded, and further suggest that the location of selective attention may serve as the mechanism that guides this asymmetry. PMID:23181036

  6. Between Political History and Historical Politics: Fundamental Forms of Historical and Political Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Politics without history has no roots; history without politics bears no fruits. If one inquires into the content of the relation between politics and history, then one discovers it is defined by symbiotic dependence. Those who are trained in history also take into account the political dimensions of history, and those educated in political…

  7. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement. PMID:26436587

  8. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas. PMID:26080648

  9. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  10. Quantitative analysis of properties and spatial relations of fuzzy image regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.; Ma, Yibing

    1992-01-01

    Properties of objects and spatial relations between objects play an important role in rule-based approaches for high-level vision. The partial presence or absence of such properties and relationships can supply both positive and negative evidence for region labeling hypotheses. Similarly, fuzzy labeling of a region can generate new hypotheses pertaining to the properties of the region, its relation to the neighboring regions, and finally, the labels of the neighboring regions. In this paper, we present a unified methodology to characterize properties and spatial relationships of object regions in a digital image. The proposed methods can be used to arrive at more meaningful decisions about the contents of the scene.

  11. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference

  12. The Politics of Drug Trafficking in Mexican and Mexico-Related Narconovelas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaversich, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This essay traces the emergence of the Mexican and Mexico-related narconovela. It examines perspectives on drug trafficking and traffickers expressed in novels by Elmer Mendoza, Leonides Alfaro, Gerardo Cornejo, Homero Aridjis, Arturo Perez-Reverte, and Paul Flores. The variety of positions taken refutes the tendency of the Mexican mainstream…

  13. Fast similarity search for protein 3D structures using topological pattern matching based on spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hee; Ryu, Keun Ho; Gilbert, David

    2005-08-01

    Similarity search for protein 3D structures become complex and computationally expensive due to the fact that the size of protein structure databases continues to grow tremendously. Recently, fast structural similarity search systems have been required to put them into practical use in protein structure classification whilst existing comparison systems do not provide comparison results on time. Our approach uses multi-step processing that composes of a preprocessing step to represent geometry of protein structures with spatial objects, a filter step to generate a small candidate set using approximate topological string matching, and a refinement step to compute a structural alignment. This paper describes the preprocessing and filtering for fast similarity search using the discovery of topological patterns of secondary structure elements based on spatial relations. Our system is fully implemented by using Oracle 8i spatial. We have previously shown that our approach has the advantage of speed of performance compared with other approach such as DALI. This work shows that the discovery of topological relations of secondary structure elements in protein structures by using spatial relations of spatial databases is practical for fast structural similarity search for proteins. PMID:16187404

  14. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (FST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent. PMID:25628865

  15. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  16. Spatial smoothing systematically biases the localization of reward-related brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Sacchet, Matthew D.; Knutson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging methods with enhanced spatial resolution such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) suggest that the subcortical striatum plays a critical role in human reward processing. Analysis of FMRI data requires several preprocessing steps, some of which entail tradeoffs. For instance, while spatial smoothing can enhance statistical power, it may also bias localization towards regions that contain more gray than white matter. In a meta-analysis and reanalysis of an existing dataset, we sought to determine whether spatial smoothing could systematically bias the spatial localization of foci related to reward anticipation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). An Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) meta-analysis revealed that peak ventral striatal ALE foci for studies that used smaller spatial smoothing kernels (i.e. < 6 mm FWHM) were more anterior than those identified for studies that used larger kernels (i.e. > 7 mm FWHM). Additionally, subtraction analysis of findings for studies that used smaller versus larger smoothing kernels revealed a significant cluster of differential activity in the left relatively anterior NAcc (Talairach coordinates: −10, 9, −1). A second meta-analysis revealed that larger smoothing kernels were correlated with more posterior localizations of NAcc activation foci (p < 0.015), but revealed no significant associations with other potentially relevant parameters (including voxel volume, magnet strength, and publication date). Finally, repeated analysis of a representative dataset processed at different smoothing kernels (i.e., 0–12 mm) also indicated that smoothing systematically yielded more posterior activation foci in the NAcc (p < 0.005). Taken together, these findings indicate that spatial smoothing can systematically bias the spatial localization of striatal activity. These findings have implications both for historical interpretation of past findings related to reward processing and for the analysis of future studies

  17. Language supports young children's use of spatial relations to remember locations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary E; Patterson, Rebecca; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of language in children's spatial recall performance. In particular, we assessed whether selecting an intrinsic reference frame could be improved through verbal encoding. Selecting an intrinsic reference frame requires remembering locations relative to nearby objects independent of one's body (egocentric) or distal environmental (allocentric) cues, and does not reliably occur in children under 5 years of age (Nardini, Burgess, Breckenridge, & Atkinson, 2006). The current studies tested the relation between spatial language and 4-year-olds' selection of an intrinsic reference frame in spatial recall. Experiment 1 showed that providing 4-year-olds with location-descriptive cues during (Exp. 1a) or before (Exp. 1b) the recall task improved performance both overall and specifically on trials relying most on an intrinsic reference frame. Additionally, children's recall performance was predicted by their verbal descriptions of the task space (Exp. 1a control condition). Non-verbally highlighting relations among objects during the recall task (Exp. 2) supported children's performance relative to the control condition, but significantly less than the location-descriptive cues. These results suggest that the ability to verbally represent relations is a potential mechanism that could account for developmental changes in the selection of an intrinsic reference frame during spatial recall. PMID:26896902

  18. Description of brain internal structures by means of spatial relations for MR image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliot, Olivier; Camara, Oscar; Dewynter, Remi; Bloch, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a method for segmenting internal brain structures in MR images. It introduces prior information in an original way through descriptions of the spatial arrangement of structures by means of spatial relations, which are represented in the fuzzy set framework. The method is hierarchical as the segmentation of a given structure is based on the previously segmented ones. The processing of each structure is decomposed into two stages: an initialization stage which makes extensive use of prior knowledge and a refinement stage using a 3D deformable model. The deformable model is guided by an external force representing the combination of a classical data term derived from an edge map and a force corresponding to a given spatial relation. We propose different ways to compute a force from a fuzzy set representing a relation or a combination of relations. Results obtained for the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the caudate nuclei and the thalami are promising. The proposed combination of spatial relations and deformable models has proved to be very useful to segment parts of the structures were no visible edges are present, improving the segmentation accuracy.

  19. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. PMID:25449841

  20. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents’ positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents’ overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed. PMID:26457005

  1. Retinotopic mapping of categorical and coordinate spatial relation processing in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Ineke J M; Duijndam, Maarten J A; Raemaekers, Mathijs; van Wezel, Richard J A; Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Spatial relations are commonly divided in two global classes. Categorical relations concern abstract relations which define areas of spatial equivalence, whereas coordinate relations are metric and concern exact distances. Categorical and coordinate relation processing are thought to rely on at least partially separate neurocognitive mechanisms, as reflected by differential lateralization patterns, in particular in the parietal cortex. In this study we address this textbook principle from a new angle. We studied retinotopic activation in early visual cortex, as a reflection of attentional distribution, in a spatial working memory task with either a categorical or a coordinate instruction. Participants were asked to memorize a dot position, with regard to a central cross, and to indicate whether a subsequent dot position matched the first dot position, either categorically (opposite quadrant of the cross) or coordinately (same distance to the centre of the cross). BOLD responses across the retinotopic maps of V1, V2, and V3 indicate that the spatial distribution of cortical activity was different for categorical and coordinate instructions throughout the retention interval; a more local focus was found during categorical processing, whereas focus was more global for coordinate processing. This effect was strongest for V3, approached significance in V2 and was absent in V1. Furthermore, during stimulus presentation the two instructions led to different levels of activation in V3 during stimulus encoding; a stronger increase in activity was found for categorical processing. Together this is the first demonstration that instructions for specific types of spatial relations may yield distinct attentional patterns which are already reflected in activity early in the visual cortex. PMID:22723872

  2. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  3. Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

  4. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  5. Spatializing Marxist Educational Theory: School, the Built Environment, Fixed Capital and (Relational) Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, educational theory has begun to incorporate analyses of space where formerly temporal considerations dominated. In this article, Marxist educational theory is spatialized by considering the school as (1) a form of fixed capital, (2) a crucial aspect of the built environment and (3) a relational space. The author begins…

  6. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  7. Sex Differences in the Relation between Math Performance, Spatial Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…

  8. Exploring the relation between spatial configuration of buildings and remotely sensed temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, S. W.; Zheng, B.; Kaplan, S.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    While the relationship between fractional cover of buildings and the UHI has been well studied, relationships of how spatial arrangements (e.g., clustered, dispersed) of buildings influence urban warming are not well understood. Since a diversity of spatial patterns can be observed under the same percentage of buildings cover, it is of great interest and importance to investigate the amount of variation in certain urban thermal feature such as surface temperature that is accounted for by the inclusion of spatial arrangement component. The various spatial arrangements of buildings cover can give rise to different urban thermal behaviors that may not be uncovered with the information of buildings fraction only, but can be captured to some extent using spatial analysis. The goal of this study is to examine how spatial arrangements of buildings influence and shape surface temperature in different urban settings. The study area selected is the Las-Vegas metropolitan area in Nevada, located in the Mojave Desert. An object-oriented approach was used to identify buildings using a Geoeye-1 image acquired on October 12, 2011. A spatial autocorrelation technique (i.e., Moran's I) that can measure spatial pattern (clustered, dispersed) was used to determine spatial configuration of buildings. A daytime temperature layer in degree Celsius, generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image, was integrated with Moran's I values of building cover and building fractions to achieve the goals set in the study. To avoid uncertainty and properly evaluate if spatial pattern of buildings has an impact on urban warming, the relation between Moran's I values and surface temperatures was observed at different levels according to their fractions (e.g., 0-0.1, 0.5-0.6, 0.9-1). There is a negative correlation exists between spatial pattern of buildings and surface temperatures implying that dispersed building arrangements elevate surface temperatures

  9. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts. PMID:19624702

  10. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  11. Where music meets space: Children's sensitivity to pitch intervals is related to their mental spatial transformation skills.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Wenke; Ramsook, Kizzann Ashana; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Golinkoff, Roberta M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2016-06-01

    Relations have been found among various continuous dimensions, including space and musical pitch. To probe the nature and development of space-pitch mappings, we tested 5- to 7-year-olds and adults (N=69), who heard pitch intervals and were asked to choose the corresponding spatial representation. Results showed that children and adults both mapped pitches continuously onto space, although effects were stronger in older than younger children. Additionally, children's spatial and numerical skills were tested, showing a relation between children's spatial and pitch-matching skills, and between their spatial and numerical skills. However, pitch and number were not related, suggesting spatial underpinnings for pitch and number. PMID:26922894

  12. Spatial Relationships of Auroral Particle Acceleration Relative to High Latitude Plasma Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    This final report describes the activities under NASA contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. It covers the period from 10-1-94 to 12-31-97. The objective of this investigation is to identify and characterize the spatial relationships of auroral particle acceleration features relative to the characteristic transition features in the surrounding polar ionospheric plasmas. Due to the reduced funding level approved for this contract, the original scope of the proposed work was readjusted with the focus placed on examining spatial relationships with respect to particle structures.

  13. Spatial Partitioning of miRNAs Is Related to Sequence Similarity in Overall Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Seffens, William; Abebe, Fisseha; Evans, Chad; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    RNAs have been shown to exhibit differential enrichment between nuclear, cytoplasmic, and exosome fractions. A current fundamental question asks why non-coding RNA partition into different spatial compartments. We report on the analysis of cellular compartment models with miRNA data sources for spatial-mechanistic modeling to address the broad area of multi-scalar cellular communication by miRNAs. We show that spatial partitioning of miRNAs is related to sequence similarity to the overall transcriptome. This has broad implications in biological informatics for gene regulation and provides a deeper understanding of nucleotide sequence structure and RNA language meaning for human pathologies resulting from changes in gene expression. PMID:27338352

  14. Spatial Partitioning of miRNAs Is Related to Sequence Similarity in Overall Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Seffens, William; Abebe, Fisseha; Evans, Chad; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    RNAs have been shown to exhibit differential enrichment between nuclear, cytoplasmic, and exosome fractions. A current fundamental question asks why non-coding RNA partition into different spatial compartments. We report on the analysis of cellular compartment models with miRNA data sources for spatial-mechanistic modeling to address the broad area of multi-scalar cellular communication by miRNAs. We show that spatial partitioning of miRNAs is related to sequence similarity to the overall transcriptome. This has broad implications in biological informatics for gene regulation and provides a deeper understanding of nucleotide sequence structure and RNA language meaning for human pathologies resulting from changes in gene expression. PMID:27338352

  15. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  16. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 h, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic-related

  17. Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days. PMID:17406317

  18. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2015-05-01

    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  19. Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) was applied to the relation between cervical cancer disease incidence rates in England and socio-economic deprivation, social status and family structure covariates. Local parameters were estimated which describe the spatial variation in the relations between incidence and socio-economic covariates. Results A global (stationary) regression model revealed a significant correlation between cervical cancer incidence rates and social status. However, a local (non-stationary) GWPR model provided a better fit with less spatial correlation (positive autocorrelation) in the residuals. Moreover, the GWPR model was able to represent local variation in the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates across space, whereas the global model represented only the overall (or average) relation for the whole of England. The global model could lead to misinterpretation of the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates locally. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence was shown to have a non-stationary relationship with spatially varying covariates that are available through national datasets. As a result, it was shown that if low social status sectors of the population are to be targeted preferentially, this targeting should be done on a region-by-region basis such as to optimize health outcomes. While such a strategy may be difficult to implement in practice, the research does highlight the inequalities inherent in a uniform intervention approach. PMID:21943079

  20. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake": Japanese Americans and the…

  1. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  2. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  3. ICTs and Political Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  4. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  5. Relative contributions of visual and auditory spatial representations to tactile localization.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Spatial localization of touch is critically dependent upon coordinate transformation between different reference frames, which must ultimately allow for alignment between somatotopic and external representations of space. Although prior work has shown an important role for cues such as body posture in influencing the spatial localization of touch, the relative contributions of the different sensory systems to this process are unknown. In the current study, we had participants perform a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) under different body postures and conditions of sensory deprivation. Specifically, participants performed non-speeded judgments about the order of two tactile stimuli presented in rapid succession on their ankles during conditions in which their legs were either uncrossed or crossed (and thus bringing somatotopic and external reference frames into conflict). These judgments were made in the absence of 1) visual, 2) auditory, or 3) combined audio-visual spatial information by blindfolding and/or placing participants in an anechoic chamber. As expected, results revealed that tactile temporal acuity was poorer under crossed than uncrossed leg postures. Intriguingly, results also revealed that auditory and audio-visual deprivation exacerbated the difference in tactile temporal acuity between uncrossed to crossed leg postures, an effect not seen for visual-only deprivation. Furthermore, the effects under combined audio-visual deprivation were greater than those seen for auditory deprivation. Collectively, these results indicate that mechanisms governing the alignment between somatotopic and external reference frames extend beyond those imposed by body posture to include spatial features conveyed by the auditory and visual modalities - with a heavier weighting of auditory than visual spatial information. Thus, sensory modalities conveying exteroceptive spatial information contribute to judgments regarding the localization of touch. PMID:26768124

  6. Residual abilities in age-related macular degeneration to process spatial frequencies during natural scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Musel, Benoit; Hera, Ruxandra; Chokron, Sylvie; Alleysson, David; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by a central vision loss. We explored the relationship between the retinal lesions in AMD patients and the processing of spatial frequencies in natural scene categorization. Since the lesion on the retina is central, we expected preservation of low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and the impairment of high spatial frequency (HSF) processing. We conducted two experiments that differed in the set of scene stimuli used and their exposure duration. Twelve AMD patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 1 and 10 different AMD patients and 10 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 2 performed categorization tasks of natural scenes (Indoors vs. Outdoors) filtered in LSF and HSF. Experiment 1 revealed that AMD patients made more no-responses to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. In addition, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes only for indoors. Healthy participants' performance was not differentially affected by spatial frequency content of the scenes. In Experiment 2, AMD patients demonstrated the same pattern of errors as in Experiment 1. Furthermore, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. Again, spatial frequency processing was equivalent for healthy participants. The present findings point to a specific deficit in the processing of HSF information contained in photographs of natural scenes in AMD patients. The processing of LSF information is relatively preserved. Moreover, the fact that the deficit is more important when categorizing HSF indoors, may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures in AMD. PMID:22192508

  7. Encoding and retrieval of landmark-related spatial cues during navigation: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wegman, Joost; Tyborowska, Anna; Janzen, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    To successfully navigate, humans can use different cues from their surroundings. Learning locations in an environment can be supported by parallel subsystems in the hippocampus and the striatum. We used fMRI to look at differences in the use of object-related spatial cues while 47 participants actively navigated in an open-field virtual environment. In each trial, participants navigated toward a target object. During encoding, three positional cues (columns) with directional cues (shadows) were available. During retrieval, the removed target had to be replaced while either two objects without shadows (objects trial) or one object with a shadow (shadow trial) were available. Participants were informed in blocks about which type of retrieval trial was most likely to occur, thereby modulating expectations of having to rely on a single landmark or on a configuration of landmarks. How the spatial learning systems in the hippocampus and caudate nucleus were involved in these landmark-based encoding and retrieval processes were investigated. Landmark configurations can create a geometry similar to boundaries in an environment. It was found that the hippocampus was involved in encoding when relying on configurations of landmarks, whereas the caudate nucleus was involved in encoding when relying on single landmarks. This might suggest that the observed hippocampal activation for configurations of objects is linked to a spatial representation observed with environmental boundaries. Retrieval based on configurations of landmarks activated regions associated with the spatial updation of object locations for reorientation. When only a single landmark was available during retrieval, regions associated with updating the location of oneself were activated. There was also evidence that good between-participant performance was predicted by right hippocampal activation. This study therefore sheds light on how the brain deals with changing demands on spatial processing related purely

  8. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, J.W.; Wolock, D.M.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Digital hydrologic networks supporting applications related to spatially referenced regression modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Wolock, David M.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based ⁄ statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling.

  10. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling1

    PubMed Central

    Brakebill, JW; Wolock, DM; Terziotti, SE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. PMID:22457575

  11. High Resolution Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Harbin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle traffic is one of the most significant emission sources of air pollutants in urban areas. While the influence of mobile source emissions is felt throughout an urban area, concentrations from mobile emissions can be highest near major roadways. At present, information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns and the share of pollution attributable to traffic-related air pollutants is limited, in part due to concentrations that fall sharply with distance from roadways, as well as the few monitoring sites available in cities. This study uses a newly developed dispersion model (RLINE) and a spatially and temporally resolved emissions inventory to predict hourly PM2.5 and NOx concentrations across Detroit (MI, USA) at very high spatial resolution. Results for annual averages and high pollution days show contrasting patterns, the need for spatially resolved analyses, and the limitations of surrogate metrics like proximity or distance to roads. Data requirements, computational and modeling issues are discussed. High resolution pollutant data enable the identification of pollutant “hotspots”, “project-level” analyses of transportation options, development of exposure measures for epidemiology studies, delineation of vulnerable and susceptible populations, policy analyses examining risks and benefits of mitigation options, and the development of sustainability indicators integrating environmental, social, economic and health information. PMID:25837345

  12. Digital Hydrologic Networks Supporting Applications Related to Spatially Referenced Regression Modeling.

    PubMed

    Brakebill, Jw; Wolock, Dm; Terziotti, Se

    2011-10-01

    Digital hydrologic networks depicting surface-water pathways and their associated drainage catchments provide a key component to hydrologic analysis and modeling. Collectively, they form common spatial units that can be used to frame the descriptions of aquatic and watershed processes. In addition, they provide the ability to simulate and route the movement of water and associated constituents throughout the landscape. Digital hydrologic networks have evolved from derivatives of mapping products to detailed, interconnected, spatially referenced networks of water pathways, drainage areas, and stream and watershed characteristics. These properties are important because they enhance the ability to spatially evaluate factors that affect the sources and transport of water-quality constituents at various scales. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW), a process-based/statistical model, relies on a digital hydrologic network in order to establish relations between quantities of monitored contaminant flux, contaminant sources, and the associated physical characteristics affecting contaminant transport. Digital hydrologic networks modified from the River Reach File (RF1) and National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) geospatial datasets provided frameworks for SPARROW in six regions of the conterminous United States. In addition, characteristics of the modified RF1 were used to update estimates of mean-annual streamflow. This produced more current flow estimates for use in SPARROW modeling. PMID:22457575

  13. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment☆

    PubMed Central

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  14. Dynamics of the spatial scale of visual attention revealed by brain event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Y. J.; Greenwood, P. M.; Parasuraman, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the spatial scaling of attention during visual search were examined by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 16 young participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by valid cues that varied in size and hence in precision of target localization. The effects of cue size on short-latency (P1 and N1) ERP components, and the time course of these effects with variation in cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), were examined. Reaction time (RT) to discriminate a target was prolonged as cue size increased. The amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 components of the ERP evoked by the search array were affected in opposite ways by the size of the precue: P1 amplitude increased whereas N1 amplitude decreased as cue size increased, particularly following the shortest SOA. The results show that when top-down information about the region to be searched is less precise (larger cues), RT is slowed and the neural generators of P1 become more active, reflecting the additional computations required in changing the spatial scale of attention to the appropriate element size to facilitate target discrimination. In contrast, the decrease in N1 amplitude with cue size may reflect a broadening of the spatial gradient of attention. The results provide electrophysiological evidence that changes in the spatial scale of attention modulate neural activity in early visual cortical areas and activate at least two temporally overlapping component processes during visual search.

  15. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  16. Towards a typology of spatial relations and properties for urban applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, B.; Falquet, G.; Clementini, E.; Sester, M.

    2012-10-01

    Relations that occur between features located in space-like the fact that a street is surrounded by very high buildings, that an airport is close to a city- as well as spatial properties of features-like the height and width of a door- play an important role for many urban applications. Digital models of cities can assist in the evaluation of these relations and properties either through visualisation or through computation, mainly based on geometrical information. Hence, considering the objective of explaining to potential users of these city models what useful information they can derive from these data and how, a possible way to address this objective lies in the usage of a pivot model composed of relevant spatial properties and relations, connected to information meaningful to the user and connected to the possible computation of them on available data. This paper firstly sets the ground for a typology of such relevant relations and properties that are shared by different applications and that can be derived/approximated from existing data. It then proposes a model to describe these properties and relations and connect them to their possible computation based on data (2D or 3D). An important aspect of this model is to distinguish between a conceptual layer where relations occur between "real world" features and an implementation layer where they are calculated based on database features and geometries.

  17. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  18. Home-School-Community Relations as a Political Process: Four Exploratory Case Studies of the Implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE) and Home-School-Community Relations. Technical Report No. 360, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.

    The research had four objectives: (1) to describe home-school-community relations in selected IGE schools; (2) to explain the home-school-community relations and the implementation of IGE political terms using issue analysis and policy acceptance analysis; (3) to generate hypotheses from the data gathered through objectives 1 and 2, and relate…

  19. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77-7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24-3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04-35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  20. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations. PMID:26514809

  1. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success. PMID:22670650

  2. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  3. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  4. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  5. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  6. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  7. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan,...

  8. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  9. Indigenous Political Difference, Colonial Perspectives and the Challenge of Diplomatic Relations: Toward a Decolonial Diplomacy in Multicultural Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how diplomacy can be refined and amplified within the field of multicultural education. Focusing on Native American peoples in particular, I argue that the multiculturalist emphasis on cultural diplomacy overlooks the political difference of First Nations peoples. In contrast to a multiculturalist cultural diplomacy, the…

  10. Selective Attention Modulates Human Auditory Brainstem Responses: Relative Contributions of Frequency and Spatial Cues

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Alexandre; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one’s attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues. PMID:24454869

  11. Lessons from ecological and spatial studies in relation to occupational lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna L; Best, Nicky G; Rushton, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The majority of epidemiological research into occupational lung disease has been advanced by study of individuals, typically in a work place setting. This review examines how recent advances in ecological and spatial study methodology and in the information held in routine databases could be used to enhance occupational health studies. Recent findings Ecological studies often use routinely collected data and this is becoming much more extensive and better validated with potential for increasing use in occupational health research. Improvements in computing power and statistical and geographical information systems (GIS) methodology have led to more sophisticated mapping techniques and greater use of spatial information when investigating lung diseases usually related to occupational exposures. Ecological study methodology is experiencing a radical overhaul with supplementation of group-level data with information from small-scale individual-level studies. This hybrid design can be used to reduce bias and increase power and is directly applicable to enhancement of aggregate information from job exposure matrices (JEMs). Summary Studies of occupational lung disease can be enhanced by incorporating methodological innovations from ecological and spatial studies. PMID:19307881

  12. Heat-Related Morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: Spatial Variation and Area-Level Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extreme heat is a leading weather-related cause of illness and death in many locations across the globe, including subtropical Australia. The possibility of increasingly frequent and severe heat waves warrants continued efforts to reduce this health burden, which could be accomplished by targeting intervention measures toward the most vulnerable communities. Objectives: We sought to quantify spatial variability in heat-related morbidity in Brisbane, Australia, to highlight regions of the city with the greatest risk. We also aimed to find area-level social and environmental determinants of high risk within Brisbane. Methods: We used a series of hierarchical Bayesian models to examine city-wide and intracity associations between temperature and morbidity using a 2007–2011 time series of geographically referenced hospital admissions data. The models accounted for long-term time trends, seasonality, and day of week and holiday effects. Results: On average, a 10°C increase in daily maximum temperature during the summer was associated with a 7.2% increase in hospital admissions (95% CI: 4.7, 9.8%) on the following day. Positive statistically significant relationships between admissions and temperature were found for 16 of the city’s 158 areas; negative relationships were found for 5 areas. High-risk areas were associated with a lack of high income earners and higher population density. Conclusions: Geographically targeted public health strategies for extreme heat may be effective in Brisbane, because morbidity risk was found to be spatially variable. Emergency responders, health officials, and city planners could focus on short- and long-term intervention measures that reach communities in the city with lower incomes and higher population densities, including reduction of urban heat island effects. Citation: Hondula DM, Barnett AG. 2014. Heat-related morbidity in Brisbane, Australia: spatial variation and area-level predictors. Environ Health Perspect

  13. Exploratory study of the relations between spatial ability and drawing from memory.

    PubMed

    Czarnolewski, Mark Y; Eliot, John

    2012-04-01

    Test scores of 119 students, attending either a public four-year college or a technical school, were related to their proportionality and detail drawing scores on the Memory for Designs Test. In regression models, the ETS Maze Tracing, Eliot-Price Mental Rotations, and Bender-Gestalt tests were consistent predictors of proportionality scores, with the latter two tests uniquely related to these. The ETS Shapes Memory Test and the Form Board Test were the strongest predictors for detail accuracy scores. The Shapes test predicted proportionality when the CTY Visual Memory Test BB was excluded. The models then provided support for the hypothesis that drawing designs from memory, a critical skill in drawing, regardless of whether one focuses on accuracy for proportionality scores or for detail scores, is jointly related to the measures of recognition, production, and traditional spatial ability measures. This study identified multifaceted skills in drawing from memory. PMID:22755465

  14. Key Spatial Relations-based Focused Crawling (KSRs-FC) for Borderlands Situation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D. Y.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Li, R.

    2013-11-01

    Place names play an important role in Borderlands Situation topics, while current focused crawling methods treat them in the same way as other common keywords, which may lead to the omission of many useful web pages. In the paper, place names in web pages and their spatial relations were firstly discussed. Then, a focused crawling method named KSRs-FC was proposed to deal with the collection of situation information about borderlands. In this method, place names and common keywords were represented separately, and some of the spatial relations related to web pages crawling were used in the relevance calculation between the given topic and web pages. Furthermore, an information collection system for borderlands situation analysis was developed based on KSRs-FC. Finally, F-Score method was adopted to quantitatively evaluate this method by comparing with traditional method. Experimental results showed that the F-Score value of the proposed method increased by 11% compared to traditional method with the same sample data. Obviously, KSRs-FC method can effectively reduce the misjudgement of relevant webpages.

  15. Spatial Coding of Eye Movements Relative to Perceived Orientations During Roll Tilt with Different Gravitoinertial Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from six subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. Both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased during roll tilt compared to the upright position. The saccades were less accurate during parabolic flight compared to measurements obtained in normal gravity. The trajectories of saccades along perceived horizontal orientations tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt, while the deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived vertical orientations deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. Although subjects were instructed to look off in the distance while performing the eye movements, fixation distance varied with vertical gaze direction independent of whether the saccades were made along perceived aircraft or head orientations. This coupling of horizontal vergence with vertical gaze is in a consistent direction with the vertical slant of the horopter. The increased errors in gaze trajectories along both perceived orientations during microgravity can be attributed to the otolith's role in spatial coding of eye movements.

  16. Spatial variability of the subsurface water storage revealed by relative gravity measurements in Southwest Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, J.; Champollion, C.; Favreau, G.; Hinderer, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Mouyen, M.; Boucher, M.; Nazoumou, Y.; Oi, M.; Robert, O.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.; Demarty, J.; Benarrosh, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in water resources research is to document the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrological processes over short time and space scales. Indeed, the quality of model predictions for resource assessment is dependent on reliable datasets, representative of the hydrological regime and its variations. This issue is particularly sensitive in Sahelian Africa, where available hydrological datasets are scarce. In this study, the variability of the water storage was investigated at the subcatchment scale (< 1km) by an intensive microgravity field campaign. Weekly microgravity surveys were carried out in a small endoreic catchment in Southwest Niger, during three months of the rainy season in 2009. Gravity measurements were performed at 16 stations located near a temporary pond, where rapid infiltration towards the aquifer occurs. The highest (63 μGal) gravity signal was measured on a station located above the pond and is well explained by the direct effect of the pond water volume changes throughout the wet season. Gravity signals of smaller amplitude (≤ 22 μGal) were measured in the pond surroundings and coupled to hydrodynamic data (pond level, soil moisture and water table level) to evaluate the intraseasonal variability of the water storage in the vicinity of the pond. The gravity signals related to the water storage in the subsurface exhibits a significant spatial variability. The heterogeneity of the water storage in the vadose zone appears as the main reason for the dispersion of the gravity values at local scale. This experiment evidences the ability of time lapse microgravity survey to detect the spatial variations of the water storage at intraseasonal scale in Sahelian Africa. Combined with hydrodynamic data, such a spatially distributed dataset may be a useful tool to calibrate or validate hydrological models and should be taken into account for scaling issue such as satellite gravimetry validation.

  17. Relating spatial and temporal orientation pooling to population decoding solutions in human vision

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ben S.; Ledgeway, Timothy; McGraw, Paul V.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial pooling is often considered synonymous with averaging (or other statistical combinations) of local information contained within a complex visual image. We have recently shown, however, that spatial pooling of motion signals is better characterized in terms of optimal decoding of neuronal populations rather than image statistics (Webb et al., 2007). Here we ask which computations guide the spatial and temporal pooling of local orientation signals in human vision. The observers’ task was to discriminate which of two texture patterns had a more clockwise global orientation. Standard textures had a common orientation; comparison textures were chosen independently from a skewed (asymmetrical) probability distribution with distinct spatial or temporal statistics. We simulated observers’ performance using different estimators (vector average, winner-takes-all and maximum likelihood) to decode the orientation-tuned activity of a population of model neurons. Our results revealed that the perceived global orientation of texture patterns coincided with the mean (or vector average read-out) of orientation signals accumulated over both space and time. To reconcile these results with our previous work on direction pooling, we varied stimulus duration. Perceived global orientation was accurately predicted by a vector average read-out of orientation signals at relatively short stimulus durations and maximum likelihood read-out at longer durations. Moreover, decreasing the luminance contrast of texture patterns increased the duration of the transition from a vector average to maximum likelihood read-out. Our results suggest that direction and orientation pooling use similar probabilistic read-out strategies when sufficient time is available. PMID:20447413

  18. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  19. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  20. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  1. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  2. THE STAR-FORMATION RELATION FOR REGIONS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-12-20

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star-formation rate surface density in an 11 deg{sup 2} region of the Galactic plane. Dust continua at 1.1 mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 μm emission from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and the star-formation rate, respectively, across the Galactic longitude of 31.5 ≥ l ≥ 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 ≥ b ≥ –0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33'' to 20' by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1 mm and 22 μm increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5'-8'. We studied the star-formation relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis and on an analysis of the 1.1 mm and 22 μm peaks. The star-formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales, and it lies above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt. The average gas-depletion time is ≈200 Myr and does not change significantly at different scales, but the scatter in the depletion time decreases as the scale increases.

  3. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddi, F. J.; Dudinszky, N.; Ghermandi, L.

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index) and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  4. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  5. Learning to Form a Spatial Category of Tight-Fit Relations: How Experience with a Label Can Give a Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasola, Marianella; Bhagwat, Jui; Burke, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the ability of 18-month-old infants to form an abstract categorical representation of tight-fit spatial relations in a visual habituation task. In Experiment 1, infants formed an abstract spatial category when hearing a familiar word ("tight") during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence or when hearing a…

  6. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  7. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not. PMID:25162856

  8. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  9. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice. PMID:26282706

  10. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions. PMID:27384629

  11. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  12. A Partially Annotated Political Communication Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barbara C.

    This 63-page annotated bibliography contains available materials in the area of political communication, a relatively new field of political science. Political communication includes facets of the election process and interaction between political parties and the voter. A variety of materials dating from 1960 to 1972 include books, pamphlets,…

  13. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt.

    PubMed

    Wood, S J; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame. PMID:9698190

  14. Spatial coding of eye movements relative to perceived earth and head orientations during static roll tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during static roll tilt (up to +/-45 degrees) relative to perceived earth and head orientations. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from eight subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the true earth and head orientations. We found that both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased with roll tilt. The trajectories of eye movements made along the perceived earth-horizontal (PEH) were more accurate than movements along the perceived head-horizontal (PHH). The trajectories of both PEH and PHH saccades tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt. The deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived earth-vertical (PEV) and perceived head-vertical (PHV) were both similar to the PHH orientation, except that saccades along the PEV deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. The magnitude of deviations along the PEV, PHH, and PHV corresponded to perceptual overestimations of roll tilt obtained from verbal reports. Both PEV gaze trajectories and perceptual estimates of tilt orientation were different following clockwise rather than counterclockwise tilt rotation; however, the PEH gaze trajectories were less affected by the direction of tilt rotation. Our results suggest that errors in gaze trajectories along PEV and perceived head orientations increase during roll tilt in a similar way to perceptual errors of tilt orientation. Although PEH and PEV gaze trajectories became nonorthogonal during roll tilt, we conclude that the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt is overall more accurate for the perceived earth reference frame than for the perceived head reference frame.

  15. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial

  16. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K.; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-09-01

    Aviation NOx emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NOx on O3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry-transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O3 production due to aviation NOx emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NOx emitted in October causes 40% more O3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4-5 times more tropospheric O3 per unit NOx than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O3-producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O3-producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NOx emissions.

  17. Relation between fish communities and riparian zone conditions at two spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.

    2001-01-01

     The relation offish community composition to riparian cover at two spatial scales was compared at 18 streams in the agricultural Minnesota River Basin. The two spatial scales were: (1) local riparian zone (a 200 meter wide buffer extending 2 to 3 kilometers upstream of the sampling reach); and (2) the upstream riparian zone (a 200 m wide buffer on the mainstem and all perennial tributaries upstream of the sampling reach). Analysis of variance indicated that streams with wooded-local riparian zones had greater fish species richness (means = 20 and 15, respectively) and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores (means = 40 and 26, respectively) than streams with open-local riparian zones. Streams with wooded-upstream riparian zones tended (were not statistically significant) to have greater numbers of species (means = 19 and 15, respectively) and IBI scores (means = 33 and 28, respectively) than streams with open-upstream riparian zones. There was no significant interaction between the riparian zone conditions at the two scales. This study suggests that maintenance of wooded riparian cover along streams could be effective in maintaining or improving fish community composition in streams draining heavily agricultural areas.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  19. Frames of reference and categorical/coordinate spatial relations in a "what was where" task.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Postma, Albert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how people use egocentric (i.e., with respect to their body) and allocentric (i.e., with respect to another element in the environment) references in combination with coordinate (metric) or categorical (abstract) spatial information to identify a target element. Participants were asked to memorize triads of 3D objects or 2D figures, and immediately or after a delay of 5 s, they had to verbally indicate what was the object/figure: (1) closest/farthest to them (egocentric coordinate task); (2) on their right/left (egocentric categorical task); (3) closest/farthest to another object/figure (allocentric coordinate task); (4) on the right/left of another object/figure (allocentric categorical task). Results showed that the use of 2D figures favored categorical judgments over the coordinate ones with either an egocentric or an allocentric reference frame, whereas the use of 3D objects specifically favored egocentric coordinate judgments rather than the allocentric ones. Furthermore, egocentric judgments were more accurate than allocentric judgments when the response was Immediate rather than delayed and 3D objects rather than 2D figures were used. This pattern of results is discussed in the light of the functional roles attributed to the frames of reference and spatial relations by relevant theories of visuospatial processing. PMID:27180248

  20. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  1. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  2. An Event-related Potential Study on the Interaction between Lighting Level and Stimulus Spatial Location

    PubMed Central

    Carretié, Luis; Ruiz-Padial, Elisabeth; Mendoza, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux) and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux), characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod > cone and rod < cone, respectively. Stimuli, which were exactly the same in L and H, consisted of squares presented at fixation, at the vertical periphery (above or below fixation) or at the horizontal periphery (left or right). Analyses showed that occipital ERPs presented important L vs. H differences in the 100 to 450 ms window, which were significantly modulated by spatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod– and cone-originated visual processing. PMID:26635588

  3. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  4. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  5. Spatial distribution of large-scale solar magnetic fields and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial organization of the observed photospheric magnetic field as well as its relation to the polarity of the IMF have been studied using high resolution magnetograms from the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Systematic patterns in the large scale field are due to contributions from both concentrated flux and more diffuse flux. The polarity of the photospheric field, determined on various spatial scales, correlates with the polarity of the IMF. Analyses based on several spatial scales in the photosphere suggest that new flux in the interplanetary medium is often due to relatively small photospheric features which appear in the photosphere up to one month before they are manifest at the earth.

  6. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies. PMID:26005086

  7. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Impervious Cover Relative to Watershed Stream Location

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of spatial pattern on ecological processes is a guiding principle of landscape ecology. The guiding principle of spatial pattern was used for a U.S. nationwide assessment of impervious cover (IC). Spatial pattern was measured by comparing IC concentration near strea...

  8. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  9. Metacommunity Composition of Web-Spiders in a Fragmented Neotropical Forest: Relative Importance of Environmental and Spatial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N. L.; Hartz, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  10. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  11. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  12. Spatial Patterns of Ectomycorrhizal Assemblages in a Monospecific Forest in Relation to Host Tree Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with increasing distance of the sampling points. The alternative was that the EcM species showed preferences for distinct beech genotypes resulting in intraspecific variation of EcM-host assemblages. EcM species identities, abundance and exploration type as well as the genotypes of the colonized roots were determined in each sampling unit of a 1 L soil core (r = 0.04 m, depth 0.2 m). The Morisita-Horn similarity indices (MHSI) based on EcM species abundance and multiple community comparisons were calculated. No pronounced variation of MHSI with increasing distances of the sampling points within a plot was found, but variations between plots. Very high similarities and no between plot variation were found for MHSI based on EcM exploration types suggesting homogenous soil foraging in this ecosystem. The EcM community on different root genotypes in the same soil core exhibited high similarity, whereas the EcM communities on the root of the same tree genotype in different soil cores were significantly dissimilar. This finding suggests that spatial structuring of EcM assemblages occurs within the root system of an individual. This may constitute a novel, yet unknown mechanism ensuring colonization by a diverse EcM community of the roots of a given host individual. PMID:23630537

  13. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal assemblages in a monospecific forest in relation to host tree genotype.

    PubMed

    Lang, Christa; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EcM) are important for soil exploration and thereby may shape belowground interactions of roots. We investigated the composition and spatial structures of EcM assemblages in relation to host genotype in an old-growth, monospecific beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We hypothesized that neighboring roots of different beech individuals are colonized by similar EcM assemblages if host genotype had no influence on the fungal colonization and that the similarity would decrease with increasing distance of the sampling points. The alternative was that the EcM species showed preferences for distinct beech genotypes resulting in intraspecific variation of EcM-host assemblages. EcM species identities, abundance and exploration type as well as the genotypes of the colonized roots were determined in each sampling unit of a 1 L soil core (r = 0.04 m, depth 0.2 m). The Morisita-Horn similarity indices (MHSI) based on EcM species abundance and multiple community comparisons were calculated. No pronounced variation of MHSI with increasing distances of the sampling points within a plot was found, but variations between plots. Very high similarities and no between plot variation were found for MHSI based on EcM exploration types suggesting homogenous soil foraging in this ecosystem. The EcM community on different root genotypes in the same soil core exhibited high similarity, whereas the EcM communities on the root of the same tree genotype in different soil cores were significantly dissimilar. This finding suggests that spatial structuring of EcM assemblages occurs within the root system of an individual. This may constitute a novel, yet unknown mechanism ensuring colonization by a diverse EcM community of the roots of a given host individual. PMID:23630537

  14. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  15. The relative role of hillslope and river network routing in the hydrologic response to spatially variable rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Nikolopoulos, E. I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology and a rainfall spatial organisation index to examine the relative role of hillslope and channel residence times in the analysis of the significance of spatial rainfall representation in catchment flood response modelling. The relationship between the flood response, the hillslope and channel residence time representation and the spatial organisation of the rainfall fields is obtained by extending the 'spatial moments of catchment rainfall' statistics (Zoccatelli et al., 2011) to the hillslope system. The flood prediction error generated by assuming spatially uniform rainfall is related to the spatial organisation of the rainfall fields by means of the scaled spatial moment of order one for the channel network and the hillslope system. The methodology provides a basis for a more general consideration of the relationship between the flood response dependence to spatial rainfall organisation and catchment size. The methodology is illustrated based on data from five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002-2007. Discharge data are available either from streamgauges or from post-flood surveys for 27 catchments, ranging in size between 36 and 982 km2. High space-time resolution radar rainfall fields are also available for the analyses. These data are used to implement a distributed hydrological model simulating the runoff generation by infiltration excess and explicitly representing the surface flow paths across both the hillslopes and the river network. The hydrological model is alternatively forced with spatially-distributed and spatially-uniform rainfall input, to analyse the factors controlling the sensitivity of the model output to the spatial rainfall data. Our results show that the spatial variability of the rainfall can influence the flash-flood hydrographs for catchments as small as 50 km2, and that the dependence of flood hydrograph shape to spatial rainfall variability cannot be

  16. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  17. Identification of disease-related spatial covariance patterns using neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Spetsieris, Phoebe; Ma, Yilong; Peng, Shichun; Ko, Ji Hyun; Dhawan, Vijay; Tang, Chris C; Eidelberg, David

    2013-01-01

    The scaled subprofile model (SSM)(1-4) is a multivariate PCA-based algorithm that identifies major sources of variation in patient and control group brain image data while rejecting lesser components (Figure 1). Applied directly to voxel-by-voxel covariance data of steady-state multimodality images, an entire group image set can be reduced to a few significant linearly independent covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. Each pattern, termed a group invariant subprofile (GIS), is an orthogonal principal component that represents a spatially distributed network of functionally interrelated brain regions. Large global mean scalar effects that can obscure smaller network-specific contributions are removed by the inherent logarithmic conversion and mean centering of the data(2,5,6). Subjects express each of these patterns to a variable degree represented by a simple scalar score that can correlate with independent clinical or psychometric descriptors(7,8). Using logistic regression analysis of subject scores (i.e. pattern expression values), linear coefficients can be derived to combine multiple principal components into single disease-related spatial covariance patterns, i.e. composite networks with improved discrimination of patients from healthy control subjects(5,6). Cross-validation within the derivation set can be performed using bootstrap resampling techniques(9). Forward validation is easily confirmed by direct score evaluation of the derived patterns in prospective datasets(10). Once validated, disease-related patterns can be used to score individual patients with respect to a fixed reference sample, often the set of healthy subjects that was used (with the disease group) in the original pattern derivation(11). These standardized values can in turn be used to assist in differential diagnosis(12,13) and to assess disease progression and treatment effects at the network level(7,14-16). We present an example of the application of this methodology to

  18. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural…

  19. Political polarization

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality. PMID:17452633

  20. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  1. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  2. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  3. Spatial Cueing in Time-Space Synesthetes: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…

  4. Acquisition of Spatial Concepts in Relation to Age and Sex. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Rosemary A.; And Others

    Because of the general recognition of the importance of mathematics ability, and the close relationship between mathematics ability and spatial ability, eight studies were undertaken to discover and describe aspects of spatial competence in children. The range of abilities tapped stretched from very early precursor skills with Euclidean space to…

  5. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  6. Spatial analysis of injury-related deaths in Dallas County using a geographic information system

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Adil; Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy C.; Urban, Jill; Barber, Robert C.; Gentilello, Larry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study applied a geographic information system (GIS) to identify clusters of injury-related deaths (IRDs) within a large urban county (26 cities; population, 2.4 million). All deaths due to injuries in Dallas County (Texas) in 2005 (N = 670) were studied, including the geographic location of the injury event. Out of 26 cities in Dallas County, IRDs were reported in 19 cities. Geospatial data were obtained from the local governments and entered into the GIS. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, with 95% CI) were calculated for each city and the county using national age-adjusted rates. Dallas County had significantly more deaths due to homicides (SMR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.54–1.98) and IRDs as a result of gunshots (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.37) than the US national rate. However, this increase was restricted to a single city (the city of Dallas) within the county, while the rest of the 25 cities in the county experienced IRD rates that were either similar to or better than the national rate, or experienced no IRDs. GIS mapping was able to depict high-risk geographic “hot spots” for IRDs. In conclusion, GIS spatial analysis identified geographic clusters of IRDs, which were restricted to only one of 26 cities in the county. PMID:22754116

  7. Spatial and seasonal changes of arsenic species in Lake Taihu in relation to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changzhou; Che, Feifei; Zeng, Liqing; Wang, Zaosheng; Du, Miaomiao; Wei, Qunshan; Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Dapeng; Zhen, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of arsenic species in Lake Taihu (including Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay, and Southern Taihu) were investigated. Relatively high levels of total arsenic (TAs) and arsenate (As(V)) were observed in hyper-eutrophic regions during summer and autumn, which is attributed to exogenous contamination and seasonal endogenous release from sediments. The distributions of TAs and As(V) were significantly affected by total phosphorus, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenite (As(III)) and methylarsenicals (the sum of monomethylarsenic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA(V))), mainly from biotransformation of As(V), were affected by temperature-controlled microalgae activities and local water quality parameters, exhibiting significantly higher concentrations and proportions in hyper-eutrophic and middle eutrophic regions during summer compared to mesotrophic region. The eutrophic environment, which induces changes in the main water quality parameters such as phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon, can favor the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the aquatic systems. PMID:27152991

  8. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Data Related to Nepal Earthquake 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, L.

    2016-06-01

    Social Medias these days have become the instant communication platform to share anything; from personal feelings to the matter of public concern, these are the easiest and aphoristic way to deliver information among the mass. With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more emphasis has been given to user input in the web; the concept of Geoweb is being visualized and in the recent years, social media like Twitter, Flicker are among the popular Location Based Social Medias with locational functionality enabled in them. Nepal faced devastating earthquake on 25 April, 2015 resulting in the loss of thousands of lives, destruction in the historical-archaeological sites and properties. Instant help was offered by many countries around the globe and even lots of NGOs, INGOs and people started the rescue operations immediately; concerned authorities and people used different communication medium like Frequency Modulation Stations, Television, and Social Medias over the World Wide Web to gather information associated with the Quake and to ease the rescue activities. They also initiated campaign in the Social Media to raise the funds and support the victims. Even the social medias like Facebook, Twitter, themselves announced the helping campaign to rebuild Nepal. In such scenario, this paper features the analysis of Twitter data containing hashtag related to Nepal Earthquake 2015 together with their temporal characteristics, when were the message generated, where were these from and how these spread spatially over the internet?

  9. Spatial heterogeneities in tectonic stress in Kyushu, Japan and their relation to a major shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nakao, Shigeru; Ohkura, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Abe, Yuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Manami; Yoshikawa, Shin; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the spatial variation in the stress fields of Kyushu Island, southwestern Japan. Kyushu Island is characterized by active volcanoes (Aso, Unzen, Kirishima, and Sakurajima) and a shear zone (western extension of the median tectonic line). Shallow earthquakes frequently occur not only along active faults but also in the central region of the island, which is characterized by active volcanoes. We evaluated the focal mechanisms of the shallow earthquakes on Kyushu Island to determine the relative deviatoric stress field. Generally, the stress field was estimated by using the method proposed by Hardebeck and Michael (2006) for the strike-slip regime in this area. The minimum principal compression stress ( σ3), with its near north-south trend, is dominant throughout the entire region. However, the σ 3 axes around the shear zone are rotated normal to the zone. This result is indicative of shear stress reduction at the zone and is consistent with the right-lateral fault behavior along the zone detected by a strain-rate field analysis with global positioning system data. Conversely, the stress field of the normal fault is dominant in the Beppu-Shimabara area, which is located in the central part of the island. This result and the direction of σ3 are consistent with the formation of a graben structure in the area.

  10. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.